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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Background Bisicuits are light snacks that popular in the community and are often found on the market. This can be evidenced by the availability of biscuits in grocery stores in urban and up stalls in remote villages. Some people prefer food that ready to eat, which generally contains carbohydrates, salt, protein and fat. However, it is also undeniable that some people are concerned about the nutritional quality of the food therefore people are more selective in choosing healthy foods for consumption. In the upcoming years, biscuit industry still has an excellent prospect. This product is consumed by all age groups, both genders, from urban areas to the rural areas. Indonesia's population of over 200 million people is a huge market for biscuit industry. Currently more than 100 companies competing in the industry. PT Khong Guan Biscuit Indonesia, PT Mayora Indah and PT Ultra Prima Abadi are the most dominant company in the country, while overseas there are big companies like Arnott's, Danone and Nabisco. In the biscuit industry with 6 subcategories of biscuit products, namely: wafers, assorted, crackers, marie, sticks and cookies, each of the category has different market leader. In the wafer industry, there are GOT by Tango and Garuda Food which Gery represent. Crackers products are Nissin, Khong Guan and Indofood. Competition in the crackers market is the hardes. For assorted biscuits there are, Khong Guan which is the leader, Kraft Food Indonesia through legends, and Arnott's Indonesia, which is Venezia. In biscuit industry Mayora has quite many brands, such as Roma, Danisa, Beng-Beng, Slai Olay, Better and Astor. The company has been established must already know how strong competitors are and what steps will be taken, while those who want to begin work on the biscuits market in Indonesia, need to know how likely the business can survive. That information can be obtained from the study of product design in advance about the industry outlook and marketing of biscuits in Indonesia.

Product that will be created is a biscuit with high nutrient content, follow trends and in accordance with the current market needs.

1.2 Problem Formulation What kind of biscuit is the most popular with consumer? What kind of biscuit texture is the most popular with consumer? What are the weaknesses of biscuits available in market? What kind of biscuit shape the consumers prefer? What kind of biscuit size the consumers prefer? What content should be in biscuit? How much is the suitable price for healthy biscuit? What kind of packaging the consumers prefer?

1.3 Problem Identification Identificate consumerss needs and compare with biscuits that already available in market. Identificate type and shape of biscuit that consumer prefer. The most important composition and content for biscuit. Manufacture biscuit with affordable price.

1.4 Problem Boundaries This paper will discuss about biscuits where the discussion will be limited and not deviate from the existing problems, and therefore the design of biscuit products is limited by several factors, which are: 1. Product will refer to the results of a questionnaire distributed at random in order to have the range limitations, for example: age and certain jobs. 2. Products intended to be produced, which is a healthy snack, but do not make fat by using raw materials such as fruits, milk, or other ingredients to suit the needs and specifications of the product. 3. Using analysis tools, and the mass balance and the economic power needs to be done at the factory.

4.

Target markets, which is Indonesia masyarakatt.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Biscuit Biscuits are favored snack because it delicious, sweet, and crunchy. Biscuits are classified as dry food or pastries. As pastries or dry product, biscuits can be stored for a quite long time and easy to carry while travelling, because the volume and weight of biscuits are relatively light due to the drying process (Whiteley, 1971). According to Faridi (1994), biscuit is a product made from refined wheat flour and contains high sugar and high fat nutrient, but contains small amount of water. Referring to SNI (Standar Nasional Indonesia, 1992), biscuit is a kind of food made from wheat flour with addition of other ingredients by heating and molding process. Referring to SNI (1992), biscuits are classified into four categories which are hard biscuit, crackers, wafers, and cookies. Hard biscuit is a kind of flat shaped biscuit with high or low levels of fat, and if the biscuit broken the crumbs will shape in layers. Cracker is a kind of biscuit made from hard dough by fermentation and has a layered structure. Cookie is a kind of high-fat, crunch, and less-dense cookie texture. Wafer is a porous, crunchy kind of biscuit. Biscuits are generally golden brown in colour, slightly slippery surface, uniform shape and size, creamy crumb, dry, crunchy and have a pleasant aroma. Terms of biscuit quality can be seen in Table 2.1 based on the National Standard SNI 01-2973-1992.

Table 2.1 Regulation of biscuit quality (SNI 01-2973-1992)

Components Water Protein Fat Carbohydrate Ash Max 5 % Min 9 % Min 9.5 % Min 70 % Max 1.5 %

Spesification

Components (*continued) Hazardous Metal Rough Fiber Energy (kal/100 g) Flour Smell and taste Colour Negative Max 0.5 % Min 400

Spesification

Wheat Flour Normal, not rancid Normal

Source: Badan Standardisasi Nasional (BSN)

The division of the types of biscuits based on a comparison of water and fat, the ratio between the amount of fat to flour, as well as the amount of sugar to flour. Comparison between water and fat is used to classify the type of dough. Comparison between the amount of fat and sugar to the flour used to classify parts of the final product. The division of biscuit dough types can be seen as follows:
Table 2.2 Division of biscuit dough types

Main Component Water Fat > Water Water > Fat


Source: Manley, 1983

Dough Type Batter Short dough Hard dough

Biscuit Group Wafer, sponge drops Short sweet, cookies, dan snaps Crackers dan semi sweet

Biscuit classification and the description can be seen ini the following table 2.3:
Table 2.3 Biscuit Classifications

Biscuit Type Crackers

Description A little sugar content, fat content varies, depending on the desired texture Medium sugar content, low fat content, hard texture and sweet High fat and sugar content, the type of product varies Very high sugar content, the texture is very hard

Semi sweet Short sweet Snaps dan

crunches Wafer
Source: Manley, 1983

The content is very low in sugar and fat to provide light and crisp character

Biscuit ingredients can be classified into two types, that is binder material and material to make it brittle. Binder materials consist of flour, water, and mixture of milk and egg white. Materials to make it brittle consist of sugar, shortening, baking powder, and egg yolk (Matz, 1978).

2.2 Product Development Research and development is an industrial activity in order to develop new product and anticipate market changes. In general, a new product is a product that has never been existed before or modification product and innovation of product that already exist from production aspect such as raw material, processes, product characteristics, and packaging. In the industrial world, new product implies a product that has never been produced by a company before even though the product has been manufactured by other companies. Several modifications and innovations that can be done related to the development of the product such as flavor modification, colour, shape, the main ingeredient substitution with the aim of lowering the production cost or to increase the nutritial value of the product without reducing the quality (Soekarto, 1990). New product can be classified into 3 types. First, the fresh new product or a product that is really new, the product has not been manufactured and commercialized by a company. Second, modification product or modified product that is product of modification from existing products in an enterprise. Modifications can be made on the type of packaging, ingredient formula, material type, or use a different flavour. Third, the "me too", which is the result of new product imitation of other companies that have not previously manufactured by the company. Products "me too" is usually made by the 'follower' company or 'challenger' company in order to seize the 'leader' company's marketing area. One

characteristic of this type of product such as, cheaper than the price of similar products from 'leader'companies (Feigenbaum, 1989). There are several reasons that become driving factors of the need for new product development. For these reasons, that are: to improve the quality of existing products in terms of nutrient content and appearance, product development is required to meet consumer desires and demands which always change along the times and technology, and product development needs to be done to improve competitiveness in order to face the increasingly fierce industry competition especially the food industry (Feigenbaum, 1989). The new product can generate profits for the company, and can compete with similar competitor products, in accordance with the needs and priorities of consumers and follow emerging trends such as functional foods, healthy foods and nutritious foods.

2.3 Stability of Nutrious Substance in Processing Foodstuffs is processed with three main objectives which are to preserve (canning, drying, salting, radiation, freezing, and the addition of "food additive"), to create the desired products (breads, cakes, baby food, cheese, sausage, etc.), and to serve or be served immediately (slicing, stripping, and heating). Therefore processing technologies are given a definition that includes all handling or process given food from home to eat, then it means that more than 95% of the food has been processed through processing technology (Andarwulan and Koswara, 1992). Almost all the food we consume has undergone some degree of processing. As a result, food has been decreasing its nutritional value. Assessment of the effect of processing on food usually put emphasis on the extent to which the nutrients contained become defective. The key is knowledge about the stability of the nutrients in various processing conditions. For example, vitamin A is very sensitive (unstable) to acid, air, light, and heat, whereas vitamin C is stable to acid but sensitive to bases, air, light, and heat. The instability of the nutrients in various conditions and their solubility in water can cause shrinkage cook of some essential nutrients can exceed 75%. In modern food processing, however, cooking shrinkage that occurs rarely exceeds 25% (Potter and Hotchkiss, 1995).

In the processing of biscuit, the main shrinkage is shrinkage due to heat. Table 5 shows the heat stability of nutrients in general, while the vitamin in cooking shrinkage roasting process commonly used in the processing of biscuits can be seen in Table 2.5.

Table 2.5 Nutrition Stability to Heat

Nutrition Group

Nutrition A C Biotin Karoten (Pro A) Kolin Cobalamin (B 12) D Folate

General Shrinkage (%) 0 40 0 100 0 60 0 30 05 0 10 0 40 0 100 0 95 05 0 75 0 50 05 0 40 0 75 0 80 0 55 0 10

Vitamin

Inositol K Niasin Asam Pantotenat p-Amino Asam Benzoat B6 Riboflavin (B2) Thiamin (B1) Tokoferol (E)

Essential Fatty Acid Isoleusin Leusin Essential Amino Acid Lisin Metionin Fenilalanin

0 10 0 10 0 40 0 10 05

Threonin Triptofan Valin Minerals


Source: Harris RS dan Kamas E, 1975

0 20 0 15 03 03

Table 2.6 Vitamin Shrinkage Due to Baking Process

Vitamin A C Biotin Cobalamin (B 12) D Folate Niasin Asam Pantotenat B6 Riboflavin (B2) Thiamin (B1) Tokoferol (E)
Source: Manley 2001

Shrinkage (%) 18 60 0 10 40 7 5 25 25 15 20 27

2.4 Nutrition Adequacy Numbers A food with certain treatments can produce an acceptable quality of nutrition, so it is important to understand the two terms, which are: human needs for nutrients, and second, the amount or concentration of nutrients that are contained in the food after the last treatment. Human needs fot the essential nutrients quantitatively are carried out in a scientific approach, which is the basis for the preparation of the U.S. "Recomended Dietary Allowances" (RDA) or adequate nutrients are recommended. RDA can be used as a guide in the planning

or preparation of ration diet, food supply, labeling purposes, and to evaluate the adequacy of nutrients from food consumed (Andarwulan and Koswara, 1992). RDA is defined as the rate of consumption of essential nutrients released or determined by the Committee on Dietary Allowances of the Food and Nutrition Board based on scientific considerations and calculations, to meet the nutritional substances commonly consumed by people who are healthy. Minimum requirement for nutrients will vary with the individual and the needs set by the RDA represents the amount of nutrients that are usually consumed by healthy people in a population (community). Standards in the current nutritional needs are based on the results of the research that has been done, and because data on the needs of nutrients for humans is limited, so do not be surprised if there is a difference between the nutrient requirements recommended by a commission or agency in a country with other countries. Indonesia has issued a health department standard of Nutrient Adequacy Numbers (RDA) which is recommended for the people of Indonesia. The latest revision of the RDA which is used as a reference for the nutrition label specific consumer groups contained in the Decree of the Head of the POM Number. HK. 00. 05. 52. 6291.

2.5 Labeling and Food Product Claims Food label is a statement in the form of images, text, a combination of both, or some other form which inserted inside the package, Affixed to or as part of the food package. Regarding food labeling system in general, the informations must be included on the label are the name of the food, weight or net contents, name and address, list or composition of the materials used, the registration number, expiration date, production code, nutrition information, a description of the designation (if any), how to use (if any), other details if you need to know (including a warning), and storage. Foods with a statement containing vitamins, minerals and other nutrients or substances added to food and shall be added Vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients and should include information about the nutritional content on the packaging (BPOM, 2007). In the explanation of Article 30 Paragraph (1) of Law

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no. 7 of 1996 on food mentioned that the purpose of labeling of foodstuffs, both related to the origin, safety, quality, nutritional content, and other information that is needed before deciding to buy or consume food and such. This provision applies to food that has gone through the process of final packaging and ready for trade (pre-packaged). In this context the use of labels in packaging always related to aspects of trade (Anonymous, 2007). According to Wijaya (1997), was written by label, tags, pictures, or any other description of the written, printed, stenciled, carved, decorated, or referred to in any way so as to give the impression attached to the packaging or container. According to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) required nutritional labeling of food products containing nutrients when food is added or if there is a nutritional claim on food product on the label or in advertising. List of nutrients that should be contained on the label is a measure servings, grams of protein, carbohydrate, and fat per serving, and the percentage in accordance with the rules of the U.S. RDA (Recomended Dietary Allowance) or Nutrient Adequacy figure by 2000 or 2500 calorie diet, vitamin A and C, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Calcium, and iron. In 1984, the FDA added sodium to the list of nutrients that should be included in the label (Nielsen, 2003). Furthermore, the emphasis on food labeling one or more materials with low or high content, the percentage of ingredients must be declared in accordance with the provisions. Labeling requirements related to aspects of the product and how the product can meet lonsumen satisfaction. This requirement can be met by either (1) provide appropriate information to the needs of consumers, and (2) create a label in such a way that is clear and easy to read (Blanchfield, 2000). In Indonesia itself, the provisions regarding claims for food products refer to the provisions issued by the Codex. Nutrition Claims and Health Claims Products (Codex, 1997) is divided into two namely:

1. Nutrition claims, means any kind of representation that states, suggests or indicates that a food product has the characteristic of certain nutrients but not

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limited to the energy value and the content of protein, fat and carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and minerals. These claims consist of: a. Nutrient content claims, nutrition claims which explain the presence of nutrients contained in a food product. Example: 'Sources of Calcium', 'high fiber and low fat. " b. Nutrient comparative claims, claims that compared the presence or amount of nutrients and energy from two or more food products. Example: "reduced", "less than" fewer ".

2. Health claims, means any representation which states, suggests or indicates a relationship between the content of food products or food products with health. These claims consist of: a. Nutrient function claims, nutrient claims that describe the physiological role of nutrients for growth, development and normal functions of the body. For example, nutrient X (mentioned X physiological functions of nutrients to the body in order to maintain health and promote the growth and normal). X is the source of food products high in nutrients or A). b. Claims of other functions, these claims focus on the specific beneficial effects of the consumption of food or its components, in the context of the total food consumed in the normal function of the body or the body's biological activity. Such claims relate to a positive contribution to health or the improvement of a bodily function or to increase or maintain health. Example: Substance A (mentioned effects of substance A in order to enhance or improve the function of physiological or biological activity associated with health). Food Y contains x grams of substance A. c. Claims of reduced risk of a disease that claims related to the consumption of a food or component of food, in the context of the total food consumed, to reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition for which related health conditions. Example: Eat healthy foods contain nutrients that are low in substance A may reduce the risk of disease D. X foods low in nutrient or substance A or consumption of healthy foods that are rich in nutrients containing

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substance B can reduce the risk of E. X foods rich in nutrients or substance B. 2.6 Vitamins in Food Ingredients Vitamins are organic compounds required for normal growth and survival of animals, including humans who naturally are not able to synthesize these compounds through the process of anabolism are not depends on environmental factors except air. These compounds are necessary and effective in small amounts, which produce no energy and can not be used as a building unit body structure of the organism, but it is essential for energy transformation and regulation of metabolism (Andarwulan and Koswara, 1992). Vitamin has function in enzyme systems as facilitator metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats (Potter and Hotchkiss, 2006).

1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Thiamin included in water-soluble vitamins group. The main role of thiamin is in a reshuffle of carbohydrates to produce energy, where it functions as a coenzyme thiamin is pyrofosfat or cocarboxylase in glucose oxidation. Thiamin is stable under heat and acidic conditions but present in small amounts in foods alkaline or neutral. 2. Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12, also called cyanocobalamin is essential in the formation of nucleic acids and in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Vitamin B12 is also known as the anti-pernicious anemia factor. Cyanocobalamin is the greatest vitamin molecule and contains elements of cobalt in it that will give supply the nutritional needs of cobalt minerals (Potter and Hotchkiss, 2006). 3. Folate As with vitamin B12 folate can prevent some types of anemia. Folate also plays a role in the formation of nucleic acids, protecting the nervous system, for growth, development and the formation of red blood cells, and protects the fetal brain from damage or defects.

2.7 Minerals in Foodstuffs

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Minerals are needed in large amounts called macromineral or major minerals. For example: sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur. Minerals are needed in amounts less relative called mikromineral namely iron, iodine, manganese, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, fluorine, and others. But there is another group known as the trace element which is already included in the micromineral but required a relatively micromineral or trace element is a term used for the remaining minerals is still present in biological systems. Macromineral serves as an important part in the structure of cells and tissue fluid and electrolyte balance, and function well in body fluids and extracellular interselular, Macromineral needed in concentrations greater than 100 ppm (parts per million). Micromineral serves as part of the structure of a hormone that most enzymes can servse optimally and required in amounts less than 100 ppm (Christensen, 1982).

1. Iron Iron includes micromineral because these substances are needed in relatively small amounts in the body. Minerals play a vital role in nutrition and health (Harper, et al., 1985). Mervyn (1989) states that the function of iron in the body are: (1) the iron in hemoglobin acts as an oxygen carrier in red blood cells, (2) iron in myoglobin oxygen acts as a backup in the network, (3) the cell body to act as a transfer oxygen in the cytochrome, and (4) iron in the enzyme catalase to protect against toxic peroxides, and (5) increase the body's resistance to infection. Causes iron deficiency decreased hemoglobin concentration in the blood is called anemia iron.

2. Calcium The role of calcium in the body can generally be divided into two, namely to form bones and teeth and regulate biological processes in the body. Calcium also serves to regulate blood clotting. According Almatsier (2001), calcium also serves as the catalyst for a variety of biological reactions such as the absorption of vitamin B12, pancreatic lipase, the excretion of insulin by the pancreas, the

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formation and breakdown of acetylcholine, which is a necessary ingredient in the move (transmission) the stimulation of the nerve fibers to nerve fibers other. 3. Magnesium Magnesium is essential for the survival of several enzyme systems. Magnesium also plays a role in maintaining the electrical potential in the nervous system and the membrane. Magnesium is also involved in the release of energy for muscle contraction and are necessary for normal metabolism of calcium and phosphorus (Potter and Hotchkiss, 2006).

2.8 Antioxidants Antioxidants are compounds capable of removing, cleaning, hold the establishment or combine the effects of reactive oxygen species (Ocean, 1997). The use of anti-radical antioxidant compounds also currently expanding along with greater public understanding of its role in inhibiting of degenerative diseases such as heart disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, and symptoms of aging. These problems are related to the ability of antioxidants to work as an inhibitor oxidation by reactive free radical that was one of the originators of the above diseases (Tahir et al, 2003). The main function of antioxidants used in an attempt to minimize the oxidation of fats and oils, minimize the damage to the food, extending the use of the food industry, improving the stability of the fat contained in food and prevent the loss of sensory and nutritional quality. Lipid peroxidation is one of the considerable factors play a role in damage during storage and food processing (Hernani and Raharjo, 2005). Antioxidants are not only used in the pharmaceutical industry, but also widely used in the food industry, petroleum industry, rubber industry and so on (Tahir et al, 2003). Antioxidants in food may come from the group consisting of one or more components of the food, the substance that is formed from the reaction during the processing of food additives or special isolated from natural sources and is added to foods. The presence of natural or synthetic antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of lipids, prevent damage, alteration and degradation of organic components in food that can extend shelf life (Rohdiana, 2001). The human body produces

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antioxidants, but there were often not enough to neutralize free radicals that enter the body (Sofia, 2006; Hernani and Rahardjo, 2005). For example, the human body can produce Glutathione, one of the powerful antioxidants, the body only requires intake of 1,000 mg of vitamin C to trigger the body to produce glutathione was. Deficiency of antioxidants in the body requires the input from the outside. When you start applying the vegetarian lifestyle will greatly help in reducing the risk of poisoning caused by free radicals. The balance between antioxidants and free radicals is the key factor preventing oxidative stress and chronic diseases resulting (Sofia, 2006). Antioxidants are divided into antioxidant enzymes and vitamins. Antioxidant enzymes include superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH.Prx). Antioxidant vitamins are more popular as compared antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidant vitamins include alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), beta carotene and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is widely obtained from plants and animals (Sofia, 2006). As an antioxidant, beta-carotene is the main source of vitamin A, which are mostly found in plants. In addition to protecting the fruits and vegetables yellow or dark green of the danger of solar radiation, beta-carotene is also a similar role in the human body. Beta-carotene contained in carrots, broccoli, potatoes and tomatoes. Other compounds are flavonoids have antioxidant. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in tea, fruits, vegetables, wine, beer, and soy sauce (Sofia, 2006). Shortage of one of these components will lead to a decline in the overall antioxidant status and result in protection of the body against free radical attack weakened, so that there was a wide range of diseases. Human body antioxidant level examination became an important diagnostic tool. This examination can be done through the measurement of the total antioxidant status, Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase as well as to check the status of selenium (Wijaya, 1997).

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BAB III NEEDS AND IDEAS

3.1

Find Needs A product designed to meet the needs of consumers. In order for a product

can be sold in the market it is necessary to identify the needs and desires of consumers. There are two ways to identify the needs and desires of consumers to a product, which are: Direct Market Analysis Direct market analysis is an analysis done by spreading the questionnaires or interviews directly to consumers or respondents that can represent the needs and desires of consumers of biscuit products. The numbers of respondents who have filled out questionnaires and were interviewed directly are 112 people. Questionnaire method was chosen because this method is the most simple and not time consuming, while some people were interviewed to better understand the needs and desires of consumers. To obtain a satisfactory identification of the needs of questionnaires were distributed and interviews were conducted with respondents of different age, profession, gender and so on. Questionnaire or interview contains questions that will guide the consumer respondents to express their wants and needs for products such as what the demand by most consumers. Also from this questionnaire we can know the weaknesses of the existing products on the market today. So it can be done improvements to existing products or new innovations to produce products that consumer want. Indirect Market Analysis Indirect market analysis is an analysis done indirectly through the search and collection of sources of information about demand and consumer interest towards these biscuit products. Information sought through various media. To determine the needs and desires of consumers about products biscuits, it is done by distributing questionnaires so that from the answers to these

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questions obtained answers that contain consumer demand for the product. The answers can be interpreted to become the need through the subsequent stages.

3.2

Interpreted Needs To find out the needs of consumers for biscuit products to be made, we

distribute questionnaires to 112 respondents with different age, occupation and gender. This is due to the assumption that the level of the age, the work can represent the economic level. Consumer needs derived from the result of the interpretation of consumer responses to the questions contained in the questionnaire. The result the questionnaires are as follows: Do you like biscuits? Of the 112 respondents 65.18% like biscuits

very like like small like dont like

Figure 3.1 Response of respondent to the biscuit Source: Private Document

What kind of biscuit you prefer? Of 112 people like wafer 57.05%, 23.18% liked cracker and 19.77% like cookie. Wafer is much preferred because its layers, cracker a little harder and cookies are a bit dense biscuits.

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cracker cookie wafer

Figure 3.2 Kind of biscuits which choosed by respondent Source: Private Document

What kind of biscuit texture you prefer? Judging from the texture, we divide the texture of the cookies into three types: soft, crisp and hard. 32.14% of 112 people liked the soft biscuit, 28.57% like hard biscuits and 39.29% like crunchy biscuit. The question is submitted because the texture is very close to the water content in the biscuit itself.

soft texture hard texture crunchy texture Figure 3.3 Textures of biscuit which choosed by respondent Source: Private Document

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How much price of 100 grams biscuits you think suitable? Of the 112 respondents, 40.18% choose the price for the weight of 100 gram biscuit ranges from 8000-12000. Question about the proposed price is submitted in order to get an overview of consumers capacity to buy crackers with a weight of 100 grams. However, for the dose per package will be adjusted to the economic analysis to be done next.

8000-12000 12000-16000 16000-20000 others

Figure 3.4 Price of biscuit which choosed by respondent Source: Private Document

What do you think about the flavor of biscuits available nowadays? Of the 112 people, 36.6% responded that it was not very satisfactory. This question was asked to find flavor what consumers want.

satisfactory little satisfactory unsatisfactory

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Figure 3.5 Point of view respondent about the flavor of biscuits available nowadays Source: Private Document

What do you think about the shape of biscuits available nowadays? Of the 112 people, 69.64% answered that shape biscuits on the market are usual while the rest answer are unique.

unique common shape

Figure 3.6 Point of view respondent about shape of biscuits available nowadays Source: Private Document

Which one of the following options, do you prefer the most? Of the 112 people, 50.89% like healthy biscuits, 31.25% like biscuits as snacks and 17.86% like biscuit that can help body growth. Healthy Biscuits includes biscuits that contain anti-oxidants, biscuit which will not make consumer fat, and biscuits for digestion are chosen by many respondents. But some were there who choose biscuits improvement body due to the high calcium content

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healthy biscuit snack biscuit biscuit that can help body growth

Figure 3.7 Biscuit Preference of respondent Source: Private Document

Below is table interpretation of the respondents' answers to the needs:

Table 3.1 Interpreted Needs

Number

Question

Answer Product Perception 65,18% Respondent like Biscuits 57,05 % Respondent prefer wafer

Needs

Biscuits still are desireable commodity. o Wafer type biscuits o Cracker type biscuit o Cookie type biscuit o Crunchy textured biscuit o Soft textured biscuit o Hard textured biscuit

Do you like biscuits?

What kind of biscuit you prefer?

23,18% Respondent prefer Cracker 19,77% Respondent prefer cookie 32,14 % Respondent prefer soft biscuits

What kind of biscuit texture you prefer?

28,57% Respondent prefer Hard biscuit 39,29% Respondent prefer crunchy biscuit

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Performance What do you think about 4 the flavor of biscuits available nowadays? 36,60% respondent think that the biscuits have weak flavor 50,89% respondent prefer healthy biscuit (Have antioxydant function 18%, Do not make your body fat Which one of the following 5 options, do you prefer the most? 43.29%, good for digestion 38.71%) 31.25% respondent prefer snack biscuit 17.86% respondent prefer biscuit that can help body growth Contents o Vitamins o Fat Checklist the following 6 type of nutrient that you think a biscuit should have 100% fill in the blank o Protein o Mineral o Fiber o Carbohydrates o Calorie o Sugar Appearance 80.35% think that biscuit nowadays already have the Do you satisfied with the 7 size of biscuits available nowadays right size 8.93% think that the biscuit size are too big 10.72% think that the biscuit size are too small Common sized biscuit o Healthy biscuit o Snack biscuit o Biscuit that can help body growth Biscuit with stronger flavor

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What do you think about 8 the shape of biscuits available nowadays?

69,64% respondent prefer common shaped biscuit Retailing

Common shaped biscuits

Do you think the price of 9 100 grams biscuits have to be affordable?

40,18% Respondent prefer affordable price 50,89% Respondent prefer plastic packaging

o affordable price o Plastic packaging o Recycle packaging o Environmental friendly packaging

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What kind of packaging you prefer the most?

30,35% respondent prefer recycle packaging 18,76% respondent prefer environmental friendly packaging

3.3

Grouping and Ranking Needs The next stage of the determination of need is the grouping and ranking of

needs, the needs of consumers based on interpretation of their answers and additional information are grouped into definite classes and are given ratings according to the nature of the requirement. It aims to make it easier to identify needs and determine priorities which need to be met and addressed first. The categories of the ranking of needs that are used are as follows. Consumers needs based on questionnaires and interviews that have been previously classified then be rated as following: 1. Undesireable (0%) 2. Not Important (0-10%) 3. Nice To Have (11%-19%) 4. Desireable (20%-30%) 5. Very Important (>30%)

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Table 3.2 Grouping and Ranking Needs

Number

Consumers Needs Description Product Perception

Rank

1 2 3

Biscuit with crunchy texture Biscuit with soft texture Biscuit with hard texture Performance

5 5 4

1 2 3 4 5 6

Biscuits with stronger flavor Healthy Biscuit Have anti-oxydant function Do not make consumers body fat Can help body growth Good for digestion Appearance

5 5 3 5 3 5

1 2 3 4 5

Biscuits with common shape Biscuits with unique shape Common sized biscuits Smaller sized biscuits Bigger sized biscuits Nutritional Contents

5 5 5 2 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Vitamin content Fat content Protein Minerals Fiber Content Carbohydrates Calorie Sugar Retailing

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 2

Biscuits at affordable price Biscuits with common packaging

5 5

25

3 4

Biscuits with eco-friendly packaging Biscuits with recycle packaging

4 5

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BAB IV PRODUCT SPESIFICATION

Customer needs are generally expressed in "Customer needs". List the needs of customers still contains many subjective interpretations. For this reason, the development team usually sets a series of specifications that reveal the exact details of what is measurable and should be owned by the product. Product specifications do not tell the team how to meet customer needs, but they present a statement of what is to be undertaken by the team in an effort to satisfy customer needs. Product specifications describe the things that must be done by a product. Specifications consists of metrics and metric values. Value is always followed by the appropriate unit. Metrics and values together constitute specifications. Specifications target is made after the customer needs are identified, but before the product concept was developed. Determination by subjective or less closely will result in ineligibility technically. Target specifications play a role in explaining the product to be successful in the market, then target these specifications will be fixed depending on the limit concept finally selected products. The process of making the target specification consists of four steps: 1. Prepare metric iamge and use metrics needs, if necessary. 2. Collect information about competitors. 3. Set the ideal target value and marginal that can be achieved for each metric. 4. Reflect on the results and processes

4.1

List of Metrics Metric list contains a list of needs that have been graded equipped with the

specifications or scientific parameters related and metric units of such specifications. Some needs may possess more than one of the same specifications and the specifications may be owned by more than one need. Here is a list of metrics for biscuit products.

27

Table 4.1 List of Metric

Metric No. 1 2 1

Needs Biscuit with crunchy texture

Rank

Specification Water

Metric Unit % % %

contain Fat contain Water

Biscuits with soft texture

contain Fat contain

2 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 7 8 9 10 Do not make 2 consumers body fat 11 Can help body grow Good for digestion Biscuit with common shape Biscuit with 3 5 Have anti oxydants function 3 Healthy biscuit 5 Biscuit with stronger flavour 5 Biscuit with hard texture 4

% % % % subj % % %

Water contain Fat contain Sugar Flavour Sugar Calorie Fat contain Vitamin E Vitamin C -caroten Lipoic Acid

% % %

Fat contain

Ca

12

Fiber

13 13

5 5

Shape Shape

Subj. Subj.

28

unique shape 14 Common sized biscuit Smaller sized biscuit Bigger sized biscuit 5 Size cm

14

Size

cm

14 15 16 17 8 2

Size Vitamin A

cm % % % % %

Have vitamins content

Vitamin B 1 Vitamin B 12 Vitamin C

Have fat contents Have protein contents Have minerals contents Have fiber content Have

Fat contain

18 19 11 20 12

Protein Sodium

% % % % %

Ca Iron

Fiber

21

carbohydrates content

Carbohydrates

Have sugar content Have calorie value Biscuit at affordable price Biscuit with common 5

Sugar

Calorie

kal/gr Rupiah(s)

22

Price

23

Material

Subj.

29

packaging Biscuit with 23 eco-friendly packaging Biscuit with 23 recycle packaging 5 Material Subj. 4 Material Subj.

After finished making the list of metrics so the next step is to create a diagram that shows the relationship between the needs of consumers who have interpreted with the list of metrics. The linkage was made in a needs-metrics can be seen as follows:

30

Carbohydrates

Water contain

Vitamin B 12

Vitamin B 1

Fat contain

Lipoic acid

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Vitamin E

-caroten

No

Needs

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9

biscuit with crunchy texture biscuit with soft texture biscuit with hard texture biscuit with stronger flavour healthy biscuits have anti oxydants function dont make cunsomer's body fat can help body grow good for digestion

Material 31

Sodium

Calorie

protein

Flavor

Shape

sugar

Fiber

Price

Iron

Size

Ca

10

biscuit with common shape

11 biscuit with unique shape common sized biscuit smaller sized biscuit bigger size biscuit have vitamins content have fat content have protein content have mineral content have fiber content Have carbohydrates content Have sugar content

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

32

22 23

Have calorie value biscuit at affordable price

24

biscuit with common packaging

25

biscuit with ecofriendly packaging

26

biscuit with recycle packaging

33

In the final stage, an analysis of the results is done, whether there are still unmet customer needs with existing specifications, if not, what solutions have been put forward, create a new variant or add specifications of existing products.

4.2

Benchmarking Benchmarking is the process of comparison between products to be

developed with existing products. These will be displayed product benchmarking of our products.

Table 4.3 Benchmarking List Based on Spesification

Metric No. 1 2

Needs

Specification

Metric Unit % %

Biskuit Own bar kedelai 2% 5% 1% 22,2%

Biskuit gandum 4% 20,51%

Biskuit rendah gula 2% 5%

Biskuit vegetarian 3% 12,84%

Biscuit with crunchy texture

Water contain Fat contain

3 Biscuits with soft texture 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Have anti Healthy biscuit Biscuit with stronger flavour

Water contain

2%

1%

4%

2%

3%

Fat contain Flavour Sucrose Sugar Calorie Fat contain Vitamin E

% subj mg gram cal/gr % %

5% 0 mg

22,2% 0 mg

20,51% 0 mg 0 gram 5128,21 cal/gr 20,51% 0

5% 5 mg 0 gram 4400 cal,gr 5% 0

12,84% 0 mg 0 gram 35 cal/gr 12,84% 0

0 gram 11 gram 30 cal/gr 5% 2% 4222,22 cal/gr 22,2% 0

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11 12 13

oxydants function

Vitamin C -caroten Lipoic Acid

% % %

3% 0 0

6% 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

Do not make 14 consumers body fat 15 Can help body grow Good for digestion Biscuit with 17 common shape Biscuit with unique shape Biscuit size Shape Subj. Ca % 5% 0 0 0 10% Fat contain % 5% 22,2% 20,51% 5% 12,84%

16

Fiber

0,5%

7,4%

0%

7%

3,5%

18

Shape

Subj.

19 20 21 22 23 24

Size Vitamin A

cm % % % % %

4 cm 2% 0 4% 3% 5%

10 cm 2% 0 8% 6% 22,2%

5 cm 0 0 0 0 20,51%

3,5 cm 0 0 0 0 5%

4 cm 6% 0 0 0 12,84%

Have vitamins content

Vitamin B 1 Vitamin B 12 Vitamin C

Have fat contents Have protein contents

Fat contain

25 26 27

Protein Sodium Ca

% mg %

23,7% 20 mg 5%

14,81% 46 mg 0

10,26% 20 mg 0

2% 170 mg 0

9,33% 0 mg 10%

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28 29 Have fiber content Have 30 carbohydrates content 31 Have sugar content Have calorie value Biscuit at 33 affordable price Biscuit with 34 common packaging Biscuit with 35 eco-friendly packaging Biscuit with 36 recycle packaging

Iron Fiber

% %

2% 0,5%

2% 7,4%

0 0%

0 7%

8% 3,5%

Carbohydrates

54,9%

40,74%

66,67%

9%

63%

Sugar

gram

0 gram 11 gram 30 cal/gr 4222,22 cal/gr

0 gram 5128,21 cal/gr

0 gram 4400 cal,gr

0 gram

32

Calorie

kal/gr

35 cal/gr

Price

Rupiah(s)

8000

7000

5000

8000

6000

Material

Subj.

Material

Subj.

Material

Subj.

After benchmarking is done, we can know, what specs most closely with the needs of consumers. So it can be determined that the ideal specification most closely with the needs of consumers. 4.3 Spesification List From the results of benchmarking has been done then the product will be

designed in the form of biscuits intended to meet the wants and needs of the

36

people who have not fulfilled on products that have been there all along. Some of the benefits that will be owned by the product to be designed are: 1. Contain more fiber and vitamin 2. Contain low sugar and carbohydrate 3. Affordable Price 4. Renewable packaging 5. Have stronger flavor

Table 4.4 Spesification List

Metric No. 1 2

Specification

Rank

Metric Unit % %

Marginal Value 0,93-7,89% 5-23% 0-4% 0-5 35-5129 cal/gr 0 0-6% 0 0 0-10

Ideal Value Max 5% Min 09,5%

Value

Water contain Fat contain Roughness level of flour Sugar Flavor sucrose Calorie Vitamin E Vitamin C -caroten Lipoic Acid Ca

5 5

4% 5%

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

5 4 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3

subj % Subj. mg cal/gr % % % % %

Max 2%

2%

Min 4 cal/gr 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 kal/gr 2 3 0 0 5

37

13

Fiber

0-7,4%

0,5%

0,5%

14

Shape

Subj.

15 16

Size Vitamin A

3 5

cm %

2-10 0-6

0 0

4 2

17

Vitamin B1

18

Vitamin B12

3-8

0 Min 9% 0 0 Min 70% 0

19 21 22 23 24

Protein Sodium Iron Carbohydrates Price

5 5 5 5 5

% mg % % Rupiah(s)

2-15% 0-170 1-8 9-67% 4000-8000

23,7% 20 2 54,9% 8000

25

Material

subj

38

CHAPTER V PRODUCT CONCEPTING

To generate better concept we make 2 categories for our mind map. Those categories of healthy biscuit product consist of the shape, and working principle. Working principle divided into two more categories which are how to consume and performance. How to consume category is the proper way to eat the biscuit we develop. Shape category in this case is the texture of the biscuit not the shape we see for marketing. The last category is performance. Performance category is the specialized performance of the biscuit we would like to sell. The weaknesses of the product must be minimized from existing products by developing new concept from a product with the proper performance. Existing products must be developed and processed in order to form the best possible product to suit the needs of consumers. Developing concept both existing products or new concept that really has not been available in the market should be determined by the specific stages in order to create the best ideas from a variety of good ideas existing idea (existing concepts), or a combination of new ideas. Determination of concepts and design concepts consists of the following stages: 1. Existing Concept 2. New Concept 3. Combining Concept

5.1

Existing Concept Existing biscuit products have a healthy biscuit category which can be

divided into several categories, namely: shape, performance, and how to consume. Those categories of biscuits are already explained above and divided by consumer needs and main priority [how it work (how to eat and performance included) and shape] to make a healthy biscuit. Here is a mind map of existing product:

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Figure 5.1 Existing Concept of Healthy Biscuit Source: Private Document

5.2

New Concept Biscuit products available on the market today still do not have the

performance or properties to satisfy consumers. Biscuits available on the market that have been compared as specification products are generally only contain some vitamins, namely: vitamin A, B1, B12, and C, low fat, high calcium, and low sugar. Confectionery is one of the pastries are popular and loved by many people, but to make it is as not simple as to consume it. Materials that make crisp biscuits are actually fat, which is not good for some people. It's the consideration that in designing products with new ideas can be classified into several sections, namely: how to consume, shapes, and performance. The mind map of the new design products of a healthy biscuit product can be seen as shown in figure 5.2 below:

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Figure 5.2 New Concept Source: Private Document

5.3

Combining Concept In order to generate better concept we have to combine the concepts from

existing product and new concepts that have not been exist in market. The combination of concepts based on existing concepts and new concepts have been categorized with the same categories as before which are: shape, how to consume, and performance. The mind map of combining concept for healthy biscuit product can be viewed as shown in figure 5.3 below:

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Figure 5.3 Combining Concept Source: Private Document

Base on figure 5.3 shown that existing product can be combined with new product to generate better concept for healthy biscuit. Combining product can solve the problem of a weakness from existing product, new concept with innovation ideas make the combining product have the best performance including consumer needs list indeed. Red color in figure 5.3 shown that is existing product and blue color shown that is new product. The best concept can be divided with concept generation and selection which is performance of product is main priority for design product. Healthy biscuits categories consist of product performance, how to consume is categories based on psychological sense, and also shape which is supporting the performance of healthy biscuit.

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CHAPTER VI CONCEPT GENERATION

From the last chapter we have combined concepts from existing product and new ideas that have not existed in market. To get the best concept that will develop to manufacturing process we have to generate and select the concept first. The mechanism processes of concept generation and selection consist of concept generation, concept screening, concept scoring and concept testing. The concept selection process will be discussed in the next chapter. The processes flow can in be seen as shown in figure 6.1 below:

Figure 6.1 Concept Generations and Selection Processes Flow Source: Purwanto, Widodo W. Concept Selection.ppt

In this chapter, the concept of biscuits will be made based on four categories: Performance, How to Consume, and Shape. In each category we made some concepts that in the next step, concepts from each category will be combined so we get many choices of concepts. Concept selection is then performed to obtain the best concept available to advance in the manufacturing phase. At the time we created concept map, each category of performances, how to eat, and textures redeveloped into a few things. To performance because its main performance is as healthy biscuits then we develop into biscuit that can nourish hair, biscuit for digestion until biscuit to maintain ion balance in the body.

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Those things have been a branch of the performance of healthy biscuit concept. Similarly to how to consume category, it is divided into the usual way is to eat by chewing until eat it with milk. Shape category customized with textures needed by the community. At first we generated 50 concepts then we select those concepts directly based on the possibility of the concept to be manufactured. If the concept is not likely to be manufactured, or concepts with outrageously bad combination and did not meet the standard criteria expected, we quickly eliminated the concepts. But the 50 initial concepts and the selection can be seen in appendix 1 and appendix 2. After we selected 50 initial concepts, we have these 10 concepts with good visibility and a pretty good combination for entering the stage of screening and scoring.

Table 6.1 Concept Generation Description

Description Performance

Concept I Reduce sleepiness without making the heart pounding too much.

Concept II Balancing ions in the human body as it contains the necessary minerals, ion balance is important because if it is not in balance can make the body tired easily.

Figure 6.2 Sleepiness Source: www.ehow.com

Figure 6.3 Bodys Ion Source: luluhmm.blogspot.com

How To Consume

The biscuit is eaten with milk. The milk is supplied in crumbs form so that the consumer just

The biscuit is eaten with milk. The milk is supplied in crumbs form so that the

44

need to add warm water to the milk and then the biscuits soaked in milk like eating cereal.

consumer just need to add warm water to the milk and then the biscuits soaked in milk like eating cereal. The figure can be seen in figure 6.4

Figure 6.4 Cereal Source: http://2.bp.blogspot.com

Shape

Cracker Cracker is a baked good typically made from grain flour dough and usually manufactured in large quantities. Cracker are usually flat, crisp, small in size and made in various shapes, commonly round or square. Flavoring or seasoning such as salt, herbs, seeds, and or cheese may be added to the dough or sprinkled on top before baking. Cracker are often branded as a nutritious and convenient way to consume a staple food or cereal grain.

Cookie Cookie are most commonly baked until crisp or just long enough that they reamin soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles using an array ingredients, including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nutsor, dried fruits. The softness of the cookie may depend on how long it is baked.

Figure 6.6 Cookie Source: www.landandliberty.net

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Figure 6.5 Cracker Source: commons.wikimedia.org

Description Performance

Concept III Make human skin healthy. The biscuit can make the human skin healthy because it contains sufficient amount of vitamin E which good for skin.

Concept IV Good for digestion. The biscuit is good for digestion because it contains sufficient amount of fiber. Fiber has the ability to absorb water, it will increase the texture and volumes of human feces so food can be easily pass through the large intestine.

Figure 6.7 Healthy Skin Source: health.sulekha.com

Figure 6.8 Human Digestion Source: healthconscious.hubpages.com

How To Consume

The biscuit is eaten with milk. The milk is supplied in crumbs form so that the consumer just need to add warm water to the milk and

The biscuit is eaten with milk. The milk is supplied in crumbs form so that the consumer just need to add warm water to the milk and then the biscuits soaked

46

then the biscuits soaked in milk like eating cereal. Because the biscuit contains vitamin E, the usage of milk is another advantage. Milk can supply fat in which the vitamin E will dissolve so the body can absorb it better. The figure can be seen in figure 6.6 Shape Cookie Cookie are most commonly baked until crisp or just long enough that they reamin soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles using an array ingredients, including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nutsor, dried fruits. The softness of the cookie may depend on how long it is baked. Cookie is a cookie texture with lowest water content. That is good for the performance because vitamin E can be hydrolyzed easily so the water level had to be low. The figure can be seen in figure 6.6

in milk like eating cereal. The figure can be seen in figure 6.6

Bar Bar consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan (sometimes multiple layers), and cut into cookie sized pieces after baking.

Figure 6.9 Fruit Bar Source: cantaloupealone.blogspot.com

47

Description Performance

Concept V Strengthen bones and teeth. The biscuit can strengthen bones and teeth because it contains high level of calcium which is good for bones and teeth. Healthiness of bones and teeth is quite important to prevent disease like osteoporosis and tooth-ache.

Concept VI Increasing red blood cells. Red blood booster substance is iron. Increasing the red blood is very important to avoid the anemia disease, the disease can lead to fatigue, dizziness, and unproductive

Figure 6.10 Bones and Teeth Source: anthropology.si.edu

Figure 6.11 Red Blood Cells Source: singularityhub.com

How To Consume

The biscuit is eaten by chewing the biscuit. This is the usual way to consume a food. The most simple and quick way also.

The biscuit is put into the consumer mouth. The biscuit have the ability to pop in mouth so the consumer will have the sensation of popping biscuit in their mouth.

48

Figure 6.12 Chewing Food Source: rochesterdentalnews.com

Shape

Bar Bar consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan (sometimes multiple layers), and cut into cookie sized pieces after baking. The figure can be seen in figure 6.9

Crumbs

Figure 6.13 Biscuit Crumbs Source: kathdedon.wordpress.com

Description Performance

Concept VII Do not make fat. The biscuit will not make the consumer fat because it has low sugar content and sufficient fiber. Fat is not good for health because it can lead to obese and other disease.

Concept VIII Increase concentrations. Increasing concentrations can be done by consuming flanovoid substance that can be found in chocolate, fruits and vegetables. Concentration is very important because it will affect human productivity.

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Figure 6.14 Slim Belly Source: kizie.com Figure 6.15 High Concentration Source: healthmeup.com

How To Consume

The biscuit is eaten with milk. The milk is supplied in crumbs form so that the consumer just need to add warm water to the milk and then the biscuits soaked in milk like eating cereal. The figure can be seen in figure 6.4

The biscuit is eaten by chewing the biscuit. This is the usual way to consume a food. The most simple and quick way also. The figure can be seen in figure 6.12

Shape

Cracker Cracker is a baked good typically made from grain flour dough and usually manufactured in large quantities. Cracker are usually flat, crisp, small in size and made in various shapes, commonly round or square. Flavoring or seasoning such as salt, herbs, seeds, and or cheese may be added to the dough or sprinkled on top before baking. Cracker are often branded as a

Cracker Cracker is a baked good typically made from grain flour dough and usually manufactured in large quantities. Cracker are usually flat, crisp, small in size and made in various shapes, commonly round or square. Flavoring or seasoning such as salt, herbs, seeds, and or cheese may be added to the dough or sprinkled on top before baking. Cracker are often branded as a nutritious and convenient way to consume a

50

nutritious and convenient way to consume a staple food or cereal grain. The figure can be seen in figure 6.5

staple food or cereal grain. The figure can be seen in figure 6.5

Description Performance

Concept IX Reduce sleepiness without making the heart pounding too much. The figure can be seen in figure 6.2

Concept X Strengthen bones and teeth. The biscuit can strengthen bones and teeth because it contains high level of calcium which is good for bones and teeth. Healthiness of bones and teeth is quite important to prevent disease like osteoporosis and tooth-ache. The figure can be seen in figure 6.10

How To Consume

The biscuit is eaten with milk. The milk is supplied in crumbs form so that the consumer just need to add warm water to the milk and then the biscuits soaked in milk like eating cereal. The figure can be seen in figure 6.4

The biscuit is eaten by drink it. This is a new way to consume a biscuit. We dissolve the biscuit crumbs into a certain liquid and drink it.

Figure 6.16 Drink Source: nutrihealth.in

51

Shape

Cookie Cookie are most commonly baked until crisp or just long enough that they reamin soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles using an array ingredients, including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nutsor, dried fruits. The softness of the cookie may depend on how long it is baked. Cookie is a cookie texture with lowest water content. The figure can be seen in figure 6.6

Crumbs The figure can be seen in figure 6.13

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CHAPTER VII CONCEPT SCREENING

Based on the concepts that have been made from the previous chapter, we have 10 concepts that pass into selection phase. In this section we want to reduce those concepts into fewer concepts by using two methods, namely: concept screening and concept scoring. Broadly speaking, the concept selection process consists of two stages, the first stage is the stage of screening and the second is the scoring stage (chapter VIII), after scoring stage then we will get one of the best concepts will go through the stages of the last stage of testing the concept. Concept testing in our case is used just to evaluate the chosen concept whether the community accepts the product or not. This stage will be discussed in chapter IX. Selection of concept ideas is a process for evaluating concepts that have good idea of old ideas and new ideas, taking into account the list of consumer needs and other criteria, compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of each concept ideas and choose one or more concept ideas for further development Concept Screening aims to narrow the selection of existing concepts quickly and qualitatively. This process is done 2 times. The first screening selected 10 best concept of the 50 initial concepts to the selection process is based on the likelihood concept to be manufactured. The 50 initial concepts selection can be seen in appendix 2. After the first screening we obtained 10 best concepts. The 10 best concepts are shown in table 4.1 as follows:

Table 7.1 Top 10 Concepts

Concept I II III IV V

How to Eat Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Chew

Performance Reduce sleepiness Balancing body's ion Healthy Skin Good for Digestion Strengthen bones and teeth

Shape Cracker Cookie Cookie Bar Bar

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VI VII VIII IX X

Popped in the mouth Eaten with milk Chew Eaten with milk Drink

Adding red blood cells Do not make fat Increase concentrations Reduce sleepiness

Crumbs Cracker Cracker Cookie

Strengthen bones and teeth Crumbs

Having obtained the 10 best concepts we then do a second screening process. The second screening process carried out to get the best 5 out of 10 draft concept. In selecting the five best concepts is done by comparing the previous concepts with the concepts of reference which is the concept of existing products and then rank them to determine which concepts will advance to the next selection stage. The selected criteria were:

Table 7.2 Criteria for Concept Screening Stage

Criteria Healthier Biscuit Reachable Price Manufacturing Ease Innovativeness Crunchiness

Each criteria is given a reference to the concept of 0 as the reference point, which will be selected when the concept has a better concept then will be given the value (+), otherwise that would be selected if the concept has a concept that is not better then be rated (-) and the same concept is given the value of (0). In assessing whether the concept is better or not compared to the reference made by considering the above criteria. If we simplified the rating information is shown in the following table:

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Table 7.3 Rating Information for Concept Screening

Rating (+) (0) (-)

Information Better than reference Same with reference Worse than reference

Result of the accumulation of rating points will be ranked. 5 best ranked concepts will go into the concept scoring stage. The second screening process can be seen in the following table

55

Table 7.4 Concept Screening

No.

Criteria

Reference Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept Concept I II + III + IV 0 V + VI + VII VIII IX X +

Healthier Biscuit

Manufacturing Ease

Reachable Price

4 5

Innovative Crunchiness Total (+) Total (-) Accumulation Ranking Continue?

0 0

+ 1 3 -2 8 No

+ 0 2 1 1 2 Yes

+ + 3 1 2 1 Yes

0 0 2 -2 9 No

1 2 -1 6 No

+ 2 3 -1 7 No

0 0 0 2 -2. 10 No

+ 0 2 1 1 3 Yes

+ + 2 1 1 4 Yes

0 2 2 0 5 Yes

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Based on the screening above we get 5 selected concepts. Nevertheless, one concept is actually has a low point but continue to the next stage because the others are worse (Concept X). In order to make those concepts better they will have to go through improving stage before the scoring stage.

7.1

Improving Stage Concept X got low rating in crunchiness and manufacturing ease criteria,

in order to make it better, the shape category will be change from crumbs into cookie texture. Because the texture changed the way to consume it have to be changed also since it become impossible. It is changed into chew, which also make it easier to manufacture.

Table 7.5 Improving Concept X

Category How To Consume Performance

Old Concept X Drink Strengthen bones and teeth

New Concept X Chew Strengthen bones and teeth Crumb

Shape

Crumb

57

CHAPTER VIII CONCEPT SCORING

Based on the screening stage previously chapter, we obtained five best concepts that will enter the concept scoring stage, while five concepts can be seen in the following table:

Table 8.1 Best Concept Based on Screening Stage

No.

Category

Concept II Eaten with milk

Concept III Eaten with milk Healthy Skin Cookie

Concept VIII

Concept IX Eaten with milk

Concept X

How to Consume

Chew

Chew

Performance

Balancing body's ion Cookie

Increase

Reduce

Strengthen Bones and Teeth Cookie

concentrations Sleepiness Cracker Cookie

Shape

At this stage we use quantitative analysis to determine the concepts that will be advanced to the stage of concept testing. At this stage each of the criteria has certain weight to the importance of these criteria for healthy biscuits. Each concept was then given a final assessment ranking and an accumulation of the ranking that has been multiplied by the weighting for each criteria. The concept with the highest score will advance to the next stage. For concept scoring stage we still use the same criteria as screening. The criteria we use for concept scoring can be seen in the following table:

Table 8.2 Criteria for Concept Scoring Stage

Criteria Healthier Biscuit Reachable Price Manufacturing Ease

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Innovative Crunchiness

As for rating, in this stage we use different rating to determine the concept score. As stated in this section, the selection using quantitative analysis so the rating also quantitative. Rating information for concept scoring can be seen in following table:
Table 8.3 Rating for Concept Scoring

Criteria Healthier Biscuit

Rank 1 0-5%

Rank 2 6-10%

Rank 3 11-15%

Rank 4 16-20%

Rank 5 >20%

Nutritional Nutritional Nutritional Nutritional Nutritional Content Content 2000025000 Content 1500020000 Content 1000015000 <10 Unit Content <10000

Reachable Price (Rp) Manufacturing Ease Innovative

2500030000 >20 Unit

15-20 Unit 15-20 Unit 15-10 Unit

>5 Rival Product

4 Rival Product 5%

3 Rival Product 2%

2 Rival Product 4%

1-0 Rival Product 3%

Crunchiness

1%

After determine the rank, we can proceed to scoring process. The concepts scoring process base on rating above can be seen in the following table:

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Table 8.4 Concept Scoring Process

Selection Criteria Healthier Biscuit Manufacturing Ease Reachable Price Innovative Crunchiness Score Rank Continue

Weight II 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.15 0.15 Rating 3 2 2 5 5 3.2 4 No Weight 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.75 0.75 III Rating Weight 4 1.2 2 2 5 5 3.5 1 Yes 0.4 0.4 0.75 0.75

CONCEPTS VIII Rating Weight 3 0.9 3 3 5 4 3.45 2 No 0.6 0.6 0.75 0.6

IX Rating Weight 2 0.6 2 3 4 5 2.95 5 No 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.75

X Rating Weight 4 1.2 3 2 3 5 3.4 3 No 0.6 0.4 0.45 0.75

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61

8.1

The details of Concept Scoring Criteria a. Healthier Biscuit Concept III and X has a rating of 4 because the concept of biscuits III serves to soften the skin and is made from the fruit as well as edible by using milk. Vitamins contained in fruit very much and plus the calcium content in milk. So also with concept X that serves to strengthen bones and teeth. On the concept of the fruit is used as a raw material that contains a lot of nutrients and vitamins and protein. b. Manufacturing Ease Concept VIII and X has a rating of 3. This is due to the manufacturing process that is easier than the other concepts. In this concept the biscuits can be eaten while on the other concepts eaten biscuits using milk, which means the manufacturing process must be coupled with the making of spoiled milk so that the manufacturing process becomes more difficult. c. Reachable Price Concept VIII has a low price compared to other concepts. This is due to the manufacturing process which is easier and cheaper to use raw materials, namely vegetables. Concept X also has a manufacturing process that is easy, but the raw material used is more expensive than vegetables, the fruit. d. Innovative Concept II, III, and VIII have a rating 5 in innovation. Because these cookies have only one rival product or even none at all. This means biscuit is a new innovation that has not been previously found in the market. e. Crunchiness All concepts except VIII has a rating 5 numbers. This means that the biscuit is shaped cookies with a water content of 3%. Water content 3% making biscuits crispy, while the water content more than it would make cookies softer and less of it will make tougher biscuits.

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8.2

Selected Concept Explanation Concept III selected to score 3.5 for biscuit meets the required criteria. Healthy Biscuits means it contains many nutrients and vitamins. Nutrition on biscuits as much as> 20%, consisting of vitamins, calcium, iron, and protein. In this concept the biscuits have specific performance to nourish the skin. Milk also adds nutrients in biscuits because they contain calcium and iron. Biscuit is quite easy to produce and has a relatively affordable price of Rp 20000. Biscuits also meet the needs of consumers who want a crunchy biscuit. Biscuit has a water content of 3%, which makes it crunchy biscuits. Innovation is also given on biscuits as previously biscuits that have no performance to nourish the skin. Most of the products to nourish the skin is a lotion or soap. We want to provide a more exciting way to nourish the skin, by eating biscuits.

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CHAPTER IX CONCEPT TESTING

The concept testing phase is the last concept selection phase which at this stage, the concept that has been selected in the previous stage will be thrown back to the market if the market will accept the product will be made based on a new concept or not. This stage is carried out by way of an interview in which the concept testing of this product, we interviewed 20 respondents. The results of the interview are as follows: The first question: What do you think about the concept of these biscuits?

What do you think about the concept of these biscuits?


suka cara memakan kurang percaya dapat menyehatkan kulit bahan dasar buah digunakan sebagai taburan sedikit pengawet bentuknya bulat tidak terlalu besar bantuk biskuit yang mudah dimakan dengan susu

Figure 9.1 Pie Chart Result of Question 1 Source: Private Document

Based on interviews, obtained some opinions from the community about the concept.
Table 9.1 Interview Results of Question 1

Adore the eating mechanism Doubting the nourishing the skin performance The fruit is used as a base material sprinkles

55% 50% 45%

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Fewer preservatives Round shape and not too big

80% 35%

Biscuit shape that can be eaten easily with milk 70%

The second question: Would you like to buy?

Would you like to buy?

ya tidak

Figure 9.2 Pie Chart Result of Question 2 Source: Private Document

Based on the interview obtained:


Table 9.2 Interview Result of Question 2

Yes No

65% 35%

Conclusion based on these interviews is that people receive the product but people are still unsure of the performance of the main concepts that nourish the skin. To overcome these doubts, we will focus on the marketing of these products so that doubts can be reduced to the minimum.

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CHAPTER X CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

10.1

Conclusion From these second assignment can be concluded that:

1) The selected concept is the third concept, namely healthy skin cookie biscuit from fruit which is eaten by using liquid. 2) The selected concept is a healthy biscuit cookie shaped and edible use the liquid milk. Biscuits can nourish the skin as it contains vitamin E, vitamin E serves as anti oxidants for the skin. The chosen form is the form of cookies because the cookies it has a fat content greater than water content. The existence of the fat content is helpful in dissolving vitamin E (as vitamin E is one of the fat-soluble vitamins). While eating is a way to use milk to help the absorption of fat in the body. The milk fat can also help prevent destruction of vitamin E. Because fat and vitamin E work synergistically. Fat can impair vitamin E is fat that has undergone rancidity, whereas fat rancidity can be prevented by the presence of vitamin E. So the way it works is synergistic.

10.2

Suggestion People receive the product but people are still unsure of the performance

of the main concepts that nourish the skin. To overcome these doubts, we will focus on the marketing of these products so that doubts can be reduced to the minimum.

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REFERENCES

Almatsier S. 2001. Prinsip Dasar Ilmu Gizi. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Andarwulan N dan Sutrisno K. 1992. Kimia Vitamin. Jakarta: Rajawali Press. Blanchfield RJ. 2000. Food Labelling. USA: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Christensen VM. 1982. Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. American Association of Cereal Chemistry, Minnesota. [CAC] Codex Alimentarius Comission. 1997. Basic Texts on Food Hygiene. Roma Itali: FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Coward L. NC Barnes, KDR Setchell and S Barnes. 1993. Genistein, Dainzein, and -Glycoside Conjugates: Antitumor Isoflavon in Soybean Food from American and Asian Diets. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 41:1961. Faridi H. 1994. Technology of cookie and cracker production. Hamed Faridi (Editor). The Science of Cookie and Cracker Production. Chapman and Hall, New York. Gillies MT. 1974. Compressed Food Bars. Noyes Data Corporation. Park Ridge, New Jersey. Hariyadi P. 1997. Produk Ekstrudat, Flakes, dan Tepung Kedelai. Makalah Pelatihan Sehari Menuju Industri Makanan Berbasis Kedelai. Surabaya. Harris RS, and Karmas RS. 1989. Evaluasi Nilai Gizi pada Pengolahan Bahan Pangan. Penerbit ITB. Bandung. Hernani dan Raharjo M. 2005. Tanaman berkhasiat Antioksidan. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya Liu K. 1997. Soybean: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization. Chapman and Hall, New York. Manley D. 1998. Technology of Biscuit, Cracker, and Cookies Third Edition. Washington: CRC Press. Marsono Y, Wiyono P dan Noor Z. 2002. Indeks glisemik kacang-kacangan. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 13 (3): 53-55.

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Matz SA & T. D. Matz. 1978. Cookies and Crackers Technology. Texas: The AVI Publishing Co., Inc. Potter NN dan Hotchkiss. 1995. Food Science. Chapman & Hall. USA: New York. Rohdiana D. 2001. Aktivitas Daya Tangkap Radikal Polifenol Dalam Daun Teh. Majalah Jurnal Indonesia 12, (1), 53-58. Smith AK. and SJ Circle. 1978. Soybean: Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1. AVI Publishing Co, Inc. Wesport, Connecticut. [SNI] Standar Nasional Indonesia. 1992. Mutu dan Cara Uji Biskuit. Jakarta: Dewan Standarisasi Nasional. Soekarto ST. 1992. Penilaian Organoleptik untuk Industri Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian. Bharata Karya Aksara, Jakarta. Shurtleff W and A Aoyagi. 1979. Tofu and Soymilk Production. New-Age Food Study Centre. Lafayette. Tahir I, Wijaya K, Widianingsih D. 2003. Terapan Analisis Hansch Untuk Aktivitas Antioksidan Senyawa Turunan Flavon atau Flavonol. Seminar on Chemometrics- Chemistry Dept Gadjah Mada University Wang H. J. and Murphy, P. A. 1994. Isoflavone Content in Commercial Soybean. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry 42;1660-1673. Whiteley PR. 1971. Biscuit Manufacture Fundamental of in-live Production. London: Applied Science Publishers. Wijaya A. 1997. Oksidasi LDL, Aterosklerosis dan Antioksidan. Medika 3, hal: 115. Zakardas CG, Yu. G, Voldeng HD and Minero-Amador, A. 1993. Assessment of The Protein Quality of a New High-Protein Soybean Cultivar by Amino Acid Analysis. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry 41:616-623.

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APPENDIX I
Table A1. 50 Initial Concepts

How It Work Concept How to Eat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Popped in the mouth Licked Licked Smoked Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Inhaled Chew Mumbling Be drunk Chew Licked Smoked Popped in the mouth Eaten with milk Drink Mumbling Performance Healthy Skin Adding red blood cells Anti-aging Digestion Reduce sleepiness Balancing the body's ion Reduce sleepiness Nourish hair Digestion Balancing the body's ion Reduce sleepiness Balancing the body's ion Anti-aging Eliminates body odor Digestion Do not make fat Strengthen bones and teeth 18 19 20 21 22. Smoked Licked Popped in the mouth Mumbling Inhaled Anti-aging Reduce sleepiness Digestion Healthy Skin Keeping the immune system 23 24 Licked Chew Adding concentrations Strengthen bones and Cereal Bar Cookie Cookie Gel Spray Cracker Bar Powder Cereal Porridge Cracker Cookie Gel Spray Bar Spray Cereal Bar Cookie Gel Bar Spray Crystal Shape

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teeth 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Drink Popped in the mouth Smoked Licked Eaten with milk Popped in the mouth Smoked Licked Chew Popped in the mouth Digestion Adding red blood cells Healthy Skin Do not make fat Do not make fat Adding red blood cells Reduce sleepiness Balancing the body's ion Adding concentrations Strengthen bones and teeth 35 Smoked Keeping the immune system 36 37 Eaten with milk Inhaled Reduce sleepiness Keeping the immune system 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Drink Mumbling Licked Chew Mumbling Popped in the mouth Smoked Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Inhaled Drink Adding concentrations Anti-aging Eliminates body odor Reduce sleepiness Reduce sleepiness Nourish hair Healthy Skin Healthy Skin Anti-aging Healthy Skin Strengthen bones and teeth 49 50 Popped in the mouth Eaten with milk Do not make fat Do not make fat Cookie Cracker Cookie Porridge Crystal Cookie Cracker Cereal Spray Cookie Spray Bar Powder Cookie Cracker Wafer Gel Powder Cereal Cereal Cracker Wafer Porridge Bar Cracker Gel

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APPENDIX II
Table A2. Screening 50 Concepts

How It Work Concept 1 How to Eat Popped in the mouth 2 3 4 5 6 7. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Licked Licked Smoked Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Inhaled Chew Mumbling Be drunk Chew Licked Smoked Popped in the mouth 15 16 17 Eaten with milk Drink Mumbling Digestion Do not make fat Strengthen bones and teeth 18 19 20 Smoked Licked Popped in the mouth 21 Mumbling Healthy Skin Spray No. Anti-aging Reduce sleepiness Digestion Cookie Cookie Gel No. No. No. Bar Spray Crystal Yes No. No. Adding red blood cells Anti-aging Digestion Reduce sleepiness Balancing the body's ion Reduce sleepiness Nourish hair Digestion Balancing the body's ion Reduce sleepiness Balancing the body's ion Anti-aging Eliminates body odor Powder Cereal Porridge Cracker Cookie Gel Spray Bar Spray Cereal Bar Cookie Gel No. No. No. Yes Yes No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. Performance Healthy Skin Shape Bar Continue No.

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22.

Inhaled

Keeping the immune system

Cracker

No.

23 24

Licked Chew

Adding concentrations Strengthen bones and teeth

Cereal Bar

No. Yes

25 26

Drink Popped in the mouth

Digestion Adding red blood cells

Gel Powder

No. Yes

27 28 29 30

Smoked Licked Eaten with milk Popped in the mouth

Healthy Skin Do not make fat Do not make fat Adding red blood cells

Cereal Cereal Cracker Wafer

No. No. No. No.

31 32 33 34

Smoked Licked Chew Popped in the mouth

Reduce sleepiness Balancing the body's ion Adding concentrations Strengthen bones and teeth Keeping the immune system

Porridge Bar Cracker Gel

No. No. Yes No.

35

Smoked

Wafer

No.

36 37

Eaten with milk Inhaled

Reduce sleepiness Keeping the immune system

Cookie Cracker

Yes No.

38 39 40 41 42 43

Drink Mumbling Licked Chew Mumbling Popped in the mouth

Adding concentrations Anti-aging Eliminates body odor Reduce sleepiness Reduce sleepiness Nourish hair

Cookie Porridge Crystal Cookie Cracker Cereal

No. No. No. No. No. No.

44

Smoked

Healthy Skin

Spray

No.

72

45 46 47 48

Eaten with milk Eaten with milk Inhaled Drink

Healthy Skin Anti-aging Healthy Skin Strengthen bones and teeth

Cookie Spray Bar Powder

Yes No. No. Yes

49

Popped in the mouth

Do not make fat

Cookie

No.

50

Eaten with milk

Do not make fat

Cracker

Yes