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Grammar Section Adjective

Describing Adjective Adjectives is used to describe. Adjective describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. The purpose of an adjective is to answer questions about the noun. What kind of noun is it? Which noun is it? How many are there? Adjectives may include words such as pretty, short, thin, quirky, zany, happy, intelligent, round, red, and shiny. It is common for adjectives to be confused with adverbs by people who are unfamiliar with English grammar. However, this error can be avoided if you remember that many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective. For example, sad and happy are adjectives, but sadly and happily are adverbs. Using Two Word Adjective Let us read what the two boys are saying:
We spent the weekend at Matabungkay Beach in Batangas. It is a three-hour ride from city. Its sands are clean and white. The water is also clear. We, too, Fred. Last Sunday, we visited a nice resort in Dolores, Quezon. It is more than a hundredkilometer ride from the city. The waterfalls are man-made. The water is cool and refreshing.

Where did Fred spend his weekend? How about Mario? What words describe Matabungkay Beach? What words describe the resort in Dolores, Quezon? What words describe Marios ride from the city?

What do the following words have in common: hundred-kilometer, three-hour, manmade? What name can we give to these group of words? How are they formed? Examine the following sentences. Notice the italicized words found in each sentence. 1. It is three-hour ride from the city. 2. Lunetta is a French word meaning a crescent-shaped fortification. 3. There are man-made lagoons. How do we call these words? What words do they describe or modify? How are they formed? You will notice that each word is made up of two different words joined by a hyphen. These are what we call two-word adjective. What words make up a two-word adjective? Look at the following examples: a. three-hour ride from the city What does the hyphenated word three-hour tell? - that the ride takes three hours b. 58-hectare Rizal National Park How many hectares is Rizal National Park? - the park us 58 hectares What is followed by the number word? - Then, we can say that two-word adjectives can be formed by a number word followed by a noun. Examples: 150-page book four-step stairs - Note that the two-word adjective comes before the word it modifies. In this type of two-word adjectives, the first word is an adverb, and the second word is the past participle form of the verb. A hyphen joins them. Examples: most-wanted criminal well-liked teacher - Another way to form a two-word adjective is through a noun followed by a verb. The verb is in the past participle. REMEMBER
Adjective are not always single words. An adjective can be formed by joining two words. These are called two-word adjectives. Two-word adjectives are formed in three ways: 1. Number word followed by a noun as in a three-kilo rice 2. Adverb followed by a verb as in well-built church 3. Noun followed by a verb (past participle) as in stone-built monument *Two-word adjectives come before the word it modifies

Adverb

Describing Adverb An adverb is used to describe. An adverb describes the action or verb. The part of speech (or word class) that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentences. Functions of an Adverb: Adverbs typically add information about time (rarely, frequently, tomorrow), manner (slowly, quickly, willingly), or place (here, there, everywhere). Forms of an Adverb: Many adverbs--especially adverbs of manner--are formed from adjectives by the addition of the ending -ly (easily, dependably). But many common adverbs (just, still, almost, not) do not end in ly, and not all words that end in -ly (friendly, neighborly) are adverbs. Comparing with Adverb Let us go over the conversation of two men watching a swimming competition. Find out how they compare the participants.

The crowd cheers more excitedly for Rico than for Dexter, Rico swims fast, but Dexter swims faster. Revel swims the fastest in the race. But they cheer the most excitedly for Revel

Who swims faster, Rico or Dexter? Who swims fastest? For whom is the crowd cheering more excitedly? Not excitedly? For example: (verb) (adjective)

swims fast very excited

(adverb)

too fast

Most adverbs are formed by adding ly to an adjective. Excited Skillful Recent Easy excitedly skillfully recently easily

Like adjectives, adverbs have positive, comparative and superlative forms when used in comparing actions and description. Examine the examples from the mens conversation and note the changes in the form of the adverb fast. A. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Rico swims fast. Dexter swims faster. Revel swims the fastest. (positive) (comparative) (superlative)

B.

The crowd cheers excitedly for Dexter. (positive) The crowd cheers more excitedly for Rico. (comparative) The crowd cheers the most excitedly for Rico. (superlative)

REMEMBER
An adverb describes an action or verb, intensifies a descriptive word or adjective, or modifies another adverb.

A few adverbs show comparison by means of er and est endings, as in: Fast Hard Soon faster harder sooner fastest hardest soonest

Most adverbs form their comparative degree by adding more or less, and most or least for the superlative form, as in: Excitedly Recently more excitedly less recently most excitedly least recently

Other adverbs compare irregularly, as in: Well Much better more best most

Noun

Describing noun What is Noun? Noun is the name of person, a place, a thing or an idea. All that exists has names and those names are called nouns. Examples can let you understand and illustrate fully the meaning of a nouns or nouns. Below are the examples of nouns. Grandfather Mother Doctor Mary Jane Baby Jose London river San Juanico Bridge keyboard Rico notebook computer lotion ball pen Carla brother-in-law

Categories of nouns Nouns can be classified into three count nouns, mass nouns, and collective nouns. Count nouns it is the name of anything which can be counted mass nouns name of something that cannot be counted collective nouns can be a singular form but they are composed of many persons or a group. Examples: He is in trouble. The word trouble is a non-count noun. Therefore, it is a mass noun. He has many troubles. The word troubles is a count noun. Therefore, it is a count noun. The team Azkals made the Filipinos proud. The word team is a collective noun. Forms of nouns There are three forms of nouns: Subjective [subject] The college administrator is tall. Objective [object] He chose the college administrator. Possessive [possessive] The college administrator's car is red.

Nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning

Fishing is fun. Men, women and children love it. It does not necessarily mean catching different species of fish like tuna, milkfish, salmon or mackerel. It means catching all kinds of living animals in the water like lobster, shrimps, oyster and clams. Fish and other sea animals are the greatest food resources. All over the world, people fish in rivers, lakes and oceans. Most people in fishing countries of the world are fishers.

Go over the italicized words in the paragraph you just read. The words men, women, children, tuna, milkfish and salmon are naming words. Naming words are called nouns. You learned that nouns are used to name something people, places, events, animals and things. Study the chart below
Singular Man Woman Child Animal River Lake Ocean Fisherman Country Product Plural men women children animals rivers lakes oceans fishermen countries products

In column 1, how many of each kind are referred to? What about in Column 2? Singular nouns form their plural in different ways. For regular nouns, we add s or es to the singular to form the plural. Can you give the plural form of these nouns? Book Quiz Match Key watch toy tomato mat potato glass range carabao square ocean box

For irregular nouns, they do not form their plurals by adding s or es. Example: Child Children Ox oxen Mouse mice Oasis oases Goose geese Tooth teeth Foot feet Man men Woman women Half halves
Nouns 1. Nouns ending un s, Sh, ch, x or z Add es Rules Examples kisses radishes Churches Foxes factories Parties Cities Candies grottoes Mangoes potatoes pianos photos volcanos Volcanoes wife - wives belief beliefs goose - geese mouse mice Japanese French

2. Nouns ending in y

Change y to I and add es

3. Nouns ending in o Preceded by a constant

a. generally, add es; Consult your dictionary to be sure. b. Add s to some c. Add s or es to some a. Change the f to v and add es b. Add s Check the dictionary to be sure

4. Nouns ending in f or Fe 5. Nouns with irregular Plural form

6. Nouns that do not change Spell the plural the same as the in form singular.

Now, take a look at the explanation below: A noun that ends in n s looks plural, and it usually is. However, a few noun ending in s are considered singular. When such nouns are used as subjects, they take singular verb forms. Example: The news is bad. Measles is contagious. Politics takes much time. The Philippines is a beautiful country. News, measles, politics and Philippines are plural in form but singular in meaning. More words that are plural in form but singular in meaning:
Aeronautics Acrobatics Billiards Civics Mumps Mathematics The Netherlands news physics series species United States tonsillitis tuberculosis

REMEMBER Some nouns are plural in form but singular meaning

Pronoun

Describing Pronoun What is Pronoun? Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours, themselves, some, each. If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like: Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The president is too pompous. With pronouns, we can say: Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too pompous. Kinds of Pronouns Personal Pronouns I, me, you, he, him, she... Demonstrative Pronouns this, that, these, those Possessive Pronouns mine, yours, his... Interrogative Pronouns who, what, which... Reflexive Pronouns myself, yourself, himself... Reciprocal Pronouns each other, one another Indefinite Pronouns another, much, nobody, few, such... Relative Pronouns who, whom, which... Pronoun Case subjective, objective, possessive Working with Indefinite Pronouns Some pronouns take the place of nouns that are either masculine or feminine or both. These are called indefinite pronouns.

Singular Anybody Anyone Each Either Everybody neither nobody no one one someone

Plural both few many most several

Singular or Plural all none some

Somebody submitted an electronic microscope. No one knows who did it. Few have started on their Science project

If any of the singular indefinite pronoun acts as an antecedent for another pronoun, his or her (both male or female) must be used.
Neither of the girls finished her project. Neither of the boys submitted his project. Everybody, however, is very busy working on his or her project.

How can we tell whether an indefinite pronoun takes a singular or a plural verb? What pronoun is used when an indefinite pronoun is its antecedent?

REMEMBER
Use a singular verb with a singular indefinite pronoun; use a plural verb with a plural indefinite pronoun. Use their when the antecedent is a plural indefinite pronoun; use his or her when the antecedent is a singular indefinite pronoun.

Verb

Describing Verb What is a Verb? A verb is a word that shows action or being. Whatever you are doing can be expressed by a verb. A sentence can have only one word as long as that word is a verb. Classification of verb Verbs can be classified according to whether they are action verbs or linking verbs. Action verbs There are two types of action verbs: transitive and intransitive. Transitive verbs A transitive verb expresses an action and is followed by an object that receives the action of the verb. In the following examples, transitive verbs are shown in color and direct objects of these verbs are underlined. I washed (what?) the car yesterday. I took (whom?) my sister to the movie. John studies (what?) English. Intransitive verbs An intransitive verb expresses an action but is not followed by an object. Applying (what?) or (whom?) test to an intransitive verb shows immediately that an object cannot follow. Toms grades improved (what? whom?) with the help of a tutor. The child cried (what? whom?) loudly. The mother sang (what? whom?) to her children.

Many verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. In the following examples, transitive verbs are shown in color and direct objects of transitive verbs are underlined. Intransitive verbs are shown in color and underlined. John studies (what?) English. John studies hard. The mother sang (what?) the song to her children. The mother sang to her children. Linking Verbs

Linking verbs do not show action. A linking verb (also called copulative verb) links or establishes a relationship between the subject and its complement. It describes or renames the subject. She is angry. The word is (a form of the verb to be) links the subject she to the subject complement angry. Linking Verb followed by predicate nouns: My friend is a teacher. Mike became the president of the company. Linking Verb followed by predicate adjectives: I feel nervous. That pie tastes delicious. List of common linking verbs appear become Get go Look prove Seem smell Taste turn and any form of the verb be.

Feel grow remain sound

Only become and seem are always linking verbs. Other verbs from the list above sometimes can function as action verbs. In the following examples, verbs feel and taste are functioning as action verbs. I feel pain from the injury. Taste the pie and tell me if you like it. To determine whether a verb is a linking verb substitute am, is, or are for the verb. If it fits the substituted verb is a linking verb. In the following examples, verb feel is substituted with am. I feel nervous. I am nervous. Makes sense so feel is linking verb. I feel pain from the injury. I am pain from the injury. Does not make sense so feel is action verb.
The three principal parts of verbs: Present, Past, and Past Participle. The Present is used by itself for the present tense. I jump. I eat.

And with helping verb will for the future tense I will jump. I will eat. The Past is used for the past tense I jumped. I ate. The Past participle is used with the verb have (has, had) to form perfect tenses. Present perfect I have jumped. I have eaten. Past perfect I had jumped. I had eaten. Future perfect I will have jumped. I will have eaten. Regular and irregular verbs Regular Verbs Most English verbs are regular. Regular verbs just add d or ed when they change principal parts from the present to the past to the past participle. I learn English now. (present) I learned English last year. (past) In a short time she has learned English well. (past participle) Irregular Verbs Irregular Verbs form their past tenses and past participles in unpredictable ways. There are some patterns among them (blow-blew, know-knew), (spring-sprang, drink-drank) but it is not always easy to apply these patterns. The only way to learn irregular verbs is to memorize them.