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Visual effects have been used in cinema since it's origin, and the term refers to various processes

and techniques that are used to manipulate (or completely create) imagery seen in film. Many different methods and technology has been created over the years, with the aim of making visual effects more realistic and awe inspiring! allowing an audience to further escape into a films world and story. "hen talking about the history of visual effects, most people will think of #eorge Melies! whom is seen as the father of special effects. Melies started his career as a film maker in the $%&''s and discovered a way to manipulate film imagery in $%&( when his film accidentally )ammed and caused a shot to change quickly, making the scene suddenly change. *his inspired him to e+periment, leading to the creation of many early visual effects techniques. ,or e+ample, his film -.a /averne Maudite0 ($%&%), used double e+posure when two images are superimposed together in order to create one manipulated image to make ghosts and spirits appear in the cavern of demons. 1nother one of Melies' films (-2n 3omme de tete0 $%&%) was also the first to use split screen, which is a technique including filming the same shot twice, and then putting the images together. *his allowed an actor to perform alongside himself, and was used for many years after (,or e+ample in 4isney's -*he parent trap0 of $&($). Melies was also known for using stop motion in his films, for e+ample in his adaptation of -/inderella0 ($%&&), which was a popular technique used often in early cinema. From George Melies "A trip to the moon" (1902), which used special effects to create a stor of man!s first "enture into space#

5top motion is a technique as old as film itself, and was used in most films that required visual effects before the development of /#6. ,amous e+amples include -7ing 7ong0 ($&88), -9ason and the 1rgonauts0 ($&(8) and -*he empire strikes back0 ($&%'). 6n most cases, it was miniatures that were used for stop motion (which were used in Melies film's also). 3owever miniatures had other uses too they could create whole cities, such as in -Metropolis0 ($&:;) and are still used in modern cinema for that reason. *he -.ord of the <ings0 trilogy (:''$ :''8) used miniature towns and buildings alongside computer generated backgrounds in order to create the world of middle earth. =efore this, matte paintings were used as backgrounds for many films in order to create a fantasy land.

From "$he %i&ard of '&" (19(9) an e)ample of a matte painting used as a *ac+ground#

*hese techniques are still used in some forms in modern cinema, however, after the dawn of /#6, the world of visual effects began to change dramatically. /#6 (or computer generated imagery) was developed alongside the development of computer technology! but it's start in film began with the first fully /#6 character in ->oung 5herlock 3olmes0 ($&%?). *his was created by .ucasfilm@s visual effects division 6.M (6ndustrial light magic) which was formed to create the already ground breaking effects in the -5tar wars0 films. Aven before this /#6 creation, the group had already been innovating in the special effects business. ,or instance, 6.M created the -4ykstrafle+0, a motion controlled camera that is controlled digitally. *his allowed for more comple+ shots and movements that could be recorded and therefore repeated! it was used in -5tar "ars episode 6VB 1 new hope0($&;;). *his breakthrough in computer animated imagery encouraged more companies to e+periment with

this technology, and led to a range of new techniques that improved visual effects' realism and impact. 4espite this, old methods where still used alongside the new computer technology. -9urassic Cark0 ($&&8) used /#6 to create some of the film's dinosaurs, however animatronics where used for a ma)ority of them as the digitally created creatures did not seem realistic enough. A dinosaur animatronic *eing *uilt for ",urassic -ar+"#

.llustration 1/ And 0er+is in a motion1capture suit whilst filming the "2ord of the 3ings"# Dne technology that could add more realism to computer generated characters is motion capture. *his process includes having actors wearing a special suit covered in sensors being filmed, and then being accurately recreated digitally using the recorded data. 5ome forms of this occurred before /#6! such as roto scoping, which was a technique where actors were filmed, and then drawn over

frame by frame therefore capturing their motion. *his occurred as early as -5now "hite and the seven dwarfs0 ($&8;). Motion capture is used in most films that require a non human character, and the most popular e+ample is probably #ollum from the -.ord of the rings0 trilogy. #ollum was acted out by 1ndy 5erkis, who was filmed by $8 different cameras, each focusing on certain sensors. *his was transferred online into a 84 model, that could then be fleshed out to create the character. *he first film to use this method for all it's characters was -*he Colar A+press0 (:''E), which allowed *om 3anks to play a range of characters. 6t was directed by <obert Femeckis, who continued to use the method in his later films -=eowulf0 (:'';) and -1 /hristmas /arol0 (:''&).