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BULGARIAN

for English Speakers

BULGARIAN for English Speakers

BULGARIAN for English Speakers is a brand new self-study book specially designed to meet the needs of anybody intending to learn Bulgarian well in a short time. Whoever you are - a student, a businessperson or a visitor to the country, this book is for you.

BULGARIAN for English Speakers contains all the knowledge that you need, emphasizing on real-world tasks. The book includes many dialogues and other texts specially created to help you speak and be understood. It develops your vocabulary systematically and also covers all the required grammar skills.

Bulgarian for English Speakers

: : - : : “ - : 60/90/16 : 24

ISBN 954-8805-69- 3

© ” 2005 www.gramma-bg.com

CONTENTS

The Bulgarian Alphabet Pronunciation Table

9

How to read Bulgarian

11

LESSON 1

 

27

GRAMMAR NOTES

34

Categories of Person, Gender and Number

34

Personal Pronouns

35

Auxiliary Verb (to be) - Positive, Negative, Interrogative and Negative-Interrogative Forms

35

The Present Tense of the Verb (to be) - Conjugation of the Verb

35

Nouns Used When Speaking about Countries and Nationalities

37

Interrogative Pronouns ?, ?, ?, ? (who?; which?); ?, ?, ?, ? (what?)

39

LESSON 2

 

44

GRAMMAR

57

The Noun. Gender of the

57

Use of the Article with Nouns of Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Genders in the Singular

58

Demonstrative Pronouns for Near and Distant Objects

60

Short Accusative Forms of the Personal Pronouns in the 3rd Person, Singular and

60

Forms of Address. Vocative

62

Imperative Forms of Some Frequently Used

62

LESSON 3

 

67

GRAMMAR

81

Modes of Conjugation. Groups of Verbs. First, Second and Third

81

The Present Tense of the Verb (to have). Impersonal use of (to have) - (there is)

83

Verbs of the Third Group in Present Tense - Conjugation of Some Frequently Used Verbs

84

Cardinal Numbers From 1 To 10

86

Ordinal Numbers From 1 To 10

87

The Prepositions (in), (on, at), (in, during, through)

89

LESSON 4

 

92

GRAMMAR NOTES

102

Countable Form of Masculine Nouns in the Singular

102

Plural of Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Gender Nouns

102

Use of the Article with Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Gender Nouns of in Plural

105

Cardinal Numbers From 10 To 1000

106

Questions ? (when?), ? (where?), ? (why?)

107

LESSON 5 DIALOGUES

111

GRAMMAR NOTES

119

Present Tense of Verbs of the First Group - Conjugation. Positive, Negative, Interrogative and Negative-Interrogative Forms

119

Possessive Pronouns - Short Forms

121

The Past Simple Tense of the Verb (to be) - All Forms

123

LESSON 6

 

127

GRAMMAR

138

Present Tense of Second Group Verbs - All Forms

138

Ordinal Numerals from 10 To 1000

140

The Adjective. Agreement of the Adjective with the Noun. Use of the Article with Adjectives. Forming Degrees of Comparison

141

Comparison of Adjectives

143

LESSON 7

 

147

GRAMMAR NOTES

157

Future Tense of the Verb (to be)

157

Future Tense of Verbs Maintaining the Same Form in the Present and the Future Tense

158

Negative Pronouns

160

The Position of the Interrogative Particle

161

The Prepositions (above, over, more than), (under, less than), (in front of, before), (ago, before), (after, in)

162

LESSON 8

 

165

GRAMMAR

174

The Present Tense of Reflexive Verbs

174

The Place of the Reflexive Personal Pronoun

175

Possessive Pronouns - Complete Forms

176

Prepositions , ,

178

Verbal Nouns (Gerund Participles)

180

LESSON 9 DIALOGUES

183

GRAMMAR NOTES

195

Relative Pronouns

195

Complete Accusative Forms of Personal Pronouns

196

Compound Predicate

197

The Active Present Participle

199

LESSON 10

 

202

GRAMMAR

211

Imperfective and Perfective Aspects of Bulgarian Verbs (1st and 2nd Form of Verbs)

211

The Future Tense ( ) - Formation; Positive, Negative, Interrogative and Negative-Interrogative Forms

212

Use of the 2nd Form of Verbs after the Modal Verbs (can, may, to be able to), (must, should, would, have to, have got to, need to, ought to), (want)

217

Indefinite Pronouns

219

Demonstrative Pronouns , , , (such; like this/these)

220

Preposition (throughout, in, around, about)

220

LESSON 11

 

223

GRAMMAR

235

The Future Tense - Continuation

235

The Imperative Mood

235

LESSON 12

 

242

GRAMMAR NOTES

252

The Past Simple Tense

252

The Location of the Short Accusative Form of Personal Pronouns

260

The Location of the Short Accusative and Dative Forms of Personal Pronouns Used Simultaneously

261

The Preposition ( ) (between)

261

LESSON 13 DIALOGUES

264

GRAMMAR NOTES

274

The Past Simple Tense of the verb -

274

The Past Simple Tense - Continuation

274

The Compound Predicate in the Past Simple Tense

277

Complex Sentences Containing Subordinate Object Clauses

279

LESSON 14

 

285

GRAMMAR NOTES

294

The Active Past Simple Participle

294

The Past Indefinite Tense

295

The Past Perfect Tense - Meaning, Formation, Forms

299

LESSON 15

 

304

GRAMMAR

310

The Past Continuous Tense - Conjugation and Forms

310

The Verbal Adverb

312

The Passive Participle. The Passive Voice The Present, Past and Future Tenses of Passive Constructions

312

LESSON 16

 

318

GRAMMAR NOTES

331

The Future in the Past

331

The Conditional Mood

332

The Future Perfect Tense

334

The Narrative Mood / The Indirect Indicative Mood

335

TABLES

TABLE 1 A Comparison of Bulgarian and English Tenses Juxtaposition of the Tenses - A Simple Guide

338

TABLE 2 Verb (to be) - Present, Past, and Future Tenses - All Forms

340

TABLE 3 Present Tense of the Verbs of the First, Second, and Third Groups

341

TABLE 4 First and Second Forms of Some Verbs

342

TABLE 5 The Past Simple Tense of the Verbs from Table

343

TABLE 6 Past Continuous Tense

344

TABLE 7 Future (Simple) Tense

345

TABLE 8 Prepositions and Their Meanings

347

TABLE 9 Pronouns

354

TABLE

358

/ Confirmation and Agreement / Disagreement / Requests / Warnings / Gratitude / Excuses or Apologies / Lack of Information / Suppositions or Assumptions / Neglect or Ignorance / Hope / Praise / When Somebody Is Waiting for Us TABLE 11 Some Frequently Used Idiomatic Expressions in Bulgarian

362

TABLE 12 Business Contacts and Correspondence

363

The Customs

364

Travelling

366

In Town

368

At the Hotel

369

At thePost Office. On theTelephone

370

At the Bank. Money

371

At the Restaurant

372

Shopping

375

At the Doctor’s

379

At the Chemist’s

380

The Human Body

381

Family. Relatives

382

Holidays

382

Education. Occupations

383

List of Abbreviations:

English:

abt. – about e.g. – (exempli gratia) for example i.e. – (id est) that is

n

– noun

m

– masculine

f – feminine

ntr – neuter

sng – singular

pl – plural

adj – adjective

v – verb

1p – 1 st person 2p – 2 nd person 3p – 3 rd person

1gr – 1 st group 2gr – 2 nd group 3gr – 3 rd group

1f

1 st form

2f

2 nd form

colloq. – colloquial speech o.s. – oneself o.’s – one’s s.b. – somebody

s.o. – someone s.th. – something Bulgarian:

/masculine gender

/feminine gender

/neuter gender

/singular

/plural

/the Present

Tense

/the Future

Tense

/the Past Simple Tense

/the Past Continuous Tense

/the Past Indefinite Tense

/the Past Perfect Tense

/the Future in the Past

The Bulgarian Alphabet Pronunciation Table

 

Bulgarian Alphabet

Pronunciation

Bulgarian Alphabet Pronunciation Examples of respective English sounds a fter, p a st, p a th

Examples of respective English sounds after, past, path bit, bright, be, bear vogue, vivid, violin, vision get, go, glory, tag day, dream, destiny, devotion set, bet, tell, let illusion, vision, division, fusion zero, amazing, Zen, zip grin, inn, sit, hit boy, toy, yacht, yeoman key, kid, keep, kit live, light, letter, litter man, miracle, make, almost night, not, near, on opt, top, stop, dot pet, pall, please, part red, rest, read, rubber set, sit, stop, said top, talk, tell, let put, look, took, pudding fusion, fire, flame, fantasy hope, hear, had, hut tsunami, sits, meets chair, teach, charity, chat she, shall, shark, shift ashtray, fishtail, wished, washed camel, campus, letter, better (no literal English equivalent) yurt, you, new, music yard, yarn, Yankee

[a]

[b]

[v]

[g]

[d]

[e]

[zh]

[z]

[i]

[y]

[k]

[l]

[m]

[n]

[o]

[p]

[r] (hard)

[s]

[t]

[u]

[f]

[h] (aspirate)

[ts]

[ch]

[sh]

[sht]

[ə]

[~] (softener)

[yu]

[ya]

INTRODUCTION

The Bulgarian Alphabet consists of 30 letters. They represent the sounds as shown below.

There are six vowels:

are wide (open) vowels

are narrow (closed) vowels;

and two diphthongal vowels:

= +

= +

The remaining letters represent consonants:

are voiced consonants

are voiceless consonants;

are resonant (sonorous) consonants;

is a short ;

softens the sounds before/after which it is placed;

is an aspirate consonant;

= +

and is therefore a diphthongal consonant.

How to read Bulgarian

How to read Bulgarian How to read letters. Each letter has own designation that is used

How to read letters.

Each letter has own designation that is used when pronouncing either the whole alphabet or a single letter:

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(a)

(bə)

(və)

(gə)

(də)

(e)

(zhə)

(zə)

(i)

('i 'kratko)

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(kə)

(lə)

(mə)

(nə)

(o)

(pə)

(rə)

(sə)

(tə)

(u)

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(fə)

(hə)

(tsə)

(chə)

(shə)

(shtə)

('er go'lyam)

('er 'malək)

(yu)

(ya)

How to read words. The placing of stress.

All the letters in words should be pronounced in the way they are marked in the Pronunciation Table. Some more explanations as well as special cases and exceptions are given below. Bearing in mind that word stress in Bulgarian takes a different place in each word, there are no rules for learning the placing of stress. Therefore, each new word should be learned by itself. For the purpose of marking stress, in this book we have adopted the sign ['] preceding the stressed syllable.

Vowels:

When the wide (open) vowels , , are stressed, they should be pronounced clearly:

[a]

[o]

[e]

Examples:

[a]
[a]

['avgust]

August

[grat]

a town; a city

[mlat]

young

['kazvam]

to say

[po'darək]

a present

[o]
[o]

['opit]

experience

['prolet]

spring

['ostrof]

island

[sport]

sport

[kri'lo]

wing

[e]
[e]

['eftin]

cheap

['bezhof]

beige

[bes]

without

[kə'de]

where

[mom'che]

boy

However, when the vowels and are unstressed, they get narrower by reducing their length:

becomes [ ]

.

(a medial sound of [a] and [ə]) becomes [ o]

(a medial sound of [o] and [u]).

.

Examples:

[ ] .
[ ]
.

['azbuk ] ['lamp

.

.

]

.

.

alphabet

lamp

['knig ]

book

[v 'blok ]

in the block

[n cho'vek ]

to/of the man

[ o] .
[ o]
.

.

.

[ o'rel]

.

eagle

[ o'bufk ]

.

 

shoe

[m o're]

 

sea

.

field; ground

[p o'le]

.

.

[ o'ris]

 

rice

 

The remaiining vowels should be pronounced in the way they are marked in the Pronunciation Table.

Examples:

[ə]
[ə]

[pət]

 

way

['əgəl]

angle; corner

[prəst]

soil

[pək]

but; yet

[t 'kəf]

such

.

[u]
[u]

[um]

.

.

 

mind

['uch ]

to study; to learn

[u'chitel]

teacher

[ur 'gan]

hurricane

[dru'gar]

mate; friend

[i]
[i]

[mil]

 

dear; kind

[ili]

or

['kin o]

.

 

cinema

[pri'yatel]

friend

[ide'aln o]

.

perfectly, ideal

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The alteration of to [ ] is the most frequently found. In particular, becomes [ ] at the end of some words. The other above-mentioned vowel reductions are not as pronounced.

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The diphthong vowels [yu] and [ya] are each made up of two letters/sounds:

= + = + However, they should be read as single sounds.

The diphthong vowel should be pronounced [yu]:

[yu]
[yu]

[yuk]

.

.

South

['yuzhen]

southern

[yuf'ka]

noodles

[yu'nak]

hero

['yun osh ]

teenager

The diphthong vowel can be pronounced in two ways depending on the position of the letter and its stress. If is stressed, it should be pronounced [ya]:

[ya]
[ya]

['yabəlk ]

.

apple

['yastrep]

 

hawk

['yatka]

.

.

.

.

kernel

[ ob'yav ] ['yag od ]

ad(vertisement)

strawberry

However, when is not stressed, in particular when placed at the end of a given word, it should be pronounced [y ]:

.

[y ]
[y ]

['pravy ]

.

 

to do

['misly ]

.

to

think

['angliy ]

England

.

to sing

.

['pey ] [na u'chitely ]

to/of the teacher

 

.

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The vowel alterations to [ ] and to [y ] are the most frequently found. In particular, a becomes [ ] and becomes [y ] at the end of some words. Other vowel reductions are not as pronounced.

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Consonants.

Voiced consonants should be pronounced in one of two ways:

When a voiced consonant is placed in any position in a given word,

except as the last letter, it should be pronounced in the usual way as a voiced consonant. Examples:

[b]
[b]

['bab ]

.

.

grandmother

['byal ]

white (f)

[broy]

.

number; copy

[bəl'gariy ]

Bulgaria

['hubost]

beauty

[v]
[v]

[vr 'ta]

.

 

door

['vətre]

in

[vən]

out

 

to believe

 

.

['vyarv m] ['varn ]

.

Varna (a Bulgarian city)

[g]
[g]

   

raven

 

.

['garv n] ['mnog o]

.

.

 

much; many

[ge'roy]

hero

[go'lyam]

big

['greshk ]

mistake; error

[d]
[d]

[dər'vo]

 

tree

[den]

day

[do'bər]

 

good

[de'te]

child

[da]

yes

[zh]
[zh]

[zhe'na]

 

woman

['yuzhen]

 

southern

[zhe'neva]

Geneva

['zhito]

 

wheat

[zhif]

alive

[z]
[z]

['zebr ]

.

.

zebra

[izvi'nyav m]

to excuse

[zo'ra]

dawn

[iz'vesten]

well-known

[zvez'da]

star

When the last letter of the word represents a voiced consonant, the voiced consonant devocalizes and becomes voiceless. Each devocalized voiced consonant obtains the sound of the respective voiceless consonant. Therefore:

[b]

becomes [p]

 

[v]

becomes [f]

[g]

becomes [k]

[d]

becomes [t]

[zh]

becomes [sh]

[z]

becomes [s]

Examples:

 
[p]
[p]

[hlyap]

 

bread

[dəp]

oak

['gələp]

pigeon

[bop]

 

beans

[grup]

rude

[f]
[f]

[vəf]

in

['molif]

pencil

['nik kəf ]

none; any; no

 

.

 

what

.

[k 'kəf] ['hub f]

.

beautiful; pretty

[k]
[k]

['dələk]

long

[vlok]

 

bank deposit

[druk]

other; another

[drak]

dear

[yuk]

South

[t]
[t]

[glat]

 

hunger

['obet]

lunch

[blet]

pale

[grat]

city; town

[nat]

above

[sh]
[sh]

[tara'lesh]

.

hedgehog

[v 'lesh]

rainfall; snowfall

B !

[vish]

Look!

!

[drəsh]

Hang it!

[ush]

as if

[s]
[s]

[pres]

through

[vles]

come in

[iz'les]

go out

[sles]

come down

[bes]

without

The above-mentioned devocalization of voiced consonants can also be found in another case. This is when a voiced consonant is placed in the

middle of the word and before a voiceless consonant or before the aspirate consonant :

[te'tratka]

.

.

.

.

.

.

notebook

['slatk o]

jam; sweet(ly)

[bifsh]

ex

['gratski]

of the town/city/urban

['drəshk ]

handle

['gletk ]

view

['ispit]

exam

[tse'lufk ]

kiss

[ko'leshk ]

colleague (f); mate (f)

['ryatk o]

rare(ly)

[pret'hozhd sht] previous

.

['fsichko]

everything; all

Voiceless consonants should always be pronounced as indicated in the Pronunciation Table. Examples:

[p]
[p]

['pish ]

.

.

to write

['pravy ]

to do

['pesen]

song

['pamet]

memory

['pleven]

Pleven (a Bulgarian city)

[f]
[f]

['filtər]

.

.

.

.

.

 

filter

[film]

film; movie

[f n'taziy ] [f v o'rit] [f l'shif]

fantasy

favourite; pet

false; fake

[k]
[k]

[kray]

 

end

['kriy ]

.

to hide

   

towel

 

.

['kərp ] [k 'set ]

.

.

 

cassette (tape)

['isk m]

to want

 

.

[t]
[t]

['tryabv ]

.

.

 

must, to have to

[tər'py ]

to bear

[tər'penie]

patience

pumpkin

 

.

['tikv ] [t ole'rantn ost]

tolerance

[sh]
[sh]

.

.

[she'ga]

 

joke

to write

 

.

['pish ] [shans]

chance

[shef]

boss; a chief

[sh ot'landiy ]

Scotland

[s]
[s]

.

.

[sto'y ]

.

.

.

 

to stay

['stay ]

room

 

['istin ]

 

truth

 

['istinski]

 

true, real

['sofiy ]

Sofia

 

.

The resonant (sonorous) consonants , , , should always be prono- unced as indicated in the Pronunciation Table. However, they must be arti- culated clearly, especially the letter [r], much stronger than the English [r].

Examples:

[l]
[l]

 

lamp

 

.

['lamp ] ['lotk ]

.

 

boat

 

['lilaf]

 

lilac

[lyu'bof]

love

[let]

ice

[m]
[m]

['mam ]

.

 

Mum

['mnog o]

.

 

much, many

a few; a little, small

 

.

['malk o] [miriz'ma]

 

smell

['mlyak o]

milk

 

.

[n]
[n]

['nyak oy]

.

.

.

.

somebody

['nyakəde]

somewhere

['nik oy]

nobody

[ne]

not

[r]
[r]

[n 'dezhd ]

hope

['roz ]

 

rose

.

 

fish

 

.

['rib ] [pret]

 

before; in front

[pri]

at

[pri'yatel]

friend

The pronunciation of the short sound as represented by the letter is [y]. The letter is never used alone. It is either combined with as the syllable [yo] at the beginning of a word; or with any other vowel positioned anywhere else in the word. Examples:

[y]
[y]

[nay]

most

[moy]

my

[yot]

iodine

['yonk o]

.

Yonko (a man’s name)

[stoy]

stay

The letter is not used alone either. This letter softens the sounds befo- re/after which it is placed. is almost always used in the combination , pronounced [~o]=[yo].

Examples:

[~]
[~]

 

actor

.

[ k'tyor] [f nt 'zyor]

.

.

dreamer

['siny o]

.

 

blue

Vanyo (a man’s name)

 

.

['vany o] [sh o'fyor]

driver

 

.

There is no difference in the pronunciation of the sound combinations [yo] and [~o] = [yo]. The only difference is written. is used at the beginning of a word or after a vowel, in contrast to , that is used exclusively after a consonant.