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Abstract:
Construction industry in India has been at its all time high growth rate for past couple of years. The growth is in all walks of construction world, be it infrastructure, industrial or residential This exponential growth has also thrown a few challenges at the construction professionals all across India which has motivated them to look at newer approaches to tackle such challenges. Waterproofing (including roofing) has seen two distinct changes it approaches in the recent times: New technologies (Design driven) New concepts (Construction driven) Introduction of synthetic membrane roofing systems in India is one such step forward towards this new approach in terms of technology and concept with a high end, state of the art technology like PVC membrane based waterproofing and roofing systems, there can be sefious value additions where conventional systems found to be less equipped to handle the higher demands like in the following typical applications; case of re roofing of old bituminous and tiled roofs, metal deck applications, roof gardens. This means that this state of the art technology /IOW provides the construction world with a solution which has evolved by taking care of such requirements and hence can be looked at as an option when conventional treatments give lesser performance.

INTRODUCTION:
Construction industry in India has been V its VI time high growth rate for past couple of years. The growth is in all walks of construction world, be it infrastructure, industrial or residential. This exponential growth has also thrown a few challenges at the construction professionals all across India which has motivated them to look V newer approaches to tackle such challenges. In this paper, an effort has been put together to share such developments and to discuss on the new approaches in waterproofing with a special emphasis on the state & the technology of synthetic membrane (PVC) roofing systems.

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Introduction to PVC based roofing systems:


Background:
The history of roofing market in India is pre dominantly ruled by brick bat coba and bituminous coatings and membranes. There is also a shift towards spray applied liquid membranes like acrylics, urethanes and polyurea. However, the challenge with new structures and state of the art designs with higher exposure to atmosphere, has shown up the constraints and limitations specially related to such conventional system which need to be dependent on the substrate bonding for the long term performance.

PVC: A history of performance


PVC (polyvinyl chloride) roof membranes have the longest track record of any thermoplastic membrane, with the first PVC-based systems installed in Europe in the early 1960s. The use of PVC roofs continues to grow in the recent years all across the globe. According to RSI's 2001 State of the Industry Report, more than 20, of the average roofing contactor's volume was PVC, particularly for exposed membrane application. Reinforced PVC roof membranes have many important attributes that complement their proven track record and have spurred additional growth. Besides the important feature of heat-welded seam technology, PVC or vinyl roof membranes offer many other inherent features. These additional features include a comprehensive history of product testing, an ability to be made in a spectrurn of colors including reflective white, a high resistance to puncture and impact,an excellent resistance to flame exposure and subsequent fire propagation, proven durability against rooftop soiling and contamination, and good low-temperature flexibility and high-temperature tolerance. PVC roof membranes are very user friendly and are installed by a variety of attachment methods. Vinyl roof membranes are aesthetically appealing and they provide excellent visual feedback of workmanship for the applicator during and after installation. Specifically, vinyl is "polyvinyl chloride." PVC is a molecule comprised of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine (taken from salt). As mentioned above, today's reinforced vinyl membranes have a long history of installations worldwide; many that were installed ove r
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20 years ago are still performing today. Vinyl membranes for roof applications were first developed in Germany and Switzerland in the 1960s and arrived in North America in the 1970s. The use of vinyl membranes in low-slope roofing has grown significantly and rapidly in North America ever since then. Vinyl membranes were the first single ply roof products to obtain a standard designation, D4434, from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM D 4434 was published in 1985 and has been updated several times since then. Molecular formula (C2H3Cl)n[2]

Polyvinyl chloride

Roofing Sheets:

PVC Roof Panel


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PVC Roofing Tile


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PVC Roof Tiles

Corrugated PVC Roofing Tiles

Corrugated Plastic PVC Roofing Sheets

Basics of PVC chemistry:


PVC has been industrially produced for over 60 years. It is one of the best -known innovative synthetic polymers, with a consumption of over 30 million tons a year. Worldwide, PVC is number three, behind polypropylene and polyethylene.ln spite of continuously stronger competition by other materials, PVC accounts for about 16.5, of the worldwide plastics production. PVC has always kept pace with increasing demands ecological, technological, and economic and it still has potential, so PVC applications will continue to develop in the future. Taking the lead are the rapidly developing Asian countries with double-digit growth rates. PVC is one of the best-researched of materials. The risks associated with manufacturing, use and disposal are largely known and will continue lobs minimized. The versatility of vinyl affords the membrane manufacturer many options when formulating for enhanced chemical resistance, flexibility and/or tensile strength. Vinyl roof membranes have great versatility of application. Vinyl roof membranes are usually mechanically-attached, adhered to the insulation or other substrate or held in place with stone or concrete as ballast. Some vinyl roof membranes are also offered in large prefabricated panels intended to reduce rooftop installation time. In addition, vinyl membrane can be readily produced with "fleece cushion" backing (typically polyester) that enables ills be installed over slightly rough surfaces and/or to be adhered with a variety of adhesives. In order to complement this versatility of application, vinyl roof membranes can be manufactured in a variety of colors. This feature allows for the application of rooftop logos or multiple-color roofs. The look of steep slope metal can also be simulated with a colored vinyl membrane. Under a new program, many vinyl membranes have the well-known Energy Star
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label from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and th e Department of Energy (DOE). This label assures the building owner that their roof membrane meets the energy saving specification of the EPA and DOE. Another significant benefit of vinyl roof membranes is their fire resistance. Vinyl membranes are inherently self-extinguishing which enables them to perform exceptionally well in fire tests undertaken at organizations such as Underwriters Laboratories and Factory Mutual, etc. and to perform reliably in real-world flame exposure. In addition to fire resistance, vinyl membranes also meet or exceed other industry performance standards that involve water leakage, puncture resistance, hail resistance, wind-uplift resistance and soot. Vinyl roof membranes also stand up exceptionally well to ponded rainwater, which often remains despite efforts for positive drainage, and to a variety of typical rooftop contaminants, such as air pollution, bird droppings, acid rain., etc. over a long period of time, vinyl roof membranes have earned the recognition of being a proven and versatile thermoplastic for rooftop applications.

Manufacturing:
Vinyl roof membranes are manufactured by various methods, including extrusion, calendering, laminating, extrusion coating, spread coating or a combination of the above. In all cases, however, the fshed vinyl roof membrane contains polyester or fiber glass reinforcement, vinyl resins, ultraviolet light inhibitors, heat-stabilizers, biocides, pigments and plasticizers. Polyester reinforcement imparts high tearing and breaking strengths needed for mechanically-fastened roofing systems. Base materials for the production of PVC are petroleum and rock salt. As an intermediate product, naphtha is produced from petroleum, and from this ethylene is produced by thermal decomposition. Chlorine is electrochemically (alkali-chlorine electrolysis) produced from rock salt. Vinyl chloride (VC) is produced from ethylene and chlorine at the proportion of 43% to 57%. A new process for manufacturing VC from ethane is now being tested at the pilot scale. VC is the monomer building block for manufacturing PVC (polyvinyl chloride). PVC is industrially manufactured by polymerising VC through three different processes: Emulsion polymerisation
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E-PVC
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Suspension Mass polymerisation S-PVC M-PVC

These standard manufacturing processes for PVC influence chiefly the appearance properties such as grain size, grain shape, and grain porosity, which is decisive for the absorption of plasticizers. The chemical nature of certain additives such as plasticizers, stabilisers, lubricants, fillers, pigments, expanding agents, antistatic agents, flame protection additives, UV-stabilizers, and others permanently affect the properties of the end product.

PROPERTIES OF PVC MEMBRANE ROOFING:


LOW TEMPERATURE FLEXIBILITY DURABLE MATERIAL HIGH RESISTANCE TO PUNCTURE AND IMPACT. LOW MAINTENANCE LOW EMBODIED ENERGY RECYCLABLE MATERIAL AVOIDS VOCS(VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Membrane roofing
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Physical properties:
PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties for PVC are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs. Property Rigid PVC 1.3 1.45 0.14 0.28 4500 8700 490,000[
14]

Flexible PVC 1.11.35

Density [g/cm3]

Thermal conductivity [W/(mK)

0.140.17 1450 3600

Yield strength [psi]

Young's modulus [psi]

Flexural strength (yield) [psi] Compression strength [psi] Coefficient of thermal expansion (linear) [mm/(mm C)]

10,500[1
4]

9500[14] 5105[1
4]

Not Vicat B [C] 65100 recommen ded Resistivity [ m] 1016 10121015

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Mechanical properties:
Elongation at break Notch test Glass temperature Melting point Effective heat of combustion Specific heat (c) Water absorption (ASTM) Dielectric Breakdown Voltage 2040% 25 kJ/m2 82 C[3] 100260 C[3] 17.95 MJ/kg 0.9 kJ/(kgK) 0.040.4 40 MV/m

Mechanical properties:
PVC has high hardness and mechanical propertie. The mechanical properties enhance with the molecular weight increasing, but decrease with the temperature increasing. The mechanical properties of rigid PVC (uPVC) is very good, the elastic modulus can reach to 1500-3,000 MPa. The soft PVC (Flexible PVC) elastic is 1.5-15 MPa. However, elongation at break is up to 200% -450%. PVC friction is ordinary, the static friction factor is 0.4-0.5, the dynamic friction factor is 0.23.

Thermal properties:
The heat stability of PVC is very poor, when the temperature reaches 140 C PVC starts to decompose. Its melting temperature is 160 C. The linear expansion coefficient of the PVC is small and has flame retardancy, the oxidation index is up to 45 or more. Therefore, the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product's properties.

Electrical properties
PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties but because of its higher polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non polar polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene As the dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent value and volume resistivity are high, the corona resistance is not very good, it is generally suitable for medium or low voltage and low frequency insulation materials.
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PVC's relatively low cost, biological and chemical resistance and workability have resulted in it being used for a wide variety of applications. It is used for sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where cost or vulnerability to corrosion limit the use of metal. With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, it has become a popular material for window and door frames. By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator. It has been used in many other applications. PVC demand is likely to increase at an average annual rate of 3.9% over the next years[18]

Advantages of PVC Roofing Membrane:

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Aesthetics: A palette of colours provide you with attractive choices! Durable: Four layers of protective coating ensure high durability. High Tensile Strength: The double-ribbed profile accords it 550 mpa strength, which allows higher spacing of purlins of save streel.

Corrosion Resistant: Primer coating on the top offers better resistance to corrosion. Leak Proof: The Anti-Capillary Groove and Return Lap makes the sheets leak proof. High Load Bearing: Two stiffening ribs between the pitch allow better load bearing & section properties.

Lightweight: Lighter sheets give you design flexibility with quick installation! Weather Resistant: Equipped for diverse environments & weather conditions. Less Heat Transfer: High reflective value coating help you save energy & money! Vapor permeable Dimensionally stable Highly flexible High mechanical strength Weather and UV resistant Available in 7 standard colors as well as custom colors White, Tan and Light Gray available in 10 ft rolls All other colors available in 6.5 ft rolls

Strength and Flexibility:


PVC roofs offer exceptional breaking strength of at least 350 lbs/in. Hot-air welded seams make the membrane both strong and flexible, allowing to remain impervious to water leaks throughout its service life. To ensure the highest level of durability and strength, it is critical to purchase a PVC roofing membrane from an established PVC manufacturer, to ensure superior performance and longevity of their PVC roofing membranes. For example, IB uses an additional layer of acrylic coating to make their PVC roofing membrane more reflective and resistant to dust and dirt.

UV RESISTANCE: Cefil membranes are integrated with UV resistors at source during the manufacturing process. Exposed membranes therefore provide superior UV degradation resistance.

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WATERTIGHT:
Cefil membranes, when correctly heat welded, homogenise together to become one at molecular level. Therefore the join is at least as strong as the membrane itself with no weak points. The membrane has been rigorously tested for moisture resistance, behaviour under hydrostatic pressure and impact strength, and classed as leakproof. Under the European standard peel test, the Cefil membrane broke outside of the seam without any sign of weld failure. Vinyl roofing membranes have been used successfully in waterproofing applications for more than 30 years. They are manufactured to remain watertight in extreme conditions, including constant dampness, ponding water, high and low alkaline conditions and exposure to plant roots, fungi and bacteria.

SUSTAINABILITY:
Cefil membranes have been rigorously tested by many European testing establishments and have a proven successful history of providing long term waterproofing to a variety of building designs. The product life expectancy is documented as 'in excess of 25 years' and laboratory accelerated weathering tests have shown this to be even greater. Cefil materials are installed Worldwide in a variety of climatic extremes and show superior performance and durability - a crucial element of environmental sustainability.

SUSTAINABILITY:

Roofs made of PVC contribute significantly to achieving two major objectives of green building programs the reduction of both building cooling loads and the urban heat island effect.

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EXCEPTIONAL DURABILITY:
PVC roofs are highly durable and offer protection against harmful chemicals, water leaks, UV rays, and fire. The membranes cool reflective properties make it resistant to damage and discoloration from the suns radiation. A PVC roof will not be harmed by chemicals or grease and dirt, which are a common issue on manufacturing facilities and restaurants. PVC roofs also offer great wind uplift resistance, which is particularly useful in regions prone to strong winds such as along the coasts, or areas such as Chicago or the High Plains.

DURABILITY:

Cool roofs made of PVC membranes can stand up to some of the toughest stresses and have been proven to support and protect roofs throughout the

LONG SERVICE LIFE:


With a PVC roofing membrane you will enjoy many years of reliable service life. A PVC roof will last between 20-30 years and will require virtually no maintenance, which will allow you to have additional cost savings. By comparison EPDM rubber roofs last about 10 years, and it is hard to say for sure how long the newer TPO membranes will last, given that its formulations keep on changing. Energy-Efficiency:

ENERGY EFFICIENCY:
Installing a PVC roof will help you make your home or business more energy efficient. A PVC roofing membrane is considered to be a cool roof, and has an Energy Star
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Rating. This means that the roof reflects suns UV rays back into the atmosphere, keeping the inside of the building coolerEnvironmental Considerations The reality is that in the current flat roofing market there is no truly 100% green option. This means that the best thing for environmentally conscious consumers to do is to install a flat roofing system that is least harmful to the environment. PVC is used in construction because it is more effective than traditional materials such as copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates.

APPROVED INSTALLER NETWORK:


Contractors have to be trained and approved to install Cefil roof systems. Our policy is to supply Licensed Contractors who have met specific standards and criteria. Our mission for every project is to provide our clients with a list of registered contractors who have the experience and knowledge to deliver a successful installation to compliment our high quality materials. The Cefil Roof Assured warranties are only issued after a project has been inspected and passed by one of our field technicians or an appointed agent.

GUARANTEE:
Extensive roof assured warranty schemes are available that a client can trust for up to 25 years. For most projects, these cover materials, workmanship, design, product liability and consequential loss, complete with independent insurance backing.

QUALITY:
Cefil membranes are produced strictly in accordance with quality standards. The thermoplast extrusion process is computerised to ensure consistent quality and all raw materials randomly tested prior to integration and development.

SAFETY:
Cefil membranes are fast and easy to install and offer significant reductions in relation to risk with many alternative roofing systems. To compliment the membrane, all specifications are safety conscious with the integration of polyurethane glues (CFC & HCFC free) and even self-adhesive vapour barriers to avoid the use of hot bitumen boilers. This provides peace of mind to building owners and installers and achieved preferred system status with some leading building insurance underwriters.
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AESTHETICS
Cefil roofing membranes come in standard light grey and lead grey. However, alternative colours are available in white, blue, green, beige and red. All colours are tested for colourfastness under UV and sunlight accelerated procedures to ensure long term aesthetic performance. Aesthetics

PVC membranes aesthetic qualities make them the choice for any roof design.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT:
Cefil UK can offer everything a specifier or building owner will need. From initial advice and technical support to full roof surveys, detailed drawings, specifications, thermal, acoustic and wind uplift calculations. Our team are available throughout the project to ensure complete client satisfaction.

ELECTRIC CABLES:
PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electrical cables; PVC used for this purpose needs to be plasticized. In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form hydrogen chloride fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance. Poly(vinyl chloride) is formed in flat sheets in a variety of thicknesses and colors. As flat sheets PVC is also used to produce thin, colored, or clear, adhesive-backed films referred to simply as vinyl. Clothing and furniture PVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. PVC is cheaper than rubber, leather, and latex which it is therefore used to simulate. PVC fabric has a sheen to it and is waterproof so is used in coats, skiing equipment, shoes, jackets, aprons, and bags. Healthcare The two main application areas for single use medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components for urine

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or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heart-lung bypass sets, haemodialysis set etc

BEHAVIOUR OF PVC DURING FIRE HAZARDS Burns slowly:


Vinyl roofing membranes are inherently fire resistant. Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a naturally fire resistant polymer a distinction between it and all other roofing plastics. Vinyl roofing membranes contain additional fire retardants, making this cool roofing material slow to catch or spread fire and self-extinguishing when the source of heat or flame is removed.

Does not support combustion: membranes are fire resistant and selfextinguishing. In addition, they cannot be ignited by flying sparks. Cefil membranes have passed some of the most stringent European regulations including BS476: part 3. The use of Cefil membranes is therefore unrestricted under the current building regulations. The vinyl polymers composition gives this material an inherent fire resistance not found in alternative materials without additives. Vinyl roofing membranes are difficult to ignite, burn very slowly and do not support combustion, tending to self extinguish when the source of flame is removed.

LAYING OF ROOFING MEMBRANES:


Depending on the application requirements, vinyl roofing membranes can be installed on the roof deck or substrate in several ways: mechanically attached with various fastening systems, loose laid in planted roofs or plaza decks, where the weight of the overburden holds the membrane in place, or adhered with either solvent- or water-based adhesives, or self adhered membranes. The seams of vinyl roofing systems are welded together with hot air. These seams form a permanent, watertight bond. No solvent wiping or solvent-based adhesives are necessary for seaming as with alternative roofing systems, nor are torches, open flames or kettles required

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Typical built up of PVC roofing installations:


Concrete flat roof with mechanically fastened system with XPS insulation: Horizontal Lay-out

1R.C.C. Roof deck 2 Protective Screed 3 Geotextile (300 gm/m 2 ) 4 Synthetic roofing membrane (PVC) 5 Fastener covered with PVC membrane 6 Hot air welding (Thermo fusion)

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COOL ROOFING:
A portion of the sun's incident energy inevitably finds its way into the buildings on which it falls. In the summertime, this unwanted heat energy causes discomfort and requires the use of extra energy for air conditioning. Since the summertime sun rises high in the sky, the sun's radiant energy falls mainly on the roof, with east and west walls of buildings also receiving a significant share. (In the wintertime, the desirable solar flux falls mainly on the south facade.) The purpose of this Cool Roofing Materials Database is to assist with the selection of roofing materials which reflect, or otherwise reject, the sun's radiant energy, before it penetrates into the interior of the building. When a roof can deliver high solar reflectance and thermal emittance values, it is known as a cool roof. A vinyl roof can reflect three-quarters of the suns rays usually far more and emit 70 or more percent of the solar radiation absorbed by the building envelope.

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RECYCLING OF PVC:
Vinyl can be reprocessed and recycled repeatedly. During manufacturing of vinyl roofing, scraps are routinely recycled directly back into the process or into accessory products such as roof walkway pads, making it a materialefficient operation. 1. This can result in nearly zero waste from manufacturing.Because vinyl roofing membranes have a long service life, many are not available for post-consumer recycling

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[Type the document title] Conclusions:


Finally, it's important and crucial to realize that for the success with waterproofing jobs, it's not just the technology which can only make it happen. Equally, if not more, important are the construction practices to be adopted (including the design aspects) and the application at the job site. Hence it is also a necessity that in any waterproofing project, there is an interaction and team work amongst the technology supplier, the design and construction teams along with the specialized contractors (applicators). One of the very basic ways of creating such team work and having a common understanding of the job at hand is to create a more detailed and informative Bill Of Quantities (BOO) incorporating even the seemingly trivial issues like detailing and special applications. A PVC roof is a single-ply membrane that is made of two components; ethylene and chlorine. Etheline is obtained via processing of either petroleum or natural gas, while chlorine is derived from salt. PVC material with a polyester reinforcement scrim in between. A roof membrane is an additional layer of roofing that provides added protection, insulation, and sound-deadening features. Applied over flat and shingled roofs, the roof membrane can be made of three membrane roofing materials; thermo set, thermoplastic, or Modified Bitumen. The top ply is manufactured with special additives to make the membrane resistant to UV rays and to prevent curling. Plasticizers are added for greater flexibility and different pigmnts are used to achieve various color options Membrane roofing is manufactured in pieces of up to 50 feet long, meaning that many roofs can be wrapped in a single piece for simple installation and minimal maintenance. A roofing membrane that has been strengthened by adding polyester scrims or mats, glass fibres or other material. vinyl, is one of the most common plastics in the world. The two main reasons why PVC is in such wide use is because it is considerably cheaper and more durable than other plastics. Essentially, PVC is made of two components; ethylene and chlorine. Etheline is obtained via processing of either petroleum or natural gas, while chlorine is derived from salt. In the manufacturing process, plasticizers, stabilizers and pigments can be added to achieve flexibility, durability and various color options. PVC roofing membranes are distinguished in quality by the hot-air welding of the membranes seams. Hot-air welding (fusion welding) of seams, creates a permanent physical

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bond between two separate sheets of PVC membrane, allowing to remain water-tight and pliable for decade initial installation.

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