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short term reliability evaluation, presented a t the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York, N. Y., 1973, Paper T 73 094-0. [12]B. S . BiggerstaiT and T. M. Jackson, The Markov procesn as a means of determining generating-unit state probabilities for use in spinning reserve applications, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-88, pp. 423-430, Apr. 1969. [13] R. Billinton and A. V. Jain, Unit deratinglevels in spinning reserve studies, ZEEETrans. Power App. Syrt., vol. PAS-90, July/Aug. 1971. [14] A. D. Patton, A probability method for bulk power system security assessment-111-Models for stand-by generators and field data collection and analysis, ZEEE Trans. Power A p p . Syst., vol. P A S 91, pp. 2486-2493, Nov./Dec. 1972. [15] L. T. Anstine et al., Use of outage statistics for operating and spinning reserve assessments, Paper 71 CP 701-PWR, Sept. 1971. [la] A. D. Patton, A probability method for bulk power system security assessment-11-Development of probability models f o r normallyoperating components,ZEEE Trans.Power A p p . Syst., vol. PAS-91, pp. 2480-2485, Nov./Dec. 1972. [17] A. DiMarco,Asemi-Markov model of athree-stategenerating unit, ZEEE Trans. Pown App. Syst., vol. PAS-91, pp. 2154-2160, Sept./Oct. 1972. Reliability modeling using the [la1 . C. Singh. R. Billinton, and S. Y. deviceof stages, in 1973 Proc. Pow& Industry Computer Application Conf., pp. 22-30. 1191A. D. Patton, discussion of [9], IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-93, pp. 17-18, Jan./Feb. 1974.

Syst., vol. 82, pp. 726-735, Oct. 1963. ,121 R. Billinton, P o w n System Reliability Evaluation. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1970. [3] R. Billinton and A. V. Jain, The effect of rapid start and hotreserve units in spinning reserve studies, ZEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-91, pp. 511-516, Mar./Apr. 1972. [4] , Spinning reserve allocation in a complex power system, presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York, N. Y . , 1973, Paper C 73 097-3. [5] 7 Reliable loading of generating units for system operation, In 1973 Proc. Power Industry Compute Application Cmf., pp. 221229. , Interconnected system spinning reserve requirements, (61 IEEE Trans.Power A p p . Syst.. vol. PAS-91, pp. 517-525, Mar./Apr. 1972. reliabilitycalculation, IEEETrans. [7] A. D. Patton,Shortterm Power App. Syst.,vol. PAS-89, pp. 509-513, Apr. 1970. [a] , A probability method for bulk power system security assessTrans. Power A p p . Syst., vol. ment, I-Basic concepts, ZEEE PAS-91, pp. 54-61, Jan./Feb. 1972. [9] J. A. Bubenko and M. Anderson, Probabilistic evaluation of the operation reserve in a power aystem, in 1973 Proc. Power Industry Computer Application C m f . , pp. 240-249. [lo] A. Przyluski and 2. Reszaynska, Method o f availability aesessment of power generating capacity in short term planning, in Proc. 4th Power Systems ComputationC m f . , 1972. 1111 C. Singh and R. Billinton, A frequency and duration approach to

Lee.

MO-SHING CHEN,

SENIOR MEbfBER, IEEE, AND

WILLIAM E. DILLON,

MEMBER, IEEE

Invited paper

Absfraci-A dimmion of the philosophy of modeling of threei n e s , three-phase transformers, three-phase phase trannminnion l generators, and power system loads is presented. Although the topic is very basic, the material covered is not a l l conventional. Singlephase representation of a three-phase power system is discussed i n detail. Assumptions usually employed i n the powerindustryare stated. Also discnssed is the mathematical representation of a nonsymmetrical three-phase power systeniin which the symmetricalcomponent method is not applied. An important aspect is the study of the m o d e l s used in present-day problems as well as the models that may be required in the near future. INTRODUCTION THREE-PHASE power system consists mainly of the interconnection of generators, transformers, transmission lines, and loads. The elements in a power system are relatively simple; however, the networks which we are facing are truly large scaled. Power system engineers have used the widely known symmetrical component method to simplify many of the problems inpower system analysis. I t is the intention of the authors to discuss the fundamental conManuscript received December 27,1973. The authora are with theEnergy Systems Research Center, The f Texaa a t Arlington, Arlington, Tex. 76010. University o

cepts of symmetrical components in power system modeling in this paper. Although the topic is very basic, the material covered is not all conventional. I t is hoped that this paper will bring a clear picture of the single-phase representation of a power system. The models we discuss in this paper are intended for system studies. Fundamental concepts are emphasized. We have tried to explain the concepts of power system modeling today in such a way t h a t i tprovides room for possible modifications for future works by the user.

The most common element of a three-phase network is the transmission line. The interconnectionof these elements forms the major partof the power system network. An understanding of the representation of a three-phaselineisnotonly necessary in the modeling itself, but also important for the analysis of the whole power system. In steady-stateproblems, three-phase transmission lines are represented by lumped-* networks; series resistances and inductances between buses are lumped inthemiddle,andshuntcapacitances of the transmission lines are divided into two halves and lumped at buses connecting the lines.

902

1974

Series Impedance of a Transmission Line Fig. 1 shows a three-phasetransmissionlinewithtwo ground wires w and v in which only series impedances are considered. Let us write the network equation for the phase a:

w

V

-'

L J I.

vc

b

C

-1,

IC

I

W' V'

I'

b'

C'

VC'

/ / / / / , , . / / / / , , / , , / / / . , , , , , ,

I,= :1 I$ I.+ I ,' I"

two ground conducted.

equivalent three-conductor circuit by the impedance reduction of (7). This technique is applicable,to any number of circuits with any number of ground wires or bundled conductors. The procedure for calculating the equivalent threeconductor line is outlined in detail in[2] and [3]. When more than one circuit is on the same right of way, the size of the impedance matrix should equal the number of circuits multiplied by 3. Table I shows the impedance matrix of a typical 345-kV double-circuit ( u n t r a n s p d ) 2-795 steel-reinforced aluminum cable (ACSR) bundle, #-in ground wire. T h e tower and conductor configuration is shown in Fig. 2.

The subscript g indicates the ground return. The physical meanings and the methodof calculation of all the elements of the impedance matrix are given in [l]. A power system involves a connection of.many transmission lines. Since the designs of the lines are different (for instance, three-phase lines may have a different number of ground conductors, transmissionlines mayusebundledconductors,etc.), i t is very important for the power system engineer to replace the actual line by an equivalent three-conductor line for system analysis. This procedure is acceptable because we are interested only in the performance of phase conductors. T h e calculation of the system problems is greatly simplified when all the lines can be represented by an equivalent three-conductor system. Expressing (1) in partitioned notation, I t has been shown that the impedance matrix of a threephase line can be found as

ca-g

04

I *-J

Equation (8) gives the impedance of a typical transmission line. If the line is completery transposed or canbe assumed t o be completely transposed, the impedance matrix will be reduced t o

B-RB

Avh = ZAIO~C Z B I ~ .

(2)

Although few transmission lines currently in use are actually transposed, power system engineers customarily use the symmetrical-line impedance matrix of ( 9 ) for every line. This is a reasonable assumption for allbut the longest lines, and allows thereduction of thethree-phasenetworktothree singlephase networks. We shall begin the analysis of the symmetrical problem by finding the eigenvalues of the matrix in(9) :

Expanding (2) and acknowledging that the ground-wire voltages are zero,:

(3)

r=Z+2M

7=Z--M

y=Z-M.

where T h e first eigenvalue gives the following eigenvector:

x -

or

to an

903

SERIES

A

b

t

0.1904 t j1.0961

0.1295

0.1246 t

0.1280

' 0.1260

j0.5261 0.1294

0.1333

0.1245

0.1278 j0.4152

I

jO.4510 j0.4599 j0.5147

jO.5189

C

=a&

AEC

mation (similarity transformation) can be used to diagonalize the completely transposed line by

,'A

B.ml[

2

dV

and

B - F i[

IC

1 . .

r2

Double-arcuit transmiasion

line.

and

writing

T h e second and third eigenvalues require any choice of x 3 such that x1+xz+xs=o issatisfied. For are theeigenvectors of the impedance matrix. example, (13), (12), and (14),

I t is interesting to note that forallcompletelytransposed systems, the common eigenvectors are the same although the eigenvalues are different in each system. If the original phase impedance matrix Z h is not perfectly symmetrical, i.e., Z-ZZ,,, etc., the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are different in each case. The series voltage-drop equation of a transposed line is

in which Z+ 2M, 2 - M , and Z - M are theeigenvalues ofthe Equations (10) and (11) suggest that the following transfor- system, The system described by (18) represents an uncoupled

Avc

1

E

(12)

(19)

904

ZERO

UEl.

--N E G . - U E TN . ET.

271

~0s.-

zoo

Zl I

211

00

where

Fig. 3. (a) Original three-phase magnetically coupled line. (b) Equivalent network consisting of three uncoupled single-phaee arcuits.

v -

0 0.4468

[ [

I. .

v*

=A

+

+

-0.0103

+

0.0150

+ +

0.0081

0.0109

+ 1 0.3819 +

+

+

a

A B C

+

j0.0417

0.0647

-0.0170 j0.0543

-0.0103 j0.00S

+ +

+

-0.0170

+ + +

0.0002

0.OW

jO.0lse

- 0 . 0 0 ~+

O.O(n6 jo.0059

+

I

0.06W

-0.0170

0.0150

II

] jO.0417

0.4468

jo.0062

o.oO02 + j0.Olee

0.0081

b

6

0.3819 1.3445

-0.0103 j0.00lS

0.0647

+ +

x A

j0.0102

0.0109

j0.5697

-0.OU3 j-0.0099

j-0.0101

B

C

0.0647 j0.5697

Let system. Physically, the original three-phase circuit has been replaced by three uncoupled single-phase circuits as shown in Fig. 3. where The equations describing these relationships constitute the symmetrical-component transformation:

Vp = TV

I p = TI

and

and Vz are called the zero-sequence, positivewhere VO,VI, sequence, and negative-sequence voltages; IO,11,and IS are called the zero-sequence, positive-sequence, and negativesequence currents; and ZO, Z1, and ZS are called the zerosequence, positive-sequence, and negative-sequence impedances. By using the method of symmetrical components, the variables are separated from one another, and all quantities are expressed in terms of quantities of components only. As pointed out earlier, the symmetrical components will decouple all transposedthree-conductor lines. The choice of the T. matrix is such that itwill, at the same time, benefit the generator and the transformer modeling. For a system with more than one three-phase circuit in parallel, the voltage-drop equations can be written as

v = ZI

where 'Z = TIZpT. The symmetrical-component impedance matrix of the double circuit of Table I and Fig. 2 is shown in Table 11. As you can see, all the off-diagonal values are small except the terms which represent the mutual coupling between the zerosequence line on one circuit and the zero-sequence line on the other circuit. This double-circuit transmission line is represented in most of the analyses today as shown in Fig. 4. The small mutuals between the symmetrical-component sequence networks are neglected. I t should be noted that the mutual

905

coupling between the two zero-sequence networks will exist even if complete transposition of the lines is achieved.

A Capacitance matrix, related t o phase voltages and charges as shown in (23), is calculated by inverting a potential coefficient matrix.

For a system with two ground wires, an equation may be written for the potential of the systemof conductors.

Fig. 5.

(b)

(a) P h y s i c a l equivalents of the elements of the C k matrix. (b)

s y s t e m of COB.

diagonalize the capacitance matrix. Rewriting (25) for a perfectly symmetrical system, Expressing (23) in partitioned notation corresponding partitioning lines shown, to the

Qoac = C&Voac

QOIZ

= Ta-'CetwTaVOlt =c o l z v o l z

where Expanding (24) and acknowledging t h a t ground-wire potentials are zero, then

V& = ( K - LN-'M)Q,,ac = P L Q h

where

(25)

in which C-2C', C+ C', and C+C' are called the zerosequence,positive-sequence, and negative-sequencecapacitances of the system. The system described by this equation represents an uncoupled system. Physically, the original threephase circuit has beenreplaced by three uncoupled singlephase circuits as shown in Fig. 5(b). If the original phase matrix is not perfectly symmetrical, the use of symmetrical-component transformation will result with mutual terms in the transformed matrix. The magnitudes of the mutual terms depend upon the symmetry of the original matrix. In this case,

Here P& is a 3 x 3 matrix which includes the effects of the ground wires. T h e capacitance matrix of the system is found by

Physically, we have replaced the transmission lines with ground wires by the equivalent lines, without ground wires. This technique is similar to the series-line constant calculation. A more detailed discussion on bundled conductors and multiple circuits is given in [2] and 131. T h e elements in the capacitancematrixhavea physicalmeaning inthethreephase model as shown in Fig. 5(a). If the line is perfectly symmetrical, all off-diagonal terms of C& are the same and all diagonal terms of C& are the same, i.e.,

The abc and symmetrical-component shunt capacitance matrices of the double circuit of Table I and Fig. 2 are shown in Tables I11 and IV.

c&c

H

-c' -c'

c

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS Cylindrical-Rotor Machine I t is the purpose of this paper t o develop basic models as well as fundamental concepts of a three-phase synchronous generator. Synchronous machines have been a topic of much study in the past. Our discussion will be limited to the symmetrical-component representation of the machine in the system simulation. We shall begin with a machine of cylindrical rotor under a steady-state condition. Salient pole machines and the effects of rotor circuits will be discussed later. With constant field current, the voltage equation of the four cou-

The eigenvalues of this matrix are C- 2C', C+ C', and C+ C'. The symmetrical-component transformation may be used t o

9 0 6

TABLE I11 MATRIXFOR DOUBLE-CIRCUIT TRANWISSION LINESHOWNIN FIG.2 (Admittance values may be found by multiplying the corresponding elements of the capacitance matrix byjo.)

SHUNT ADMITTANCE

A

TABLE IV

SWETRICAL-CObWONENT SHUNT ADMITTANCE

0

0 . 0 + -1.0140 jo.1036 jo.1036 j4.5399 I 0.0263 + + j0.1036

0 0.0 +

+

-0.1695 j-0.2430

0.1695 j-0.2430

+

I

0.0 +

-0.1451

+

j-0.2237

-0.0263 j0.1036

0.1451 j0.1216

+ '0.0 +

j7.4Bl

0.0288 j-0.1016

0.0000 j-0.2237

0 . 0 + I-0.3918

0.0 + j-0.5036

0 . 0

0.0 + j-0.9204

0.0 j-0.1692

0 . 0 + j-0.9711

0.0288 j-0.1016

+ -0.0000 + -0.0263 +

'

j-0.2237,

j0.1036

0.1451 jO.1216

-0.oooo

j7.4891

0 . 0 + j-0.2294

0.0 + j-0.1692

0.0 + j-0.0789

11

0 . 0 + j-1.0576

0 . 0 + j-0.9711

0 . 0 + j6.5106

V,=--

dXa

at

Lr,

+ Vn

0

E Fig. 6. Equivalent arcuit for the cylindrical-rotor

machine.

d = - [Lafcos (e at

- 120')1~ - L i . - b

d

i b

- ~bci,]

where

- ibrb

=

+ Vn

WLQfIf Ea = -&,

- 1200) + - [-L , i , - b i b - ~

at

i , ]

42

where

+ = 6 +9 0 '

a =0L.fIf 4

'+

Ts L

- 1200

V , = -- i,r,

dxC

at

+V,

- 240'11~ - L,i.

= - [LQf cos (e

at

- Lsib - ~ , i , ] - &b

- icy, + Vn

=

Ts

- wLifIf sin (e

- 2400)

- icrc+ Vn

+[ -L,i, at

[[

Y E

j l

- L&]

(26)

F j1

L '

-I'

Ts I2

where B=wt+Bo is the angle between the axis of the field winding and the axis of the phase a armature winding, and o is synchronous speed of the machine. For a cylindrical-rotor machine,

La

= LC, = L ,

?Q

= rb =

La=L,=&=

Vn =

-L'

=

- Inzn

- (Ia

+ Ib + IC)&*

907

where

Eo = 0

E2 = 0 Zo = r

2 1

Fig. 7. Zero-, positive-, and negative-aequenceequivalent circuits far the cylindrical-rotor machine.

where 20, Z1, and 20are the zero-, positive-, and negativesequence impedancesof the machine. They are the impedances which can be realized when only zero-, positive-, or negativesequence current flows in the machine. Equation (30) leads to the equivalent circuits shown in Fig. 7. I t is interesting to note that this coupled circuit device, in this case a synchronous machine, may also be reduced to three uncoupled circuits by using the symmetric-component transformation. T h e selection of

L---l

U

Fig. 8. Phasor diagramsrepresenting three possible modes of machine operation. Real power delivered by the machine is the same in each case; reactive power is different.

as two eigenvectors of the symmetrical-component transformation matrix was arbitrary in the case of transmission lines b u t i tis necessary inthe synchronous machine modeling. This choice made i t possible for only positive-sequence voltage t o be generated. In steady-state normal balanced operation, both negative-sequence and zero-sequencecircuitsremainunexcited; the positive-sequence circuit is therefore the only one we are concerned with. Fig. 8 gives the phasor diagrams of the positive-sequence network s f a generator operating at normal, overexcited, and underexcited conditions. T h e real power outputs of the three cases are the same. At normal excitation, the reactive output of the generator is zero. At overexcitation (the field current is greater than the normal excitation), the generator delivers lagging reactive power to the system. At underexcitation (the field current is less than normal excitation), the generator delivers leading reactivepower to the system or receives lagging reactive power fromthesystem. I t is clear that the field excitation controls the reactive power output of a generator. T h e phase angle of El represents the rotor position of a generatorwithrespectto an arbitrarysynchronousreference frame. I t is well known t h a t the real power output of a synchronous machine is controlled mainly by the change of relative position of the rotors of the machines in the system. Actually, the machine is more complicated than we have discussed, mainly because of the effect of the rotor circuits. I t is well known that positive-sequence armature currents in a three-phase stator winding produce a constant rotating magnetic field in the air gap similar to the field produced by the dc field winding. Since the field structure is driven mechani-

cally at synchronous speed, the rotating magneticfield of the armature winding is stationary with respect to the field winding and any other rotor circuits of the machine. In steadystate operation, the positive-sequence impedance of the machine is not affected by the existence of the rotor windings. The effect of the rotor slots causes the steady-state positivesequence impedance to vary from direct-axis reactanceX d to quadrature-axis reactance-Xq; X,is slightlyless than X,+T h e axis of the field winding is the direct axisof the machine. The quadrature axis of the machineis 90' out of phase of the direct axis. Both the direct and the quadrature axes are rotating with the rotor. However, when a sudden disturbance in the armature circuits occurs, the changes of the positive-sequence current will induce current in the field circuit such that the field flux is initially maintained constant. Therefore, the positive-sequence impedance of the machinein the transient state is greatly affected by the field winding of the machine. Actually, the solidsteel rotor itself also induces eddy currents. Frequently, the effect of the solid steel rotor may be considered as three additional short-circuited windings in the rotor. T h e d-axis winding and one of the q-axis windings have veryshort time constants, while the time constant of the second q-axis winding, like that of the field, is larger. When the effect of those windings is also to be considered, the positive-sequence impedance is said to be in the subtransient state. There are twotransientreactancesassociatedwiththesynchronous machine: the direct-axis transient reactance X*' andthe quadrature-axis transient reactance Xi.When the armature rotating M M F wave is in line with the field winding of the

908

1974

'1

Fig. 9. Illustratinga'method of conceptuallyfindingthesteady-state positive-sequence impedance of a cylindrical-rotor machine. Field coil is not energized and, since the source is balanced, may be either closed o r left open.

1 . i -

I -

4=E,

Fig. 10. Finding the transient reactance of the machine. Switch is c l o d after the machineis running andthe initial transient is over.

machine, the positive-sequence reactance will be &I. When the armature rotating MMF wave is in line with the quadrature axis of the machine, the positive-sequence reactance will be X i - X p ) is mainly due to the slow decay component of the eddy current of the solid steel rotor. The subtransient reactance of the synchronous machine likewise has direct-axis subtransient reactance Xd" and quadrature-axis subtransient reactance X,". Armature resistance is small and is neglected in this paper. Let us reduce the dc voltage source E of the field winding in Fig. 6 tozero. The rotor is continued at constant speed w . A positive-sequence source is applied to the terminal. From this discussion we can visualize the different positive-sequence impedances as shown in Figs. 9, 10, and 11. I n many power system analysis problems we try to use thesimplecircuits of Fig. 7 torepresentthesynchronous Fig. 11. Finding the subtransient (fast transient) reactance of generator. If thephenomena we are concerned withoccur the machine. Switch is c l o d after the machine is running. immediatelyafter a disturbance, we may use subtransient reactance in the positive-sequence representation. If the phenomenon we are concerned with is transient in nature and the effect (the fast decay component)of the solid steel rotor (or its equivalent) can be neglected due to thefast decay characteristics, we may use the transient reactance in the positivesequence representation. If the phenomena are of a steadystate nature, we may use the steady-state reactance in the positive-sequence representation. Actually, the armature current shouldbe resolved into two components: one in d the axis and the other in the p axis, so that the proper d and p reactances can be used. However, for the cylindrical-rotor machine, the value of the direct-axis reactance is very close to the quadrature-axis reactance. Usually, we assume that they are equal in order that the simple representation of Fig. 7 can be used. E,= z I t is not our intention to discuss the detailed mathematical expression of the various positive-sequence impedances of a '2 synchronousmachine in thispaper. References [SI and [ 6 ] give the expression of those impedance terms of some fundaFig. 12. Finding the negative-sequence reactance of themachine. mental parameters of a machine. The negative sequence reactance of the machine can be tating backwards at twice synchronous speed with respect to visualized as in Fig. 12. The system shown in Fig. 12 is similar the rotor, and so currents of twice rated frequency are induced to Fig. 9 except that the rotor is driven in the opposite direc- in all rotor circuits. Therefore, the reactance for the stator tion. In this case, the armature rotating MMF wave is ro- current is similar to that of the subtransient case. This reac-

1 . .

909

DIRECT A X I S

AXIS BF PHASE c

AXIS OF

U

b

Qo=

X d "

to

IlllADRATURf A X I S

x,"

0tf I

U

mean

The zero-sequence reactance of the maphine can be visualFig. 15. Representation of damper windings. ized as in Fig. 13. Since the zero-sequence currents are in phase in all three phases, the resultant flux is almost canceled. T h e reactance is small [equal t o L-2L' in (29)] and is af- presently used in steady-state analysisof balanced power sysfected very little'by the motion of the rotor. This reactance is tems and to demonstrate the extensionof these methods into analysis of unbalanced three-phase systems. due to leakageflux in the slot and end winding.

Conventional Modeling of Three-Phase Transfolm~~s Normally the three-phase transformer is modeled in terms In a salient-pole machine there are more obvious direct of its symmetrical components under the assumption that the and quadrature axes on the rotor as shown in Fig. 14. Most powersystem is sufficiently balanced to warrant this. Table V salient-pole machines have amortisseur or damper windings shows the typical 'symmetrical-component models of the on the rotor. Theeffect of the amortisseur winding is similar to the eddy currents.of a solid steel round rotor. Usually, we transformers for the six mostcommonthree-phaseconnections. Later, thesemodels will be derived from basic considerause one circuit in the direct axis and another circuit in the quadrature axis t o representtheamortisseurwindings as tions a n d certain significant exceptions t o these component models will be explained in order that improvements may be shown in Fig. 15. madeincertain\specialapplications. The impedances of This discussion concerning the reactances of the roundrotor machine applies to the salient-pole machine ([SI and [6] Table V are assumed t o be the per-unit leakage impedances obtainedbythestandardshort-circuit tests onthetransgive the typical values of different machines). formers. Magnetizing impedances are large shunt-connected Since the direct-axis reactance is quite different from the impedances which are justifiably neglected in most steadyquadrature-axis reactance for a'salient-pole machine, machine state calculations. Hence they are not shown in Table V. representation is more complicated than for the cylindricalSeveral things should be pointed out concerning the symrotor machine. Generally speaking, we must use additional metrical-component sequence models shown in Table V. assumptions for this particular problem. Sometimes i t is more First, the assumption that the zero-sequence short-circuit imadvantageous to represent the machine ina different kind of pedance equals the positiveand negative-sequence shorttransformation other than symmetric components, such as circuit impedances is true only for a bank of three singled-q-0 components or alpha-beta-zero components.Referphase transformers. In either the shell-type or the core-type ences [l], [SI, and [6] include a detailed discussion of those three-phase transformer, the zero-sequence impedance is less topics. than the positive- or negative-sequence impedances: the reaTRANSFORMERS sons for this will be developed later in this section of the Although transformers are one of the most common and paper. Second, there is an inherent phase shift in the positivemechanicallysimplecomponents of modernelectricpower and negative-sequencetransferimpedances in the Wye Gsystems, transformer modeling is often not highly developed DeltaandWye-Deltaconnections.Positive-andnegativein system studies. Indeed the nonlinear effects of core satura- sequence voltages are shifted in opposite directions, and the tion and the transformer's responsepower to system transients degree of phase shift is dependent on the nomenclature of the do present a formidable modeling problem. T h e scope of this phases, i.e., the designation of phases on primary and secondpaper, however, is to show the basis of the transformer models ary sides of the transformer determines whether the phase

Salient-Pole Machine

910

TYPICAL SY"ElaICAL.-COMPoNENT

MODELS FOR

THE

CONNEcTIONS OF

THREE-PHASE TRANWORMERS

BUS P

WYe G

BUS a

WYe G

P

POS S E a

ZERO

SEO

I/I///

WYe G

Delta

WVe

WYe

Delt

Delta

Delt

/ / / ; ..' 1,

shift is 30" or 90' and so on. However, this inherent phase shift is usually ignored as superfluous in most system studies since the voltage magnitudes and balanced power flows are "I not affected by the shift; one simply needs to mentally consider the phase shift when contemplating the results of the study. Finally, Table V does notconsider the effects of neutral I I impedances in Wye-connected windings. This affects only the Fig. 16. Primitivenetwork of a pair of magnetically coupled arcuits. zero-sequence models in the Wye G;Wye G andWye GDelta connections, however, and one simply adds three times the neutral impedance in series with 2 , in these cases. .Thus First, consider the single pair of magnetically coupled coils Table V, with judicious application of these conditions, sum- in Fig. 16. This is a four-terminal network which can theomarizes the manner inwhich three-phasetransformersare retically be described in terms of the open-circuit impedance usually modeled in conventional steady-state balanced system frame as per (31), or in terms of the short-circuit admittance analyses. frame as per (32).

Before one can apply transformer modeling to power system analysis, there must be some basic understanding of how the modeling parameters are obtained. Much has been written about modeling the basic two-winding single-phase transformer. Even so, a brief review will be given here so that these concepts may be expanded by means of elementary circuit theory into themore complicated systems in which there may be unbalanced three-phase voltages and currents, unbalanced three-phase transformer banks, or combinations thereof. Furthermore, an elementary extention of these principles will lead to the theoretical development of the conceptsof Table V and illustrate a viable method of performing unbalanced system studies.

In practice, however, the coefficients of coupling areso high in a practical power transformer that the inversion process relating (31) and (32) is numerically unstable, i.e., in the perunit system z1 and z2 are only slightly larger than %. Therefore, neither the simple open-circuit parameter tests nor the simple short-circuit parameter tests will adequately model the power transformer. Therefore, a hybrid set of measurements

911

il

Ysc - t Yoc

il

is made in which standard open-circuit and short-circuit teststhree-phase devices. Thus they become 12- or even 18-terminal coupled circuits in the primitive sense. Here the paramare made. As modeled in Table V, i t is this short-circuit imeters become far more difficult to obtain. As an illustration, pedance in per-unit form that is most important in transof Fig. 18. former modeling sincethe open-circuit impedance is primarily consider the three-leggedcore-typetransformer For simplicity, no tertiary winding will be considered so that used to determine the exciting current for the transformer. is onlya12-terminalfullycoupled Furthermore, the exciting current is rich in harmonics and a t theprimitivenetwork circuit. best only approximates an equivalent fundamental compoThe short-circuit primitive admittance matrix for this netnent rms impedance. This approximation will be adhered to work is as follows: in the paper, however, since only steady-state conditions are being considered in the electrical model.

In further development of the transformer model, i t is I necessary t o have a good approximation of the short-circuit admittance parameters as per (32). These can be obtained by 2 , and the short-circuit inserting the open-circuit impedance impedance 2 , into an approximate three-terminal representation of the coupled circuit pair in Fig. 16. Since the admittance In a rigorous sense, one would have to make 21 separate shortframe is sought, a r-equivalent circuit as per Fig. 17 is em- circuit measurements to fill in the the valuesof the symmetriployed. In this figure Yo, is the reciprocal of 2 , and U , is the cal admittance matrix in (35). Furthermore, allowances for reciprocal of 2 , . Also, the splitting of the open-circuit admit- flux leakage paths through the steel tank containing the core tance into two equal parts is purely arbitrary. Both open- and itself complicate matters. However, the purpose of this disshort-circuit tests would have to be made on each terminal cussion is to understand the subtle differences between threepair of the transformer to justify a deviation from this policy. phase banks ,of single-phase transformers and common-core In the per-unit system, this equal distribution should introtransformer characteristics. Therefore, some algebraically duce negligible, if any, error. simplifyingassumptionssuchasperfectlysymmetricalflux T h u s a good approximation for thesteady-statetransdistribution willbe made. The previously mentioned shortformer short-circuit parameters as per (2) is circuit measurements could be carried out for any justified special case, however. Assuming flux symmetry, (35) would y1 = y2 E Y , (33) appear as (36). Also, the proper signs of the short-circuit adand mittance values are written in(36), where coils 1, 3, and 5 are considered primary windings and coils 2, 4, and 6 are con(34) sidered the secondary windings. Itmust be emphasized here thatthe foregoing threeterminal model of the single-phase transformer is inadequate for use as a building block for modeling three-phase banks. This will become evident when one attempts tomode1 a WyeDelta bank from three components as per Fig. 17. From here on, the primitive admittance mathematical modelbasedon t h e four-terminal network must be employed. The threeterminal model is intended only for single-phase representation and to help approximate transformer parameters from Note t h a t Fig. 18 does not yet commit the three-phase transfamiliar terminology. former i t represents to any particular connection. The terminalpairscan still be connected in any of the six standard Parameters of Three-Phuse Transformers three-phase connections as per Table V. This will be covered The preceding sections on obtaining the primitive admit- later in the discussion of connection matrices. For comparison, tance parameters for four-terminal magnetically coupled circonsider the primitive admittance matrix for three indecuits are essential but incomplete inasmuch as many threependent single-phase transformers (assumed identical for phase transformers are common-core or shell-type integrated algebraic coherency). The absence of the primed mutual

91 2

Now the objective is to apply the theory of Kron's connection matrix N to the primitive admittance matrixin order to obtain the needed node admittance matrix for the coupled circuit. This is obtained by (39) where [ y p r h ]is the primitive admittance matrix of (36) and N Lis the transpose of N .

YNODE=

N'yprhN.

(39)

Whenthisstraightforwardmatrixmultiplication is carried out, the resulting node admittance matrix for the grounded Wye-Deltatransformation of Fig. 19 is obtainedinphase quantities. This is shown in (40).

Fig. 19. A grounded Wye-Delta transformer.

primitive admittances in the three-phase bank will be shown to play a significant role in the final three-phase transformer connection models.

A

Use of the Connection Matrix

Inthe previous three sections, the parameters of the primitive (unconnected) admittance matrices have been discussed. Now the connection and its application to three-phase Power System Three-phase Node Admittance Matrix transformer modeling can bedeveloped.Forthesake of T h e node admittance matrix of (40) is not yet ready for brevity, only one example will be shown in this paper. This use in a three-phase system model. Since the primitive adwillbe the Wye G-Delta connection because i t is the most mittances wereconsidered to beon a per-unit basiswhere interesting of the six ,most common three-phase connections. both primary and secondary voltages were nominally 1.0 per However, thereadercanreadilyapplytheseprinciples t o unit,anyWye-Deltatransformer model so obtainedmust obtainany of theotherconfigurationsevenincludingunconsider an effective "turns ratio" of di in order that both balanced banks such as the V connection sometimes found on Wye and Delta node voltages are still a t 1.0 per unit. Theredistribution circuits. fore, both the upper right and the lower left quadrants must Consider now the Wye G D e l t a connection shown in Fig. be divided by 4 3 while the lower right quadrant is divided 19 and assume it represents the common-core device shown by 3. Then the submatrices can be used in forming the system unconnected in Fig. 18. In Fig. 19 the node voltages are three-phase node admittance matrix for study of unbalanced designated by capital V ' s where the Wye side has lower-case power systems. In this example, the upper left quadrant reprephase subscripts and the Delta side has upper-case phase sub-sents the three-phase self-admittance submatrix of the scripts. All node voltages are with respect t o ground as refer- grounded Wye side of the transformer while the lower right ence. All the primitive branch voltages are denoted by the quadrant is the three-phase self-admittance submatrix of the lower-case u's with numerical subscripts. Delta winding. If there is no transmission-line coupling, these According to the connections of Fig. 19, the simple relasubmatrices are used directly as building blocks in a manner tionship between the primitive branch voltages and the node analogous to the formation of the positive-sequence node advoltages is denoted in (38a) in which the matrix of ones and mittance matrix used for power flow models. If parallel threezeros completely determines the physical connection in a phasetransmissionlinesdopresentconsiderablecoupling, mathematical sense. This matrix is the connection matrix. however, then more sophisticatedmeans of deploying the transformersubmatricesintothesystemnodeadmittance matrix must be considered. The former method has proved to besuccessful in modeling all types of three-phase transformer connections in unbalanced load flow studies. Table VI (38a) illustrates the basic submatrices used in three-phase node admittance formation for the six common three-phase connections for three-phase banks. Thus the primal values of y,,, do not appearin the submatrices of Table VI. If they did, the elements of these submatrices would be algebraically cumberEquation (38a) is abbreviated as some but would, of course,presentnoproblem in forming ubrsnch = [ N ][ V N O D E ] . (38b) numerical examples. Normally these primed values of y,,, are

By comparing the primitive admittance matrices of (36) and (37) i t is readily seen that the primed ym's vanish when the primitive admittance matrixof a three-phase bank is substituted into (39). Although the primed values of the ym's are numerically smaller than the unprimed values, their existence has a profound effect on the symmetrical-component circuit models of the transformer as well as on the response of the three-phase transformer in the power system. Considerations of these symmetrical-component effects will be deferred to a later section.

P O W E R SYST13.Y MODELING

913

TABLE VI

BASICSusaularc~s USEDIN NODEADMITTANCE FORMULATION FOR TEE SIXMOST COMMON CONNECTTONS OF THREE-PHASE TUNWORMERS

Transforner Connection Self Adsittance

SUtmatciCes

?lutuaf Admittance

Consider first the self-admittance submatrix of the grounded Wye sideof the transformerof Fig. 19. This is_transformed into symmetrical components according to the relation :

Submatrix

which results in

considerably smaller in magnitude than the unprimed values, so the characteristics of common-core three-phase transformers are not radically different from those of three-phase banks. In fact, the numerical values of y,, yp, and y,,, (unprimed) are approximately equal. Therefore, we shall refer t o them asy t , the per-unit leakage admittance of the transformer that would be obtained by the short-circuit test. For purposes of forming Table VI, the three basic types of submatrices for the various connections of three-phase transformer banks will be defined as follows:

Note that the zero-sequence self-admittance is not equal to the positive- and negative-sequenceself-admittancesin the three-phase transformer. If a three-phase bank had been used, ym' would have been zero and a l l three component self-admittances would have been equal. Now apply the transformation to the self-admittance submatrix for the Delta side of the transformer of Fig. 19 remembering that the effective turnsratio of dj has been applied.

I1

-I 3

K]

-Yt

-Yt

I

0

.

Yi"

I1

0 0

yU

012

0

'

0

0

IY,

0

(Y;

I

I1

2Yt

-Yt

- Y;')

(47)

-Yt

(43)

Here, of course, i t is assumed thatall three transformers of thebankareidentical. Now TableVIisformedforthese conditions. If no better information is known than the short-circuit admittances of thetransformer,thenTableVIisthebest approachtomodelingthebank in a n unbalancedsystem. With more complete information such as was assumed in the model in (40), the subtle differences in magnitude between yp, y8,and y,,, can be exploited to the benefit of accuracy. In (40) the existence of the primed values of y,,, leads to the improved model of a common-core three-phase transformer.

Here i t is verified that there is no zero-sequence self-admittance in the Delta winding of a balanced transformer and that the self-admittances of the positive-andnegative-sequence networks are reduced by the amount of y,"'. Finally, the mutual admittance submatrix of (40), modified foreffective turns ratio, is transformed t o find the sequence transfer admittances linking the Wye G and Delta sides of the transformer models in the sequence networks. Thus

I

0

I1

lo

In the vast majority of cases i t is justifiable to assume that thethree-phase power systemisbalanced.Therefore,such detail as was developed in the preceding section is usually not employed in power system analysis. The task at hand now is to reduce these three-phase transformer node admittance models to their more simplified symmetrical-component models. T h e W y e G D e l t a common-core transformer as modeled in (40) willbe examined in detail. Then application of the procedure to the remaining three-phase connections is merely a simple exercise in matrix algebra. Notice the forward 30' phase shift in the positive-sequence network transfer admittance while there is a backward 30' phase shift in the negative-sequence transfer admittance. These are, of course, expected results for the Wye-Delta transformer. Also, i t is apparent thatsince the zero-sequence transfer admittance iszero,nozero-sequencecurrentscanpass between the Wye and Delta sides of a balanced transformer. Again, this is obvious from simple observation of the threephase connection. What was not obvious, however, is that the

914

rp+1V'.

MI;

0

Fig. 20. Zero-sequence node admittance model for a Common-core grounded Wye-Delta transformer. Fig. 24. Three-phase load shown aa a balanced Wye-connectedimpedance.

1 1 V O

" )

Fig. 21. Pcdtive-seguence node admittance model for a common-core grounded Wpe-Delta traasformer.

Fig. 25. & r e , pceitie, andnegative-sequenceequivalent circuits for the balanced load.

01111

P

Fig. 23.

V ,

- r.

existence of" , y (the effects of the%ominon-core coupling) increases the transformer transfer admittance in the positiveand negative-sequence networks. Now the results of ( 4 9 , (47), and (49) will be used to form the three symmetrical-component circuit models of the threephase common-core transformer (Figs. 20-22). The awkwardness of the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent Wye G D e l t a transformer models can be avoided if the 30" phase shifts inherent in Wye-Delta transformers are ignored. As previously stated, engineersusuallyignore the POWER SYSTEM LOAD phase shifts in the model and mentally consider them in the results. If this is to be done, and we may further assume that In a power system, itis impossible to represent every load , y P =y,"~y,"' N (which are zero in the three-phase bank), individually.Forthisreason,loadsconsideredinasystem then figure G becomes Fig. 23. study are representations of composite system loads. Then Fig. 22 would, of course, be the same since the direcAt each substation, the substation demand (P and Q) can tion of phase shift was the only difference between the posi- be obtained from the recorded readingsof the demand meters tive-andthenegative-sequencenetworks.Furthermore, y p located at the substation sites. However, individual customer -ymis a very small admittance sincey p is only slightly larger demands at random times are not usually known. The meters than ym. Thus it may be justifiable to consider yp-ym and at the customers' locations are watthour meters that record y,-ym as open circuits. With all of these gross assumptions, the total energy consumption. These readings are usedfor we have duplicated the sequence model for the Wye G D e l t a customer billing. They must be converted into demands be-

transformer of Table V except for the effects of the commoncore: 1) Zero-sequence impedance is lower on the Wye G side of a common-coreWye G D e l t a transformerthan for an equivalentthree-phasebank. 2) Positive- and negative-sequence transfer impedances are lower for the common-core transformer than for the equivalent three-phase bank.3) T h e three sequence impedances are not equal on a common-core transformer. Considerable effort has been taken here to detail the development of the Wye G D e l t a transformer whose windings are all wound on a common piece of iron. This illustrates the subtle differences between this ubiquitous transformer type and three-phase banks. Also, i t provided a quasi-justificatior for the simplistic models of Table V which most engineers use in system analysis while outlining a method-that of Kron's connection matrices-for developing as detailed a model of any three-phase transformer connection that may be needed for some special application. Certainly, i t is not the intention of the authors torecommend detailed models for all applications. Whenever one can get by with themodels of Table V, he should doso. However, recent interest in unbalanced three-phase phenomena has inspired the authors to provide a tool, previously unavailable, for including the effects of three-phase transformers in the system. The only drawback to thistool is obtaining the data for the primitive admittance matrix for a multiwinding threephase transformer. Even so, the theoretical manipulation of these data as presented in this paper contributes to the understanding of three-phase transformer modeling.

CHEN AND

915

fore being used in system analysis. Nevertheless, information about load characteristics in apower system is limited in most cases. Inadynamicstudy, we use constantimpedance or constant current to model the realor reactive power consumed by a composite load in the positive sequence network. There is more uncertainty involved in modeling loads in the negative- and zero- sequence networks. Fig. 24 shows a three-phase load which is represented by a balanced Wye-connected impedance.

CONCLUSION

The authors have attempted to present a discussion of the conceptsunderlyingthedevelopment of symmetrical componentsandtheirapplicationtothe modeling of a threephase power system. Although symmetrical components have been widely discussed in the literature, the authors believe that this paper will add to the understanding of the foundations of power system modeling, particularly for the nonspecialist.

REFERENCES

( 1 1 E. Clarke, Circuit AnaZysis of A-C Pmue7 Systnrrc, vol. 1. New York: Wiky, 1956. [Z] M. H.H e ,Electromagnetic and electrostatic transmiasion-line parameters by digital computer, ZEEE Trans. Pmun App. Syst., vol. PAS82, pp. 282-291, June 1963. Application of the symmetrical-component transformation [3] M. S , . Chen, The philosophy of three-phase network transformation, presented at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York, gives N. Y., Jan. 1969. [4]A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, Electric Machinery. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961. 7 ; Ts + [ S I C. Concordia, S y n c h r o ~ u s Machines, Theory and Performance. New York: Wiley, 1951. V 12 31*a;i [a]E. W. Kimbark, P o w n System Stability, vol. 111. New York: Wiley, 1956. ( 7 1 G. Kron, T m o r Analysis of Networks. London, England: McDonald, 1965. [8] Electrical Transmission and DisfributMn Reference Book, Westinghouse Corp., 1964. z ( 9 1 W. E. Dillon and M. S. Chen, Transformer modeling in unbalanced three-phase networks, presented at the IEEE Summer Power Vancouver, B. C., Canada, July 1972, Paper C 72 460-4. The symmetrical-component equivalent circuits are shown in [lo]Meeting, Modern Concepts of P a n System Dynamics, IEEE Power EngineerFig. 25. ing Education Committee, 1970.

I

F] 1

.