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Eating between meals is a common habit among us.
Squash is a good snack rich in Vitamin A and contains calcium, phosphorus and iron. This becomes
attractive snacks for the young when served in different ways.
1 cup mashed boiled squash
3/4 cup brown sugar
3/4 cup all purpose flour, shifted
1 cup water 1 teaspoon lye Procedure:
1. Dissolve the sugar in water and boil, allow to cool.
2. Add the flour little by little.
3. Add the squash, keep on stirring until it becomes fine in texture.
4. Shift.
5. Add the lye, stir.
6. Put the mixture in molds, with allowance of a little space from the rim.
7. Cook in double boiler for 20 minutes.
1 cup cornstarch
3 cups coconut milk (second extraction)
1 cup coconut milk (first extraction)
1 1/2 cups squash, boiled and mashed
1/4 teaspoon vanilla
1. Mix cornstarch and 1 cup coconut milk (second extraction)
2. Mix the 2 cups more.
3. Add coconut milk (first extraction), squash, sugar, and vanilla. Mix thoroughly and pass through a
4. Cook over low fire, continually mixing until it becomes thick.
5. Put in molds, let cool.
6. Put "budbud" on top when served.
To prepare budbud:
1/3 cup sugar for every 1 cup coconut meal. Roast in carajay until golden brown.
1 cup mashed boiled squash
1 cup mashed boiled gabi
1/2 cup white sugar
1/3 cup condensed milk
1/4 tsp. vanilla
1 tbsp. butter
1 tbsp. butter for lining molds
1. Sieve the squash and gabi until a fine paste is attained.
2. Mix them together with sugar.
3. Cook in low fire, continually stirring to prevent scorching.
4. When thick, add condensed milk and vanilla, keep on stirring until the desired consistency is
5. Add the butter, keep on stirring until the surface is smooth and glossy.
6. Line the inside walls of the molds with butter, then …
7. Put the mixture in the molds.
1/2 cup butter
4 eggs
1/3 cup white sugar
1/2 pack dessicated coconut
2 tsp. vanilla
3/4 cup grated squash
1. Cream the butter until light and fluffy.
2. Add the sugar gradually while stirring.
3. Add eggs one by one constantly stirring after adding each egg.
4. Add the condensed milk.
5. Add the dessicated coconut, squash, vanilla and mix well.
6. Put in muffin molds lined with paper or aluminum foil.
7. Cook in oven at 350°C for half an hour.
E. KALCOSUMAN (Squash Suman)
1/2 cup malagkit rice
2 cups grated squash
1 1/2 cups ordinary rice
1/3 cup latik
3/4 cup coconut milk (second extraction)
1 1/2 cups sugar
banana leaves
1. Soak overnight: rice and malagkit and grind on the following day.
2. Soak the ground rice and malagkit in coconut milk until soft.
3. Add the sugar and squash.
4. Cook over low fire, constantly stirring until thick. Cool.
5. Prepare the leaves for wrapping by heating over low fire. Brush the leaves with butter.
6. Put two tablespoonful of the mixture in every wrap, put latik on top of each before closing.
7. Tie with string and cook for half an hour in a double boiler container. Source: FNRI-DOST
12% flour from squash
88% ordinary flour, yeast, salt (pinch),
oil and sugar as in ordinary bread
1. Melt the yeast in warm water and leave it for 8-10 minutes
2. Mix together: squash flour, ordinary flour and oil. Beat with a Hobart mixer (speed 2) for 6
minutes while adding
sugar and salt. Leave it for one-half hour.
3. Knead the dough and roll to form pieces of pandesal.
4. Put in oven and cook like ordinary bread. Source: NSDB Completed Researches
Squash, Corn flour, Oil, Sugar or Salt, Flavoring
1. Peel the squash, cut into fine pieces.
2. Steam and grind.
3. Mix squash and corn flour in the following proportions:
7 parts squash (70%) 3 parts corn (30%)
4. Add flavoring and sugar or salt.
5. Steam for 15 minutes.
6. Pass through a noodle machine at 1.2 cm. chips.
7. Dry the resulting chips on a forced draft at 65°C-70°C for 2 1/2 hours.

This will last for six weeks if packed in plastic bags and ten weeks if packed in laminated packs. Source:
Growing children are naturally restless and move a lot because they are full of energy. The parts of their
body are developing, they need more energy giving foods to meet their needs for development and to
replace the energy they spend. Supplementing corn with munggo gives much of the energy they need.
This is enriched with Vitamins A and B.
5 1/4 cups corn flour (800 gms)
1 3/4 cups munggo flour (200 gms.)
5 cups water (about 900ml. or less than 1 liter)
2 cups cooking oil and
flavoring (cheese or barbecue) and vitamins
1. Grind corn and munggo separately.
2. Mix them together.
3. Add the vitamins and water, knead until smooth.
4. Put the dough into aluminum molds at 1.3 cm thick.
5. Steam for 20 minutes.
6. Let the dough pass through a slicer at 2 cm thick and desired shapes.
7. Dry in the oven at 60°C -65°C for 2 hours or under the sun.
8. Deep fry in oil until golden brown.
9. Put in pan and sprinkle with flavoring.
10. Seal in plastic bags, serve when desired.
In order to meet the iron need of growing children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers, this
"nutri-crunch" is enriched with blood of animals (chicken, hog or cow).
800 gms. rice flour
150 gms. skimmed milk
50 gms. powdered animal blood
20 gms. sugar
15 gms. salt
60 gms. barbecure flavor
700 ml. water and cooking oil
To prepare powdered blood:
1. Collect clean blood in a container. Keep it free from flies and dust.
2. Spread the blood evenly over the aluminum pan at 3 1/2 cm thick.
3. Steam for 10-20 minutes (until the blood coagulates).
4. Grind or powder fine.
5. Put the ground blood in a dryer, cover with muslin or sinamay.
6. Dry in the oven 60°C or under the sun until it is crispy; turn every one hour.
7. Powder or grind the blood.
Procedure for crispy crunchies:
1. Powder the rice, mix it with the powdered blood and flavoring.
2. Add water and knead it until it becomes dough.
3. Spread on aluminum pan about 1 1/2 cm thick.
4. Steam for 20 minutes.
5. Cut into desired sizes and shapes.
6. Dry in the oven or under the sun until crispy.
7. Deep fry in oil until the crunchies bloat.
8. Add artificial flavor to the crunchies, shake until the flavor is evenly distributed.
9. Seal in plastic bags. Source: FNRI, DOST
DOST researchers have tried mixing rice bran with flour instead of using flour alone for bread and
snacks, in efforts to increase the vitamin intake of children.
1. Shift the rice bran (very fine).
2. Mix 10%, 20%, or 30% rice bran with flour to make spritz cookies, lemon snap
cookies, polvoron cookies or oatmeal cookies.
The taste and color of the snacks may be somewhat revealing, but it is acceptable in general.
There are two ways of making cassava flour:
A. 1. Cut into thin pieces the peeled root crop. 2. Place in a basin of water.
3. Spread the thin pieces on a tray to dry under the sun or in a solar dryer.
4. Grind the dried cassava and sieve fine.
5. Seal in a container with a tight cover.
B. 1. Clean the root crop, peel off the outer skin.
2. Grate and squeeze out the juice.
3. Spread the grated (squeezed) cassava on a tray to dry under the sun or in a solar dryer.
4. Grind fine dried cassava and sieve.
5. Keep in a container with tight cover.
1/2 kilo grated cassava
3 grams vetsin
1/2 gram barbecue spice
1/2 gram black pepper
5 1/2 grams salt
1. Clean the peeled cassava, then grate.
2. Mix together the cassava and all ingredients. Mix well until it becomes a thick paste.
3. Spread thinly and evenly over a banana leaf or aluminum tray.
4. Steam for about 5 minutes.
5. Remove from steamer, place on chopping board and cut into sizes, about 4 x 1 1/2
6. Remove the sliced pieces and arrange in a perforated tray.
7. Dry under the sun or drier until crispy.
8. Fry (or seal in a plastic bag if not ready to serve).
1 kilo cassava
1 tsp. vetsin
2 1/2 tsp. barbecue spice (for flavoring)
tbsp. and 1 pinch salt
9 1/2 cups water
1. Wash cassava well, peel and slice very thinly.
2. Soak in 2% salt water with flavoring.
3. Spread on a tray and steam for 5 minutes.
4. Dry in a solar drier at 60°C for 5 hours.
5. Seal in plastic bags until ready for frying before serving.
1/2 cup all purpose flour
1/2 cup grated cassava
2 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
5 tsp. powdered dried shrimp
2 tsp. oil
1 pinch sodium bicarbonate
2 cups water
1. Wash cassava, peel and grate.
2. Remove excess juice.
3. Mix together in a bowl all the dry ingredients.
4. Add cassava and 2 tbsp. oil. Mix well.
5. With the aid of 2 knives, cut the dough fine into sizes like mongo seeds.
6. Add water and knead well.
7. Spread the flour on the board and flatten the dough with aid of a rolling pin.
If necessary, add more flour to facilitate dough flattening.
8. Cut up the flattened dough into thin sizes shape into rolls similar to cigarette sticks.
9. Arrange them in a baking pan and cook in oven.
10. Remove the baking pan and cool.
11. Remove the "sticks" from the pan with the aid of a knife.
12. Seal in a plastic bag and label or serve.
1 3/4 cups cassava flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/4 cup powdered munggo
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1 cup sugar
1 cup diluted milk
1/2 cup magarine
1. eggs
1. Sieve the cassava flour and baking powder together.
2. Cream margarine in a big bowl until fine.
3. Gradually add sugar with constant stirring.
4. Add alternately and little by little, ----beaten egg yolk
----cassava flour
----munggo flour
----baking powder and milk
5. Mix well, stirring in one direction only.
6. Beat the eggwhites until fluffy and stiff, and;
7. Add little by little to the mixture.
8. Put mixture in pan and cook in oven at 307°C for 25-30 minutes.
9. Remove from oven and cool. Serve.
Source: FNRI, DOST
2 1/2 cups wheat flour
2 cups dessicated coconut
2 1/2 cups cassava flour
2 eggs
1/2 cup sugar
5 tbsps. baking powder
1 cup butter or margarine
1. Sieve together flour and baking powder.
2. Add dessicated coconut.
3. Cream butter in a separate bowl.
4. Add sugar and egg gradually to the creamed butter.
5. Add flour and baking powder and knead well until a soft dough is formed.
6. Shape the dough into balls.
7. Grease the tray with oil or margarine (about 5 gms.).
8. Flatten the balls with the aid of a fork and arrange on the tray.
9. Bake in pre-heated oven until golden brown.
10. Remove tray from oven. Detach cookies while hot to keep them from
sticking to the pan.
11. Cool, serve or seal in a plastic bag.
Source: Development Forum, June 1988, v.4, no.2
In a study conducted at UP Los Baños, it was seen that pan de sal made from powdered camote,
soybean and sorghum is more palatable, cheaper and more healthful than pan de sal made from
flour alone.
Two proportions were tried:
A. 10% camote flour
10% soybean
80% all-purpose flour
This contains 12.25 gms. protein with 600 cal./100 gms.
B. 10% sorghum flour
10% soybean flour
80% all-purpose flour
This contains 14.26 gms. protein with 57.04 cal./100 gms.
To make powdered camote, see procedure for cassava powder.
Source: Farming Today, Feb. 1981
Tamales is one of traditional specialties served during parties. This was introduced into the
Philippines by the Spaniards and became a special delicacy.
For 6-8 pieces tamales
3 1/2 cups powdered rice
3 tbsps. Atsuete seeds
6 cups coconut milk
12 pcs. banana leaves or aluminum foil, 10" x 12"
1 cup brown sugar, salt, pepper for flavoring
2 pcs. children breast, boiled and cut into 1/2" pieces
1 cup ground roasted peanuts
2 cups boiled peanuts
1/2 kilo pork loin, cut into 1/2" pieces
2 boiled eggs, sliced
1/2 kilo cooked, shelled shrimps
1/2 kilo cooked ham, cut into 1/2" pieces
1. Soak the atsuete seeds in 1/2 cup water. Macerate (with fingers) and let
stand for 1/2 hour; strain and set aside the juice.
2. Mix together coconut milk, rice, sugar, salt and pepper.
3. Cook mixture in low fire for 25 minutes with constant stirring so as not to
allow sticking on the pan.
4. Add the ground roasted peanuts and cook further for about 8 minutes, and
stirring constantly.
5. Set aside one-half of mixture in a container. This is the regular mixture.
6. Add the atsuete juice to the remaining half, cook for 5 minutes while
stirring constantly. This is the (colored) red mixture.
7. On a banana leaf (or tin foil) put 3 tbsp. of the regular mixture forming a 3-
inch square shape.
8. Put on top the square pieces of chicken, pork, ham, egg and peanut.
9. Cover with 3 tbsp., red mixture, wrap in banana leaves or tin foil. About 6-
8 pieces can be made from the mixture.
10. Arrange in a kettle and steam for 20 minutes.
Source: Natural History, July 1, 1990
To make the dough:
4 1/2 cups flour 3 tbsp. oil
1 1/4 cups warm water 1 tbsp. baking powder
3/4 cup sugar 2 tsp. yeast
1/4 tsp. salt
Mixing bowl
Wide board for making dough
Square pieces of paper for each siopao
1. Dissolve the yeast and sugar in the warm water; set aside for 10-15
2. 2. Mix together sugar, salt, oil in the mixing bowl.
3. Add the dissolved yeast and half of the flour. Mix well.
3. 4. Add more the remaining flour and mix well.
4. 5. Knead the dough on the kneading board until smooth and fine.
5. 6. Make a big ball from the dough and put in the bowl lined with oil.
Apply oil also on the top of the dough.
6. 7. Cover and let the dough rise within 30-40 minutes.
7. 8. Flatten the dough, cut and make small balls. Let rise.
8. 9. Flatten the balls, put 1 tbsp. filling in each and close.
Put the ball on the square sheet of paper to keep it from sticking to the bottom of
the pan.
9. 10. Steam the balls for 10-15 minutes, depending on the size of the balls.
1. Saute the garlic, onion, sliced pork or chicken.
2. Put in the beans, soy and a little water.
3. Before removing from the fire, pour in the dissolved flour for
thickening. Stir well.
To provide increased nutrients in the snacks of children, the addition of
mongo flour has been tried and found acceptable.
5 cups rice flour
2 1/2 cups mungo flour
2 cups oil or lard
1 1/2 tbsp. flavoring (cheese or barbecue)
2/3 cup water
1. Separately, grind rice and mongo to make flour.
2. Mix them together and add water and salt. Mix well until it becomes a soft
3. Spread the dough in an aluminum container about 1 cm. thick.
4. Cook in a double boiler for about 15 minutes.
5. Slice according to desired sizes or about 2 cm. each.
6. Dry in the sun until brittle.
7. Deep fry in boiling oil until crispy.
8. Sprinkle flavoring and shake well.
9. Serve or store in plastic bags. Seal. From: FNRI (DOST)
Procedure: (The procedure is similar to other kinds of kropeck)
1. Add rice powder, water and salt to the sapal of the milk from soybean.
2. 2. Mix well until a fine paste is attained.
3. 3. Spread over aluminum trays and steam for 15 minutes. Cool.
4. 4. Cut into desired sizes.
5. 5. Dry in the sun or heat in a cabinet dryer at 70°C for 3 hours or until
6. 6. Deep fry in oil.
7. 7. Brush artificial flavoring on the kropeck.
8. 8. Serve or seal in plastic bags. Source: ITDI, DOST
3 cups mature and newly harvested soybeans
2 bars white gulaman
3 cups brown sugar
strainer (muslin or nylon cloth)
1. Soak soybeans overnight in water 3 times its volume.
9. 2. Remove outer covering, grind; add water little by little (at least 6 cups)
while grinding.
3. Dissolve 2 bars gulaman in boiling water (7 cups).
4. Pour the ground soybean in boiling gulaman for 7 minutes or until the odor
grains is removed.
5. Set aside until it coagulates.
6. Serve with syrup.
Syrup is prepared as follows:
3 cups sugar is dissolved in 3 cups water. The sugar may be
caramelized to improve color and flavor.
Source: The Philippine Recommends for Soybean, PCARRD 1991
Instead of soybeans, coconut milk may be used with gulaman in making taho.
1. Mix pure coconut milk with equal volume of water and heat.
2. In a container, dissolve 1/4 gulaman bar in water, boil.
3. Strain the dissolved gulaman and coconut milk.
4. Heat and stir continuously for at least 20 minutes.
5. Pour into molds and allow to cool and harden.
To make syrup:
Dissolve 2 cups brown sugar in one cup water. Heat until thick.
Source: ITDI, DOST
1 cup soybeans
3 cups water for cooking
1. Soak soybeans overnight. Rinse, drain.
2. Boil in water for 1/2 hour.
3. Drain, grind fine.
4. Add 3 cups water.
5. Strain to extract juice.
6. Boil for at least 15 minutes.
Soybean "coffee" is a recommended substitute for real coffee for consumers with heart
1. Clean the grains, remove foreign particles.
2. Roast in a frying pan for 30 minutes in low fire or until half brown
in color.
3. Grind or pound finely.
4. Cook as ordinary coffee.
(Contains 12% - 14% protein)
1 2/3 cups skim milk powder
6 1/2 cups water
1 1/2 cups coconut milk (first and second extraction)
4 tbsp. salt
1 1/3 tsp. coagulant (DTRI-IFS-6 milk coagulant)
This can be made by soaking in hot water a piece of the cow's abomasum
(available at slaughterhouses) or crude rennet extract -- 20 cc. in 1 tbsp. vinegar.
Casserole or container (with 2-liter capacity), thermometer, stirrer, dipper, knife, perforated
tray, muslin cloth, banana leaves or cut-wrap paper.
1. Put the powdered milk in casserole and put water little by little until
2. Add coconut milk and salt, stir well.
3. Heat to 75°C, stir slowly.
4. Cool container with milk in a vessel with water to cool until it is 38°C-40°C.
5. Put coagulant and stir for a minute.
6. Cover container and set aside for 40-50 minutes or until it has hardened
and can be sliced.
7. Cut into 1" x 1" pcs., set aside for 10 minutes.
8. Drain the yellowish green filtrate but take care not to disturb the
coagulated cheese.
9. Stir a little more the coagulated cheese to draw out more water (until 1 1/2
liter in all).
10. Put the coagulated milk in the perforated tray or mold with muslin linings.
Make the thickness even, cover with muslin cloth and let it drain some more for 1 to
2 hours. If a harder cheese is desired, put in the vegetable compartment of the
refrigerator overnight to draw out more water.
Source: Greenfields, October 1983, v.13
In preparing mango jam, don't use metal utensils like knife, casserole or other similar metal
containers of the jam produced.
1. Wash ripe mangoes, slice and scrape the flesh.
2. Blend in a blender and pass through a course strainer.
3. For every 2 cups mango, add 1 cup sugar.
4. Cook in a heavy aluminum casserole or frying pan and keep on stirring
until thick. Cool.
5. Keep in jars that had been sterilized.
For Candy: Add more sugar (1 1/2-2 cups for every 2 cups mango) and stir until thick. Cool.
Form into desired size and shape, then roll on confectioner's sugar. Wrap in cellophane.
"Pico" mango has been found to be the best source for mango candy.
Ingredients: Materials:
Mangoes (rare-ripe) Weighing scale
Sugar Stainless steel knife
Confectioner's sugar Stainless steel spoon
Sodium metabisulfite Cheesecloth
1. Wash rare ripe mangoes.
2. Peel and slice lengthwise, evenly thin.
3. Boil syrup and stir for 10 to 15 minutes.
(1 cup sugar to 1 cup water and add 0.2% sodium metabisulfite as
4. Add fruit slices.
5. Set aside, cover it, soak it overnight.
6. Drain fruit slices from syrup.
7. Boil syrup again and add 1/2 cup sugar and stir it for 10-15 minutes and
soak again the fruit slices overnight.
8. Drain and wash fruit slices with clean water.
9. Dry in a cabinet dryer with a temperature of 60°C for 8-10 hours.
2. Sweat in ordinary plastic bags for 18-24 hours.
10. Roll in confectioner's sugar.
3. 11. Pack in polypropylene plastic with .003 thickness. Weigh.
4 cups sliced semi-ripe mangoes
1/2 pc. Ginger 1 small box raisins
1. pc. Garlic 2 cups vinegar
8 pcs. native onions 3 cups brown sugar
2 pcs. peppers 4 tbsp. table salt
Stainless knife stove
Enamel bowl dipper
Measuring cup jars
Casserole chopping board
1. Choose same sizes of mangoes, wash well.
2. Peel and divide into two, remove seeds.
3. Slice the mangoes lengthwise, about 1/4 inch thick.
4. Place in jars, sprinkle with table salt, set aside overnight.
5. Drain the mango.
6. Boil the vinegar and sugar.
7. Add the flavoring spices and heat more for 5 minutes.
8. Add the sliced mango, cook until the combined mixtures of sugar, vinegar
and other remaining ingredients become thick in consistency.
9. Transfer into sterilized jars and cover.
10. Cool with cover upside down. Source: ITDI, DOST
1. 1. Slice green mangoes, wash well.
2. Sprinkle with salt (not more than 10%, not less than 5% in equal
2. amount of water.
3. Let stand overnight.
3. 4. On the next day, add an equal amount of water and set aside for 2 weeks.
There are places in this country where fruits abound, but there is no way of transporting
them to market, thus they become rotten and are wasted away, or are given to hogs. In
places where there is an oversupply of papaya for instance, the fruits can be preserved for as
long as 10 months.
Half-ripe papaya, 1 kilo
Kalamansi juice, 1 tbsp. for every cup of syrup
Sodium metabisulfite powder, for every 1/4 tsp.=+ 1 tsp. lime in
4 cups water
1 part sugar for 2 parts water
1 kilo sugar for every kilo of papaya
1. Peel the half-ripe papaya and remove seeds, wash.
2. Slice into pieces, about 12 x 4 cm.
3. Arrange in nylon or sinamay and steam for 5-6 minutes.
4. Soak overnight in lime-metabisulfite solution.
5. Drain.
6. Soak the papaya overnight in hot syrup with calamansi.
7. Next day, drain the syrup and add 1 1/2 cups more sugar.
8. Soak again overnight the papaya in hot syrup.
9. Repeat nos. 7, 8 & 9 for three more days.
10. Drain and rinse.
11. Arrange in trays and put in oven at 65°C-70°C for 16-18 hours, or
dry in the sun until it becomes tough.
12. Keep in plastic bags, seal. Source: FNRI, DOST
2 kilos balimbing
1 kilo brown sugar
salt, toyo
1 tbsp. lime in 1 gal. water
1. Choose balimbing fruits that are firm; wash.
2. Slice lengthwise into four parts.
3. Soak in water with lime overnight.
4. Wash next day in running water.
5. Boil in water for 5 minutes.
6. Add the brown sugar, boil for an hour.
7. Add the salt and toyo.
8. Drain.
9. Dry under the sun.
10. Cool, pack in plastic bags, seal.
Source: PCARRD, Monitor, September 1989
In summer time, tomatoes abound. Thus, it is good to preserve them for future use especially
when they are not in season. One of the ways of preserving them is by making candy.
Ripe, red tomatoes with thick flesh
White sugar
1. Wash, blanch in hot water and peel.
2. Slice crosswise in the middle, remove seeds.
3. Add sugar in the same volume as tomatoes and leave overnight.
4. Boil in low fire until the tomatoes become clear.
5. Drain the syrup.
6. Spread the candy on a tray and dry under the sun or in an oven (cabinet
until almost dry.
7. Roll over white sugar and dry again until crispy.
8. Wrap each in cellophane or place in plastic bags or jars. Seal.
Source: Food Technology Research and Development Program, ITDI, DOST.
1 pineapple (moderate size)
4 cups sugar
Casserole/karajay Solar drier
Chopping board Spoon
Measuring cup Sieve
Knife Candle
Stove Tray
Cellophane/Plastic bags
1. Peel the pineapple, remove eyes, core and wash.
2. Slice into cubes.
3. Prepare the syrup, 2 parts sugar to 1 part water.
4. Boil the pineapple in the syrup for 20 minutes.
5. Soak in syrup overnight.
6. Strain and wash well in water.
7. Dry in solar drier for 16-20 hours. Cool.
8. Roll over sugar and wrap in cellophane.
9. Put in plastic bags; seal open end of bag with the flame of a candle.
Source: NSTA Appropriate Technology Program
Choose good ripe pineapples, not bruised or over ripe.
1. Slice into small pieces, extract the juice.
2. For every liter of juice, to avoid molds, add
1/2 per cent sodium benzoate
3 grams citric acid
Sugar may be added if desired.
3. Heat at 80°C for 5 minutes, constantly stirring.
4. Put in jars or containers while still hot.
1. Heat in double boiler for 15 minutes. Cool.
This can also be done with sugarcane juice.
Source: ITDI, DOST
1. Choose ripe pineapples, wash well, peel, slice into small pieces.
2. Grind or chop; extract juice by slightly squeezing using the hands.
3. Add an equal amount of water to the chopped pineapple.
4. For every 5 cups of pineapple and water, add 1/2 cup mother
5. Pour into wide-mouthed jars, fill up to 1/3 full.
6. Cover jars with paper, set aside for 3 weeks to let the nata grow,
then harvest when it is ready.
7. Wash the nata well, slice into cubes.
8. Soak in water for 2 days, change water several times.
9. Boil in water about 3 times to remove mold and taste of vinegar.
10. Drain and add sugar equal in amount as the weight of nata and
stir well. Soak overnight.
11. Drain for 10 minutes, add flavoring.
12. Put in preserving jars and sterilize in boiling water for 25 minutes.
13. After removing nata from the jar, add one cup water to the jar.
Cover and let the nata grow again. This will provide 4 or 5 harvests.
Source: PCARRD-DA Farmnews. March-April 1991
To remove bitter/pungent taste.
1. Boil in water for 15 minutes, change water 3 times.
2. Soak the rind in 2% salt water overnight.
3. Soak the rind in syrup; add sugar to the syrup every 3 hours.
4. Boil in the last thick syrup for 3 minutes.
5. Rinse in boiling water. Drain. The resulting candy is green.
Source: Selected R & D Completed Projects, NSTA 1982
1. Boil the calamansi rind for 10 minutes.
2. Separate the pulp from the peelings.
3. Soak in 3% salt water for 24 hours.
4. Boil for 10 minutes, change water 2 times.
5. Soak in syrup while adding sugar little by little (35°-65° Briz).
Add sugar up to 10°Bx every 3 hours.
6. To make the rind glossy, boil in the last thickness of syrup for 10 minutes.
7. Rinse in boiling water, drain.
8. Dry the rind in an oven for 2 hours at 54.4°C or until the moisture reaches
16%. The
color of this candy is green or olive-green. It is soft and has the taste of calamansi-
Source: Selected R & D Completed Projects, NSTA 1982
1 kilo chayote
1/2 tsp. lime
1/2 cup sugar
1. Wash, peel the chayote, remove core and slice lengthwise.
2. Dissolve 1/2 tsp. lime in 4 1/2 cups water and soak the chayote in it for 3
3. Drain, put in boiling water for 5 minutes, drain again.
4. Put 1/2 cup sugar (for every kilo of chayote). Soak overnight, then drain
next day.
5. Put again 1/2 cup sugar, boil and soak the chayote in it.
6. Drain, put the chayote in hot water.
7. Add again 1/4 cup sugar to the syrup and boil until thick.
8. Soak the chayote in the syrup for a few days.
9. Drain, add hot water.
10. Let dry. Cool, pack in plastic bag, seal.
Source: NSTA Projects, 1982
Materials: Utensils:
Mature guava Aluminum casserole
Calamansi Wooden spoon
Sugar Sinamay for straining
Denatured alcohol Muslin cloth
Measuring cup, jars
1. Wash the guavas, remove ends.
2. Slice into small pieces, put in a container with the fruits slightly immersed
in water.
3. Boil in low fire until soft for about 12-15 minutes.
4. Wrap in wet muslin cloth, twist the cloth to draw out the juice a little, but
not the pulp.
5. Test the pectin content. Put one tablespoon juice in 2 tbsp. denatured
alcohol. If it becomes turbid, the pectin content is weak. If it is rich in pectin, it will
form solids.
6. To test the acidity, put 1 tbsp. calamansi juice in 8 tbsp. water. If this is too
sour, add papaya or melon juice. If not, add some more calamansi juice.
7. Add 1 cup sugar for every cup juice. Stir well to dissolve the sugar.
8. Boil and filter again to remove foreign particles or undissolved sugar.
9. Boil well without stirring until the thickness of jelly is attained.
It is jelly if:
a. the temperature on top is 104°C-105°C .
b. dip a teaspoon into the mixture. If when it is drawn out, the syrup is like
fiber. It is already jelly.
c. drop 1 1/2 tsp. of the mixture into a glass of water. If the drop falls to the
bottom and does not spread, it is jelly.
1. Let the bubbles disappear or filter them out with the help of the sinamay
strainer before pouring into jars.
2. Cool a little. Poor dissolved candle on top of the hardened jelly. If the jar is
new, the candle is not necessary, as new jars have a rubber lining that seals the jar
3. Close the jar and store in a cool dark place.
Note: Other fruits rich in pectin are: anonas, guayabano, granada, papaya, rimas,
banana, santol, chico, sineguelas, and tomato among others. Source: FNRI 1989.
Procedure: ( Note: Use only ripe duhat fruits.)
1. Wash the duhat well, measure in cup or glass, put in an equal amount of
2. Boil for 15 minutes.
3. Squeeze out the juice by means of a clean cloth bag.
4. Repeat addition of water to the pulp, boil, squeeze.
5. Add first and second extraction together, strain in 3-fold sinamay strainer.
6. Add desired sugar and kalamansi (or ascorbic acid).
7. Boil again, pour into containers while hot.
8. Cover and cool.
Procedure: (Note: Use only ripe duhat fruits.)
1. Wash fruits, remove stems.
2. Boil in a little water for about 3 minutes.
3. Remove from fire and mash with a wooden spoon.
4. Put the cooked pulp in a cloth bag, strain.
5. Add a tbsp. calamansi juice and 1 cup sugar for every cup of duhat juice.
6. Stir well to dissolve sugar, strain again.
7. Cook again until all small bubbles disappear and the big bubbles seem to
jump out.
8. Remove particles on top and pour into containers.
Source: Health & Home, vol. 13(4)
Sevilla oranges Sugar
1. Lemon
1. Wash the fruits, remove ends, seeds, dirt.
2. Chop the fruits (with peels).
3. Put the chopped pieces (with peels) in a big container, cover with water.
The amount of water will not matter because this will be reduced to the desired
amount and sweetness. It must reach 105°C.
4. Boil without cover for 20-30 minutes or until the amount has been reduced
to 1/3.
5. Heat again. For every more or less one liter, add 1 cup sugar little by little
and keep on stirring until the sugar is dissolved.
6. Boil until thick or until 105°C --- when a drop becomes syrupy when placed
on a saucer at room temperature.
7. Remove from fire for 5-10 minutes.
8. Stir, pour into jars. See to it that no part of the peel extends out.
9. Pour a little alcohol like brandy or vodka around 1 tsp. on top of the syrup
if desired. This will present the growth of the molds that may form between the
cover and the marmalade.
10. A screwed cap may also be used when the marmalade has somewhat cooled.
Source: A Connoisseurs Guide & Cookbook Simon & Schuster 1991
1. Select fully ripe and healthy naranghita.
2. Wash, cut crosswise into halves.
3. Extract the juice, strain.
4. Sugar may or may not be added.
5. Heat the juice at 85°C for about 5 minutes, continuously stir.
6. While still hot, pour into bottles that had been sterilized.
Leave about 1/2 cm. space from the rim.
7. Cook in a double boiler in low fire for about 10 minutes.
8. Tighten the cap, cool, set aside. Water and sugar are added according to
Source: FNRI, DOST
The manner of making fruit juices is almost similar in all fruits. The only difference is the
of certain additives, or in the manner of preservation.
Materials: Utensils:
Ripe guayabano Measuring cup and spoon
Sugar Jars or can for preserving
Calamansi Muslin cloth bag, knife, casserole
1. Wash the fruit, peel, remove seeds and core.
2. Slice in 5 cm cubes.
3. Add 1 cup of water for every cup of guayabano juice.
4. Heat at 80°C for 3 minutes. If a thermometer is not available, heat
until the fruit is soft and the juice can be extracted easily.
5. Extract the juice by means of the muslin cloth while still hot.
6. Make a second extraction by adding an equal amount of water and
mix with the first extraction.
7. Put 1/4 tsp. calamansi juice for every cup of guayabano juice: add
sugar to taste.
8. Put in bottles for sterilizing. Heat in a double boiler at 82°C for 15
minutes from the time the water gets hot.
9. Close well and put it in the boiling water for about 10 minutes.
10. Close the bottles well. Label. Source: FNRI 1989
Santol fruit Utensils:
Sugar Aluminum tray, wooden spoon for stirring
Lye (commercial flakes bamboo or wire tray casserole (stainless or
of sodium hydroxide) porcelain) thermometer, knife
1. Wash the santol in running water.
2. Blanch in boiling water for about 3-5 minutes.
3. Dip in 5% lye for 5 minutes in almost boiling temperature (94°C), more or
less one cup sodium hydroxide in 3 liters water.
4. Put immediately in running water, scrape off the peels.
5. Slice into pieces, remove seeds.
6. Prepare the syrup --- 1/2 cup sugar for every cup water, and add the santol
--- enough
to be covered in the container.
7. Boil the santol in this syrup for about 3-5 minutes, soak in the syrup
8. Remove the syrup. Add 1/2 cup sugar for every 3 cups syrup and boil until
9. Put the santol in this syrup, leave overnight.
10. Repeat this process three times.
11. Remove the santol from this last soaking in syrup and rinse in running
12. Spread on a tray and dry in the sun or in a solar drier.
13. Pack in plastic bags before storing. Source: Preserve Foods at Home, FNRI
To enrich the usual coco jam with vitamins, the following proportion is used:
1. parts coconut extract
1 part sugar (brown)
1% Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
2% - 7% powdered soybean, green peas, chick peas, rice
This mixture when cooked, does not last as long as when it is cooked in the traditional way of
cooking coco jam, so it should not be stored.
Source: Completed R & D Projects, STII, DOST
A student from the Panabo Provincial High School (Dean Cabote), as early as 1977, had
proven that the stalk of the coconut leaves could yield vinegar. Just as the coconut blossoms
can yield tuba because of the elements present in them, so also would the stalk, as the same
nutrients are present in the same tree.
1. Cut fresh stalks, slice into sizes 10 cm. wide and 1/2 cm thick, about 10
2. Boil these in 1 liter water for 10 minutes, cool until lukewarm.
3. Add 10 grams white sugar (about 2 tbsp) and 3 grams yeast (about 1 tsp)
4. Transfer them in a jar and cover with muslin cloth until fermented.
5. After 2 weeks, strain and cook in a double boiler for about 10 minutes.
6. The 800 grams that will remain will be as sour and as aromatic as a 6-week-
old vinegar from tuba. Source: Agricultural and Industrial Life
White sugar
1. Strain the second rice washing in a clean cloth.
2. For every cup of rice water, put 3/4 cup white sugar.
Stir well to dissolve the sugar.
3. Cook this in a double boiler for 20 minutes. Cool.
4. Transfer in a gallon or jar.
5. Add 1/4 teaspoon yeast for every 4 cups rice water.
6. Allow to ferment in 4-7 days or until bubbles disappear.
7. Filter the alcoholic rice water to separate the yeast.
8. Add vinegar starter (or very strong vinegar): 1 cup for every 4 cups rice
9. Age the vinegar in a jar or demijohn. Set it aside for a month or until the
desired acidity is attained.
10. Filter and boil in a double boiler before bottling.
1. 11. If a clear vinegar is desired, put 2 beaten eggwhites for every 40 cups
vinegar and filter.
2. Source: Selected R & D Projects, NSTA
Vinegar can be made from ripe, over ripe or bruised pineapples or even from the peelings.
1. Mash the ripe pineapple or parts, add 3 parts water to every one part
2. Filter in double muslin cloth.
3. Add 1 1/2 kilo sugar for every 9 liters filtered juice.
4. Boil in low fire (65°C for 20 minutes). Cool.
5. Poor into demijohns or ceramic or enamel containers, add 2 tsp.
Fleischmann's yeast.
6. Cover with clean muslin cloth or put loose stopper covered with cotton.
7. Set aside for 4-7 days until bubbles disappear.
8. Filter in clean muslin to remove residues.
9. Boil again at 65°C for 20 minutes. Cool.
10. Add 2 liters vinegar starter (or very strong vinegar).
11. Fill the containers, leave it for a month or until the desired acidity is
12. Filter the vinegar and cook in double boiler (65°C) so as to avoid growth of
Transfer to suitable containers. If a clear vinegar is desired, add 2 beaten eggwhites for
every 10 liters vinegar solution. Heat until the whites coagulate. Filter.
Source: ITDI, DOST
For every kilo of banana peels (cavendish or saba), add:
3/4 cups sugar
1/4 cups ammonium sulfite
vinegar starter (or very strong vinegar)
baker's yeast
1. Boil the peelings in 4 cups water.
2. Remove the water, filter in muslin cloth.
3. Add the ammonium sulfite and sugar. Cool.
4. Add a pinch of baker's yeast.
5. Allow to ferment for 8 days. Its alcohol content will be 9%-10%.
6. Add a cup of vinegar starter and set the mixture aside.
7. Allow to ferment for 27 days. At this time, its alcohol content will be about
8. Allow the mixtures to ferment further in bottles.
Source: InfoScience, vol. 1, no.3
According to researchers, vinegar is used, not only for food but for many other uses as well,
such as:
1. To avoid much absorption of oil, put a teaspoon of vinegar in oil when
2. So as to keep potatoes from blackening before boiling, put some drops of
vinegar in the boiling water.
3. When cooking eggs out of its shell, put a teaspoon of vinegar in the water so
that the eggwhite will not scatter.
4. To keep the grains of rice whole (and not splitting), put a teaspoon of
in the water when cooking.
5. A teaspoon of vinegar hastens the tenderizing of meat during cooking.
Other Uses:
1. To remove odor from bottles or jars, rinse them with water containing a
small amount vinegar.
2. When dirty clothes are soaked in warm vinegar, perspiration stains will
3. Stains of scorching from ironing can be removed if the garment will be
washed with vinegar water.
4. A teaspoon of vinegar added to rinsing water for nylon stockings will retain
its elasticity.
5. A teaspoon of vinegar in a pint of varnish gives gloss to the varnish.
6. The smell of paint in a room can be removed by putting a small saucer of
vinegar in the room.
For every kilo of banana peelings (cavendish or saba), add:
12 tbsp. sugar 1/4 tsp. sodium benzoate
9 tbsp. vinegar salt, pepper to taste
1. Wash and slice the banana peelings into small pieces.
Remove fibers.
2. Dip in boiling water for about 10 minutes.
3. Add 2 cups water, mash well, strain in muslin cloth.
4. Add the sugar, vinegar, salt and pepper.
5. Cook in a casserole with cover for 10 minutes.
6. Add vinegar syrup with flavoring and continue stirring until thick.
7. Add 1/4 tsp. sodium benzoate.
8. Transfer in clean bottles, cover tightly.
9. Boil for 15 minutes in water, cool.
Source: Info Science, vol. 1, no.3
For every kilo of banana peelings, add:
1 tsp. salt
1. cups water
1. Dip the peelings in boiling water for 10 minutes.
2. Add 2 cups water to the peelings, mash well and strain in a muslin cloth.
3. Add salt.
4. Cook until a thick paste is attained.
5. Pour into clean bottles, remove the air.
6. Boil for 15 minutes, cool.
Source: InfoScience, vol. 1, no.3
Chayote Sodium benzoate Salt
Garlic Vinegar Sugar
Onions Pepper
1. Wash the chayote, slice lengthwise.
2. Peel, remove the seed and cut into cubes.
3. Boil in little water.
3. Drain, mash well.
4. Slice the onions, garlic, hot pepper
5. Mix well in enough vinegar, sugar and a pinch of salt.
6. Cook until thick consistency is attained.
1. Dissolve a little food color if desired, in 1/2 cup of water; add a pinch of
sodium benzoate.
8. Put in a bottle or jar; cook in a double boiler.
Source: PCARRD Farmnews, May 1987
1 cup soybeans
1. teaspoon vinegar
1. Soak the beans in water overnight. Change water several times and remove
floating grains.
2. Wash, grind the soybeans. Add about 6 cups water for every cup of beans
while grinding.
3. Boil the ground beans in water for 1/2 hour while stirring.
4. Strain in muslin cloth.
5. Mix in well a teaspoon of vinegar.
6. Wrap in cloth the curdled soybean.
7. Remove the express water by putting weight on top of it.
The curdled tokwa can be a substitute for meat.
Source: The Philippines Recommends, PCARRD, 1991
The preparation of miso (which comes in 3 kinds) depends on the length of time. It is
fermented and stored.
Wooden box 60 x 30 x 5 cm.
Pressure cooker or casserole
A. White miso
1/2 kilo soybeans 300 grams salt
1 kilo rice starter (A. Oryzae)
B. Average Salty and Yellowish Miso
5 kilos soybeans 2 kilos salt
3 kilos rice starter
C. Salty and Darker Miso
5 kilos soybeans 2-10 kilos salt
3 kilos rice starter
1. Wash the rice, soak overnight.
2. Steam cook until the grains can be pressed between the fingers.
3. Cook until 35°C and add starter.
4. Mix well, put in a box and in a place with about 25°C temperature. If the
place is warmer than this, open all ventilation to allow free circulation of air.
5. Let the mold grow within 24-48 hours. Stir the rice in the box every 5 hours
and change the places of the boxes as they are piled.
1. Wash the soybeans, soak overnight.
2. Change the water 3 times and remove the coatings.
3. Cook in 2 parts water until soft. Cool.
4. Grind or mash.
5. Mix the rice with mold and salt. Set aside 20 grams salt for covering the top
of the mixture.
6. Put in a barrel, pressed and compact (no air) and put salt on top.
7. Cover with plastic sheet, put weight over it so as to keep it from floating.
8. Keep in a room with about 15°C - 30°C temperature.
9. Let this ferment: 1 month for white miso
3 months for average miso
6 months for salty miso
10. Grind the miso.
11. Cook in double boiler at 50°C for 20 minutes.
12. Put in plastic bags, remove air and seal.
Source: The Philippines Recommends for Soybeans 1991
To increase the protein content of the Filipino diet, researchers at FNRI (DOST) have come
up with an enriched kind of n oodle that can somehow supplement their
Protein and energy needs.
Materials: Utensils:
Rice (880 grams) - or -------4 1/2 cups Bowl, Mixer, Kettle, Cup
Water (630 ml.) - or ---------2 3/4 cups Teaspoon, Noodle machine
Soybean flour (200 grams) or 2 1/2 cups Cornmill/grinder
Salt (30 grams) --- or ------ 6 tps. Solar dyrer/cabinet dryer
Cornstarch (50 grams) or 1/2 cup
1. Measure 4 1/2 cups rice, soak in 2 3/4 boiling water for an hour.
2. Grind the soaked rice.
3. Add the 2 1/2 cups soybean flour, 6 teaspoons salt and 1/2 cup ground rice.
4. Mix well for about 5-7 minutes to make dough.
5. Mold the dough into balls about 6.5 cm.-7.5 cm. diameter.
6. Cook in boiling water for 30 minutes.
7. Drain the cooked dough for about 10 minutes.
8. Pass the dough through the noodle machine to make noodles.
9. Dry the noodles in a cabinet dryer for 4 hours at 48°C-50°C or in the sun
until they become brittle.
Source: FNRI (DOST)
The usual sotanghon is made from soybeans, but since this is important and more costly,
researchers at UP Los Baños have produced sotanghon using mongo, without any distinction
from the usual soybean sotanghon.
To make starch:
1. Soak the mongo overnight.
2. Grind several times and sieve at 400 mesh.
3. The residue that is left is the material for sotanghon.
The portion that is not used contains much protein, which is used as hog feed.
To make noodles:
1. Add water to the starch while stirring, until the right consistency is
attained, that is the starch becomes fibery but does not snap.
2. Dip the fibrous starch in boiling water. Rinse.
3. Store first in a cool place before drying.
4. Dry in the sun until only about 4% moisture is retained.
Source: Division Ideas Magazine, August 1990
Toge can be made from both mongo seeds or soybeans.
1. Soak the beans in water overnight.
2. Spread a piece of white cloth over a "bilao" or tray and put the beans on it.
3. Cover with another cloth; sprinkle water over it every now and then.
4. Keep in a cool dark place. This will sprout in 3 days.
This can also be done in a container where water passes through and has enough
space for growth of the beans. Wet the beans now and then as in the cloth in the
Source: The Philippines Recommends for soybeans, PCARRD 1991
Seaweeds must be harvested from the sea very early in the morning or while the
tide is still low.
1. Wash the seaweeds very well, drain and dry (Spread over a wire or
bamboo screen for the purpose) for a week.
2. To remove the fishy odor and taste, soak and dry the seaweeds in
fresh water for 5-10 minutes, and dry again in the sun until it
becomes dirty yellow in color.
3. Bleach in 1 liter water with 1 tbsp. vinegar until it turns olive
green in color.
4. Put again in the sun until it turns light brown.
To extract agar:
5. Put 1 kilo dried seaweeds in 1 liter water with 1 tbsp. vinegar
(or, more effective, in 3 1/2 liter water, 80 ml. 0.1 N sulfuric acid
6. Boil and constantly stir for 1 hour.
7. Strain in muslin cloth while hot.
8. Allow to cool in room temperature for 5 hours.
9. When it has hardened, slice into desired sizes.
10. Put in ice sprinkled with salt for 2-3 days, or in a freezer overnight.
11. Next day, thaw the frozen seaweeds and allow to dry.
12. Put again in the sun until the desired fineness is attained.
13. When it cools, it is then ready to cook or bring to market.
Source: PCARRD Monitor, August 1987
Soak the meat for a few minutes in papain-water solution, 1/10% to 1% before cooking.
Source: Chemical Formulary by Bennet, vol. 23
Papain is made from green papaya fruits while these are still attached to the tree. The bigger
is the fruit, the more latex is derived. More amount of latex is gathered if this is done 3 times
a week in a month. The more cuts are made, the less is the flow of latex. The best time for
gathering latex is between 8:00 am to 12 noon.
1. Cut the raw papaya (on the tree) with a sharp glass, about 2 mm deep.
2. Collect the flowing latex in a plastic container and put in a glass bottle.
3. Dry the latex in the sun or oven.
4. Pulverize the dried latex.
Source: Selected R & D completed projects, NSDB 1980.
There are two ways of making balut - one is for a commercial scale and the other for a small
home industry. Both duck and chicken eggs may be used, but the usual eggs used are ducks'
For Small Scale Industry:
1. Prepare a big wooden box; line this with heated rice hull at the bottom,
about 38°C and 6-8 inches thick.
2. Arrange the eggs in bags of about 20 or 50 pieces each, put them on the
heated hull and cover again with same thickness of heated hull.
3. Cover the box very well so as to prevent quick loss of heat.
4. Every morning, inspect the eggs to see if the rice hull needs reheating.
The hull must be about 38°C.
5. On the third day, examine the eggs against a bright light to see if the germ
plasm has developed. This is the part of the egg that becomes the chick, if the egg is
fertiled. If no germ plasm develops, remove the eggs. These are sold as "penoy". Put
back into the heated hull those eggs with germ plasm.
6. On the 13th day, examine again the eggs against the light. Remove the eggs
with out germ plasm. At this stage, those with developing germ plasm are
the "balut sa puti".
7. On the 17th day, the chicks will be growing little feathers. These may now be
For commercial scale: The process is the same except that an incubator is
used instead of heated rice hull.
Source: Coffee and Cocoa Journal, February 1981.
Another way of salting eggs is by storing them in clay instead of in brine.
Materials: Utensils:
Eggs (duck or chicken) measuring cup
Salt, clay earthenware
1. Mix together 12 cups clay and 4 cups salt. Add water little by little as it is
being mixed until an even distribution is attained.
2. Put a thick layer of this mixture at the bottom of the pot.
3. Wrap each egg in clay.
4. Arrange the eggs in the pot, about 2 1/2 cm. apart to keep from breaking.
5. Cover again with salted clay and set aside for 2 weeks.
6. After about 2 weeks, try an egg. Cook at a heat that does not reach boiling
If it is not yet salty enough, let the rest stay longer in the pot.
7. When the right saltiness has been reached, cook the eggs in water that does
not boil up to 100°C for 15 minutes.
8. Brush with red color if desired.
Eggs are fresh when:
1. The yolk can be discerned if the egg is put against the light.
2. The egg lies flat on its side when put in water.
3. The yolk is firm and the white is jelly-like, not spreading when the egg is
Extends the freshness of eggs:
1. In storing, the pointed end should be down and the rounded end up.
2. Do not wash soiled eggs, just wipe them with a clean cloth.
So, buy only eggs with clean shell.
3. Keep in a refrigerator or in a cool place.
4. Keep in a well-ventilated place.
Eggs absorb the odor of the room or its surroundings when this is in a closed place.
Uses of eggs in cooking:
1. To thicken soup or sauces.
2. As binder, as in making embutido, torta or relleno.
3. To lighten cakes and muffins.
4. Improve the color of the baked food like bread.
5. Used in making mayonnaise and for salads.
6. As decorations for viands.
Health benefits from eggs in the diet:
1. Makes the muscles firm and the skin healthy.
2. Adds red color to the blood.
3. Gives clarity to the eyes.
4. Hastens the growth of growing kids.
5. Gives stamina for work or play.
Children, pregnant women or nursing mothers as well as the aged need at least an egg a day
to meet the needs of the body. Those aged 20-59 need only about half of this requirement.
Other characteristics of eggs:
1. The color of the shell has nothing to do with the nutrients they provide.
2. Balut contains more calcium and vitamin A than ordinary eggs.
3. Eggs give much cholesterol, but should not be skipped in the diet, at least
every other day.
4. In cooking, put over low fire or moderate heat, as overcooking causes
5. To remove the shell easily after cooking, put the boiled egg immediately in
tap water after removing from the fire. It is also in this way that the black rim
around the yolk is avoided. Source: FNRI (DOST)
The basic ingredients for making mayonnaise are lemon juice or vinegar, salad oil or
winterized oil not less than 65% or 2/3, egg yolk or whole egg, and sugar, salt and spices
(paprika, mustard) and vetsin. However, substitutions maybe made.
1 cup lard (or cooking oil) 28°C
1 egg yolk
1 1/2 tbsp. 4.5 vinegar (del Monte)
1/2 tsp. iodized salt
1 tsp. white sugar
1. Separate yolk from the whole egg and place it in a clean and dry quart-
2. Using a table fork, beat egg yolk rapidly and continuously until light yellow,
for about 5 minutes.
3. Add salt and beat well.
4. Add oil (or lard) by drops, beating well after each addition until about 1/4
cup is used.
5. Add 1/2 tsp. vinegar and beat well.
6. Add lard alternately with the vinegar and beat vigorously after each
addition. Increase the amount of oil added by half tablespoon when the mayonnaise
has already formed a stable emulsion.
7. Continuously beat the emulsion after all the oil (or lard) and vinegar have
been added.
8. Place the mayonnaise dressing in a sterile dry bottle or jar and seal tightly.
9. Store in a screened cabinet at room temperature until use.
Source: CMU Journal of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Official Publication.
Extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables.
1. Place moist sawdust in a big basin or pail. Take care to remove
sharp or pointed pieces in the sawdust that will hurt the fruits or vegetables
as it is in this way that rotting caused by bacterial organisms start.
2. Place the fruits and vegetables in this pail and cover with moist
sawdust again.
3. Do not allow water to accumulate at the bottom of the pail. Within
11 days, the fruits/vegetables will lose only 2% of their weight while
in the usual way of storage, the total loss of weight is 10% within the
same period of time.
Source: Philippine Farmers' Journal, July-August 1983
Other Ways of Storing Fruits/Vegetables:
A. Moistened sawdust
1. Wash very well in water with chlorox - 1 liter water for
tablespoon chlorox.
2. If the sawdust has been used before, sterilize first by
under the sun.
3. Remove all sharp pieces that might start bruising the
4. Moisten the sawdust and mix well -- 1 liter water for every
kilo sawdust.
5. Arrange the vegetables in the moist sawdust and store in a
cool place.
A. Fresh Banana Leaves
1. Heat over the fire fresh banana leaves to prevent them
breaking apart.
2. Wrap the vegetables in the leaves. Change the leaves when
crumple or lose the ability to keep the vegetables fresh. Winged
beans kept in this way stay fresh for about one and a half
weeks, but if not stored in this way, last only three days.
A. Earthen pot
1. Pour water over the covered pot, wet the sides very well.
the process when the pot shows drying.
2. Place the pot on a basin or container with water at the
but place a platform for the vegetables inside to keep from
rotting because of wetness. Vegetables such as cabbage,
tomatoes, beans, eggplant, and mangoes can last for a week if
stored in this manner.
Source: PCARRD Farmnews, April 1984
1. Select tomatoes that are mature and ripe, but firm.
2. Dip in boiling water for about one half to one minute or
steam for 2-3 minutes.
3. Dip in tap water to remove the peel easily. Remove the
core as well.
4. Arrange the tomatoes in a jar compactly, but with a spare
of about one centimeter from the rim.
5. Do not add water. Add in 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/3
teaspoon lime in the jar.
6. Remove the air from the jar -- place this in a casserole and
heat at 77°C for about 15 minutes.
The level of water should be only 2/3 of the height of the jar to
prevent the water from entering the jar.
7. Close the jar well and boil in water for 35 minutes.
8. Cool, store. Source: FNRI (DOST)
Research at the UPLB has shown that the ripening of tomatoes can be
hastened or delayed.
1. Ripening can be hastened if the tomatoes are kept in Dry
Ash. This increases the ethylene gas which hastens ripening.
2. If this is placed in a cool place, it will have the red color of
3. If tomatoes are kept in moist ash, this will neither hasten
delay ripening, but the ripening will be natural, and the
tomatoes will be firm even if ripe, better than if stored in dry
ash. Source: Farming Today, July 1983
1. Dip the tomatoes in boiling water for a minute.
2. Dip in 500 ppm solution of sodium metabisulfite for 2
3. Dry in the oven at 54°C for 9 hours or until its moisture
goes down to 7.5%.
4. Pulverize the dried tomatoes in a pestle.
The resulting product is red in color and smells and tastes like
fresh tomatoes. To cook, mix with water as needed.
Source: Selected R & D Completed Projects, NSTA 1982.
Carrot is rich in Vitamins A and C. It is good to store it during its
abundance so as to make it available during scarcity.
Carrots -- mature, bright colored, fresh
Starch flour -- 4 tbsp. in 4 cups water (stir continually while
Plastic bags
1. Wash carrots very well, slice into 4 x 10 x 10 mm. sizes.
2. Arrange on a sinamay or nylon cloth and dip in boiling
water for 3 minutes.
3. Dip the carrots in the cooked starch for one minute.
4. Drain and arrange on a tray.
5. Dry in the oven at 60°C-65°C for 7-8 hours or under the
sun until no juice can be extracted when pressed. If the carrots will
be dried in the sun, do not expose them directly. Put them inside a
box with holes at the 4 sides. Cover the top of the box with black or
dark cloth or plastic sheet.
6. When dried, pack in plastic bags and seal.
7. To reuse soak 1/4 cup carrots in a cup of warm water for
half an hour.
8. Cook in the usual way like fresh carrots.
Source: FNRI, Oct. 1989
1. Select fresh, mature green pepper with deep green color.
Wash them very well in running water.
2. Cut in halves, remove seeds, placenta and stems.
3. Slice into 2 cm size thick before blanching.
4. Spread on a sinamay or nylon cloth (not thicker than 2 cm.) before
5. Dip in 5% salt solution for 30 minutes.
6. Blanch steam for 2 minutes.
7. Dry at 60°C-65°C for 7-8 hours.
8. Pack in plastic bags.
1. Select green, fresh celery with fleshy stalks.
2. Cut into 3/4 cm cubes and the leafy parts 3 cm. long.
3. Spread on wide nylon or sinamay basket about 2 1/2 cm thick
before blanching.
4. Steam blanch for one minute.
5. Soak in 0.05% lime (calcium chloride) for 5 minutes.
6. Dip in boiling 0.2% sodium metabisulfite solutionn for 2 minutes.
7. Dry at 60°C -65°C for 6-7 hours.
8. Pack in plastic bags and seal.
Source: Selected R & D completed projects, NSTA
One of the ways to hasten the ripening of fruits is by the Right Use of Calcium
carbide. The fruits must be in a box with the right temperature and right
The wrong use of calcium carbide for artificial ripening of fruits is by wrapping
the calcium carbide in paper and putting it among the fruits. This burns
(hurts) the fruits.
When the fruit is mature and made to ripen artificially, its ripening is no
different from natural ripening, both in quality and in taste. And if calcium
carbide is placed properly, the color of the fruit is stronger and the shriveling of
its skin or peeling is delayed.
What hastens the ripening of the fruit is the ethylene gas that emanates from the
calcium carbide, and not the calcium carbide itself. Ethylene gas is not poison to
humans and gives no damaging effects.
Source: Philippine Farmers Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1983.
According to researchers at the UP Los Baños, the ripening of fruits can be
delayed from one to two weeks under the following conditions:
1. Don't pick the fruits very soon. Trees have a natural way of
the ripening of fruits.
2. Take care not to bruise the fruits in picking, transporting or
containers. It is in these ways that microorganisms enter the fruits and
causes rotting to start and lose weight.
3. Ripe fruits give off ethylene, a kind of gas that hastens ripening.
put together ripe and raw fruits.
4. Don't put together healthy and non-healthy fruits. Non-healthy
give off much ethylene.
5. Don't expose the fruits in the sun. This hastens ripening.
6. Keep the fruits away from heat given off by motor or machine.
They also give off ethylene gas.
7. Ripening is slow in low temperatures. If no refrigerator is
available, put the fruits in the coolest possible place.
8. If a refrigerator is available, put the fruits in a plastic bag with
small holes.
9. Put charcoal soaked in potassium permanganate or small pieces of
cement or perlite in containers with fruits.
Source: Farming Today, April 1982
(Hot Water Treatment)
Hot water treatment (HWT) retards the ripening of mangoes without affecting
its taste; makes the color of ripening brighter and evenly, and does not require
the use of pesticides, chemicals because the fruits are not infected by bacteria or
1. Prepare two containers of hot water -- this may be half of a drum
similar, according to the quantity of mangoes to be treated.
One drum that contains hot water will be for immersing the mangoes,
And the other will be for maintaining the heat of the water used for
2. The heat of the water should be within 52°C-55°C range. To
this heat, it is necessary to use a bulb thermometer.
3. Immerse soonest the newly harvested mature mangoes for 10
4. Cool the mangoes in running water after immersing.
5. Air dry the mangoes before storing in container.
Source: PCARRD-DA Farmnews, March-April 1991
Fruits must not be picked when immature because they will not ripen
naturally. However, there are instances when this is inevitable, such
as during a storm or unavoidable circumstances.
Researches were conducted at UP Los Baños have shown that immature
fruits can somehow be made to ripen with the aid of a chemical, Ethrel.
1. Fill with water up to 1/2 a kerosene can (balde). Dissolve 10 tbsp.
Ethrel in this water.
2. Pour more water gradually until the can is full (19 liters) and stir well
while pouring.
3. Transfer one-half of this to another container.
4. Immerse the bananas in the mixture for 5 minutes, then let it dry in the air.
These will ripen in 5 days.
5. If the mixture will be used again cover it and store in a cool place.
This can be used up to 15 days provided the fruits being immersed are clean
and dry before they are immersed. It was seen by the researchers that if the
fruits are immersed in ethrel on the fourth to the seventh day (4th-7th) after
harvest, the banana ripen in 2-3 days.
1. For immature tomatoes, 90% of 21 day-old fruits ripen in 10 days
after putting them in ethrel. Some of these did not turn red.
2. If the ethrel solution is weak, tomatoes do not ripen well.
3. If the tomatoes are less than 21 days, tomatoes are not edible.
Calcium chloride and ethrel:
Less ethrel is needed to ripen bananas, compared to calcium carbide. It
requires 20 grams carbide for every liter of water.
Source: Agricultural & Industrial Life
Studies made at the UP Los Baños showed that when raw saba bananas are put
in kakawate leaves, its ripening is hastened. This is because the kakawate leaves
emit bioethylene, a gas that ripens fruits.
It was also seen that when bananas are ripened with kakawate leaves, the weight
loss is only 5%, while those not treated loses 19% of its weight within 6 days.
Stack the banana bunches with kakawate leaves alternately.
Researchers at the Malaysia University and of the Malaysia Agricultural
Research and Development Institute have a way of delaying the ripening
of bananas. This is not their present method of wrapping the fruits in a
bag with polythene - this is good only until 11 days.
The new method is by the use of the chemical, Bynonyl, used to combat, molds,
but is not harmful to humans. They tried this on raw bananas called "pisang
emas." This method reduced the growth of molds and retards ripening besides
improving the quality of the fruits.
1. Pack and seal the bananas in an air tight bag with bynonyl.
2. When the packing is removed, keep the fruits in temperature at
It is only then that the fruits will start to ripen normally.
Source: PCARRD Farmnews, August 1987
Sweet potatoes or kamote can last up to 2-3 months if harvested and stored
1. When harvesting, use a container that can take only what is
to avoid falling off and having bruises. It is in getting hurt that rotting of
fruits begin.
2. Avoid using sacks for this reason.
3. The storage should be near the place of harvest or near the place of
4. In places of storage, use bamboo, kogon grass or leaves of coconut
as roof or walls.
1. Harvest fruits at the right season of maturity.
For example:
Mangoes: 82 days from flowering and bearing fruits
When the fruits that are exposed are immersed in water, these grow further
and become more darkly or strongly colored than those hidden (which
grow slowly).
Tomatoes -- if to be transported far--harvest when the end of the flower
becomes pinkish, which are formerly green: if to be transported nearby-
harvest them when the fruits are colored orange.
2. Mango and Citrus: pick the fruits with all care. Avoid excessive
stain or
sap on the skin, if they are to be harvested at the last hours of the morning
or before 3:00 p.m.
Sweet corn: pick early to retain its sweetness. When harvested late in the
morning, its sugar turns into carbohydrates.
3. Arrange properly in containers to avoid bruises or crushing, and to
free circulation of air in containers. Use old newspapers, thin polyethene
or plastic bubbles sheets as lining at the bottom of containers.
4. Transport quickly and carefully. Insert potassium permanganate
in the
container. This is dissolved and made to be absorbed by perlite blocks
which in turn will absorb the ethylene emitted by the fruits.
Perite blocks
--- 1 part cement
--- 4 parts perlite beads water to make thin paste
a. Allow this to dry and harden in 36 hours.
b. Cut in small pieces depending on use.
Bananas - good, mature bananas are rounded, have no sharp edges. It can withstand only up
to 14°C storage.
Caimito - the green variety is sweeter than the purple ones. Choose slightly soft fruits (Hard
caimito will not ripen). It can be stored at 7°C temperature.
Mango - good mango of any variety has full "cheeks" and slightly yellow at the base (near
the stem). Avoid sick, bruished mangoes or those with hard lumps. Keep in a cool place.
Melon - mature melon is sweet. The peel is yellow and a little soft near the stem. It cannot
stand very cold temperature. Immature ones are not sweet and will not ripen.
Papaya - good papaya has streaks of yellow at the base and has deep lines lengthwise. It can
be stored at 10°C.
Watermelon - mature fruits are whitish to yellowish; it gives off a dull sound when knocked
(filliped) with the thumb and index finger. Immature fruits give off a metallic sound when
filliped. They will not ripen and are not sweet. It can be stored at 5°C. Source: Agricultural
and Industrial Life, 1990.
Weevils and mildew are the usual enemies of corn in storage. The grains attacked by these
do not germinate.
One way of extending the storage life of corn is by:
1. Drying the grains of corn until moisture is reduced to 10%.
2. Put them in a can (5 gal. Capacity) without leaks or hole.
3. Dry about 2 kilos charcoal (up to 4%-5% moisture) and pulverize.
4. Place the powdered charcoal at the bottom of the can; put a cardboard
perforated with holes on top of the charcoal.
5. Put the grains of corn on the cardboard. They can accommodate about 6
kilos grains.
6. Close the can and seal with glue around the cover to keep air from entering
and thus damage the grains.
To prepare glue:
Put 1 part pomade or grease in
1 part powdered clay or lime
If there are weevils present in the grains inside the can, the carbon dioxide that will
emanate from the grains will kill them. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, October 31,
Rice can be stored without using pesticides. Instead, carbon dioxide which is not
poison, is used as fumigant. Pesticides don't really control the insects in the rice sack
as the spraying does not penetrate the interior of the sack. Thus, the pests in the
middle part of the sack can keep on multiplying. And pesticides leave residues that
are harmful to humans.
1. Pack carbon dioxide in a plastic bag and seal.
2. Put this bag in the sack of rice. Rice can be stored for as long as 15
months and still retain its good quality. Source: PCARRD Farmnews,
December 1988
1. The skin is glossy and tight.
2. The gills are red (although artificial coloring can be done to imitate
3. The eyes are clear and shallow, not reddish or sunken.
4. The body is firm, not soft.
5. The smell is not fishy.
6. The intestines are intact and whole.
7. The body is slippery with saliva.
1. The shell is closed.
2. The smell is clean and not offensive.
1. Appearance is heavier than they actually seem.
2. Firm in texture and the legs are intact, not loose or dangling
1. The smell is not offensive.
2. The shell or skin is tight and firm.
Source: FNRI 1982
The freshness of fish can be seen through its external appearance and odor, and in a
chemical analysis.
Besides the mudfish and catfish, all fishes stop breathing the moment they are removed
from the water, especially sea fishes.
Our fish products are in demand abroad, but they cannot pass the rigid quality control
imposed by importing countries because of our family way of freezing, and so we export
only dried and smoked fish.
The decay of fish is caused by bacteria and enzymes that are outside the fish, not within
the flesh of the fish. These are in the water, the slimy substance around the fish, in the
gills and internal organs.
For example, the tuna that comes from Mindanao carries with it 18 kinds of micro-
organism in every gram of its shell/skin; the oysters caught in the Manila Bay contains
thousands of this in every gram.
Thus, to delay the decay of fish, remove the gills and internal organs and wash very well
to remove the slimy substance. In freezing, temperatures between 0°C-3.89°C causes
crystal iciness in the muscles. If the fish is placed at 0°C as soon as this is removed from
the water it will last for 7 days.
The faster the muscles become icy and the smaller that ice crystals that are formed in
the muscles, the longer the good taste or quality remains. This is "quick freezing". The
temperature must be reduced to -3.89°C from 0°C for not more than 2 hours for quick
freezing. If it gets longer than 2 hours to have crystals in the flesh, this is "slow freezing"
which is the usual way of freezing in domestic refrigerators.
Fish contains 15%-25% protein that has all the amino acids as in beef or chicken meat.
Source: Milkfish as food, NSTA 1978.
It has been tested and found acceptable in India to preserve fish using certain
1. Clean fish very well - remove scales, gills, internal organs.
2. Slice
3. Soak in the following solution:
a. 8% salt - boil for a few minutes and cool;
add: 0.5% potassium sorbate and,
0.25% sodium benzoate
The fish put in this solution lasts for 72 hours.
b. 8% salt - boil the solution and cool, add:
0.5% potassium sorbate and
0.1% sodium bisulphite
0.25% sodium benzoate
The taste of fish preserved in this solution tastes better on
the 48th hour, and lasts as long as the fish is in solution.
Source: Fishery Technology, January 1988
Sodium bisulfite -- 1 1/4 %
Water ---------------- 98.34%
Mix the above. Put in the shrimps here then drain: Keep in ice. Source: Chemical
Formulary (Bennet) vol. 23
Materials: Utensils:
Rice (cooked) Knife, jar with a big mouth (sterilized) or put in
Angkak the sun
1. Slice the fish on its back.
2. Remove the gills, internal organs, blood. Wash very well.
3. Cook 2 cups rice in 4-5 cups water; cool.
4. Refine the angkak and mix it with the cooked rice.
5. Spread thin the rice with angkak at the bottom of the container
and arrange the tilapia over it alternately.
6. Cover with a thick rice spread over the fish.
7. Close the container tight, allow to ferment in 3 weeks.
Source: PCARRD Farmnews, October 31, 1985
Shrimps, pestle, mortar
1. Use only fresh shrimps, wash very well.
2. If gathering is made from the sea, put the shrimps in a basket and
dip several times in the water to remove all dirt. Remove stones, fish, shells,
and whatever else that might affect the taste and aroma of the shrimp cake.
Avoid handling to prevent growth of microorganisms.
3. Drying:
a. Drain the shrimps and spread over a mat under the sun for 3-5
b. The mat should be on an elevated place to keep from dust and
intrusion of stray animals.
c. Keep flies away.
d. Drying can also be done in an oven.
Pound the dried shrimps in a clean pestle until fine and sticky (about 5
Wrap the shrimps in a bag and let it stay overnight.
On the following day, mold into small cakes manually.
Put under the sun for 2 hours to reduce moisture down to 39%.
Pound the shrimps in the pestle until fine.
Mold the dried shrimps like balls, about one kilo each.
Cooling: allow the shrimp balls to cool at room temperature until dry.
Packing : use banana leaves for wrapping or polyethylene bags (plastic bags).
If properly done, dried shrimp cakes can last up to two years in storage.
Source: Farmnews, February 1989
1/2 kilo dalagang bukid 1/2 cup flour
1. egg well-beaten 1/4 cup nguyong powder
1/4 kilo shelled shrimps 1/2 tsp. pepper
1/2 cup chopped turnip 1 1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 cup chopped onions 3 pcs. taupe (wrapper)
1/2 cup chopped celery
1. Remove all bones and skin from the fish.
2. Grind together with the shrimps.
3. Mix all ingredients and steam for 20 minutes.
4. Wrap in taupe or aluminum foil.
5. Fry in hot lard.
6. Slice in desired sizes.
Sweet sour sauce:
3/4 cup water 1 tbsp. vinegar
1 tbsp. cornstarch 2 tbsp. soy sauce, vetsin
3/4 cup sugar
Mix all together and heat until the desired thickness.
Source: Fisheries Newsletter, Oct. 18-24, 1981
1 1/4 kilo fish meat (labahita)
1/4 kilo pork fat
1. gms. salt
4 gms. accord powder (binder)
12 gms. frankfurter seasoning
5. gms. prague powder (available at ITDI, DOST)
5. gms. sugar
1/2 kilo ice
1. Separately grind the pork and fish meat.
2. Add salt and seasoning to the fish.
3. Add the ice and keep on mixing and cutting the mixture.
4. Add the frankfurter seasoning, fat, sugar and the rest of ice.
5. Mix well until fine.
6. Stuff into the sausage casing about 10 cm. long each.
7. Smoke for about one-half hour at 71°C-75°C.
8. Dip in hot water (about 73°C for 10 minutes).
9. Remove the casing.
10. Pack in plastic bag and freeze. (Note: guava leaves are good for
smoking). Source: Fisheries Newsletter, August 18-24, 1981
One way of preserving bangus or any fish is by canning. But since not all have a
pressure cooker and the use of tin cans need a special sealer, it is possible to can
or preserve fish in the following manner:
1. Select fresh bangus (or any fish) for preserving.
2. Remove the scales, internal organs, fins and tail.
3. Wash very well; soak in salt water to remove the remaining blood
and make the flesh white and firm. Before preserving, the fish may be
steamed, smoked, dried in the sun, fried, salted or ground.
4. In putting in the jar, leave about 4-5 cm. space from the rim before
5. Remove air by putting the jar in water boiling at 82°C (steam).
6. Close the jar. Put a rubber sealer around the cap.
7. Boil at 115°C-121°C (or at 10-15 pressure per sq. in. if in pressure
8. Let it cool by itself. Source: Milkfish as Food.
1. kilo fish meat 2 eggs
3 tsp. salt 1 cup chopped onions
2. tsp. pepper 2 tbsp. milk powder
or 4 tbsp. evap. milk
1. tsp. hamburger seasoning oil for frying
1. Mix all ingredients together.
2. Make balls, flatten the balls, fry.
Source: Fisheries Newsletter, Oct. 16-24, 1981
Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC)
1. cups corn flour a little vetsin flour
4 tbsp. powdered fish (FPC)
4 cups water
2 tsp. salt
1. cup cooking oil
1 1/2 tsp. fine pepper
1. Mix well together in 4 cups water: the fish powder,
cornstarch, salt, pepper, flour, vetsin.
2. Use a tray that can be heated. Line this with oil.
3. Spread on the tray about 3 tbsp. of the mixture, about 1/2
cm. thick.
4. Steam this for two minutes.
5. Slice the steamed mixture into desired sizes.
6. Arrange on a tray and dry in the sun or in a solar dried for
one or two days.
7. Deep fry in oil.
8. Drain, cool, seal in plastic bag.
Source: NSDB Appropriate Technology, Series 27
100 grams size bangus 1/2 tsp. vetsin
1/2 teaspoon salt 4 tbsp. tomato sauce
2 tbsp. cooking oil 2 slices bell pepper
1. Remove the fish scales, gills and internal organs, fins, tail, and the
black lining in the belly.
2. Wash very well and drain.
3. Slice according to the size of the can, and arrange the pieces inside
the can.
4. Steam the can for 20 minutes to remove the moisture in the fish.
5. Remove all moisture from the can, put in the tomato sauce and all
other ingredients.
6. Seal the can and heat at 115.6°C for one and a half hours.
7. To avoid overcooking, put the can immediately in running water
after cooking.
8. Wipe clean the cooled can. The viscerals removed from the fish can
be used as fish concentrate when dried and powdered, and for fish curls.
Source: PCARRD Farmnews, January 1984
Boneless Bangus (Bangus Deboning)
Raw Material: Fresh bangus (preferably 3 pieces to a kilo)
Equipment/Utensils: Mosquito forceps, straight, cutting board, sharp knife,
utility tray,
1. Washing - wash fish upon arrival from the market. Scales
may or may not be
2. Splitting - split fish on the dorsal side starting from the tail
to the head by running the edge of the knife along the backbone.
3. Removal of Internal Organs - lay fish open like butterfly
fillet. Remove gills and internal organs. Wash fish to remove blood
and dirt. The black membrane covering the belly cavity may or
may not be removed depending upon the consumers choice. Wash
fish in running water.
4. Removal of backbone & dorsal fin. Remove backbone by
laying fish flat on the cutting board with the skin down. Hold the
knife in a horizontal/standing position and cut in with the tip of the
blade along the backbone from head to tail. Trim off the dorsal fin.
5. Place fish in a shallow tray. With the aid of a mosquito
forceps, start removing the spines. Rib bones - the rib bones are
located in the belly cavity. They are visible and are superficially
embedded thus easy to pull out. The spines on the head portion are
branched spines while the rest are unbranched. The spines on the
tail portion are very much attached to the muscle tendon, making it
difficult to remove. It is necessary to make a horizontal slit on this
portion for easier removal of the spines. Lateral intermuscular
spines - are located in-between the dorsal and ventral muscles. Pull
out first the large arch-shaped spines at the base of the operculum.
Proceed pulling out the Y-shaped spines up to the mid-portion of
the body ending with 3 single delicate spines. Dorsal intermuscular
spines - make a superficial slit from head to tail along the dent of
the dorsal muscle. Pull out the embedded intermuscular spines one
at a time. It is important to know the exact location of the spines
most especially the intermuscular spines.
The usual materials for sausage casing is the intestine of the slaughtered hog,
sheep or cow. The intestines are lined up with five layers from within, such as:
1. Mucosa or lining of mucosa or saliva composed of cells that aid in
digestion, absorption and circulation of substances to the various
parts of the body.
2. Submucosa - nerves and fibers with fatty tissues in them. These are
rich in collagen, the chief material in casing.
3. Smooth muscles that surround the intestine.
4. Layer of fibers.
5. Serosa (outermost layer), composed of thin elastic fibers.
Cow serosa is thicker than hog serosa.
Carefully pull the intestines from the slaughtered animal.
Fat removal:
Carefully scrape the fat with a knife. Remove all fat as much as
possible because this will cause rancidity in the casings. This fat can be
used for cooking.
When pulling the intestines from the slaughtered pig or sheep, remove
as well the adhering hairs, from the intestines. If it will facilitate, the
intestines can be cut in pieces according to need.
Removal of other materials:
This can be done manually carefully or by means of a water hose for
cleaning as well.
Removal of slimy substance:
The removal of slime depends on the kind and size of intestine. It may
be cleansed by passing the intestine under a roller, or by scraping it to
remove the serosa. Bigger intestines are flushed with water or turned inside
out. After cleaning, soak the casing overnight in strong salt solution.
Grading and Storing:
The grading of casings is according to class, size and quality. The higher
quality (or export quality in the U.S.) is that which is free from defects like
holes, bruises or warts. After grading this is pumped with air or with water
to enable the measuring of the circumference.
Hog and sheep casings are marketed in lengths of 90 meters more or less,
and those of cow's by 30 meters. After grading, these are salted with fine salt
and stored further, and drained if wet. After draining, it is further shaken
to remove any remaining water and salted again if necessary.
Casings packed in salt get deteriorated too. These have to be put in 4°C
temperature, but freezing must be avoided, as it could cause cracks that will
be the start for the growth of molds. Avoid also the growth of red molds that
thrive on salt. This will cause the decay of the casings.
Other casings:
1. Cow bladder - after cleaning, air dry them. When dry, they are
ready for marketing.
2. Hog or sheep intestine parts - these are joined together into various
shapes. To make the edges adhere together, these are passed through
heat and then joined together.
3. When cool and dry, they are packed and are ready for marketing.
Source: Edible Meat By-Products by Pearson and Dutson