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Prefixes and suffixes

Words with a different grammatical form or meaning can be derived from a base word using prefixes and suffixes. By understanding how these prefixes and suffixes work, it is often easier to deal with unknown vocabulary. You can sometimes see what part of speech a word is (verb, noun, adjective etc. , or additional information that a prefix may give.

1. Changes in grammatical form.


!he noun "power" can be used as an adjective by adding the suffix #ful (powerful . !he adverbial form is made by adding the suffix #ly to the adjective (powerfully . !he verb "to improve" becomes a noun by adding the suffix #ment (improvement . !he same root word can also become a verb (improvise !he noun "nation" changes into an adjective with the suffix #al (national , and by adding another suffix #i$e the word changes from an adjective to a verb (nationali$e !he adjective "special" can change to a verb (speciali$e or a noun (speciality .

2. Changes in meaning.
%refixes and suffixes can also change the meaning of a word. !he meaning of "possible" is reversed with the addition of the prefix im# (impossible . !o "overeat" means to eat too much and if food is undercooked, it is not cooked enough. &ome suffixes commonly denote an occupation. 'g. !he verb "to teach" is transformed into the occupation with the suffix #er (teacher . Both grammatical changes and changes in meaning can be applied to the same base word. 'g. !he noun "interest" can be made an adjective and given opposite meaning by adding a prefix and a suffix #un(.#ing (uninteresting .

3. Changes in pronunciation.
When prefixes and suffixes are added to root words, the word stress sometimes changes. 'g. )oun * verb+ "photograph". ,djective+ "photographic". -pposite+ "unphotographic". %erson+ "photographer". .n 'nglish the word stress is often on the third syllable from the end. -verleaf is a list of the most common suffixes and prefixes and the grammatical and meaning changes that they apply to root words.

Prefixes
What Are Prefixes?

Prefixes are first syllables like non- and re- that have their own meaning. Prefixes combine with words to create new meanings.
1.Pre + View Preview !first look" $%&erstar !to& &layer" #.$%&er + $tar

Why Learn Prefixes?

Prefixes add meaning to tho%sands of words. 'earn a few &refixes( and yo% o&en %& the meaning of tho%sands of words. )he fo%r most fre*%ent &refixes are 97+ of &refixed words,
Most Common Prefixes

1. a

witho%t - amoral( a&olitical( aty&ical before - antecedent( antedate against( o&&osing - anti-war( anti-bacterial more extreme - arch-ca&italist( arch-rebel self - a%to-dial( a%to-rotate ro%nd - circ%mnavigate( circ%mvent with - collaborate( combine( connect

#. ante .. anti /. arch 0. a%to 1. bi 3. co 2. circ%m

two( twice - biling%al( bisect( bi-monthly with - co-a%thor( co-edit

4. col( com( con

15. contra( co%nter claim 11. de 1#. dia

against( o&&osing - contrace&tion( co%nter-

o&&osite action - declassify( destroy across - diagonal( diameter

1.. dis not( o&&osite of - disagree( dis&rove( distr%st( disbelief 1/. dys 10. e abnormal - dyslexia( dysf%nctional electronic - e-literate( e-book

11. eco relating to the environment - eco-to%rism( ecodisaster 12. en!m" 13. e*%i 14. ex #5. extra #1. extra ##. fore #.. hy&er ca%se to - encode( embrace e*%al - e*%idistant( e*%ilateral &revio%sly - ex-&resident( ex-st%dent very - extra-bright( extra-strong o%tside - extra-c%rric%lar( extra-sensory before - forecast having too m%ch - hy&eractive( hy&ersensitive not - illogical( im&ossible( indistinct(

#/. il( im( in( ir irrational #0. in!m" im&ort #1. inter #2. intra #3. kilo

in( movement to- in&%t( inset( intake( im&lant( between( connected - interrelated( interact within - intra-generational( intram%sc%lar tho%sand - kilogram( kilometer( kilowatt

#4. macro scale .5. mal .1. micro .#. mid ... mis ./. mono .0. m%lti

large in si6e or sco&e - macro-economics( macro-

badly - malf%nction( mal&ractice small in si6e or sco&e - micro-economics( micro-scale middle - midway wrongly - mistake( mistranslate( mis%nderstanding one - mono-centric( monoc%lt%re many - m%ltic%lt%ral( m%lti-level

.1. neo based on something older b%t in new form - neoclassical .2. non .3. o%t .4. over /5. &ost /1. &re /#. &ro //. *%asi /0. re /2. semi /1. retro not - non-believer( non-com&etitive( nonsense more( to a greater extent - o%tn%mber( o%tlive over7above7too m%ch - overlook( overcook( overhead after - &ost-examination( &ost-modern before - &re-ind%strial( &review( &re-war in favo%r of - &ro-feminist( &ro-liberal false - &se%do-intellect%al( &se%do-science almost( not *%ite - *%asi-academic( *%asi-legal backwards - retrogressive( retros&ective half( &artly - semicircle( semi-organic( semi-&recio%s

/.. &se%do

again - rediscover( redefine( rename( ret%rn

/3. s%b %nder( beneath( &art of something- s%bmarine( s%bsection

/4. s%&er above( bigger - s%&er&ower( s%&ersonic( s%&erstar 05. trans 01. %ltra 0#. %n 0.. %nder %ndersea 0/. well across - transcontinental( transcribe( trans&ort extreme - %ltra-sensitive( %ltraso%nd not - %ncertain( %n%s%al( %nscrew( %n&l%g( %nfriendly ins%fficient( %nder( beneath - %nderem&loyed( %sef%l( s%ccessf%l - well-designed( well-written

)ow we will turn our attention to suffixes Suffixes for Nouns #ment #ness #sion #tion #ty #al #ance #hood #dom #ght #ful Suffixes for Adverbs #ly #ily #ely #ingly Suffixes for Professions & people #er #ess (female #or #ian #ist #ic #ee #eer #man Suffixes for 'Without s!all' #less #let #er #age #sis #ism #ity #ant #ssion #ship #th #cess #ic #able #ous #y Suffixes for Adjectives #ful #ive #al #ed #ish #ly Suffixes for Verbs #i$e #ise #yse #ate #ent #en #ify #fy #ct #fine #ive Suffixes for University subjects #ics #y #ing #ism

#ible #ing

#like #some #worthy

What Are Suffixes?


$%ffixes are last syllables like ed and ly that have their own meaning. $%ffixes combine with words to create new meanings. 1.)%rn + ed #. 8%ick + ly )%rned !in the &ast" 8%ickly !how it t%rned"

Why Learn Suffixes?


$%ffixes add meaning to tho%sands of words. 'earn a few $%ffixes( and yo% o&en %& the meaning of tho%sands of words. )he fo%r most fre*%ent s%ffixes are 42+ of s%ffixed words,

Most Common Suffixes


1. -able( ible #. -al( ial can be done - identifiable( &redictable has &ro&erty of - &ersonal

.. -ant having an effect - coolant( accelerant /. 9based forming a ma:or &art of - com&%ter-based( oil-based 0. 9cy 1. -ed; 2. 9ee 3. -en 4. -er 15. -er 11. -est 1#. 9free state or *%ality - acc%racy( literacy( %rgency &ast verb - t%rned &erson affected by something - interviewee( trainee( addressee made of - golden com&arative - higher one who - doer( actor s%&erlative - best( biggest witho%t - debt-free( &ain-free

1.. 9f%l f%ll of - caref%l( :oyf%l 1/. 9hood state( condition( &eriod - ad%lthood( motherhood 10. 9ic 11. 9ics 12. 9ify 13. 9ing; having &ro&erty of( connected with - ling%istic( &hotogra&hic( electric st%dy of - genetics( electronics give something a *%ality - clarify( &%rify( solidify &resent &artici&le - r%nning

14. 9ism #5. 9 ist #1. 9!t"ion ##. 9!i"ty

belief( behavio%r - modernism( heroism &erson with s&ecific beliefs or behavio%r - anarchist( o&timist act( &rocess - action state of - infinity( sanity ad:ective - motive( votive bring abo%t a state or condition - moderni6e7moderni6e( coloni6e7colonise witho%t - fearless( careless( childless( meaningless resembling - bird-like( child-like( hook-like having - *%ickly( *%ietly action( &rocess - en:oyment *%ality or state of - kindness( effectiveness( o&enness ty&e of r%ling body - meritocracy( b%rea%cracy &erson r%ling - technocrat( aristocrat st%dy of - archaeology( biology( biological( geology( &hysiological having - :oyo%s( religio%s &rotected against( safe from - water&roof( d%st&roof state or ex&erience of having a s&ecific &osition - &rofessorshi&( leadershi& more than one - books having - ha&&y( windy

#.. 9!t"ive #0. 9less #1. 9like #2. 9ly; #3. 9ment #4. 9ness .5. 9ocracy .1. 9ocrat ... 9o%s ./. 9&roof .0. 9s; .1. 9shi& #5. 9y

#/. 9i6e( -ise

.#. 9ology( -ological

<se these s%ffixes correctly( and yo% look and so%nd &retty smart.