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Chapter 1

Introduction

Object counter is a device which counts the object which is passing through a sensor.

Internal hardware of object counter consists of L.D.R., Transistor, IC-555, 89C51 microcontroller & L.E.D. display LM

16200(16*2).

When an object passes through a sensor (L.D.R.) light is cut, which is focused on the sensor from the LASER continuously. So IC-555 getting low edge triggering. So timer-0 pin of microcontroller get high pulse & it increments the variable and at last it is shown on L.C.D. display.

the variable and at last it is shown on L.C.D. display. Fig 1.1  In our

Fig 1.1

In our project we make the highest sensitivity of the sensor. So it can work potently in any type of light intensity.

This counter can be used in most of the industrial area as well as home applications as a object counting purpose, which are operated automatically. Here, one limitation also exists.

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Chapter 2 Block Diagram

This is the Block Diagram of Project.

Chapter 2 Block Diagram This is the Block Diagram of Project. Fig 2.1 On the object

Fig 2.1

On the object counter board, there is a LDR which change its resistance when light emitted & removed on it from LASER. When the any object passes the LDR, it gives high pulse to the microcontroller pin. The microcontroller counts the pulses from LDR up to 255 & display in the LCD.

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Chapter 3

Circuit Diagram

The generalized circuit diagram of the Visitor/Object Counter is shown below:

diagram of the Visitor/Object Counter is shown below: Fig 3.1  Here the Microcontroller 89C51 is

Fig 3.1

Here the Microcontroller 89C51 is use to count objects or visitor and

LDR works as a sensor to detect it. For display that LCD is used.

Here the Microcontroller name is AT89C51.

Here 16*2 LCD display is used.

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Chapter 4

Different Sections Of Project

4.1 Power Supply:

Chapter 4 Different Sections Of Project 4.1 Power Supply: Fig 4.1  Description :  In

Fig 4.1

Description:

In above regulated power supply a 6-0 (1 amp.) step down transformer T1 is used, which gives 6 volt ac from 230V ac. Four IN 4007 diodes are used which forms a bridge. Three capacitors C1 of 1000µf, c2 of 100 µf and C3 of 0.1 µf are used for filter purpose. The regulated IC 7805 is used for voltage regulating purpose.

Working:

A bridge rectifier which is made up of from four diodes rectifies the input 6 volt from the step down transformer.

This rectified output is given to C1 & C2 capacitors for filtering purpose. The output from C2 is given to pin no.1 of

7805 IC. The 7805 is regulated IC which regulates the

voltage from C2 capacitor. +5V dc output is taken from pin no.-3 of 7805 IC. The ground is taken from pin no.-2 of

7805 IC.

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4.2 Sensor and signal conditioning section:

4.2 Sensor and signal conditioning section: Fig 4.2  Description :  The L.D.R. is used

Fig 4.2

Description:

The L.D.R. is used as sensing element. The resistor R1 of 100Ω is used for the biasing element to the transistor T1.The resistor R2 & R3 of 1k Ω are used as the current limiting resistor. The transistor t1 & T2 (BC 547) are used for the switching purpose. The 555 IC is used as monostable multivibrators. O/P of the 555 IC which has a time period depends on the value of R4 & C4.

Working:

The L.D.R. works as a sensor, when light focused on it, gives low resistance & when light is absorbed from it, gives bulk resistance (max. resistance).When any object passes through a sensor, light emitted on sensor from LASER is cut, so gives high resistance. There is no voltage drop across R1, so T1 can’t operate, but T1 gives logic- 1 which is given to T2, so T2 is switched on, so from R2 logic-is taken given to 555 as trigger, so output of the 555 is high pulse, which is given to controller for counting purpose. When the sensor doesn’t sense the object then output of the 555 is 0 logic, so counter does not increment itself.

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4.3 Display and Counter Section:

4.3 Display and Counter Section: Fig 4.3  Description :  The 89C51 controller used for

Fig 4.3

Description:

The 89C51 controller used for controlling & counting function. LCD (LM16200) is used for displaying the counts. It 16*2 LCD module. There is a reset act which is combination of C1, R1 and push button is put for resetting the microcontroller. There is resonating network which made up from C2, C3 and crystal (11.0592). Microcontroller has a on chip oscillator. Pull up resistor is placed to drive the LCD. Variable port R2 (0-10k) is placed for setting the brightness of the LCD.

Working:

When object sense, a high pulse is generated from the sensor & signal conditioning section, which is given to the timer 0 (P3.4) of the controller. Microcontroller is programmed for counting the pulses which come on the P3.4 & display the counts on the LCD. In programming of the microcontroller, timer 0 is used for counting purpose. Auto reload mode 2 is used. The microcontroller is continuously check the pulses from the sensor and count. This counted pulses are in hexadecimal form, which are connected into decimal & then into ASCII.

These ASCII values of the counts are given to LCD for displaying max. Limit of counting is upon 255 nos. Lm 16200, 16*2LCD is used in which 1 st row used for displaying message - “OBJECT COUNTER”. Value of the counts is displayed in the second raw. Controlling pins of the LCD EN, RS & R/W are converted to 2.2, 2.0, and 2.1 respectively. When reset button is pressed whole program is executed from 0000H & display set again. Resonant networks are built from crystal of 11.0592Mhz & ceramic capacitors C2 & C3 of 33pf. Oscillator is in built in the microcontroller but resonating network required for the generating the frequency.

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4.4 LCD:

LCD display:

4.4 LCD: LCD display: Features Fig 4.4  5 x 8 dots with cursor  Built-in

Features

Fig 4.4

5 x 8 dots with cursor

Built-in controller (KS 0066 or Equivalent)

+ 5V power supply (Also available for + 3V)

1/16 duty cycle

B/L to be driven by pin 1, pin 2 or pin 15, pin 16 or A.K (LED)

N.V. optional for + 3V power supply

LCD can add a lot to your application in terms of providing

a

useful interface for the user, debugging an application.LCD has single line display, two-line display, four line display. Every line has 16 characters.

Here we use two line 16 character i.e. 16x2 LCD.The total number of objects is display on the LCD module

 Here we use two line 16 character i.e. 16x2 LCD.The total number of objects is

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Table 4.1 8

Table 4.1

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4.5 NE555:

Overview:

The 555 integrated circuit is a highly accurate timing circuit that is capable of producing both time delays or oscillation. The 556 device has two individual 555 timer circuits housed in a single package.

Pin Outs:

555 timer circuits housed in a single package. Pin Outs: Pin Descriptions: Fig 4.5  V+

Pin Descriptions:

Fig 4.5

V+ = Supply voltage.

GND = Gnd (0V) connection for supply voltage.

Threshold = Active high input pin that is used to monitor the

charging of the timing capacitor.

Control Voltage = Used to adjust the threshold voltage if required.

This should be left disconnected if the function is not required. A

0.01uF capacitor to Gnd can be usedin electrically noisy circuits.

Trigger = Active low trigger input that start the timer.

Discharge = Output pin that is used to discharge the timing

capacitor.

Out = Timer output pin.

Reset = Active low reset pin. Normally connected to V+ if the reset

function is not required.

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Block Diagram:

Block Diagram: Fig 4.6 Operating Overview:  The 555 timer is a simple circuit. By taking

Fig 4.6

Operating Overview:

The 555 timer is a simple circuit. By taking the trigger signal from high to low the flip-flop is set. This causes the output to go high and the discharge pin to be released from Gnd (0V). The releasing of the discharge pin from Gnd causes an external capacitor to begin charging. When the capacitor is charges the voltage across it increases. This results in the voltage on the threshold pin increasing. When this is high enough it will result in the threshold pin to causing the flip-flop to reset. This causes the output to go low and the discharge pin is also taken back to Gnd. This discharges the external capacitor ready for the next time the device is triggered.

Electrical Characteristics:

Operating Voltage = 4.5V to 16V

Maximum Supply Current , 5mA @ 5V Operating Voltage,12mA @ 15V Operating Voltage

High Level Output Voltage , 3.3V @ 5V Operating Voltage, 13.3V @ 15V Operating Voltage

Maximum Output Current , 200mA @ 15V Operating Voltage, 100mA @ 5V Operating Voltage

Table 4.2

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4.6 7805 Regulated IC

Features:

Output Current up to 1A

Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V

Thermal Overload Protection

Short Circuit Protection

Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

Description:

The MC78XX/LM78XX/MC78XXA series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Internal Block Digram

devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. Internal Block Digram

Fig 4.7

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Absolute Maximum Ratings:

Parameter

 

Symbol

Value

Unit

Input

Voltage

(for

VO

=

5V

to

18V)

VI

35

V

(for

VO

=

24V)

VI

40

V

Thermal

Resistance

Junction-Cases

(TO-220)

 
 

Thermal

Resistance

Junction-Air

(TO-220)

 
 

Operating

Temperature

 

Range

TOPR

0 ~ +125

oC

Storage

Temperature

 

Range

TSTG

-65 ~ +150

oC

 

Table 4.3

 

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4.7 BC547:

NPNSilicon:

4.7 BC547: NPNSilicon: 13
4.7 BC547: NPNSilicon: 13
4.7 BC547: NPNSilicon: 13
4.7 BC547: NPNSilicon: 13

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4.8 LDR:

An LDR is a component that has a resistance that changes with

the light intensity that falls upon it. They have a resistance that

falls with an increase in the light intensity falling upon the

device.

an increase in the light intensity falling upon the device. Fig 4.8  The resistance of

Fig 4.8

The resistance of an LDR may typically have the following

resistance Daylight=5000

Dark=20000000Ω

You can therefore see that there is a large variation between

these Figs. If you plotted this variation on a graph you would get

something similar that shown by the graph to the right.

Applications

There

includes.

are

many

applications

Lighting switch

for

light

dependent

resistors.

This

The most obvious application for an LDR is to automatically turn on a light at certain light level. An example of this could be street light.

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4.9 crystals:

4 .9 crystals:  Fig 1. shows the crystal equivalent circuit. R is the effective series

Fig 1. shows the crystal equivalent circuit. R is the effective series resistance, L and C are the motional inductance and capacitance of the crystal. CP is the shunt capacitance due to the crystal electrodes. Fig 2. shows the reactance- frequency plot of the crystal. When a crystal is operating at series resonance it looks purely resistive and the reactances

of the inductor and the capacitor are equal (XL= XC). The series resonance frequency is given by the equation

XC). The series resonance frequency is given by the equation  When the crystal is operating

When the crystal is operating in parallel resonant mode it looks inductive. The frequency of operation in this mode is defined by the load on the crystal. The crystal manufacturer should specify the load capacitance CL for parallel resonant crystals.

In parallel resonance mode the crystal can be made to oscillate anywhere on the fs- fa slope of the reactance plot, shown in Fig 2, by varying the load of the crystal. All of MX-COM’s crystal oscillator circuits recommend using parallel resonant mode crystals.

Fig 3. shows the recommended Crystal oscillator circuit diagram. In this type of setup the crystal is expected to oscillate in parallel resonant mode. The inverter which is internal to the chip acts as class AB amplifier and provides approximately 180phase shift from input to the output and the network formed by the crystal, R1, C1 and C2 provides

additional 180phase shift. So the total phase shift around the loop is 360. This satisfies one of the conditions required to sustain oscillation. The other condition, for proper startup and sustaining oscillation is the closed loop gain should be1. The resistor Rf around the inverter provides negative feedback and sets the bias point of the inverter near mid-supply operating the inverter in the high gain linear region. The value of this resistor is high, usually in the range of a 500K ~

of this resistor is high, usually in the range of a 500K ~  2M .
of this resistor is high, usually in the range of a 500K ~  2M .

2M . Some of MXCOM’s ICs have this resistor internal, refer to the

is high, usually in the range of a 500K ~  2M . Some of MXCOM’s

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external component specifications in the data sheet of a particular chip.

The capacitors C1 and C2 form the load capacitance for the crystal. The optimum load capacitance (CL) for a given crystal is specified by the crystal manufacturer. R1 is the drive limiting resistor, the primary function of this resistor is to limit the output of the inverter so that the crystal is not over driven. R1 and C1 form a voltage dividing circuit, the values of these components are chosen in such a way that the output of the inverter goes close to rail-to-rail and the input to the crystal is 60% of rail-to-rail, usual practice is to make resistance of R1 and reactance of C1 equal at the operating frequency, i.e. R1 XC1. This makes the input to the crystal half that of the inverter output. Always make sure that the power dissipated by the crystal is with-in the crystal manufacturer’s specifications. Over-driving the crystal may damage the crystal. Please refer to the crystal manufacturer’s recommendations.

Ideally the inverter provides 180phase shift, but the inherent delay of the inverter provides additional phase shift proportional to the delay. In order to ensure the total phase shift ofn360around the loop, the network should provide180less the phase shift due to the inverter delay. R1 can be varied to accomplish this. With fixed C1 and C2, the closed loop gain and phase can be altered by varying R1. In some applications R1 can be ignored if the above two conditions are met.

Some ICs have all the external components (Rf, R1, C1, and C2) internal to the chip, thus eliminating worries to the circuit designer. In this case simply connect the crystal across the XTAL and XTAL pins.

eliminating worries to the circuit designer. In this case simply connect the crystal across the XTAL
eliminating worries to the circuit designer. In this case simply connect the crystal across the XTAL

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4.10 Step-down Transformer:

Types of transformer:-

Step up transformer

Step down transformer

In over circuit we use step-down transformer to get 0 to 9 V AC.

In transformer there are two winding:

Primary

Secondary

The input 230v AC is given to the primary winding of the

secondary winding.

There are different types of transformer according to their purpose.

transformer and we get output from the

There are two types of transformer:

1. Shell type

2. Core type

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4.11 Diode Rectifier:

Rectifier diodes (large current):

Rectifier diodes are used in power supplies to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC), a process called rectification. They are also used elsewhere in circuits where a large current must pass through the diode.

All rectifier diodes are made from silicon and therefore have a forward voltage drop of 0.7V. The table shows maximum current and maximum reverse voltage for some popular rectifier diodes. The 1N4001 is suitable for most low voltage circuits with a current of less than 1A.

Bridge rectifiers:

circuits with a current of less than 1A. Bridge rectifiers:  There are several ways of

There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC. The bridge rectifier is one of them and it is available in special packages containing the four diodes required.

Bridge rectifiers are rated by their maximum current and maximum reverse voltage. They have four leads or terminals: the two DC outputs are labelled + and -, the two AC inputs are labelled .

The diagram shows the operation of a bridge rectifier as it converts AC to DC. Notice how alternate pairs of diodes conduct.

rectifier as it converts AC to DC. Notice how alternate pairs of diodes conduct. Various types
rectifier as it converts AC to DC. Notice how alternate pairs of diodes conduct. Various types

Various types of Bridge Rectifiers

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4.12 Switch:

4.12 Switch: Fig 4.9  In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break

Fig 4.9

In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.[1][2] The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states:

either 'closed' meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts are separated and non-conducting. Since the advent of digital logic in the 1950s, the term has spread to a variety of digital active devices such as transistors and logic gates whose function is to change their output state between two logic levels or connect different signal lines, and even computers, network switches, whose function is to provide connections between different ports in a computer network. [3] The term 'switched' is also applied to telecommunications networks, and signifies a network that is circuit switched, providing dedicated circuits for communication between end nodes, such as the public switched telephone network. The common feature of all these usages is they refer to devices that control a binary state: they are either on or off, closed or open, connected or not connected.

Descriptionsymbol

A simple on-off switch: The two terminals are either connected together or not connected to
A simple on-off switch: The two
terminals are either connected
together or not connected to
anything. An example is a light
switch.

Table 4.4

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Chapter 5

AT89C51 Microcontroller

5.1 Introduction:

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4 Kbytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51Ô instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications Features:

Compatible with MCS-51

4 Kbytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory

Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles

Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz

Three-Level Program Memory Lock

128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM

32 Programmable I/O Lines

Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters

Six Interrupt Sources

Programmable Serial Channel

Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes

 Six Interrupt Sources  Programmable Serial Channel  Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes

Products

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5.2 Parts of the 89C51:

Block Diagram:

5.2 P arts of the 89C51: Block Diagram: Fig 5.1 21

Fig 5.1

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21

5.3 89C51 Pin Configuration:

5.3 89C51 Pin Configuration: Fig 5.2 22

Fig 5.2

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STATIC CHARACTERISTICS:

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS : Table 5.1  [1] This parameter is measured only for initial qualification and

Table 5.1

[1] This parameter is measured only for initial qualification and after a design or process change that could affect this parameter.

[2] Under steady state (non-transient) conditions, IOL must be externally limited as follows:

Maximum IOL per 8-bit port: 26 mA

Maximum IOL total for all outputs: 71 mA

If IOL exceeds the test condition, VOH may exceed the related specification. Pins are not guaranteed to sink current greater than the listed test conditions.

[3] Capacitive loading on Ports 0 and 2 may cause spurious noise to be superimposed on the VOL of ALE and Ports 1 and 3. The noise due to external bus capacitance discharging into the Port 0 and 2 pins when the pins make 1-to-0 transitions during bus operations. In the worst cases (capacitive loading > 100 pF), the noise pulse on the ALE pin may exceed 0.8 V. In such cases, it may be desirable to qualify ALE with a Schmitt trigger, or use an address latch with a Schmitt trigger STROBE input.

[4] Load capacitance for Port 0, ALE and PSEN = 100 pF, load capacitance for all other outputs = 80 pf

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DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC:

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC : Table 5.2 SELECTION PROCESS : requirements. It contains 64K ISP FLASH EPROM, 256

Table 5.2

SELECTION PROCESS:

requirements. It contains 64K ISP FLASH EPROM, 256 Bytes on- chip RAM and capable to address additional 768 Bytes external RAM. Initially it was planned to develop simple hardware with only few Inputs and outputs. So, any basic 80X51 series controller was decided to select. Requirement for on chip ROM and RAM was also not stringent for initial development. So 4K ROM and 128 byte RAM was sufficient. Also, PLC must be supported by In System Programming (ISP) facility so that it may be programmed and then accept from or send data to GUI through same serial port. So on chip flash memory is required.

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Chapter 6

Assembly Language Program

;/object counter/;

;/timer 0 & mode 2 is used as counter/;

;/port 1 is interfaced with lcd as data bus/;

;/connections : rs-2.0, r/w-2.1, en-2.2 /;

ORG 0000H Ajmp start org 0003h reti org 000bh clr tr0 clr tf0 MOV TH0,#00H MOV TL0,#00H MOV P1,#00H setb tr0 reti org 0013h reti org 001bh reti org 0023h reti start:mov sp,#60h mov a,#38h acall command mov a,#0ch acall command mov a,#01h acall command mov a,#06h acall command mov a,#80h acall command mov dptr,#msg1 acalldm mov a,#0c0h acall command mov dptr,#msg2 acalldm MOV ie,#82H MOV TMOD,#06H

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MOV P1,#00H MOV TH0,#00H MOV TL0,#00H SETB TR0 loop:mov 35h,#0 MOV 30h,TL0 mov a,30h mov b,#10 divab mov 33h,b mov 34h,a mov r0,#33h mov a,@r0 decloop:mov b,#10 divab mov @r0,b inc r0 add a,@r0 mov @r0,a cjne r0,#35h,decloop again:mov a,@r0 add a,#36h jnb psw.6,skip add a,#07h skip:subb a,#06h dec r0 cjne r0,#33h,again mov a,#0c8h acall command mov a,35h add a,#30h acall display mov a,34h add a,#30h acall display mov a,33h add a,#30h acall display sjmp loop command:acall check mov p1,a clr p2.0 clr p2.1 setb p2.2 clr p2.2 ret dm:acall check clr a movc a,@a+dptr

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jz exit

acall display

incdptr

sjmpdm

exit:ret display:acall check mov p1,a setb p2.0 clr p2.1 setb p2.2 acall delay clr p2.2 ret check:setb p1.7 clr p2.0 setb p2.1 wait:clr p2.2 acall delay setb p2.2 jb p1.7,wait ret delay:mov r3,#50 here2:mov r4,#25 there:djnz r4,there djnz r3,here2 ret msg1:db '#OBJECT COUNTER#',0 msg2:db 'OBJECTS:',0 end

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Chapter 7

Working

A bridge rectifier which is made up of from four diodes rectifies the input 6 volt from the step down transformer. This rectified output is given to C1 & C2 capacitors for filtering purpose. The output from C2 is given to pin no.1 of 7805 IC. The 7805 is regulated IC which regulates the voltage from C2 capacitor. +5V dc output is taken from pin no.-3 of 7805 IC. The ground is taken from pin no.-2 of 7805 IC.

The L.D.R. works as a sensor, when light focused on it, gives low resistance & when light is absorbed from it, gives bulk resistance (max. resistance).When any object passes through a sensor, light emitted on sensor from LASER is cut, so gives high resistance. There is no voltage drop across R1, so T1 can’t operate, but T1 gives logic- 1 which is given to T2, so T2 is switched on, so from R2 logic-is taken given to 555 as trigger, so output of the 555 is high pulse, which is given to controller for counting purpose. When the sensor doesn’t sense the object then output of the 555 is 0 logic, so counter does not increment itself.

The L.D.R. works as a sensor, when light focused on it, gives low resistance & when light is absorbed from it, gives bulk resistance (max. resistance).When any object passes through a sensor, light emitted on sensor from LASER is cut, so gives high resistance. There is no voltage drop across R1, so T1 can’t operate, but T1 gives logic- 1 which is given to T2, so T2 is switched on, so from R2 logic-is taken given to 555 as trigger, so output of the 555 is high pulse, which is given to controller for counting purpose. When the sensor doesn’t sense the object then output of the 555 is 0 logic, so counter does not increment itself.

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Chapter 8

Future expansion

This counter can count up to 255 no’s, if you wish to increase this counting ability you can desire by implementing 16-bit or higher microcontroller.

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Chapter 9

CONCLUSION

From the above discussion and information of the system we, up to now surely comes to know that it is effective and highly reliable counting system for industry. As here LASER based LDR sensor is used, fast counting can be possible than traditional controller based counting system. The development cost for 1 unit is not much costly but if we want to implement this counting system to all over industry network then it is somehow costly than traditional counting system.

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Appendix A List of equipments, software used for the project Page Sr.no. Name Of Contents
Appendix A
List of equipments, software used for the project
Page
Sr.no.
Name Of Contents
no.
(01)
Microcontroller(89C51)
20
(02)
LCD Display
07
(03)
IC NE555 (Timer IC)
09
(04)
Regulated IC(7805)
11
(05)
Transistor BC547
13
(06)
L.D.R.(Light dependent resistor)
14
(07)
Crystal
15
(08)
Transformer
17
Diode
(09)
18
(10)
Switch
19
31

Appendix B

Datasheets of components used

AT89C51

Appendix B Datasheets of components used  AT89C51 32

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L7805CV

TO-220

 L7805CV TO-220 D-PAK 1.Input 2. GND 3. Output GND 3. Output Internal Block Digram 1.Input

D-PAK

1.Input 2. GND 3. Output GND 3. Output

Internal Block Digram

1.Input 2. GND 3. Output GND 3. Output Internal Block Digram 1.Input 2. Absolute Maximum Ratings

1.Input 2.

GND 3. Output GND 3. Output Internal Block Digram 1.Input 2. Absolute Maximum Ratings : Parameter

Absolute Maximum Ratings:

Parameter

 

Symbol

Value

Unit

Input Voltage (for VO = 5V to 18V)

 

VI

35

V

(for VO = 24V)

 

VI

40

V

Thermal

Resistance

Junction-Cases

(TO-

(TO-

5

oC/W

Thermal Resistance Junction-Air (TO-

Thermal Resistance Junction-Air (TO-

65

oC/W

Operating Temperature Range

 

TOPR

0 ~

+125

oC

Storage Temperature Range

 

TSTG

-65

~ +150

oC

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Fig 1. Quiescent CurrentFig 2. Peak Output Current Fig 3. Output Voltage APPLICATION : Fig

Fig 1. Quiescent CurrentFig 2. Peak Output Current

Fig 1. Quiescent CurrentFig 2. Peak Output Current Fig 3. Output Voltage APPLICATION : Fig 4.

Fig 3. Output Voltage

APPLICATION:

Fig 4. Quiescent Current

2. Peak Output Current Fig 3. Output Voltage APPLICATION : Fig 4. Quiescent Current Fig. Fixed

Fig. Fixed Output Regulator

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NE555

Pin Outs:

 NE555 Pin Outs: Pin Descriptions:  V+ = Supply voltage.  GND = Gnd (0V)

Pin Descriptions:

V+ = Supply voltage.

GND = Gnd (0V) connection for supply voltage.

Threshold = Active high input pin that is used to monitor the

charging of the timing capacitor.

Control Voltage = Used to adjust the

threshold voltage if required. This should

be left disconnected if the function is not

required. A 0.01uF capacitor to Gnd can

be usedin electrically noisy circuits.

Trigger = Active low trigger input that start

the timer.

Trigger = Active low trigger input that start the timer.  Discharge = Output pin that

Discharge = Output pin that is used to discharge the timing

capacitor.

Out = Timer output pin.

Reset = Active low reset pin. Normally connected to V+ if the reset

function is not required.

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Block Diagram:

Block Diagram: Operating Overview: The 555 timer is a simple circuit. By taking the trigger signal

Operating Overview:

The 555 timer is a simple circuit. By taking the trigger signal from high to low the flip-flop is set. This causes the output to go high and the discharge pin to be released from Gnd (0V). The releasing of the discharge pin from Gnd causes an external capacitor to begin charging. When the capacitor is charges the voltage across it increases. This results in the voltage on the threshold pin increasing. When this is high enough it will result in the threshold pin to causing the flip-flop to reset. This causes the output to go low and the discharge pin is also taken back to Gnd. This discharges the external capacitor ready for the next time the device is triggered.

Electrical Characteristics:

Operating Voltage = 4.5V to 16V

Maximum Supply Current , 5mA @ 5V Operating Voltage,12mA @ 15V Operating Voltage

High Level Output Voltage , 3.3V @ 5V Operating Voltage, 13.3V @ 15V Operating Voltage

Maximum Output Current , 200mA @ 15V Operating Voltage, 100mA @ 5V Operating Voltage

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Environmental:

Operating Temperature = 0°C to 70°C

Monostable Operation:

Operating Temperature = 0°C to 70°C Monostable Operation: In monostable mode the device produces a 'one

In monostable mode the device produces a 'one shot' pulsed output. The pulse is started by a taking the trigger input from a high (V+) to a low voltage. Once triggered the circuit remains in this state even if triggered again during the pulse interval. The pulse high time is given by: t = 1.1 x R1 x C1 The high to low voltage transition on the trigger input causes the Flip-Flop to become set. This releases the short circuit (created by holding of the discharge pin low) across capacitor C1. At this point the output goes high. Capacitor C1 then begins to charge and the voltage across it begins to increase. When it reaches 2/3 V+ the Flip-Flop is reset. This causes capacitor C1 to discharge very quickly and the output goes low.

Minimum output pulse = 5 uS

Maximum output pulse = 5 minutes

R1 minimum resistance = 1K ohm

R1 maximum resistance = 1Mohm

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Appendix C

List of Figures and tables

List of Tables

Table No.

Table Description

Page No

Table 4.1

Pin Description of LCD

8

Table 4.2

Characteristic of NE555

10

Table 4.3

Absolute Rating of 7805

12

Table 4.4

Switch principle

19

Table 5.1

Static characteristic of 89C51

23

Table 5.2

Dynamic characteristic of 89C51

24

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List of Figures

Fig No.

Fig Description

Page No

Fig 1.1

Introduction to project

1

Fig 2.1

Block diagram of project

2

Fig 3.1

Circuit diagram of project

3

Fig 4.1

5V Power supply

4

Fig 4.2

Sensor and signal conditioning

5

Fig 4.3

Display and counting

6

Fig 4.4

LCD Display

7

Fig 4.5

NE555 pin configuration

9

Fig 4.6

NE555 internal structure

10

Fig 4.7

Internal block diagram of 7805

11

Fig 4.8

LDR working

14

Fig 4.9

Switch

19

Fig 5.1

Internal structure of 89C51

21

Fig 5.2

Pin diagram of Microcontroller

22

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List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature

LDR- Light Dependent Resistor LED- Light Emitting Diode LASER- Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation LCD-Liquid Crystal Display PEROM- Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory CMOS- Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor RAM- Random Access Memory DIP- Dual in Line Package ESR- Effective Series Resistance MELF- Metal Electrode Leadless Face

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References

BOOKS:

The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded systems by Mazidi & Mazidi

Microcontroller by Dr. C.H. Vithlani & Mr. D.H. Ahir

8051 Microcontroller by Kenneth Ayala

Electronics For You (Magazine)

WEBSITES:

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