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Morgenthau Plan

(1944) Plan proposed by US Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau for the end of WWII, making Germany a wholly agricultural nation by dismantling its industrial capacity. 1. Durable peace 2. Wanted to ensure their position as the great power in Europe 3. Prevent the resurgence of Germany and limit the UK and France's potential 4. Largely concerned with serious reparations from Germany 1.US State Department realized the merits of rehabilitation but was far more skeptical of cooperation with USSR. 2. "The situation on the ground was to dire not to realize reunification and rehabilitation of Germany's economy to prevent further chaos and disorder."-Lucius Clay (Deputy Governor of Occupied Germany, American) 1. The Pragmatic Approach 2. Worried by the USSR and reluctant to cooperate 3. Helpful in containing the soviet union, and demanded an American commitment to balance Soviet power in Europe 1. Principally concerned with preventing yet another (a third) invasion 2. Spiteful toward Germany 3. Blocked any attempt at reunification (Summer 1948) The three powers had agreed to allow the West Germans the functions of government compatible with the recreation of full

USSR War Aims

US War Aims

UK War Aims

French War Aims

West Germany

governmental responsibilities with the intent upon restoring sovereign authority. (Important shift in Western perspective from Germany as a defeated adversary to a future ally) East Germany (1949) Formed in opposition to West Germany. Stalin demanded that the German Communist Party, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Germany's two leftist parties, unite to form the Soviet Dominated Socialist Unity Party. (24 June, 1948) Aircrews from the Western Allies flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 4700 tons of daily necessities such as fuel and food to West Berliners after the Soviet Union declared a blockade of the rail, road, and water transports previously used in response to the West's introduction of the Deutschmark on the 18th of June. By the spring of 1949, the effort was clearly succeeding and, by April, the airlift was delivering more cargo than had previously been transported into the city by rail.was significant in the establishment of a positive impression of the Western Allies with their West German allies. (June 1945) "The truth of the matter is that Europe's requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential productsprincipally from America - are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social and political deterioration of a very grave character. The remedy lies in breaking the vicious circle and restoring the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries an of Europe as a whole." 12.5 Billion Dollars were funneled into machine tools, infrastructural projects, and materials. The plan

The Berlin Airlift

The Marshall Plan

prevented a period of economic austerity. The Marshall Plan was is significant because it was as much about imparting a philosophy as it was about economic recovery. This was a demonstration of soft power. European leaders were both prompted with the economic/political model. The plan encouraged European integration and under the American model of political cooperation. The plan was to be decisive, but short lived. The Soviet Bloc was not allowed to participate, by order of the Kremlin. George C. Marshall (December 31, 1880-October 16, 1959) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and later US Secretary of Defense during and after World War II, and US Secretary of State in 1947 under Harry Truman. Mastermind behind the Marshall Plan, first offered on June 5, 1947 at the Harvard University commencement address. (Washington Treaty 1949) North American Treaty Organization; A number of Speeches by Stalin in 1947/48 reflected a harsher, more critical, and aggressive attitude towards the West. In addition, a surge in militancy by western Communist parties in Europe threatened Western powers into assessing the evolving tension as not merely economic or ideological, but reconsidering developments in Europe as a matter of global security. All of these events prompted a security threat to powers in the West and precipitated a joint security apparatus in the creation of NATO. "An Attack on one is an attack on all." This is significant because it marked the first recognition of a building physical or martial tension between the Superpowers and their spheres of influence. (February, 1948) In Czechoslovakia, the communist

NATO

The Prague

Coup

party led a coup in the last remaining free government within the soviet sphere. The proximity of Prague to western Europe was alarming to the Western Powers. The Soviet backed Communist party, initially allied with the left wing coalitions would engage in "Salami Tactics", slowly cutting away pieces and parts of that coalition until there was nothing left. The Communist party consistently demanded control of particular ministries, such as interior, broadcasting, media, youth organizations, organized labor, and defense, consolidating key leavers of power to exert their influence. The process of consolidating Soviet, and Stalin's, control in Eastern Europe. Though there were discernable steps, this was not a ridged plan. These patterns varied from country to country. 1. The General Left Wing Coalition 2. The Bogus Coalition 3. Complete Communist Takeover (1948/49)

Salami Tactics

Stalinization