FL
FL OC
V
V V
For ideal voltage source, there should be no change in terminal voltage from noload to fullload and
this corresponds to zero voltage regulation. For best possible performance, the voltage source
should have the lowest possible regulation and this indicates a smallest possible internal voltage drop
and the smallest possible internal resistance.
Ideal and Practical Current Sources: An ideal current source is a device that delivers a constant
current to any load resistance connected across it, no matter what the terminal voltage is developed
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6
across the load (i.e., independent of the voltage across its terminals across the terminals); while a
practical current source depends on the voltage across its terminals.
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7
Dependent and Independent Sources
Independent and Dependent Sources that encountered in electric circuits:
 Independent Sources: The voltage and current sources (whether ideal or practical) that have
been discussed till now are known as independent sources and these sources play an
important role to drive the circuit in order to perform a specific job. The internal values of
these sources (either voltage source or current source) that is, the generated voltage V
S
or
the generated current I
S
are not affected by the load connected across the source terminals or
across any other element that exists elsewhere in the circuit or external to the source.
 Dependent Sources: Another class of electrical sources is characterized by dependent source
or controlled source. In fact the source voltage or current depends on a voltage across or a
current through some other element elsewhere in the circuit. Sources, which exhibit this
dependency, are called dependent sources. Both voltage and current types of sources may be
dependent, and either may be controlled by a voltage or a current. In general, dependent
source is represented by a diamond ()shaped symbol as not to confuse it with an
independent source. One can classify dependent voltage and current sources into four types of
sources as shown in fig.3.21. These are listed below:
(i) Voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS) (ii) Current controlled voltage source (ICVS)
(iii) Voltage controlled current source (VCIS) (iv) Current controlled current source (ICIS)
Note: When the value of the source (either voltage or current) is controlled by a voltage (v
s
)
somewhere else in the circuit, the source is said to be voltagecontrolled source. On the other hand,
when the value of the source (either voltage or current) is controlled by a current (i
x
) somewhere else
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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8
in the circuit, the source is said to be currentcontrolled source. KVL and KCL laws can be applied to
networks containing such dependent sources. Source conversions, from dependent voltage source
models to dependent current source models, or visaversa, can be employed as needed to simplify the
network. One may come across with the dependent sources in many equivalentcircuit models of
electronic devices (transistor, BJT (bipolar junction transistor), FET (fieldeffect transistor) etc.) and
transducers.
Source Conversion
A practical voltage source can be transformed to an equivalent practical current source.
Similarly, a practical current source can be transformed to an equivalent practical voltage source.
Replacing one source by an equivalent source is called as Source transformation or conversion. It
serves as a powerful tool to simplify the analysis of circuits especially with mixed sources.
Where
R
V
I
S
S
=
Where R I V
S S
=
Voltage Source to Current Source Conversion
Current Source to Voltage Source Conversion
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9
Introduction: The Seriesparallel reduction technique that we learned for analyzing DC
circuits simplifies every step logically from the preceding step and leads on logically to the next step.
Unfortunately, if the circuit is complicated, this method becomes mathematically laborious, time
consuming and likely to produce mistake in calculations. In fact, to elevate these difficulties, some
methods are available which do not require much thought at all and we need only to follow a well
defined faithful procedure. One most popular technique will be discussed in this lesson is known as
mesh or loop analysis method that based on the fundamental principles of circuits laws, namely,
Ohms law and Kirchhoffs voltage law. Some simple circuit problems will be analyzed by hand
calculation to understand the procedure that involve in mesh or loop current analysis.
MEANING OF CIRCUIT ANALYSIS: The method by which one can determine a variable (either
a voltage or a current) of a circuit is called analysis.
DC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS USING MESH METHOD
MESH ANALYSIS: A mesh is any closed path in a given circuit that does not have any element
(or branch) inside it. A mesh has the properties that (i) every node in the closed path is exactly
formed with two branches (ii) no other branches are enclosed by the closed path. Meshes can be
thought of a resembling window partitions. On the other hand, loop is also a closed path but inside
the closed path there may be one or more than one branches or elements.
SOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT BASED ON MESH (LOOP) CURRENT METHOD:
Let us consider a simple dc network as shown in Figure 4.1 to find the currents through
different branches using Mesh (Loop) current method.
Applying KVL around mesh (loop)1: (note in mesh1, I
1
is known as local current and other mesh
currents I
2
& I
3
are known as foreign currents)
0 ) ( ) (
4 2 1 2 3 1
= R I I R I I V V
C A
0 ) (
3 2 2 4 1 4 2
= + +
C A
V V I R I R I R R
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10
0 ) (
1 3 13 2 12 1 11
= + + + V I R I R I R (1)
Applying KVL around mesh (loop)2: (similarly in mesh2, I
2
is local current and I
1
& I
3
are known
as foreign currents)
0 ) ( ) (
3 3 2 4 1 2
= R I I R I I V
B
0 ) (
3 3 2 4 3 1 4
= + + +
B
V I R I R R I R
0
2 3 23 2 22 1 21
= + + + V I R I R I R (2)
Applying KVL around mesh (loop)3:
0 ) ( ) (
2 1 3 3 2 3 1 3
= R I I R I I R I V
C
0 ) (
3 3 2 1 2 3 1 2
= + + +
C
V I R R R I R I R
0
3 3 33 2 32 1 31
= + + + V I R I R I R (3)
NOTE: EQUATION (1), (2) & (3) WILL BE SOLVED USING CALCULATOR
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11
DC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS USING NODAL METHOD
NODE VOLTAGE ANALYSIS: In the previous section, it has been discussed in detail the analysis
of a dc network by writing a set of simultaneous algebraic equations (based on KVL only) in which
the variables are currents, known as mesh analysis or loop analysis. On the other hand, the node
voltage analysis (Nodal analysis) is another form of circuit or network analysis technique, which will
solve almost any linear circuit. In a way, this method completely analogous to mesh analysis method,
writes KCL equations instead of KVL equations, and solves them simultaneously.
SOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT BASED ON NODE VOLTAGE METHOD: In the node
voltage method, we identify all the nodes on the circuit. Choosing one of them as the reference
voltage (i.e., zero potential) and subsequently
assign other node voltages (unknown) with
respect to a reference voltage (usually ground
voltage taken as zero (0) potential and denoted
by ( ). If the circuit has n nodes there are
n1 node voltages are unknown (since we
are always free to assign one node to zero or
ground potential). At each of these n1
nodes, we can apply KCL equation. The
unknown node voltages become the
independent variables of the problem and the
solution of node voltages can be obtained by
solving a set of simultaneous equations. Let us consider a simple dc network as shown in Figure 5.1
to find the currents through different branches using Node voltage method.
KCL equation at Node1:
; 0
2
3 1
4
2 1
3 1
=


.

\



.

\

R
V V
R
V V
I I
S S
0
1 1 1 1
3
2
2
4
1
4 2
3 1
=


.

\



.

\



.

\

+ V
R
V
R
V
R R
I I
S S
3 13 2 12 1 11 3 1
V G V G V G I I
S S
= (4)
KCL equation at Node2:
; 0
2
3
3 2
4
2 1
=


.

\



.

\

S
I
R
V V
R
V V
3
3
2
4 3
1
4
2
1 1 1 1
V
R
V
R R
V
R
I
S


.

\



.

\

+ +


.

\

=
3 23 2 22 1 21 2
V G V G V G I
S
+ = (5)
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12
KCL equation at Node3:
; 0
1
3
2
3 1
3
3 2
3
=


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

+
R
V
R
V V
R
V V
I
S 3
3 2 1
2
3
1
2
3
1 1 1 1 1
V
R R R
V
R
V
R
I
S


.

\

+ +


.

\



.

\

=
3 33 2 32 1 31 3
V G V G V G I
S
+ = (6)
NOTE: EQUATION (4), (5) & (6) WILL BE SOLVED USING CALCULATOR
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13
SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
If the circuit has more than one independent (voltage and/or current) sources, one way to
determine the value of variable (voltage across the resistance or current through a resistance) is to
use nodal or mesh current methods. Alternative method for any linear network, to determine the
effect of each independent source (whether voltage or current) to the value of variable (voltage
across the resistance or current through a resistance) and then the total effects simple added. This
approach is known as the superposition.
STATEMENT OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM: In any linear bilateral network containing
two or more independent sources (voltage or current sources or combination of voltage and current
sources), the resultant current / voltage in any branch is the algebraic sum of currents / voltages
caused by each independent sources acting along, with all other independent sources being replaced
meanwhile by their respective internal resistances.
Superposition theorem can be explained through a simple resistive network as shown in
fig.7.1 and it has two independent practical voltage sources and one practical current source.
One may consider the resistances R
1
and
R
3
are the internal resistances of the
voltage sources whereas the resistance R
4
is considered as internal resistance of the
current source. The problem is to
determine the response I in the in the
resistor R
2
. The current I can be obtained
from
According to the application of the superposition theorem, it may be noted that each independent
source is considered at a time while all other sources are turned off or killed. To kill a voltage source
means the voltage source is replaced by its internal resistance (i.e.R
1
or R
3
; in other words E
1
or E
2
should be replaced temporarily by a short circuit) whereas to kill a current source means to replace
the current source by its internal resistance (i.e. R
4
; in other words I
S
should be replaced temporarily
by an open circuit).
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14
Remarks: Superposition theorem is most often used when it is necessary to determine the individual
contribution of each source to a particular response.
PROCEDURE FOR USING THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:
Step1: Retain one source at a time in the circuit and replace all other sources with their internal
resistances.
Step2: Determine the output (current or voltage) due to the single source acting alone using the
Nodal or Mesh techniques.
Step3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each of the other independent sources.
Step4: Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the contributions due to the
independent sources.
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15
THEVENINS THEOREM
A simple circuit as shown in fig.8.1 is considered to illustrate the concept of equivalent
circuit and it is always possible to view even a very complicated circuit in terms of much simpler
equivalent source and load circuits. Subsequently the reduction of computational complexity that
involves in solving the current through a branch for different values of load resistance (R
L
) is also
discussed. In many applications, a network may contain a variable component or element while other
elements in the circuit are kept constant. If the solution for current (I) or voltage (V) or power (P) in
any component of network is desired, in such cases the whole circuit need to be analyzed each time
with the change in component value. In order to avoid such repeated computation, it is desirable to
introduce a method that will not have to be repeated for each value of variable component. Such
tedious computation burden can be avoided provided the fixed part of such networks could be
converted into a very simple equivalent circuit that represents either in the form of practical voltage
source known as Thevenins voltage source (V
Th
= magnitude of voltage source, R
Th
= internal
resistance of the source). In true sense, this conversion will considerably simplify the analysis while
the load resistance changes. Although the conversion technique accomplishes the same goal, it has
certain advantages over the techniques that we have learnt in earlier sections.
Let us consider the circuit
shown in fig. (a). Our problem is to
find a current through R
L
using
different techniques; the following
observations are made
Find
 Mesh current method needs 3 equations to be solved
 Node voltage method requires 2 equations to be solved
 Superposition method requires a complete solution through load resistance (R
L
) by
considering each independent source at a time and replacing other sources by their internal
source resistances.
Suppose, if the value of R
L
is changed then the three (mesh current method) or two equations
(node voltage method) need to be solved again to find the new current in R
L
. Similarly, in case of
superposition theorem each time the load resistance R
L
is changed, the entire circuit has to be
analyzed all over again. Much of the tedious mathematical work can be avoided if the fixed part of
circuit (fig. 8.1(a)) or in other words, the circuit contained inside the imaginary fence or black box
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16
with two terminals A & B, is replaced by the simple equivalent voltage source (as shown in fig.
8.1(b)).
Thevenins Theorem: Thevenins theorem states that any two output terminals (A &B, shown in fig.
8.2.(a)) of an active linear network containing independent sources (it includes voltage and
current sources) can be replaced by a simple voltage source of magnitude V
Th
in series with a
single resistor R
Th
(see fig. 8.2(d)) where R
Th
is the equivalent resistance of the network
when looking from the output terminals A & B with all sources (voltage and current)
removed and replaced by their internal resistances (see fig. 8.2(c)) and the magnitude of V
Th
is equal to the open circuit voltage across the A & B terminals.
THE PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING THEVENINS THEOREM:
To find a current I
L
through the load resistance R
L
(as shown in fig. 8.2(a)) using Thevenins
theorem, the following steps are followed:
Step1: Disconnect the load resistance (R
L
) from the circuit, as indicated in fig. 8.2(b).
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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17
Step2: Calculate the opencircuit voltage V
Th
(shown in fig. 8.2(b)) at the load terminals (A & B)
after disconnecting the load resistance (R
L
). In general, one can apply any of the techniques (mesh
current, nodevoltage and superposition method) learnt in earlier sections to compute V
Th
.
Step3: Redraw the circuit (fig. 8.2(b)) with each practical source replaced by its internal resistance
as shown in fig.8.2(c). (NOTE: voltage sources should be shortcircuited (just remove them and
replace with plain wire) and current sources should be opencircuited (just removed).
Step4: Look backward into the resulting circuit from the load terminals (A & B), as suggested by
the eye in fig. 8.2(c). Calculate the resistance that would exist between the load terminals. The
resistance R
Th
is described in the statement of Thevenins theorem.
Note: Calculating this resistance may be a difficult task but one can try to use the standard circuit
reduction technique or Y or Y transformation techniques.
Step5: Place R
Th
in series with V
Th
to form the Thevenins equivalent circuit (replacing the
imaginary fencing portion or fixed part of the circuit with an equivalent practical voltage source) as
shown in fig. 8.2(d).
Step6: Reconnect the original load to the Thevenin voltage circuit as shown in fig. 8.2(e); the loads
voltage, current and power may be calculated by a simple arithmetic operation only.
Load Current,
L Th
Th
L
R R
V
I
+
= (7)
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18
Voltage across the load,
L L L
L Th
Th
L
R I R
R R
V
V =
+
= (8)
Power absorbed by the load,
L L L
R I P =
2
(9)
REMARKS:
(i) One great advantage of Thevenins theorem over the normal circuit reduction
technique or any other technique is this: once the Thevenin equivalent circuit has been
formed, it can be reused in calculating load current (I
L
), load voltage (V
L
) and load
power (P
L
) for different loads using the equations (7)(9).
(ii) With help of this theorem one can find the choice of load resistance R
L
that results in
the maximum power transfer to the load. On the other hand, the effort necessary to
solve this problemusing node or mesh analysis methods can be quite complex and
tedious from computational point of view.
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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19
StarDelta Transformation
One of the most basic threeterminal network equivalents is that of three resistors connected in
Delta () and in Wye (Y). These two circuits identified in fig. 6.1(e) and Fig. 6.1(f) are
sometimes part of a larger circuit and obtained their names from their configurations. These three
terminal networks can be redrawn as fourterminal networks as shown in fig. 6.1(c) and fig. 6.1(d).
We can obtain useful expression for direct transformation or conversion from to Y or Y to by
considering that for equivalence the two networks have the same resistance when looked at the
similar pairs of terminals.
CONVERSION FROM DELTA () TO STAR OR WYE (Y):
Let us consider the network shown in fig. 6.1(e) and assumed the resistances (R
AB
, R
BC
and
R
CA
) in network are known. Our problem is to find the values of R
A
, R
B
and R
C
in Wye (Y)
network (see fig. 6.1(e)) that will produce the same resistance when measured between similar pairs
of terminals. We can write the equivalence resistance between any two terminals in the following
form.
BETWEEN A & C TERMINALS:
CA BC AB
BC AB CA
C A
R R R
R R R
R R
+ +
+
= +
) (
(10)
BETWEEN C & B TERMINALS:
CA BC AB
CA AB CB
C B
R R R
R R R
R R
+ +
+
= +
) (
(11)
BETWEEN B & A TERMINALS:
CA BC AB
CA BC AB
A B
R R R
R R R
R R
+ +
+
= +
) (
(12)
By combining above three equations, we have
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20
CA BC AB
AB CA CA BC BC AB
C B A
R R R
R R R R R R
R R R
+ +
+ +
= + + (13)
Subtracting equations (10), (11), and (12) from (13) we write the expressions for for unknown
resistances of Wye (Y) network as
CA BC AB
CA AB
A
R R R
R R
R
+ +
= (14)
CA BC AB
BC AB
B
R R R
R R
R
+ +
= (15)
CA BC AB
CA BC
C
R R R
R R
R
+ +
= (16)
CONVERSION FROM STAR OR WYE (Y) TO DELTA ():
To convert a Wye (Y) to a Delta (), the relationships R
AB
, R
BC
& R
CA
must be obtained in
terms of the Wye (Y) resistances R
A
, R
B
& R
C
(referring to fig.6.1 (f)). Considering the Yconnected
network, we can write the current expression through R
A
resistor as
A
N A
A
R
V V
I
) (
= (For Y network) (17)
Appling KCL at N for Y connected network (assume A, B, C terminals having higher potential
than the terminal N) we have,


.

\

+ + =


.

\

+ + =
C
C
B
B
A
A
C B A
N
C
N C
B
N B
A
N A
R
V
R
V
R
V
R R R
V
R
V V
R
V V
R
V V 1 1 1
0
) ( ) ( ) (
Or,


.

\

+ +


.

\

+ +
=
C B A
C
C
B
B
A
A
N
R R R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
1 1 1
(18)
For network (see fig. 6.1(f)),
Current entering at terminal A = Current leaving the terminal A
AC
AC
AB
AB
A
R
V
R
V
I + = (for network) (19)
From equations (17) and (18),
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21
AC
AC
AB
AB
A
N A
R
V
R
V
R
V V
+ =
) (
Using the V
N
expression in the above equation, we get
AC
AC
AB
AB
A
C B A
C
C A
B
B A
AC
AC
AB
AB
A
C B A
C
C
B
B
A
A
A
R
V
R
V
R
R R R
R
V V
R
V V
R
V
R
V
R
R R R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
+ =





.

\



.

\

+ +


.

\

+
+ =





.

\



.

\

+ +


.

\

+ +
1 1 1 1 1 1
Or
AC
AC
AB
AB
A
C B A
C
AC
B
AB
R
V
R
V
R
R R R
R
V
R
V
+ =





.

\



.

\

+ +


.

\

+
1 1 1
(19)
Equating the coefficients of V
AB
and V
AC
and in both sides of eq. (19), we obtained the following
relationship.
C
B A
B A AB
C B A
B A
AB
R
R R
R R R
R R R
R R
R
+ + =


.

\

+ +
=
1 1 1
1 1
(20)
B
C A
C A AC
C B A
C A
AC
R
R R
R R R
R R R
R R
R
+ + =


.

\

+ +
=
1 1 1
1 1
(21)
Similarly, I
B
for both the networks (see fig. 61(f)) are given by
B
N B
B
R
V V
I
) (
= (For Y network)
BA
BA
BC
BC
B
R
V
R
V
I + = (For network)
Equating the above two equations and using the value of V
N
(see eq (18)), we get the final expression
as
BA
BA
BC
BC
B
C B A
A
BA
C
BC
R
V
R
V
R
R R R
R
V
R
V
+ =





.

\



.

\

+ +


.

\

+
1 1 1
Equating the coefficients of V
BC
in both sides of the above equations we obtain the following relation
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A
C B
C B BC
C B A
C B
BC
R
R R
R R R
R R R
R R
R
+ + =


.

\

+ +
=
1 1 1
1 1
(22)
NOTE: When we need to transform a Delta () network to an equivalent Wye (Y) network, the
equations (14)(16) are the useful expressions. On the other hand, the equations (20)(22) are used
for Wye (Y) to Delta () conversion.
REMARKS:
In order to note the symmetry of the transformation equations, the Wye (Y) and Delta ()
networks have been superimposed on each other as shown in fig. 6.2.
 The equivalent star (Wye) resistance connected to a given terminal
is equal to the product of the two Delta () resistances connected
to the same terminal divided by the sum of the Delta ()
resistances (see fig. 6.2).
 The equivalent Delta () resistance between twoterminals is the
sum of the two star (Wye) resistances connected to those terminals
plus the product of the same two star (Wye) resistances divided by
the third star (Wye (Y)) resistance (see fig.6.2).
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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23
1Phase AC circuits
A multiturn coil is placed inside a magnet with an air gap as shown in Fig. 12.1. The flux
lines are from North Pole to South Pole. The coil is rotated at an angular speed, = 2n (rad/s).
Instantaneous value of e.m.f. induced in the coil
dt
d
N e

= (ve sign indicates that in effect the induced e.m.f. is opposite
to the very cause which produces it)
( ) t
dt
d
N e
m
e  cos = ( t
m
e   cos = )
( ) t N e
m
e e  sin =
t N e
m
e e  sin = . (i)
The value of induced e.m.f will be maximum when angle u or t = 90
0
(i.e. sint = 1)
m m
N E  e =
Putting this value in equation (i), we get,
e = E
m
sint = E
m
sinu
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From the above equation it is clear that the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. varies according
to the sine of angleu. The wave shape of the induced e.m.f. is shown in fig. below. This is called
sinusoidal wave
If this voltage is applied across a resistor, an alternating current will flow through it varying
sinusoidally. This alternating current is given by the equation:
i = I
m
sint = I
m
sinu
IMPORTANT TERMS:
 Waveform: The shape of the curve obtained by plotting the instantaneous values of
alternating quantity is called a Waveform.
 Instantaneous Value: The value of an alternating quantity at any instant is called
instantaneous value and is represented by e or i.
 Cycle: When an alternating quantity goes through a complete set of +ve and ve values, it is
said to complete one cycle.
 Time Period: The time taken in seconds to complete one cycle by an alternating quantity is
called time period.
 Frequency: The no. of cycles made per second by an alternating quantity is called frequency.
 Amplitude: The maximum value (positive or negative) attained by an alternating quantity in
one cycle is called its amplitude or peak value or maximum value.
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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25
1PHASE AC CIRCUITS UNDER SINUSOIDAL STEADY STATE
CASE 1: PURELY RESISTIVE CIRCUIT (R ONLY)
If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a
resistor (Figure 3.1), it would look something like this: (Figure 3.2)
Because the resistor simply and directly resists the flow of electrons at all periods of time, the
waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is exactly in phase with the waveform for the
current through it. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor, and plot those values
on the same graph: (Figure 3.3)
Note that the power is never a negative value. When the current is positive (above the line),
the voltage is also positive, resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. Conversely, when the
current is negative (below the line), the voltage is also negative, which results in a positive value for
power. This consistent polarity of power shows that the resistor is always dissipating power, taking
it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. Whether the current is positive or
negative, a resistor still dissipates energy.
CASE 2: PURELY INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT (L ONLY)
Inductors oppose changes in current through them, by dropping a voltage directly
proportional to the rate of change of current. In accordance with Lenzs Law, this induced voltage is
always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current at its present value. That is, if current is
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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26
increasing in magnitude, the induced voltage will push against the electron flow; if current is
decreasing, the polarity will reverse and push with the electron flow to oppose the decrease. This
opposition to current change is called reactance, rather than resistance. Expressed mathematically,
the relationship between the voltage dropped across the inductor and rate of current change through
the inductor is as such:
dt
di
L e =
The expression di/dt is one from calculus, meaning the rate of change of instantaneous current (i)
over time, in amps per second. The inductance (L) is in Henry, and the instantaneous voltage (e), of
course, is in volts. To show what happens with alternating current, lets analyze a simple inductor
circuit: (Figure 3.4)
If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit, it would look
something like this: (Figure 3.5)
The voltage dropped across an inductor is a reaction against the change in current through it.
Therefore, the instantaneous voltage is
zero whenever the instantaneous current is
at a peak, and the instantaneous voltage is
at a peak wherever the instantaneous
current is at maximum. This results in a
voltage wave that is 90
o
out of phase with
the current wave. Looking at the graph, the
voltage wave seems to have a head start
on the current wave; the voltage leads
the current, and the current lags behind
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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27
the voltage. (Figure 3.6)
Things get even more interesting when we plot the power for this circuit: (Figure 3.7)
Because instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous voltage and the
instantaneous current (p=ie), the power equals zero whenever the instantaneous current or voltage is
zero. Whenever the instantaneous current and voltage are both positive (above the line), the power is
positive. As with the resistor example, the power is also positive when the instantaneous current and
voltage are both negative (below the line). However, because the current and voltage waves are
90
o
out of phase, there are times when one is positive while the other is negative, resulting in equally
frequent occurrences of negative instantaneous power. But what does negative power mean? It
means that the inductor is releasing power back to the circuit, while a positive power means that it is
absorbing power from the circuit. Since the positive and negative power cycles are equal in
magnitude and duration over time, the inductor releases just as much power back to the circuit as it
absorbs over the span of a complete cycle. This means that the reactance of an inductor dissipates a
net energy of zero, quite unlike the resistance of a resistor, which dissipates energy in the form of
heat. An inductors opposition to change in current translates to an opposition to alternating current
in general, which is by definition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction. This
opposition to alternating current is similar to resistance, but different in that it always results in a
phase shift between current and voltage, and it dissipates zero power. Because of the differences, it
has a different name: reactance. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms, just like resistance is, except
that its mathematical symbol is X instead of R. To be specific, reactance associate with an inductor
is usually symbolized by the capital letter X with a letter L as a subscript, like this: X
L
.
Since inductors drop voltage in proportion to the rate of current change, they will drop more
voltage for fasterchanging currents, and less voltage for slowerchanging currents. What this means
is that reactance in ohms for any inductor is directly proportional to the frequency of the alternating
current. The exact formula for determining reactance is as follows:
X
L
= 2fL = L
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
28
CASE 3: PURELY CAPACITIVE CIRCUIT (C ONLY):
Capacitors oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they charge or
discharge to the new voltage level. The flow of electrons through a capacitor is directly
proportional to the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor. This opposition to voltage change
is another form of reactance, but one that is precisely opposite to the kind exhibited by inductors.
Expressed mathematically, the relationship between the current through the capacitor and rate of
voltage change across the capacitor is as such:
dt
de
C i =
Or
}
= idt
C
e
1
To show what happens with alternating current, lets analyze a simple capacitor circuit: (Figure 4.4)
If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit, it would look
something like this: (Figure 4.5)
Remember, the current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage across
it. Therefore, the instantaneous current is zero whenever the instantaneous voltage is at a peak (zero
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
29
change, or level slope, on the voltage sine wave), and the instantaneous current is at a peak wherever
the instantaneous voltage is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the voltage wave,
where it crosses the zero line). This results in a voltage wave that is 90
o
out of phase with the current
wave. Looking at the graph, the current wave seems to have a head start on the voltage wave; the
current leads the voltage, and the voltage lags behind the current. (Figure 4.6)
As you might have guessed, the same unusual power wave that we saw with the simple
inductor circuit is present in the simple capacitor circuit, too: (Figure 4.7)
As with the simple inductor circuit, the 90 degree phase shift between voltage and current results in a
power wave that alternates equally between positive and negative. This means that a capacitor does
not dissipate power as it reacts against changes in voltage; it merely absorbs and releases power.
Since capacitors conduct current in proportion to the rate of voltage change, they will pass
more current for fasterchanging voltages (as they charge and discharge to the same voltage peaks in
less time), and less current for slowerchanging voltages. This means that reactance in ohms for any
capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of the alternating current.
fC
X
C
t 2
1
=
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
30
CASE 4: SERIES RL CIRCUIT:
A circuit containing a pure resistance of R ohms connected in series with a coil having pure
inductance of L henry is known as RL series circuit.
The voltage balance equation for the RL series circuit (Fig. 14.4a) is,
dt
di
L Ri v + =
where, u e e sin 2 sin sin 2 V t V t V v
m
= = = , u being t
The current, i (in steady state) can be found as
( ) ( ) ( )  u  e  e = = = sin 2 sin sin 2 I t I t I i
m
The current, in steady state is sinusoidal in nature. This can also be observed, if one sees the
expression of the current, ( ) t I i
m
e sin = for purely resistive case (with R only), and
( )
0
90 sin = t I i
m
e for purely inductive case (with L only).
Alternatively, if the expression for is substituted in the voltage equation, the equation as
given here is obtained.
( ) ) cos( 2 sin 2 sin 2  e e  e e + = t I L t I R t V
If, first, the trigonometric forms in the RHS side is expanded in terms of sint and cost, and then
equating the terms of sint and cost from two (LHS & RHS) sides, the two equations as given here
are obtained.
I L R V ). sin cos (  e  + = , and
) cos sin ( 0  e  + = L R
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
31
From these equations, the magnitude and phase angle of the current, I are derived. From the second
one, ) / ( tan R L e  =
So phase angle, ) / ( tan
1
R L e 
=
Two relations, ) / ( cos Z R =  , and ) / ( sin Z L e  = , are derived with the term impedance,
2 2
) ( L R Z e + =
If these two expressions are substituted in the first one, it can be shown that the magnitude of the
current is I=V/Z, with both V and Z in magnitude only.
The steps required to find the r.m.s. value of the current I, using complex form of impedance, are
given here.
The impedance (Fig. 14.5) of the inductive (RL) circuit is,
L j R jX R Z
L
e  + = + = Z
Where,
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( L R X R Z
L
e + + = and

.

\

= 
.

\

=
R
L
R
X
L
e

1 1
tan tan
L j R
j V
jX R
j V
Z
V
I
L
e 

+
+
=
+
+
=
Z
Z
= Z
0 0 0
0
2 2 2 2
) ( L R
V
X R
V
Z
V
I
L
e +
=
+
= =
Note that the current lags the voltage by the angle , value as given above. In this case, the voltage
phasor has been taken as reference phase, with the current phasor lagging the voltage phasor by the
angle, . But normally, in the case of the series circuit, the current phasor is taken as reference phase,
with the voltage phasor leading the current phasor by . This can be observed both from phasor
diagram (Fig. 14.4b), and waveforms (Fig. 14.4c). The inductive reactance X
L
is positive. In the
phasor diagram, as one move from voltage phasor to current phasor, one has to go in the clockwise
direction, which means that phase angle; is taken as positive, though both phasors are assumed to
move in anticlockwise direction as shown in the previous lesson.
The complete phasor diagram is shown in Fig. 14.4b, with the voltage drops across the two
components and input (supply) voltage (OA), and also current (OB). The voltage phasor is taken as
reference. It may be observed that
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
32
V
OC
+ V
CA
= V
OA
=> IR + I(jX
L
) = IZ
CASE 5: SERIES RC CIRCUIT:
This part is discussed in brief. The voltage balance equation for the RC series circuit (Fig. 14.6a) is,
t V idt
C
Ri v e sin 2
1
= + =
}
The current is
( )  e + = t I i sin 2
The reasons for the above choice of the current, i, and the steps needed for the derivation of
the above expression, have been described in detail, in the case of the earlier example of inductive
(RL) circuit. The same set of steps has to be followed to derive the current, i in this case.
Alternatively, the steps required to find the rms value of the current I, using complex form of
impedance, are given here.
The impedance of the capacitive (RC) circuit is,
C
j R jX R Z
C
e

1
= = Z
Where
( )
2
2 2 2
1

.

\

+ = + =
C
R X R Z
C
e
And

.

\

= 
.

\

= 
.

\

=
CR CR R
X
C
e e

1
tan
1
tan tan
1 1 1
( ) C j R
j V
jX R
j V
Z
V
I
C
e 

1
0 0 0
0
+
=
+
=
Z
Z
= Z
2 2 2 2
) 1 ( C R
V
X R
V
Z
V
I
C
e +
=
+
= =
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
33
CASE 6: SERIES RLC CIRCUIT:
The voltage balance equation for the circuit with R, L and C in series (Fig. 15.1a), is
t V idt
C dt
di
L Ri v e sin 2
1
= + + =
}
The current, I is of the form,
) sin( 2  e = t I i
As described in the previous topic on series (RL) circuit, the current in steady state is sinusoidal in
nature. The procedure given here, in brief, is followed to determine the form of current. If the
expression for ) sin( 2  e = t I i is substituted in the voltage equation, the equation shown here is
obtained, with the sides (LHS & RHS) interchanged.
t V t I
C
t I L t I R e  e
e
 e e  e sin 2 ) cos( 2
1
) cos( 2 ) sin( 2 = +
Or
( )
t V t I
C
L t I R e  e
e
e  e sin 2 ) cos( 2
1
) sin( 2 =
(
+
The steps to be followed to find the magnitude and phase angle of the current i, are same as
described for RL circuit.
So, the phase angle is




.

\

= 
.

\

=
R
C
L
R
X X
C L e
e

1
tan tan
1 1
And the magnitude of the current is I = V/Z
Where the impedance of the series circuit is
2 2
)] 1 ( [ C L R Z e e + =
Alternatively, the steps to find the rms value of the current I, using complex form of impedance, are
given here.

.

\

+ = + = Z
C
L j R X X j R Z
C L
e
e 
1
) (
Where,
2 2
)] 1 ( [ C L R Z e e + = , and
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
34




.

\

= 
.

\

=
R
C
L
R
X X
C L e
e

1
tan tan
1 1
2
2
2 2
1
) (

.

\

+
=
+
= =
C
L R
V
X X R
V
Z
V
I
C L
e
e
Two cases are: (a)

.

\

>
C
L
e
e
1
, and (b)

.

\

<
C
L
e
e
1
ACTIVE, REACTIVE AND APPARENT POWER
APPARENT POWER, VOLTAMPERES (VA) AND REACTIVE POWER:
The Apparent Power is the product of the voltage and complex conjugate of the current, both
in phasor form. For the inductive circuit, described earlier, the voltage (
0
0 Z V ) is taken as reference
and the current (    sin cos jI I I = Z ) is lagging the voltage by an angle, . The complex power
is jQ P jVI VI I V I V I V S + = + = Z = Z Z = =     sin cos ) ( 0
0
The VoltAmperes (S), a scalar quantity, is the product of the magnitudes the voltage and the
current. So,
2 2
Q P I V S + = = . It is expressed in VA.
The Active or Real Power (P) is
 cos ) Re( ) Re( VI I V S P = = = , it is expressed in W.
The Reactive Power (Q) is given by
 sin ) Im( ) Im( VI I V S P = = = , it is
expressed in VAr
As the phase angle, is taken as positive in
inductive circuits, the reactive power is positive. The real
part, (Icos) is in phase with the voltage V, whereas the imaginary part, Isin is in quadrature (90
0
)
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
35
with the voltage V. But in capacitive circuits, the current (  Z I ) leads the voltage by an angle ,
which is taken as negative. So, it can be stated that the reactive power is negative here, which can
easily be derived.
PHYSICAL MEANING OF REACTIVE POWER
EXPLANATION FOR REACTIVE POWER: Explanation for reactive power says that in
an alternating current system, when the voltage and current go up and down at the same time, only
real power is transmitted and when there is a time shift between voltage and current both active and
reactive power are transmitted. But, when the average in time is calculated, the average active power
exists causing a net flow of energy from one point to another, whereas average reactive power is
zero, irrespective of the network or state of the system. In the case of reactive power, the amount of
energy flowing in one direction is equal to the amount of energy flowing in the opposite direction (or
different parts capacitors, inductors, etc of a network, exchange the reactive power). That means
reactive power is neither produced nor consumed. But, in reality we measure reactive power losses,
all the methods we introduce to reduce electricity consumption are actually employed to reduce
reactive power so as to reduce total electricity consumption cost.
POWER FACTOR
Power factor = (Average power/Apparent Power)
=
2 2 2
2
1
cos
cos
X R
R
C
L R
R
Z
R
VI
VI
+
=

.

\

+
= = =
e
e


The power factor in this circuit is less than 1 (one), as 0
0
90
0
, being positive as given
above.
For the resistive (R) circuit, the power factor is 1 (one), as = 0
0
, and the average power is
VI.
For the circuits with only inductance, L or capacitance, C as described earlier, the power
factor is 0 (zero), as = 90
0
. For inductance, the phase angle, or the angle of the impedance, =
+90
0
(lagging), and for capacitance, = 90
0
(leading). It may be noted that in both cases, the average
power is zero (0), which means that no power is consumed in the elements, L and C.
3PHASE BALANCED AND UNBALANCED SUPPLY
Generation of Threephase Balanced Voltages
In the previous section, the generation of singlephase voltage, using a multiturn coil placed
inside a magnet, was described. It may be noted that, the scheme shown was a schematic one,
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
36
whereas in a machine, the windings are distributed in number of slots. Same would be the case with a
normal threephase generator. Three windings, with equal no. of turns in each one, are used, so as to
obtain equal voltage in magnitude in all three phases. Also to obtain a balanced threephase voltage,
the windings are to be placed at an electrical angle of 120
0
with each other, such that the voltages in
each phase are also at an angle of 120
0
with each other, which will be described in the next section.
The schematic diagram with multiturn coils, as was shown earlier in Fig. 12.1 for a singlephase
one, placed at angle of 120
0
with each other, in a 2pole configuration, is shown in Fig. 18.1a. The
waveforms in each of the three windings (R, Y & B), are also shown in Fig. 18.1b. The windings are
in the stator, with the poles shown in the rotor, which is rotating at a synchronous speed of N
S
(r/min,
or rpm), to obtain a frequency of f = ((p.N
S
)/120) (Hz), p being no. of poles [p = 2].
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
37
STAR AND DELTA CONNECTIONS
THREEPHASE VOLTAGES FOR STAR CONNECTION:
The connection diagram of a star (Y)connected threephase system is shown in Fig. The
connection diagram of a star (Y)connected threephase system is shown in Fig. 18.2a, along with
phasor representation of the voltages (Fig. 18.2b). These are in continuation of the figures 18.1ab.
Three windings for three phases are R (+) & R(),Y (+) & Y(), and B (+) & Y(). Taking the
winding of one phase, say phase R as an example, then R with sign (+) is taken as start, and R with
sign () is taken as finish. Same is the case with two other phases. for making star (Y)connection,
R, Y & B are connected together, and the point is taken as neutral, N. Three phase voltages are:
e
RN
= E
m
sinu ; e
YN
= E
m
sin(u  120
0
);
e
BN
= E
m
sin(u  240
0
) = E
m
sin(u + 120
0
)
It may be noted that, if the voltage in phase R (e
RN
) is taken as reference as stated earlier, then the
voltage in phase Y (e
YN
) lags e
RN
by 120
0
, and the voltage in phase B(e
BN
) lags e
YN
by 120
0
, or leads
e
RN
by 120
0
. The phasors are given as:
The phase voltages are all equal in magnitude, but only differ in phase. This is also shown in
Fig. 18.2b. The relationship between E and E
m
is 2
m
E E = . The phase sequence is RYB. It can
be observed from Fig. 18.1b that the voltage in phase Y attains the maximum value, after = t =
120
0
from the time or angle, after the voltage in phase R attains the maximum value, and then the
voltage in phase B attains the maximum value. The angle of lag or lead from the reference phase, R
has been stated earlier.
RELATION BETWEEN THE PHASE AND LINE VOLTAGES FOR STAR CONNECTION:
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
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38
Three line voltages (Fig. 18.4) are obtained by the following procedure. The line voltage, E
RY
is
( ) ( )   866 . 0 5 . 0 0 1 120 0
0 0
j j E E E E E E
YN RN RY
+ = Z Z = =
0
30 3 ) 866 . 0 5 . 1 ( Z = + = E j E E
RY
The magnitude of the line voltage, E
RY
is 3 times the magnitude of the phase voltage E
RN
, and E
RY
leads E
RN
by 30
0
. Same is the case with other two line voltages as shown in brief (the steps can easily
be derived by the procedure given earlier).
0 0 0
90 3 120 120 Z = + Z Z = = E E E E E E
BN YN YB
0 0 0
150 3 0 120 + Z = Z + Z = = E E E E E E
RN BN BR
So, the three line voltages are balanced, with their magnitudes being equal, and the phase angle being
displaced from each other in sequence by 120
0
. Also, the line voltage, say E
RY
, leads the
corresponding phase voltage, E
RN
by 30
0
3 3
L P L P
V V E E = =
Also,
L P
I I =
RELATION BETWEEN PHASE AND LINE QUANTITIES FOR DELTA CONNECTION
The connection diagram of a delta ()connected threephase system is shown in Fig. 18.4a,
along with phasor representation of the voltages (Fig. 18.4b). For making delta ()connection, the
start of one winding is connected to the finish of the next one in sequence, for instance, starting from
phase R, R is to connected to Y, and then Y to B, and so on (Fig. 18.4a). The line and phase
voltages are the same in this case, and are given as
0
0 Z = E E
RY
;
0
120 Z = E E
YB
;
0
120 + Z = E E
BR
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Prepared By: Deependra Singh
39
If the phasor sum of the above three phase (or line) voltages are taken, the result is zero (0).
The phase or line voltages form a balanced one, with their magnitudes being equal, and the phase
being displaced from each other in sequence by 120
0
.
3
L P
I I =
Also,
L P L P
V V E E = =
TOTAL POWER CONSUMED IN THE CIRCUIT
STARCONNECTED CIRCUIT
In the previous section, the power consumed in a circuit fed from a singlephase supply was
presented. Using the same expression for the above starconnected balanced circuit, fed from three
phase supply (Fig. 18.4ab), the power consumed per phase is given by:
P P P P
I V W  cos =
Hence, the power consumed in 3phase is:
P P P
I V W  cos 3 =
It has been shown that magnitude of phase voltage is given by 3
L P
V V = , where magnitude
of line voltage is V
L
. The magnitudes of line and phase currents are same
L P
I I = . Substituting the
two expressions, the total power consumed by 3phase supply is obtained as
P L L P L L
I V I V W   cos 3 cos 3 3 = =
NOTE: The phase angle
P
 is the angle between phase voltage V
P
and phase current, I
P
.
DELTACONNECTED CIRCUIT
The power consumed per phase is given by:
P P P P
I V W  cos =
Hence, the power consumed in 3phase is:
P P P
I V W  cos 3 =
It has been shown that magnitude of phase voltage is given by
L P
V V = , where magnitude of
line voltage is V
L
. The magnitudes of line and phase currents are 3
L P
I I = . Substituting the two
expressions, the total power consumed by 3phase supply is obtained as
P L L P L L
I V I V W   cos 3 cos 3 3 = =
NOTE: The phase angle
P
 is the angle between phase voltage V
P
and phase current, I
P
.
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