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Chapter 6 Practice Test 6.1 Q: Find the general solution to the exact differential equation.

dy/dx = 5x^4 - 5 sec^2 x

A: 1. Find the anti-derivative: x^5 - 5 tan x 2. Take into consideration the constant 3. Answer: x^5 - 5 tan x + C

Q: Solve the initial value problem explicitly: (1/1+t^2) + 3^t ln3 and y = 8 when t=0 A: 1. Find Anti-Derivative: Y = tan^(-1) t + 3^(t) + C 2. To solve explicitly, find C by using the given values for x and y: (8) = tan^(-1) (0) + 3^(0) + C 7=C 3. Plug C into the initial value problem and you will have the answer : y = tan^(-1)t + 3^t + 7 4) Find the general solution to the exact differential equation: dy/du = 4(sin u)3(cos u) Solution: dy = 4 (sin u)3(cos u)du y = (sin u)4 + C 5) Solve the initial value problem

dy/dx = 5sec2x - 3/2x and y = 7 when x=0 Solution: dy/dx = 5sec2x - 3/2x y = 5tanx - x3/2 + C 7 = 5tan(0) - (0)3/2 + C 7=C y = 5tanx - x3/2 + 7 6) Construct a slope field using the differential equation . Use slope analysis, not your graphing calculator. dy/dx = x- 2y Solution:

6.2 U-substitution Use Substitution to evaluate the integral 1. (cotx)(csc2 x dx Let U = cot(x) du= -csc2 x dx (cotx)(csc2 x dx= -u1/2du

= (-)u3/2 + C = -(cotx)3/2+C

2.

6.3 Anti-Differentiation By Parts formula:

1) Integrate x3/(x+5)2dx Worked out solution:

and and So that, .

. 2) Integrate x cos(x/2)dx Worked out solution:


2

3) Integrate using the tabular integration method: x4e-xdx Begin by making two columns. On the left column, write the polynomial. Below it, write each derivative until we reach zero. (That is why this one works for a polynomial function. No other function will eventually reach zero.) Now, on the right column, write the dv. Then below it list each anti-derivative. Continue until you are lined up with the zero in the first column. For this example, the table would like the following:

f(x) and its derivatives x


4

g(x) and its integrals e


-x

4x

-e e

-x

12x

-x

24x 24 0

-e e

-x

-x

-e

-x

Now, we go through and draw arrows diagonally down and to the right, starting at the top left. And off to the left of the columns, we alternate writing a positive or negative sign, starting with a positive sign. We continue in this manner until we are level with the zero in the first column. Now, just multiply follow the arrows. Along each arrow, we multiply terms. Then add or subtract terms depending on the sign. = 4) Integrate e-x cos(x)dx

6.4 Differential Equations and Mathematical Modeling

1) 1. (dy/dx) = (y)/(2x) and y=1 when x=4 (dy/y)= (1/2) x-1/2dx so ln abs(y) = (x) + c. The initial point yields ln 1 =(4) + c; hence c=-2. With y > 0, the particular solution is ln(y) = (x)-2 or y=e(x) -2) 2. Solutions of the differential equation y dy=x dx are of the form Integrating yields (y2/2)=(x2/2) +C or y2= x2 + 2C or y2= x2+ C, where we have replaced the arbitrary constant 2C by C x2 -y2=C 3. Find the domain of the particular solution to the differential equation in Questions 2 that passes through point (-2,1). For initial point (-2,1), x2- y2 = 3. Rewriting the differential equation ydy=xdx as (dy/dx)= (x)/(y) reveals that the derivative does not exist when y=0, which occurs at x=(+/-(3). Since the particular solution must be differentiable in an interval containing x=-2, the domain is x<-(3) 4.If radium decomposes at a rate proportional to the amount present, then the amount R left after t yr, if R sub zero is present initially and c is negative constant of proportionality, is given by.. Since (dR/dt)= cR. (dR/R) = c dt, and ln = ct + C. When t=0, R=R sub zero; so ln (R sub zero)=C or ln(R) = ct + ln (R subzero). Thus, ln R - ln (R sub zero) = ct; ln (R/Rsubzero) = ct or (R/Rsubzero)= ect 5. The population of a city increases continuously at a rate proportional, at any time, to the population at that time. The population doubles in 50 yr. After 75 yr the ratio of the population P to the initial population P sub zero is given by. The question given rise to the differntiaon equation (dP/dt)= kP, where P=2Psub zero, when t=50. We seek P/Psub zero, for t=75. We get ln (P/Psub zero) = kt with ln (2)= 50k; then ln (P/Psub zero)=(t/50)(ln 2) or (P/Psub zero)= 2t/50 6. A cup of coffee at temperature 180 degrees fahrenheit is placed on a table in a room at 98 degrees farenheit. The differential equation for its temperature at time t is (dy/dt)= -.11(y-68); y(0)= 180. After 10 min the temperature (in degrees fahrenheit) of the coffee is... We separate the variables in the given differential equation, then solve: dy/(y-68)= -.11dt ln (y-68) = -.11t+c Since y(0)= 180, ln 112= c. Then ln(y-58/112) = -.11t, y=68 + 112e-.11t When t=10, y=68+112e-1.1 which is about 105 degrees fahrenheit

7. Approximately, how long does it take the temperature of the coffee in question 6 to drop to 75 degrees fahrenheit The solution of the differential equation in questions 6, where y is the temperature of the coffee at time t, is y=68+112e-.11t We find t when y=75 degrees fahrenheit: 75=68+112e-.11t (7/112) = e-.11t (ln 7 - ln 112)/(-.11) = t which is about 25 mins