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ERRATA CORRIGE N 1 alla versione in lingua inglese
DEL 7 novembre 2013
NORMA UNI EN 13445-3 (novembre 2012)
TITOLO Recipienti a pressione non esposti a fiamma Parte 3:
Progettazione



Punto della
norma
Pagina Oggetto della
modifica
Modifica
- I Relazioni
internazionali
Sostituire il 27 luglio 2011 e il 25 luglio 2012 con il 27 luglio 2011, il
25 luglio 2012 e il 31 luglio 2013
- II Premessa
nazionale
Sostituire del 27 luglio 2011 e del 25 luglio 2012 con del 27 luglio
2011, del 25 luglio 2012 e del 31 luglio 2013
- II Dopo pagina II Sostituire le pagine 6, 60, 100, 165, 166, 167, 168, 197, 199, 210,
211, 241, 242, 262, 418, 576, 579, 581, 594, 832a della EN 13445-
3:2009 con quelle in allegato

Documenti allegati:
Pagina 6, 60, 100, 165, 166, 167, 168, 197, 199, 210, 211, 241, 242, 262, 418, 576, 579, 581, 594 e 832a
della EN 13445-3:2009

EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
6
Foreword
This document (EN 13445-3:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 54 Unfired pressure
vessels, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or
by endorsement, at the latest by December 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest
by December 2009.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights.
CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European
Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).
For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document.
This European Standard consists of the following Parts:
Part 1: General.
Part 2: Materials.
Part 3: Design.
Part 4: Fabrication.
Part 5: Inspection and testing.
Part 6: Requirements for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels and pressure parts constructed from
spheroidal graphite cast iron.
CR 13445-7, Unfired pressure vessels Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures.
Part 8: Additional requirements for pressure vessels of aluminium and aluminium alloys.
CEN/TR 13445-9, Unfired pressure vessels Part 9: Conformance of EN 13445 series to ISO 16528
This document supersedes EN 13445-3:2002. This new edition incorporates the Amendments which have been
approved previously by CEN members, and the corrected pages up to Issue 36 without any further technical
charge. Annex Y to EN 13445-1:2009 and Annex Y to this Part provides details of significant technical changes
between this European Standard and the previous edition.
Amendments to this new edition may be issued from time to time and then used immediately as alternatives to
rules contained herein. It is intended to deliver a new Issue of EN 13445:2009 each year, consolidating these
Amendments and including other identified corrections. Issue 5 (2013-07) includes the corrected pages listed in
Annex Y.
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
UNI EN 13445-3:2012
EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
60
8.5.3.4 Interstiffener collapse
Each section of a stiffened cylinder shall be checked for interstiffener collapse. The procedure is similar to that in
8.5.2.2 for unstiffened cylinders but L is determined from Table 8.5-1 depending on whether the cylinder has light
stiffeners or a combination of light and heavy stiffeners:
a) Calculate
y
P as follows:
( ) G R
e
P
e

o
1
a
y
(8.5.3-15)
NOTE 1 The approximation = 0 is safe as it under-estimates the pressure.
in which
( ) ( ) B e w A
A
+ +
|
.
|

\
|

=
1
2
1


a i m
m
v
(8.5.3-16)
where
s
s
m
A
R
R
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
(8.5.3-17)
( )
a m
a

2
e w A
N e
B
+

=
o
(8.5.3-18)
( ) | |
a
25 , 0
2
1 3
e R

=
v
o (8.5.3-19)
from which, if 3 0, = v
a
,
e R
=
28 1
o (8.5.3-20)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) L L
L L
N
sin sinh
cos cosh
o o
o o
+

= (8.5.3-21)
and
( ) ( ) L L
L L L L
G
sin sinh

2

sin
2

cosh
2

cos
2

sinh
o o
o o o o
+
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
(8.5.3-22)
NOTE 2 If L R e > 3
a
then G = 0 may be used.
NOTE 3 Table 8.5-2 may be used to evaluate G and N.
b) Calculate
m
P as in 8.5.2.2 b) continuing to take L from Table 8.5-1.
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EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
100
Where a small opening lies beyond the distance w
p
defined in 9.7.3, no reinforcement check is necessary. Where it
lies within this distance, the reinforcement shall be in accordance with equation (9.5-7) or (9.5-11) as appropriate.
However the distance w between small opening and shell discontinuity shall respect the minimum value w
min
as
required in 9.7.1.
9.5.2.3 General requirements for reinforcement
9.5.2.3.1 Reinforcing pads
For cases where a reinforcing pad contributes to the reinforcement (see Figures 9.4-3, 9.4-4, 9.4-10):
reinforcing plates shall be fitted in close contact with the shell.
the width of a reinforcing plate l'
p
to be considered as contributing to reinforcement is given by
) ; min(
'
p so p
l l l = (9.5-19)
the value of e
p
used for the calculation of Af
p
shall not exceed the following
) ; min(
, , s c p a p
e e e = (9.5-20)
furthermore the analysis thickness of the reinforcing pad shall meet the following condition
e
a,p
s 1.5 e
a,s
(9.5-21)
e
a,p
and l
p
are dimensions of reinforcing pads used in equations for openings that may be reinforced also by
reinforcing pads; if reinforcing pad is not present then the values e
a,p
and l
p
shall be put equal to zero. If the
reinforcing pad is contributing to reinforcement then, for all cases:
p p p
e l Af =
'
(9.5-22)
9.5.2.3.2 Joint coefficient
9.5.2.3.2.1 Opening intersecting with a shell governing weld
If an opening intersects with a shell governing weld (see definition in 5.6), the value f
s
in equation (9.5-7,11,13 and
16) for the shell material shall be replaced by f
s
z, where z is the joint coefficient of the shell.
9.5.2.3.2.2 Nozzle with a longitudinal weld
If a nozzle has a longitudinal weld having a weld joint factor z, the value f
b
for the nozzle material shall be
replaced by f
b
xz except for openings in cylindrical or conical shells if the angle u as defined in subclause 9.3.2 is
greater than 45.
9.5.2.3.2.3 Reinforcing pad with a weld
If a reinforcing pad has a weld having a weld joint factor z, the value f
p
for the pad material shall be replaced by
f
p
x z except for openings in cylindrical or conical shells if the angle between the pad weld and the shell generatrix
is greater than 45.
9.5.2.3.3 Fillet weld areas for compensation
For all cases:
Af
w
is the area of any welds connecting together the different components (shell to nozzle, shell to reinforcing
ring or reinforcing plate) which is located within length l
s
on the shell (see 9.5.2.4.2) and lengths l
b
and l
bi

on the nozzle (see 9.5.2.4.4.1). Areas of welds already included in other areas, e.g. Af
s
, Af
r
, Af
p
or Af
b
, shall be
omitted from Af
w
(see Figures 9.4-6 and 9.4-10).
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165
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5
0,10
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,60
0,70
0,80
0,90
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
h = h
l Bg
0 0
0,908920

F
g
1
/g
0

Figure 11.5-4 Value of |
F
for v = 0,3 (integral method factor)
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,5
0,4
0,6
1
1,5 2 2,5 3 5 3,5 4 4,5
g / g
1 0
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,60
0,70
0,80
0,90
1,00
1,25
1,50
2,00
h = h
l Bg
0 0
0,550103

V

Figure 11.5-5 Value of |
v
for v = 0,3 (integral method factor)
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EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
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166
= 1 (minimum)
= 1 for hubs of uniform thickness (g /g = 1)
1 0

1 1,5 2 3 4 5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1,20
1,10
0,90
1,00
0,80
0,70
0,60
0,50
0,45
0,40
0,30
0,20
0,10
0,35
0,25
0,15
0,05
0
g /g
1 0
15
20
25
h h
l Bg
0
0
1,30
=

Figure 11.5-6 Value of for v = 0,3 (hub stress correction factor)
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
2
0
0 U
V
3
0 T
0 F
g l
e
l
l e
|
|
|
|

(11.5-31)
The longitudinal hub stress:
2
1
H
=
g
M

o
(11.5-32)
The radial flange stress:
0
2
0 F
r
) (1,333
l e
M l e

|
o
+
=
(11.5-33)
The tangential flange stress:
1
1
2
2
r
2
Y

=
K
K
e
M
o
|
o
u
(11.5-34)
b) Loose method
The tangential flange stress:
2
Y
e
M
=
|
o
u
(11.5-35)
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EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
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167
The radial stress in flange and longitudinal stress in hub are
0
H r
= = o o (11.5-36)
c) Loose hubbed flange method
|
FL
and |
VL
are given by Equations 11.5-37 and 11.5-38 or are found from Figures 11.5-7 and 11.5-8
respectively :
( )
C
A
v
C
A A
C
A
C
A
C

3
4 / 1
2
24 21 18
FL
1
) 1 ( 3
360
5 9
210
2 3
84
11 21
6
3
+
(

|
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
| +
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ |
.
|

\
| +
= (11.5-37)
where A, C, C
18
, C
21
and C
24
are coefficients obtained from Equations in 11.5.4.1.2.
v is the Poisson's ratio
( )
( )
3
4 / 1
2
18
21 24
VL
1
1 3
2
3
5 4
1
A
C
v
C
C C

+
(



= (11.5-38)
where A, C, C
18
, C
21
and C
24
are coefficients obtained from Equations in 11.5.4.1.2.
v is the Poisson's ratio
Figure 11.5-7 Value of |
FL
for v = 0,3 (loose hub flange factor)
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EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
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168
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,08
0,1
0,2
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
20
30
40
60
80
100
2,00
1,50
1,00
0,90
0,80
0,70
0,60
0,50
0,45
0,40
0,35
0,30
0,25
0,20
0,18
0,16
0,14
0,12
0,10
1,0
1,5 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0
g / g
1 0

VL
h = h
l Bg
0 0

Figure 11.5-8 Value of |
VL
for v = 0,3 (loose hub flange factor)
(
(

+
+
=
2
0
0 U
VL
3
0 T
0 FL
g l
e
l
l e
|
|
|
|
(11.5-39)
The longitudinal hub stress:
2
1
H
g
M

o = (11.5-40)
The radial flange stress:
0
2
0 FL
r
) (1,333
l e
M l e

+
=

|
o (11.5-41)
The tangential flange stress:
1
1
2
2
r
2
Y

=
K
K
e
M
o
|
o
u
(11.5-42)
11.5.4.1.2 Coefficients for flange stresses calculations
1
0
1
=
g
g
A (11.5-43)
4
0
2
) 1 ( 48
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
l
h
v C (11.5-44)
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EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
197
13.4.2 Conditions of applicability
13.4.2.1 Tubesheet
The tubesheet shall comply with the following conditions of applicability.
a) The tubesheet shall be flat, circular and of uniform thickness.
b) A local reduction of thickness at the periphery of the tubesheet for a gasket groove or a relief groove is
permitted, provided that the remaining analysis thickness, e
a,p
, is at least equal to 0,8 times the assumed
thickness, e , of the tubesheet (see Figure 13.4.2-1):
e e
p a,
8 , 0 > (13.4.2-1)
The radius shall be not less than 5 mm and not less than 20 % of the adjacent shell thickness. The
requirement for the remaining analysis thickness given above shall apply only if the ratio of the outside
diameter to inside diameter of the adjacent shell is larger than 1,2.
a) Configuration a b) Configuration b and e
c) Configuration d d) Configuration c and f
Figure 13.4.2-1 Local reduction of thickness at tubesheet periphery
c) When the tubesheet is extended as a flange, the flange extension thickness shall be calculated according to:
13.10 if the gasket is narrow (configurations b, d
2
, e);
13.11 if the gasket is full face (configurations b',
'
2
d , e').
d) Unless satisfactory experience has been demonstrated with thinner tubesheets, the following conditions shall
be met when the tubes are expanded into the tubesheet:
when d
t
s 25 mm:
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199
E is the elastic modulus of tubesheet material at design temperature;
E
c
is the elastic modulus of channel material at design temperature;
E
s
is the elastic modulus of shell material at design temperature;
*
E is the effective elastic modulus of the tubesheet at design temperature, see 13.7;
e is the assumed thickness of the tubesheet (see Figure 13.7.3-3);
e
c
is the channel thickness (see Figure 13.4.1-1);
e
s
is the shell thickness (see Figure 13.4.1-1);
F is a coefficient given in 13.4.4.3d;
f is the nominal design stress of tubesheet material at design temperature;
f
c
is the nominal design stress of channel material at design temperature;
f
s
is the nominal design stress of shell material at design temperature;
1
G is the diameter of the midpoint of contact face between flange and tubesheet, given by equation (11.5-97);
G
c
is the diameter of channel gasket load reaction (see clause 11);
G
s
is the diameter of shell gasket load reaction (see clause 11);
h
g
'
is the effective depth of tube-side pass partition groove, see 13.7;
K is the tubesheet diameter ratio given by equation (13.4.4-6);
c
k is the edge moment per unit length required to rotate the channel edge through unit angle, given by
Table 13.4.4-1;
s
k is the edge moment per unit length required to rotate the shell edge through unit angle, given by
Table 13.4.4-1;
o
M is the moment [Nmm/mm] acting at centre of tubesheet, given by equation (13.4.5-7);
P
M is the moment [Nmm/mm] acting at periphery of tubesheet, given by equation (13.4.5-6);
Pc
M is the moment [Nmm/mm] acting on the unperforated tubesheet rim due to pressure in the integral channel,
given by Table 13.4.4-1;
Ps
M is the moment [Nmm/mm] acting on the unperforated tubesheet rim due to pressure in the integral shell,
given by Table 13.4.4-1;
TS
M is the moment [Nmm/mm] due to pressures
s
P and
t
P acting on the unperforated tubesheet rim, given by
equation (13.4.4-5);
M* is the moment [Nmm/mm] acting on the unperforated tubesheet rim (see 13.4.5.1);
P
s
is the shell-side calculation pressure. In case of vacuum, this shall be taken as negative;
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210
c) 13.5.2 to 13.5.9 apply to configuration a (where the tubesheet is integral) and to configurations b, c and d
where the gasketed tubesheet has a narrow gasket.
13.5.10 outlines how to use these rules for configuration b' and d' where the gasketed tubesheet has a full
face gasket.
13.5.9 enables to cover shell having a different thickness, or a different material, adjacent to the tubesheet
when integral with the tubesheet (configurations a, b, c).
a) Configuration a b) Configuration b
Tubesheet integral with shell and channel Tubesheet integral with shell and gasketed
with channel, extended as a flange
c) Configuration c d) Configuration d
Tubesheet integral with shell and gasketed
with channel, not extended as a flange
Tubesheet gasketed with shell and channel,
not extended as a flange
Figure 13.5.1-2 Fixed tubesheet configurations
13.5.2 Conditions of applicability
13.5.2.1 Tubesheets
The tubesheets shall comply with the following conditions of applicability:
a) The two tubesheets shall be flat, circular and identical (i.e. same uniform thickness, same material, same
connection with shell and channel);
b) A local reduction of thickness at the periphery of the tubesheet for a gasket groove or a relief groove is
permitted, provided that the remaining analysis thickness, e
a,p
, is at least equal to 0,8 times the assumed
thickness, e, of the tubesheet (see Figure 13.5.2-1):
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EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
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211
e e 8 , 0
p a,
> (13.5.2-1)
The radius shall be not less than 5 mm and not less than 20 % of the adjacent shell thickness. The
requirement for the remaining analysis thickness given above shall apply only if the ratio of the outside
diameter to inside diameter of the adjacent shell is larger than 1,2.
a) Configuration a b) Configuration b
c) Configuration c d) Configuration d
Figure 13.5.2-1 Local reduction of thickness at tubesheet periphery
c) When the tubesheets are extended as a flange, the flange extension thickness, shall be calculated according
to:
13.10 if the gasket is narrow (configuration b),
13.11 if the gasket is full face (configuration b').
d) Unless satisfactory experience has been demonstrated with thinner tubesheets, the following conditions shall
be met when the tubes are expanded into the tubesheet:
when d
t
s 25 mm:
>
a
e 0,75 d
t
(13.5.2-2)
when 25 mm < d
t
s 30 mm:
>
a
e 22 mm
(13.5.2-3)
when 30 mm < d
t
s 40 mm:
>
a
e 25 mm
(13.5.2-4)
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241
for configuration A: the inside diameter
f
D of the channel attached to the floating tubesheet:
f e,f
D D = ;
c) A local reduction of thickness at the periphery of the tubesheet for a gasket groove or a relief groove is
permitted, provided that the remaining analysis thickness, e
a,p
, is at least equal to 0,8 times the assumed
thickness, e, of the tubesheet (see Figures 13.6.2-1 and 2):
e e
p a,
8 , 0 > (13.6.2-1)
The radius shall be not less than 5 mm and not less than 20 % of the adjacent shell thickness. The requirement for
the remaining analysis thickness given above shall apply only if the ratio of the outside diameter to inside diameter
of the adjacent shell is larger than 1,2.
a) Configuration a b) Configurations b and e
c) Configuration d d) Configurations c and f
Figure 13.6.2-1 Local reduction of thickness at stationary tubesheet periphery
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242
a) Configuration A
b) Configuration B c) Configuration C
Figure 13.6.2-2 Local reduction of thickness at floating tubesheet periphery
d) When the tubesheets are extended as a flange, the flange extension thickness, shall be calculated according
to:
13.10 if the gasket is narrow (configurations b, d, e)
13.11 if the gasket is full face (configurations b', d', e')
e) Unless satisfactory experience has been demonstrated with thinner tubesheets, the following conditions shall
be met when the tubes are expanded into the tubesheet:
when d
t
s 25 mm:
>
a
e 0,75
t
d
(13.6.2-2)
when 25 mm < d
t
s 30 mm:
>
a
e 22 mm
(13.6.2-3)
when 30 mm < d
t
s 40 mm:
>
a
e 25 mm
(13.6.2-4)
when 40 mm < d
t
s 50 mm:
>
a
e 30 mm
(13.6.2-5)
f) The tubesheets shall be uniformly perforated over a nominally circular area of diameter
o
D , in either
equilateral triangular or square pattern.
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262
c) These values of
j t,
f can be increased up to the value f
t
if the tube-to-tubesheet joining procedure is approved
and checked with pull-out tests.
13.9 Maximum permissible longitudinal compressive stress for tubes
13.9.1 Purpose
This clause provides rules to determine the maximum permissible longitudinal compressive stress in the tubes of
exchangers with a pair of tubesheets joined by a bundle of straight tubes to cover their failure through elastic
instability and buckling under the effect of an axial compressive force and pressures P
t
and P
s
.
13.9.2 Symbols
b
0
is the tube imperfection factor;
t
d is the nominal outside diameter of tubes (see Figure 13.7.3-3);
t
E is the elastic modulus of tube material at design temperature;
t
e is the nominal tube wall thickness (see Figure 13.7.3-3);
f
t,bk
is the maximum permissible buckling stress of tubes;
l
t,bk
is the buckling length of tubes;
P
s
is the shell-side calculation pressure. In case of vacuum, this shall be taken as negative;
P
t
is the tube-side calculation pressure. In case of vacuum, this shall be taken as negative;
0,2/T p
R is the proof strength of tube material at design temperature;
x is the safety factor on tube buckling;
o
t,cr
is the Euler critical stress for tubes;
o
t,p
is the factor for pressure effect on tubes;
Symbols l l l l l
1 1 2 2 3
, ' , , ' and are defined on Figure 13.9.3-1.
13.9.3 Determination of maximum permissible buckling stress
a) The buckling length of tubes, l
t,bk
, is given by:
if some tubes are not supported by any baffle-plate:
bk t,
l = 0 5 , L (13.9.3-1)
if all the tubes are supported by at least one baffle-plate (see Figure 13.9.3-1):
| | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
| | { }
l L l l l l l
t,bk 1 1 2 2
; = min , ; max , ; , ' ; , ; , ' 0 5 07 07 07 07
3
(13.9.3-2)
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418
5) Check that:
1
4
all c,
c
max e,
e
s

e
D P

P
P
a
e
(16.14-14)
6) If both inequalities are satisfied then the design is satisfactory; if not e
a
should be increased and the
calculation repeated;
16.14.8 Compressive stress limits
16.14.8.1 Calculation
The following procedure shall be used to find the permissible longitudinal compressive stress in a cylindrical shell.
The method for measuring tolerance is given below (see 16.14.8.2). The maximum value of
I
w
shall not exceed
0,02.
1) calculate
D
e E
K

=
e
a
21 , 1
(16.14-15)
2) if D/e
a
s 424 then
o =
+
0 83
10 0 005
,
, , / D e
a
(16.14-16)
if D/e
a
> 424 then
o =
+
07
01 0 005
,
, , / D e
a
(16.14-17)
3) if the maximum value of
I
w
lies between 0,01 and 0,02 the value of o is reduced by the factor
(1,5 - 50
I
w
).
4) if oK < 0,5 then:
A =
075
15
,
,
o K
(16.14-18)
and if oK > 0,5 then
( )
5 , 1
4123 , 0
0 , 1
6 , 0
K o

= A (16.14-19)
NOTE The safety factor 1,5 in the nominator is valid for operation conditions. It should be adapted for testing or
exceptional conditions in accordance with clause 6.
UNI EN 13445-3:2012
EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
576
B.9.4 Creep Rupture (CR)
B.9.4.1 Principle
For each creep load case, the design value of an action, or of a combination of actions, shall be carried by the
design model with
linear-elastic ideal-plastic constitutive law,
von Mises' yield condition (maximum distortion energy hypothesis) and associated flow rule
material strength parameter RM and a partial safety factor
R
as specified in Tables B.9-2 and B.9-3.
proportional increase of all actions and a stress-free initial state
with the maximum absolute value of the principal structural strains being less than 5 %.
With the exception of cases where deformation has a weakening effect, see B.7.1, first-order-theory shall be used;
where deformation has a weakening effect, geometrical non-linear effects shall be taken into account.
B.9.4.2 Application rule: Lower bound limit approach
If it can be shown that any lower bound limit value of the action or combination of actions, determined with the
design model specified in the principle, is reached without violation of the strain limit, the principle is fulfilled, if the
design value of the action or combination of actions does not exceed that lower bound limit value.
B.9.4.3 Design Checks
a) Design checks are required for normal operating load cases only
b) Partial safety factors for actions shall be as given in Table B.9-1
Table B.9-1: Partial safety factors for actions for CR load cases
Action Condition Partial safety factor
Permanent For actions with an unfavourable effect 2 , 1
G
=
Permanent For actions with a favourable effect 8 , 0
G
=
Variable For unbounded variable actions 5 , 1
Q
=
Variable For bounded variable actions and limit values 0 , 1
Q
=
Pressure 2 , 1
P
=
Temperature
a
0 , 1 =
R

a
It may be necessary to include also effects caused by constrained temperature induced displacements in a CR-
DC, e.g. when part-models are used and displacements in one model are imposed on the other model.
c) Combination rules shall be as follows:
All permanent actions shall be included in each load case.
Each pressure action shall be combined with the most unfavourable variable action.
UNI EN 13445-3:2012
EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
579
von Mises' yield condition (maximum distortion energy hypothesis)
material strength parameters and partial safety factors as described in B.9.5.3.3.2 below
and
for proportional increase of all actions, with the exception of temperature, which shall be time-independent, and
a stress free initial state.
B.9.5.3.3.2 Material strength parameters and partial safety factors
Material strength parameters shall be as in Table B.9-2, but
partial safety factors
R
shall be equal to 1,0,
the reference time shall be the (sufficiently long) interval duration
) (k
t A , see B.9.5.3.3.1
NOTE 1 For structures of more than one material the material strength parameters, and their design values, will be space-
dependent.
NOTE 2 For structures of one material, the material strength parameters, and their design values, may be space-dependent
or space-independent, depending on the choice of the creep design temperature.
B.9.5.3.3.3 Determination of the (strain limiting) limit action
) (
u
k
A .
For each interval, of duration
) (k
t A , in which the calculation temperature is in the creep range, the maximum value
of the action, or the combination of actions, shall be determined which can be carried by the design model with
linear-elastic ideal-plastic constitutive law,
von Mises' yield condition (maximum distortion energy hypothesis) and associated flow rule,
material strength parameters and partial safety factors as in B.9.5.3.3.2
and for
proportional increase of all actions, with the exception of temperature, which shall be time-independent,
stress free initial state,
with a maximum absolute value of the principal structural strains less than 5 %.
B.9.5.3.3.4 Reference stress
For each of these intervals, of duration
) (k
t A , the design reference stress is given by
) (
u
/
) (
d
) (
d
) (
e
/ )
) (
e
) (
u
( 13 , 0 1
) (
ref
k
A
k
RM
k
A
k
A
k
A
k
A
k
(

+ = o (B.9-2)
UNI EN 13445-3:2012
EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
581
B.9.5.4.2 Action cycles with negligible creep
Action cycles, which interrupt long creep periods, are considered to be of negligible creep, if the maximum duration
of calculation temperatures in the creep range is less than 100 h.
B.9.5.4.3 Action cycles without plastification
Action cycles, which interrupt long creep periods, are considered to be without plastification, if the maximum von
Mises' equivalent stress of the response of the model, described below, to the cyclic actions and with initial
conditions, described below, does not exceed the short-term design material strength parameter, described below:
a) The constitutive law of the model shall be linear-elastic with material parameters for a temperature given in
B.7.5.2.
b) The initial stress distribution shall be the one obtained like in the determination of the limit action B.9.5.3.3.3 for
a reference time, required for the determination of the material strength parameters in B.9.5.3.3.2 given by the
total creep period.
c) The short-term design material strength parameter, with which the maximum equivalent stress is compared,
shall be the minimum specified values of

c
p0,2/T
R for ferritic steels,

c
p1,0/T
R for austenitic steels,
where
c
T is the respective temperature at each point and each time.
B.9.5.5 Design checks
Actions, combination rules, reference temperature and reference time for creep periods, shall be as for the CR-DC,
in B.9.4.3, but all partial safety factors for actions shall be equal to 1,0.
B.9.6 Creep and cyclic fatigue (CFI)
For each point of the structure, the sum of the design value of the creep damage indicator, see B.9.5.3, and the
design value of the fatigue damage indicator (for cyclic actions), see B.8.5, shall not exceed unity.
UNI EN 13445-3:2012
EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 5 (2013-07)
594
Key
1 shell
2 nozzle
3 nozzle base region
4 thickness transition regions
5 limits of local primary membrane stress region
NOTE This figure shows the case of an opening with nozzle in a cylindrical shell. It also applies to the case of an opening
with nozzle in a spherical, conical or toroidal shell or in the central region of a dished end (R
m
is the circumferential mean
curvature radius). It applies as well to the case of an opening without nozzle (for this case e
a,n
= 0). It does not apply to an
opening in a flat end or a flat wall; in such cases, see footnote
11)
to Table C-2.
When the level of stress acting in the vicinity of the opening is such that a local primary membrane stress region
occurs, the extent of this region, measured taking account of both sides of the nozzle-shell discontinuity, shall
satisfy the condition:
2
n a, m s a, m
n s
e r e R
l l
+
s + (C.5-2)
Possible thickness transitions which may occur between a reinforced part and an unreinforced part of the nozzle
and/or of the shell do not usually involve local primary membrane stress regions.
Where, for particular geometrical or loading arrangements, such regions occur in the vicinity of these transitions,
the conditions in C.7.2 relating to the spacing between adjacent regions of local primary membrane stresses shall
be met, particularly as regards the spacing from the adjacent local primary membrane region at nozzle base.
Figure C-4 Opening in a shell
UNI EN 13445-3:2012
EN 13445-3:2009 (E)
Issue 4 (2012-07)
832a
Y.2 List of corrected pages of Issue 2 (2010-07)
Pages 5, 6, 15, 16, 50, 72, 88, 89, 140, 158, 175, 221, 279, 298, 321, 332, 385, 465, 497, 500, 559, 608, 610, 614,
645, 652, 707, 752, 758, 770, 773, 781, 828, 832, 832a.
Y.3 List of corrected pages of Issue 3 (2011-07)
Pages 6, 11, 13, 18, 19, 31, 32, 36, 40, 44, 45, 48, 65, 67, 69, 73 to 76, 84, 114, 115, 137, 138, 141, 144, 161, 167,
169, 170, 173, 176, 178, 180, 181, 182, 190, 198, 199, 211, 212, 242, 243, 258, 279, 282, 292, 300, 302, 306, 308,
309, 310, 319, 327, 332, 337, 340, 346, 371, 377, 384, 391, 397, 400, 406 409, 415, 418, 430, 470, 503, 505,
533, 554, 618, 632, 644, 654 to 658, 749, 751, 768, 788, 808, 814, 832a.
Y.4 List of corrected pages of Issue 4 (2012-07)
Pages 4, 6, 48, 72, 309, 331, 332, 336, 359, 360, 421, 422, 424, 424a to 424d, 425, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 457,
488, 497, 498, 507, 511, 527, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 536, 537, 538, 539, 542, 543, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550,
585, 588, 600, 637, 655, 656, 667, 781, 785, 791, 808, 832a.
Y.5 List of corrected pages of Issue 5 (2013-07)
Pages 6, 60, 100, 165, 166, 167, 168, 197, 199, 210, 211, 241, 242 262, 418, 576, 579, 581, 594, 832a.


UNI EN 13445-3:2012