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# Design Calculation (Column) Step 1 : Classify whether the column is short or slender 1) Column 1- b x h 2- Lz = column height beam depth

h 3- Lx = column beam depth 2) Beam Main beam = b x d Secondary beam = b x d Moment of Inertia, I I = bd / 12 Stiffness, K K = Moment of Inertia, I / L Relative Column Stiffness, k k = Stiffness, K (column) / 2 (Stiffness, K (beam)) Effective Length Of Column, Lo For braced column, Lo = 0.5l For unbraced column, Lo = max ( Radius Of Gyration, i i= Slenderness Ratio, = ( ), )

## Slenderness Limit, limit limit =

A = 0.7 B = 1.1 C = 1.7 rm *rm = n= *NED = design ultimate load, *Ac = Area of Column, * fcd = If zz, yy < limit , the column is short for both axes If zz, yy > limit , the column is long for both axes , *Mo1, Mo2 = first moment order at the end of the column with Mo1 > Mo2

## Step 2 : Design The Column Short Braced Column

Procedure : 1) Determine N, Mz & My 2) Check [ez/h] / [ey/b] > 0.2 or [ez/b] / [ey/h] > 0.2 3) Check whether Mz/h > My/b or otherwise If Mx/h > My/b , use equation Mx = Mx + If Mx/h < My/b , use equation My = My + My Mx

## Width of column, b = width at right angle to the axis moment considered

Step 3 : Design of longitudinal reinforcement Med / (bh)fck Ned / bhfck d/h As = 0.1 (bhfck)/fyk Asmin = max (0.1Ned/fyd, 0.002Ac) Asmax = 0.04Ac Link Design Min Link Diameter = max ( 6, Max spacing = min ( 20 x ( ) ), 275, 400 )

Design Data (Column) Size = 300mm x 300mm Characteristic strength of concrete, fcu = 30 MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, fyk = 460 MPa Concrete density = 25 Steel unit weight = 78.6 Column number : 1) Stump = 17 2) Floor ground beam to first beam = 17 3) Floor first beam to roof beam = 15

Conclusion In this project, we get much knowledge by using Esteem and AutoCAD software. As a future civil engineer, we must know about how to use both software because when are work especially at a consulting firm, both software are always be used. Based on this project, we are able to analyze the architecture plan such as how to sketch a grid, beam, column, and other structural element by using Esteem software. Then by using esteem software, we can get the size of each element and their strength of material automatically. Furthermore, by learn how to use AutoCAD software, we can transfer the structural plan from Esteem to AutoCAD. In addition, we can do the design calculation to find the reinforcement area of each structural element by comparing the result that we get from Esteem software with manual calculation. By using Esteem software, we also have learnt and identify about how to overcome the problems when doing the analysis until we get the final result of the analysis without errors occur. We also have learn about the flow of load distribution in structure elements starting from slab to beam, then to column and lastly to foundation. So the right flow of load distribution influence the lifespan of a building. Lastly with doing this project, we can create a high cooperation between each other in the group. Then, the segregation of works are important to make sure that our project can running smoothly and we can submit our project work before the due date.