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# TALAT Lectures 2710

82 pages

## TAS Leonardo da Vinci

Training in Aluminium Alloy Structural Design

## Date of Issue: 1999

 EAA - European Aluminium Association
2710 Static Design example

## 2710 Static Design example........................................................................................... 2

1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................6
2. Materials ............................................................................................................................7
5.2 Finite element calculations ........................................................................................................12
5.3. Section forces for characteristic loads ......................................................................................14
5.4. Design moments, shear forces and deflections .........................................................................16
6. Code Checking.................................................................................................................28
6.1 Column A ..................................................................................................................................28
6.2 Column B ..................................................................................................................................42
6.3 Column C ..................................................................................................................................55
6.4 Floor Beam D ............................................................................................................................56
6.5 Roof Beam E .............................................................................................................................64
6.6 Roof Beam F .............................................................................................................................65
6.7 Welded Connections..................................................................................................................74

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Description
1.2 Sketches
1.3 References
1.4 S.I. units
2 MATERIALS
2.1 Aluminium
2.2 Other materials

TALAT 2710 2
4.1 Ultimate limit state
4.2 Serviceability limit state

## 5.2 Finite element calculations

5.2.0 Nodes and elements

## 5.3 Section forces for characteristic loads

5.3.1 Column A
5.3.2 Column B
5.3.3 Column C
5.3.4 Floor beam D
5.3.5 Floor beam E
5.3.5 Floor beam F

## 5.4 Design moments, shear forces and deflections

5.4.1 Column A
5.4.2 Column B
5.4.3 Column C
5.4.4 Floor beam D
5.4.5 Floor beam E
5.4.6 Floor beam F
5.4.7 Joint A-D
5.4.8 Joint B-D
5.4.9 Joint A-E
5.4.10 Joint B-E
5.4.11 Joint B-F
5.4.12 Joint F-C
5.4.13 Column base

TALAT 2710 3
6 CODE CHECKING
6.1 Column A
6.1.1 Dimensions and material properties
6.1.2 Internal moments and forces
6.1.3 Classification of the cross section in y-y-axis bending
6.1.4 Classification of the cross section in z-z-axis bending
6.1,5 Classification of the cross section in axial compression
6.1.6 Welds
6.1.7 Design resistance, y-y-axis bending
6.1.8 Design resistance, z-z-axis bending
6.1.9 Axial force resistance, y-y buckling
6.1.10 Axial force resistance, z-z axis buckling
6.1.11 Flexural buckling of beam-column
6.1.12 Lateral-torsional buckling between purlins
6.1.13 Design moment at column base
6.1.14 Deflections
6.1.15 Summary

6.2 Column B
6.2.1 Dimensions and material properties
6.2.2 Internal moments and forces
6.2.3 Classification of the cross section in y-y-axis bending
6.2.4 Classification of the cross section in z-z-axis bending
6.2,5 Classification of the cross section in axial compression
6.2.6 Welds
6.2.7 Design resistance, y-y-axis bending
6.2.8 Design resistance, z-z-axis bending
6.2.9 Axial force resistance, y-y buckling
6.2.10 Axial force resistance, z-z axis buckling
6.2.11 Flexural buckling of beam-column
6.2.12 Lateral-torsional buckling between purlins
6.2.13 Design moment at column base
6.2.14 Deflections
6.2.14 Summary

6.3 Column C

## 6.4 Floor Beam D

6.4.1 Dimensions and material properties
6.4.2 Internal moments and forces
6.4.3 Classification of the cross section
6.4.4 Welds
6.4.5 Bending moment resistance
6.4.6 Bending resistance in a section with holes
6.4.7 Shear force resistance
6.4.8 Deflections
6.4.8 Summary

TALAT 2710 4
6.5 Roof Beam E

## 6.6 Roof Beam F

6.6.1 Dimensions and material properties
6.6.2 Internal moments and forces
6.6.3 Classification of the cross section
6.6.4 Welds
6.6.5 Bending moment resistance
6.6.6 Lateral-torsional buckling between purlins
6.6.7 Bending resistance in a section with holes
6.6.8 Shear force resistance
6.6.9 Concentrated transverse force
6.6.10 Deflections
6.6.11 Summary

## 6.7 Welded connections

6.7.1 Weld properties
6.7.2 Longitudinal weld of floor beam D
6.7.3 Base of column B
6.7.4 Connection between floor beam D and column B

Software
The example is worked out using the MathCad software in which some symbols have special meanin
according to the following

## x 50.6 . mm Assign value

y 2.5 . mm Global assignment
x y = 53.1 mm Evaluate expression
a b Boolean equals
0.5 Decimal point
c (1 3 2 ) Vector
d (2 4 3 ) Vector
a ( c .d ) Vectorize (multiply the elements in vector c with corresponding elements in d)
a = ( 2 12 6 ) Result

Structure
The structure was proposed by Steinar Lundberg, who also contributed with valuable suggestions.
Part 1 to 6.6 was worked out by Torsten Höglund and 6.7 by Myriam Bouet-Griffon.

TALAT 2710 5
1. Introduction

1.1 Description
The industrial building contains an administration part with offices, wardrobe, meeting rooms etc.
and a fabrication hall. The load bearing system consist of frames standing at a distance of 5000 m

## In the serviceability limit state max. allowable deflection is 1/250 of span.

1.2 Sketches

1.3 References
 ENV 1999-1-1. Eurocode 9 - Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-1: General rules. 1997

 ENV 1991-2-1. Eurocode 1 - Basis of design and actions on structures - Part 2-1:
Action on structures - Densities, self-weight and imposed loads. 1995

##  ENV 1991-2-3. Eurocode 1 - Basis of design and actions on structures -

Part 2-3: Action on structures - Snow loads. 1995

##  ENV 1991-2-4. Eurocode 1 - Basis of design and actions on structures -

Part 2-4: Action on structures - Wind loads. 1995

##  ENV 1991-1. Eurocode 1 - Basis of design and actions on structures -

Part 1: Basis of design. 1994

## 1.4 S.I. units

N
kN 1000 . N MPa 1000000 . Pa kNm kN . m MPa = 1
2
mm

TALAT 2710 6
2. Materials

2.1 Aluminium
, 3.2.2 The extrusions are alloy EN AW-6082, temper T6
The plates are EN AW-5083 temper H24

## EN AW-6082 T6 fo 260 . MPa fu 310 . MPa

EN AW-5083 H24
fo 250 . MPa fu 340 . MPa

, 5.1.1 The partial safety factor for the members γ M1 1.10 γ M2 1.25

, 6.1.1 The partial safety factor for welded connections γ Mw 1.25
Design values of material coefficients

## Modulus of elasticity E 700000 . MPa

Shear modulus G 27000 . MPa
Poisson´s ratio ν 0.3
α T 23 . 10
6
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
ρ 2700 . kg . m
3
Density

## 2.2 Other materials

Comment: Properties of any other materials to be filled in

, ?? Permanent loads are self-weight of structure, insulation, surface materials and fixed equipment

0.5 . kN . m
2
Permanent load on roof q´ p.roof

0.7 . kN . m
q´ p.floor

, 6.3.1 Office area => Category B

3 . kN . m
2
q´ k.floor
Q k.floor 2 . kN

, 6.3.4 Roofs not accessible except for normal maintenance etc. => Category H =>

0.75 . kN . m
2

## Concentrated load Q k.roof 1.5 . kN

TALAT 2710 7
[?], ?? Load from crane, the crane located in the middle of the roof beam in the production hall

## Concentrated load Q crane 50 . kN

 Comment: The characteristic values of the snow loads vary from nation to nation. For simplicity
for this design example, a snow load is chosen including shape coefficient, exposure coefficient
and thermal coefficient. In a design report the calculation of the snow loads have to be shown.

2 kN . m
2

 Comment: The characteristic values of the wind loads vary from nation to nation. For
simplicity, for this design example, a wind load is chosen including all coefficients. In a design
report the calculation of the wind loads including all coefficients have to be shown.

0.70 kN . m
2
Maximum wind load on the external walls q´ w.wall

0.27 kN . m
Wind suction on leeward side of walls 2
q´ w.lee

0.70 kN . m
Wind suction on the roof 2
q´ w.roof
Max. wind suction at the lower edge of the
1.0 kN . m
2
roof and 1.6 m upwards q´ w.edge

TALAT 2710 8

## 4.1 Ultimate limit state

 To decide the section forces on the different members, the following load combinations to
.
be calculated in the ultimate limit state
LC 1: Permanent + imposed + crane + snow loads imposed load dominant
LC 2: Permanent + imposed + crane + snow loads crane load dominant
LC 3: Permanent + imposed + crane + snow loads snow load dominant
LC 5: Permanent + imposed + crane + snow + wind imposed load dominant
LC 6: Permanent + imposed + crane + snow + wind wind load dominant

##  Comment: All possible load combinations to be calculated

, 9.4 Partial load factors for different load combinations in theultimate limit state

 Table 9.2 Partial factor for permanent action, unfavourable γ Gsup 1.35
Partial factor for permanent action, favourable γ Ginf 1.0
Partial factor for variable action, unfavourable γ Q 1.5

##  Table 9.3 ψ factor for imposed loads ψ 0i 0.7

ψ factor for snow loads ψ 0s 0.6
ψ factor for wind loads ψ 0w 0.6
(9.10b) dominating ξ in Eq (9.10b) is less than 1.0, say ξ 0.9

ξ . γ Gsup ξ . γ Gsup ξ . γ Gsup γ Ginf ξ . γ Gsup ξ . γ Gsup
γ Q ψ 0i . γ Q ψ 0i . γ Q 0 γ Q ψ 0i . γ Q
ψ u ψ 0i . γ Q γ Q ψ 0i . γ Q 0 ψ 0i . γ Q ψ 0i . γ Q
ψ 0s . γ Q ψ 0s . γ Q γ Q 0 ψ 0s . γ Q ψ 0s . γ Q4 snow loads

0 0 0 γ Q ψ 0w . γ Q γ Q 5 wind loads

## 1.215 1.215 1.215 1 1.215 1.215

1.5 1.05 1.05 0 1.5 1.05
ψ u = 1.05 1.5 1.05 0 1.05 1.05
0.9 0.9 1.5 0 0.9 0.9
0 0 0 1.5 0.9 1.5

TALAT 2710 9
4.2 Serviceability limit state
, 9.5.2 Partial load factors forfrequent load combinations in the serviceability limit state
and 9.5.5
LC 5: wind load only (for comparison)
LC 6: simplified,  (9.20) (for comparison)

 Table 9.3 ψ factor for imposed loads ψ 1i 0.5 ψ 2i 0.3 ( = 0 for roof)
ψ factor for crane loads ψ 1c 0.5 ψ 2c 0.3
ψ factor for snow loads ψ 1s 0.2 ψ 2s 0
ψ factor for wind loads ψ 1w 0.5 ψ 2w 0

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1 1 1 0 1
ψ 1i 0 0 0 0 0.9
ψ s ψ 2c ψ 1c ψ 2c 0 0 0.9 imposed crane load
ψ 2s ψ 2s ψ 1s ψ 2s 0 0.9 snow loads

ψ 2w ψ 2w ψ 2w ψ 1w 1 0 wind loads

## Resulting partial load factors in theserviceability limit state

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1 1 1 0 1
0.5 0 0 0 0 0.9
ψ s = 0.3 0.5 0.3 0 0 0.9
0 0 0.2 0 0 0.9
0 0 0 0.5 1 0

## For the floor, the load combination 1 is valid

For roofs, the load combinations 2, 3 and 4 are valid

TALAT 2710 10

## Distance between all frames c frame 5000 . mm

Because of continuous purlins and secondary floor beams the load on a beam in a frame is mo
than the distance between the beam times the load per area. Therefore, for the second frame, t
load is increased with a factor ofkf where
k f 1.1

## k f . c frame . q´ p.floor q p.floor = 3.85 kN . m

1
Permanent load on floor q p.floor

## k f . c frame . q´ p.roof q p.roof = 2.75 kN . m

1
Permanent load on roof q p.roof

## k f . c frame . q´ k.floor q k.floor = 16.5 kN . m

1
Distributed load on floor q k.floor

## k f . c frame . q´ k.roof q k.roof = 4.125 kN . m

1
Distributed load on roof q k.roof

## k f . c frame . q´ snow q snow = 11 kN . m

1
Snow load on roof q snow

TALAT 2710 11

## k f . c frame . q´ w.wall q w.wall = 3.85 kN . m

1
Maximum wind load on the q w.wall
external walls

## k f . c frame . q´ w.lee q w.lee = 1.485 kN . m

1
Wind suction on leeward q w.lee
side of walls
k f . c frame . q´ w.roof q w.roof = 3.85 kN . m
1
Wind suction on the roof q w.roof

## Max. wind suction at the k f . c frame . q´ w.edge q w.edge = 5.5 kN . m

1
q w.edge
lower edge of the roof and
1.6 m upwards

TALAT 2710 12
Moment diagrams

## Values of moments and shear

forces for separate columns
and beams are given in 5.3

uniformly distributed

concentrated

TALAT 2710 13
5.3. Section forces for characteristic loads

5.3.1 Column A

## (FE-cal- Bending moments, section 1, 2, 3 and 4 2.90 4.40 2.14 1.88

culation)
Sections in columns, load cases in rows 9.43 15.6 12.1 5.96
row 1, permanent loads MA 3.65 4.60 5.22 5.81 . kNm
row 3, crane load 4.28 4.63 4.22 3.04
row 4, snow loads 12.8 6.45 2.52 1.95
18.8 7.32
Axial force, part 1-2 and 3-4
60.5 12.0
Parts in columns, load cases in rows
NA 1.42 2.84 . kN
0.56 28.5 27.8
0.50 15.6 12.0
Deflection in section 4 δ A 2.48 . mm
4.19
8.36

5.3.2 Column B
(FE-cal- Bending moments, section 1, 2, 3, 4,5 and 6 0.07 2.73 4.51 4.35 7.46 9.07
culation) 4.26 15.4 18.2 4.69 8.29 15.5
Sections in columns, load cases in rows
MB 3.27 0.96 2.15 19.27 15.7 11.2 . kNm
row 2, distributed loads 6.57 5.24 1.59 20.0 34.6 33.5
row 4, snow loads 17.0 13.5 0.49 10.95 11.4 12.7
35.1 23.5 9.18
Sections in columns, load cases in rows 84.4 33.9 12.8
Axial force, parts 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 NB 31.7 31.1 4.34 kN

## Deflection in section 6 δ B 2.57 . mm

4.30
8.32

TALAT 2710 14
5.3.3 Column C
Comment: To reduce the extent of this example, this column is left out. It can be given,
conservatively the same section as column B

## (FE-cal- Bending moments, section 1, 2 and 3 6.56 10.4 7.25

culation) 27.8 43.6 33.6
Sections in columns, load cases in rows
MD 0.62 4.86 3.11 . kNm
row 2, distributed loads 0.40 1.62 3.65
row 4, snow loads 8.97 2.00 13.0
11.7 11.4
Sections in columns, load cases in rows 48.5 50.5
Shear force, section 1 and 3 VD 1.4 0.6 . kN

0.92
0.91

## 5.3.5 Roof beam E

Comment: To reduce the extent of this example, this column is left out

## (FE-cal- Bending moments, section 1, 2 and 3 11.8 26.4 4.08

culation) 13.0 42.4 5.28
Sections in columns, load cases in rows
MF 35.0 102.0 10.94 kNm
row 2, distributed loads 54.1 101.7 17.5
row 4, snow loads 22.4 38.0 0.26

TALAT 2710 15
Shear force, section 1 and 3 14.3 13.2

## Sections in columns, load cases in rows 21.1 20.1

VF 43.4 23.3 . kN
7.71 57.6 52.5
12.6 21.1 17.4
Deflection in section 2 δ F 22.2 . mm
29.3
11.1

## 5.4. Design moments, shear forces and deflections

5.4.1 Column A
Bending moments

For the load cases 1 - 5 the bending moment in section 1 of column B is:

2.9
9.43
<1>
(5.3.1) MA = 3.65 kNm
4.28
12.8

## 1.215 1.215 1.215 1 1.215 1.215

1.5 1.05 1.05 0 1.5 1.05
(4.1) ψ u= 1.05 1.5 1.05 0 1.05 1.05
0.9 0.9 1.5 0 0.9 0.9
0 0 0 1.5 0.9 1.5

TALAT 2710 16
The values in the moment vector shall be multiplied with the corresponding load factor for every lo
combination

M MA ψ u

## 3.524 3.524 3.524 2.9 3.524 3.524

14.145 9.901 9.901 0 14.145 9.901
M = 3.832 5.475 3.832 0 3.832 3.832 kNm
3.852 3.852 6.42 0 3.852 3.852
0 0 0 19.2 11.52 19.2

The moments in the columns of the matrix
<i >
M sum M
i

T
M sum = ( 25.353 22.752 23.677 16.3 13.833 1.909 ) kNm

1 1

1 1

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.1) Moments in section 2 s 2 M MA ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 37.743 32.793 33.501 5.275 31.938 21.048 ) kNm M Amax max M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.1) Moments in section 3 s 3 M MA ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 11.471 3.677 3.494 1.64 9.203 2.246 ) kNm M Amax max M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.1) Moments in section 4 s 4 M MA ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 7.86 2.563 7.002 1.045 6.105 2.253 ) kNm M Amax max M sum
s

## M Amin min M sum

s

TALAT 2710 17
Resulting maximum moments and minimum moments in section 1 to 4 are

T
M Amax = ( 25.353 5.275 11.471 1.045 ) kNm

T
M Amin = ( 16.3 37.743 1.64 7.86 ) kNm

Axial force

## Axial force in part 1-2 s 1

18.8
60.5
<s>
(5.3.1) NA = 1.42 kN <i > <s> . <i > <i >
N NA ψ u N sum N
28.5 i

## 15.6 N Amax max N sum

s
T
N sum = ( 137.751 109.887 127.626 4.6 123.711 87.126 ) kN N Amin min N sum
s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.1) Axial force in part 3-4 s 2 N NA ψ u N sum N
i
T
N sum = ( 48.932 42.254 60.212 10.68 38.132 25.532 ) kN N Amax max N sum
s

## N Amin min N sum

s
Resulting maximum and minimum axial forces in part 1, 2 and 3 are:
T T
N Amax = ( 4.6 10.68 ) kN N Amin = ( 137.8 60.2 ) kN

Deflection

Deflection in section 6 s 1

0.56
0.5
<s> <i > <s> . <i > <i >
(5.3.1) δ A = 2.48 mm δ δ A ψ s δ sum δ
i
4.19
δ Amax max δ sum δ Amin min δ sum
8.36 s s

T
δ sum = ( 1.054 1.8 2.142 4.74 8.36 6.113 ) mm

## Resulting maximum and minimum deflection in section 6 δ Amax= ( 8.36 ) mm

δ Amin= ( 1.054 ) mm

TALAT 2710 18
5.4.2 Column B

Bending moments

For the load cases 1 - 5 the bending moment in section 1 of column B is:

0.07
4.26
<1>
(5.3.2) MB = 3.27 kNm
6.57
17

## 1.215 1.215 1.215 1 1.215 1.215

1.5 1.05 1.05 0 1.5 1.05
(4.1) ψ u= 1.05 1.5 1.05 0 1.05 1.05
0.9 0.9 1.5 0 0.9 0.9
0 0 0 1.5 0.9 1.5

The values in the moment vector shall be multiplied with the corresponding load factor for every l
combination

M MB ψ u

## 0.085 0.085 0.085 0.07 0.085 0.085

6.39 4.473 4.473 0 6.39 4.473
M= 3.433 4.905 3.433 0 3.433 3.433 kNm
5.913 5.913 9.855 0 5.913 5.913
0 0 0 25.5 15.3 25.5

The moments in the columns of the matrix
<i >
M sum M
i

T
M sum = ( 3.042 6.43 8.901 25.43 12.258 20.541 ) kNm

1 1

## M Bmin min M sum M Bmin = 8.901 kNm

1 1

TALAT 2710 19
<i > <s> . <i > <i >
(5.3.2) Moments in section 2 s 2 M MB ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 20.693 13.331 10.619 22.98 32.843 34.013 ) kNm M Bmax max M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.2) Moments in section 3 s 3 M MB ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 31.953 22.796 24.717 5.245 32.394 24.498 ) kNm M Bmax max M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.2) Moments in section 4 s 4 M MB ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 36.484 47.266 50.594 12.075 26.629 22.169 ) kNm M Bmax max M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.2) Moments in section 5 s 5 M MB ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 69.124 72.458 86.153 9.64 58.864 48.293 ) kNm M Bmax max M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.2) Moments in section 6 s 6 M MB ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 76.18 74.245 89.305 9.98 64.75 50.155 ) kNm M Bmax max M sum
s

s

## Resulting maximum moments and minimum moments in section 1 to 6 are

T
M Bmax = ( 25.43 10.619 32.394 50.594 9.64 9.98 ) kNm

T
M Bmin = ( 8.901 34.013 5.245 12.075 86.153 89.305 ) kNm

Axial force

## Axial force in part 1-2 s 1

35.1
84.4
<s>
(5.3.2) NB = 31.7 kN <i > <s> . <i > <i >
N NB ψ u N sum N
95 i

## 31.2 N Bmax max N sum

s
T
N sum = ( 288.031 264.317 307.051 11.7 259.951 203.251 ) kN N Bmin min N sum
s

TALAT 2710 20
<i > <s> . <i > <i >
(5.3.2) Axial force in part 3-4 s 2 N NB ψ u N sum N
i
T
N sum = ( 198.187 196.927 240.352 28.7 166.868 130.732 ) kN N Bmax max N sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.2) Axial force in part 5-6 s 3 N NB ψ u N sum N
i
T
N sum = ( 69.291 65.484 86.451 11.52 56.871 42.831 ) kN N Bmin min N sum
s

s

## Resulting maximum and minimum axial forces in part 1, 2 and 3 are:

T T
N Bmax = ( 11.7 28.7 11.52 ) kN N Bmin = ( 307.1 240.4 86.5 ) kN

Deflection

Deflection in section 6 s 1

0.57
0.53
<s> <i > <s> . <i > <i >
(5.3.2) δ B = 2.57 mm δ δ B ψ s δ sum δ
i
4.3
δ Bmax max δ sum δ Bmin min δ sum
8.32 s s

T
δ sum = ( 1.076 1.855 2.201 4.73 8.32 6.276 ) mm

## Resulting maximum and minimum deflection in section 6 δ Bmax= ( 8.32 ) mm

δ Bmin= ( 1.076 ) mm

5.4.3 Column C
Comment: To reduce the extent of this example,
calculation of this column is left out. It can,
conservatively, be given the same dimensions
as column B

TALAT 2710 21
5.4.4 Floor beam D
Bending moments

For the load cases 1 - 5 the bending moment in section 1 of beam D is:

6.56
27.8
<1>
(5.3.4) MD = 0.62 kNm
0.4
8.97

## 1.215 1.215 1.215 1 1.215 1.215

1.5 1.05 1.05 0 1.5 1.05
(4.1) ψ u= 1.05 1.5 1.05 0 1.05 1.05
0.9 0.9 1.5 0 0.9 0.9
0 0 0 1.5 0.9 1.5

The values in the moment vector shall be multiplied with the corresponding load factor for every l
combination

M MD ψ u

## 7.97 7.97 7.97 6.56 7.97 7.97

41.7 29.19 29.19 0 41.7 29.19
M = 0.651 0.93 0.651 0 0.651 0.651 kNm
0.36 0.36 0.6 0 0.36 0.36
0 0 0 13.455 8.073 13.455

The moments in the columns of the matrix
<i >
M sum M
i

T
M sum = ( 49.379 36.59 37.109 6.895 41.306 23.414 ) kNm

1 1

## M Dmin min M sum M Dmin = 49.379 kNm

1 1

TALAT 2710 22
<i > <s> . <i > <i >
(5.3.4) Moments in section 2 s 2 M MD ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 84.597 67.164 65.949 13.4 86.397 67.977 ) m kN M Dmin min M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.4) Moments in section 3 s 3 M MD ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 52.658 36.139 35.348 26.75 64.358 57.038 ) m kN M Dmin min M sum
s

s

## Resulting maximum moments and minimum moments in section 1 to 3 are

6.895 49.379
M Dmax = 86.397 kNm M Dmin = 13.4 kNm
26.75 64.358

Shear force

## Shear force in section 1 s 1

11.7
48.5
<s>
(5.3.4) VD = 1.4 kN <i > <s> . <i > <i >
V VD ψ u V sum V
0.67 i

## 3.66 V Dmax max V sum V Dmin min V sum

s s
T
V sum = ( 89.038 67.844 67.615 6.21 85.745 61.723 ) kN

## Shear force in section 2 s 2

11.4
50.5
<s>
(5.3.4) VD = 0.6 kN <i > <s> . <i > <i >
V VD ψ u V sum V
0.67 i

## 3.66 V Dmax max V sum V Dmin min V sum

s s
T
V sum = ( 88.368 65.373 65.241 16.89 91.662 71.133 ) kN

## Resulting maximum and minimum shear forces in section 1 and 3 are

89.038 6.21
V Dmax = kN V Dmin = kN
91.662 16.89
Deflection

TALAT 2710 23
89.038 6.21
V Dmax = kN V Dmin = kN
91.662 16.89
Deflection

Deflection in section 2 s 1

3.21
13.1
<s>
(5.3.4) δ D = 1.63 mm <i > <s> . <i > <i >
δ δ D ψ s δ sum δ
0.92 i

## 0.91 δ Dmax max δ sum δ Dmin min δ sum

s s

T
δ sum = ( 10.249 4.025 3.883 2.755 0.91 17.295 ) mm

## Resulting maximum and minimum deflection in section 2

δ Dmax= ( 17.295 ) mm δ Dmin= ( 0.91 ) mm

## 5.4.5 Roof beam E

Comment: To reduce the extent of this example, calculation of this beam is left out. It can be given
the same dimensions as floor beam D

## 5.4.6 Roof beam F

Moment
For the load cases 1 - 5 the bending moments in section 1 to 3 of the beam F are

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.6) Moments in section 1 s 1 M MF ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 119.277 129.177 145.887 21.8 99.117 79.827 ) m kN M Fmin min M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.6) Moments in section 2 s 2 M MF ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 294.306 321.126 336.246 30.6 260.106 218.226 ) m kN M Fmin min M sum
s

s

## <i > <s> . <i > <i >

(5.3.6) Moments in section 3 s 3 M MF ψ u M sum M
i
T
M sum = ( 40.114 42.661 48.238 3.69 39.88 37.348 ) m kN M Fmin min M sum
s

## M Fmax max M sum

s

TALAT 2710 24
Resulting maximum moments and minimum moments in section 1 to 3 are

21.8 145.887
M Fmax = 336.246 kNm M Fmin = 30.6 kNm
3.69 48.238
Shear force
Shear force in section 1 s 1
14.3
21.1
<s>
(5.3.4) VF = 43.4 kN <i > <s> . <i > <i >
V VF ψ u V sum V
57.6 i

## 21.1 V Fmax max V sum V Fmin min V sum

s s
T
V sum = ( 146.435 156.47 171.5 17.35 127.444 105.289 ) kN

## Shear force in section 3 s 2

13.2
20.1
<s>
(5.3.4) VF = 23.3 kN <i > <s> . <i > <i >
V VF ψ u V sum V
52.5 i

## 17.4 V Fmax max V sum V Fmin min V sum

s s
T
V sum = ( 117.903 119.343 140.358 12.9 102.243 82.758 ) kN

## Resulting maximum and minimum shear force in section 1 and 3 are

171.5 17.35
V Fmax = kN V Fmin = kN
140.358 12.9
Deflection

Deflection in section 2 s 1
<s>T <i > <s> . <i > <i >
(5.3.4) δ F = ( 7.71 12.6 22.2 29.3 11.1 ) mm δ δ F ψ s δ sum δ
i

## δ Fmin min δ sum

s
T
δ sum = ( 20.67 18.81 20.23 2.16 11.1 65.4 ) mm δ Fmax max δ sum
s

##  (9.20) Simplified verification δ Fmax = ( 65.4 ) mm δ Fmin= ( 11.1 ) mm

 (9.16) Load combination 3 δ sum = 20.2 mm
3

TALAT 2710 25
5.4.7 Joint A-D
(5.4.1) and Moment M Amax = 11.5 kNm
(5.5.4) 3
M Dmin = 49.4 kNm
1
M Amin = 37.7 kNm
2
Shear V Dmax = 89 kN
1

3 1 2

## 5.4.8 Joint B-D

(5.4.2) and Moment M Bmax = 32.4 kNm M Bmin = 34 kNm
(5.5.4) 3 2
M Dmin = 64.4 kNm V
3

## Check: M Bmax M Dmin M Bmin = 2.05 kNm V

3 3 2
Shear V Dmax = 91.7 kN
2
N
V B3 = 2.306 kN V B2 = 18.184 kN

## 5.4.9 Joint A-E and joint B-E

5.4.10 Comment: To reduce the extent of this example, calculation of this joint is left out

## 5.4.11 Joint B-F

(5.4.2) and Moment M Bmin = 86.153 kNm
(5.5.6) 5
M Fmin = 145.9 kNm
1
M Bmax = 50.6 kNm
4
Shear V Fmax = 171.5 kN
1

## Check: M Bmin M Fmin M Bmax = 9.14 kNm

5 1 4

(The reason why the sum of the moments is not = 0 is the fact that all the moments does not belong to

TALAT 2710 26
5.4.12 Joint F-C
(5.4.6) Moment M Fmin = 48.238 kNm
3
M Fmax = 3.7 kNm
3
Shear V Fmin = 12.9 kN
2
V Fmax = 140.4 kN
2

TALAT 2710 27
6. Code Checking

6.1 Column A

## Section height: h 160 . mm

Flange depth: b 150 . mm

Web thickness: tw 5 . mm
Flange thickness: tf 14 . mm
Overall length: L1 3 .m
Distance between purlins: cp 1 .m

##  Table 3.2b Alloy: EN AW-6082 T6 EP/O t > 5 mm

newton newton
f 0.2 260 . fu 310 .
2 2
mm mm
heat_treated 1 (if heat-treated then 1 else 0)

## fo newton newton newton

 (5.6) fv f v = 150 E 70000 . G 27000 .
2 2 2
3 mm mm mm

## Partial safety factors: γ M11.10 γ M2 1.25

Inner radius: r 5 . mm

## S.I. units: kN 1000 . newton kNm kN . m MPa 1000000 . Pa

TALAT 2710 28
6.1.2 Internal moments and forces
(5.4.2) Bending moments and axial forces for load case LC1, LC3 and LC6 in section 1, 2, 3 and 4
0 25.4 23.8 1.91
3.0 37.7 33.5 21.1
x M LC1 . kNm M LC3 . kNm M LC6 . kNm
3.1 11.5 3.49 2.24
5.5 7.86 7.00 2.25

138 127 87
138 127 87
N LC1 . kN N LC3 . kN N LC6 . kN
49 60 26
49 60 26

## Bending moment kNm Axial force kN

4 4

2 2

0 0
40 20 0 20 40 0 50 100 150

Moment in section 2 M LC1 = 37.7 kNm M LC3 = 33.5 kNm M LC6 = 21.1 kNm
2 2 2
Moment at column base 1 M LC1 = 25.4 kNm M LC3 = 23.8 kNm M LC6 = 1.91 kNm
1 1 1
Axial force in part 1-2 N LC1 = 138 kN N LC3 = 127 kN N LC6 = 87 kN
1 1 1

Preliminary calculations show that load case 1 is governing. Study part 1-2 from column base
to floor beam. Moment in top of part 1-2 (section 2) is larger than at column base (section 1) why
M 1.Ed (below) correspond to section 2 andM 2.Ed to section 1 of the column.

TALAT 2710 29
Bending moment in section 2 M 1.Ed M LC1 M 1.Ed = 37.7 kNm
2
Bending moment at column base (1) M 2.Ed M LC1 M 2.Ed = 25.4 kNm
1
Axial force in part 1-2 (compression) N Ed N LC1 N Ed = 138 kN
1

## 6.1.3 Classification of the cross section in y-y-axis bending

β w bending
a) Web
b1
 5.4.3 b1 bw t1 tw β w 0.40 . β w= 9.76
t1
250 . newton
 Tab. 5.1 ε β 1w 11 . ε β 1w= 10.786
fo 2
mm
Heat treated,
unwelded = no β 2w 16 . ε β 2w= 15.689
longitudinal
weld β 3w 22 . ε β 3w= 21.573

class w if β w
> β 1w , if β w > β 2w , if β w > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class w = 1

##  5.4.5 Local buckling

β w 32 220
ρ cw if 22 , 1.0 , ρ cw= 1
ε β w β w
2

ε ε

## t w.ef.b if class w 4 , t w . ρ cw, t w ( b = bending) t w.ef.b = 5.0 mm

b) Flanges
 5.4.3 ψ 1
0.8
 (5.7.),(5.8.) g if ψ > 1 , 0.7 0.3 . ψ , g=1
1 ψ

b tw 2 .r b2
b2 t2 tf β f g. β =f 4.821
2 t2

##  Tab. 5.1 ε = 0.981 β 1f 3 . ε β 1f= 2.942

β 2f 4.5 . ε β 2f= 4.413
β 3f 6 . ε β 3f= 5.883

## class f if β >f β 1f , if β f > β 2f , if β f > β 3f , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class f = 3

TALAT 2710 30
 5.4.5 Local buckling:

β f 10 24
ρ cf if 6 , 1.0 , ρ cf= 1
ε β f β f
2

ε ε

## 6.1.5 Classification of the cross section in axial compression

β wc compression
a) Web
b1
b1 bw t1 tw β wc β wc = 24.4
t1

##  Tab. 5.1 β 1w= 10.786

β 2w= 15.689
β 3w= 21.573

class wc if β wc
> β 1w , if β wc > β 2w , if β wc > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class wc = 4

##  5.4.5 Local buckling

β wc 32 220
ρ cw if 22 , 1.0 , ρ cw= 0.931
ε β wc β wc
2

ε ε

## t w.ef if class wc 4 , t w . ρ cw, t w t w = 5 mm t w.ef = 4.7 mm

b) Flanges
Same as in bending t f.ef = 14.0 mm class f = 3

## Classification of the total cross-section in axial compression

class c if class f > class wc , class f , class wc class c = 4
TALAT 2710 31
6.1.6. Welds
 5.5 HAZ softening at column ends
 Tab.5.2 ρ haz 0.65

b haz = 35 mm

## 6.1.7 Design resistance, y-y-axis bending

 5.6.1 Elastic modulus of the gross cross sectionWel:

2 .b .t f 2 .t f .t w A g = 4.86 . 10 mm
3 2
Ag h

1. . 3
tw . h 2 .t f
3
Ig bh b
12

I g = 2.341 . 10 mm
7 4

I g .2
W el = 2.926 . 10 mm
5 3
W el
h

## Plastic modulus of the gross cross sectionWpl:

1.
b .h tw . h 2 .t f W pl = 3.284 . 10 mm
2 2 5 3
W pl b
4

TALAT 2710 32
Elastic modulus of the effective cross sectionWeffe:

t f = 14 mm t f.ef = 14 mm

bw
As tf.ef = tf then bc b c = 61 mm
2
t w = 5 mm

t w.ef.b = 5 mm

bf 0.5 . b tw 2 .r b f = 67.5 mm

2 .b f . t f b c. t w A eff = 4.86 . 10 mm
3 2
A eff Ag t f.ef t w.ef.b

## Shift of gravity centre:

2
h tf bc 1
e ef 2 .b f . t f t f.ef . . t
w t w.ef.b . e ef = 0 mm
2 2 2 A eff

## Second moment of area wiht respect to centre of gross cross section:

2 3
h tf bc
2 .b f . t f t f.ef . . t I eff = 2.341 . 10 mm
7 4
I eff Ig w t w.ef.b
2 2 3

## e ef . A eff I eff = 2.341 . 10 mm

2 7 4
I eff I eff

I eff
W eff = 2.926 . 10 mm
5 3
W eff
h
e ef
2

##  Tab. 5.3 Shape factor α

- for class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

W pl
α 1.2.w α 1.2.w = 1.122
W el

## - for welded, class 3 cross-sections:

TALAT 2710 33
 Tab. 5.3 Shape factor α
- for class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

W pl
α 1.2.w α 1.2.w = 1.122
W el

## - for welded, class 3 cross-sections:

β 3w β w W pl W el
 (5.16) α 3.ww 1 . α 3.ww= 1.245
β 3w β 2w W el

β 3f β f W pl W el
 (5.16) α 3.wf 1 . α 3.wf= 1.088
β 3f β 2f W el

β, β2, β3 are the slenderness parameter and the limiting values for the most critical
α3.ww and α3.wf
element in the cross-section, so it is the smaller value of

## α 3.w if α 3.ww α 3.wf , α 3.ww , α 3.wf α 3.w= 1.088

W eff
- for class 4 cross-sections: α 4.w α 4.w = 1
W el
class y = 3

## Design moment of resistance of the cross sectionM c,Rd

f o . α .yW el
 (5.14) M y.Rd M y.Rd = 75.3 kNm
γ M1

## 6.1.8 Design resistance, z-z-axis bending

Cross section class class z = 3
t f .b
3
2. I z = 7.875 . 10 mm
6 4
Gross cross section: Iz
12
t f.ef . b
3
2. I z.ef = 7.875 . 10 mm
6 4
Effective cross section: I z.ef
12
I z.2 I z.ef . 2
Section moduli: Wz W z.ef
b b
Wz
Shape factor: α z α z=1
W z.ef
f o . α .zW z
Bending resistance: M z.Rd M z.Rd = 24.818 kNm
γ M1

TALAT 2710 34
6.1.9 Axial force resistance, y-y buckling
 5.8.4 Cross section area of gross cross sectionAgr

b .h tw . h 2 .t f A gr = 4.86 . 10 mm
3 2
A gr b

## Cross section area of effective cross sectionAef t w.ef = 4.653 mm

2 .b 2 . t f b w. t w A ef = 4.818 . 10 mm
3 2
A ef A gr t f.ef t w.ef

## ( t f = 14 mm t w = 5 mm 2 . b 2 = 135 mm t f.ef = 14 mm t w.ef = 4.653 mm )

A ef
Effective cross section factor η η = 0.991
A gr

## Second moment of area of gross cross sectionIy:

2
2. . 3 h tf 1.
2 .b .t f . 2 .t f .t w
3
Iy btf h
12 2 12

##  Table 5.7 Buckling length factor Ky 1.5 L1=3 m

Case 5
l yc K y .L 1 l yc = 4.5 m

π .E .I y
2

2
l yc

N cr = 798.639 kN

A gr . η . f o
 5.8.4.1 Slenderness parameter λ y λ y= 1.252
N cr

##  Table 5.6 α if ( heat_treated 1 , 0.2 , 0.32 ) α = 0.2

λ o if ( heat_treated 1 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ o= 0.1

0.5 . 1 α . λ y
2
φ λ o λ y φ = 1.399

1
χ y χ y = 0.494
2 2
φ φ λ y

##  Table 5.5 Symmetric profile k1 1

 Table 5.5 No longitudinal welds k2 1
fo
Axial force resistance N y.Rd χ .yη . k 1 . k 2 . .A
gr N y.Rd = 562.6 kN
γ M1

TALAT 2710 35
6.1.10 Axial force resistance, z-z axis buckling
cp
Buckling length = distance between purlins Kz K z.L 1 = 1 m
L1
π .E .I z
2

N cr = 5.4 . 10 kN
3
K z.L 1
2

A gr . η . f o
 5.8.4.1 Slenderness factor λ z λ z= 0.48
N cr

## λ o if ( heat_treated 1 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ o= 0.1

0.5 . 1 α . λ z
2
 5.8.4.1 φ λ o λ z φ = 0.653

1
χ z χ z = 0.912
2 2
φ φ λ z
k1 1
 Table 5.5 Symmetric profile

##  Table 5.5 No longitudinal welds k2=1

fo
χ .zη . k 1 . k 2 . .A N z.Rd = 1.039 . 10 kN
3
 5.8.4.1 Axial load resistance N z.Rd gr
γ M1

## (6.1.9) Compare y-y axis buckling N y.Rd = 562.622 kN

fo
η. .A N Rd = 1.139 . 10 kN
3
and without column buckling N Rd gr
γ M1

beam-column

## Case 5 K y = 1.5 l yc K y .L 1 l yc = 4.5 m

L1 xs
 5.8.4.1 The ends of column part 1-2 is designing xs = 0.333 x s = 1.5 m
2 l yc

##  5.9.4.5 HAZ reduction factors ρ haz= 0.65

TALAT 2710 36
fu γ M1
 (5.51) ω 0 ρ haz . . ω 0 if ω 0 > 1 , 1 , ω 0 ω 0= 0.682
γ M2 f o
ω 0
 (5.49) ω x ω x= 0.732
π .x s
χ y 1 χ y . sin
l yc

## Exponents in interaction formulae

2
 (5.42c) ξ 0 α y ξ 0 if ξ 0 < 1 , 1 , ξ 0 ξ 0= 1.184

## Bending moment M y.Ed M 1.Ed M y.Ed = 37.7 kNm

ξ yc
N Ed M y.Ed
 5.4.4 Uy U y = 0.99
χ .zω x . N Rd ω 0 . M y.Rd

## or with simplified exponents

0.8 1.0
N Ed M y.Ed
U ys U ys = 0.99
χ .zω x . N Rd ω 0 . M y.Rd

## 6.1.12 Lateral-torsional buckling between purlins

Moment in section 2 M 1.Ed = 37.7 kNm

## Moment cp from section 2 c p = 1000 mm

M 1.Ed M 2.Ed
Mp M 1.Ed .c M p = 16.667 kNm
L1 p

##  5.9.4.3 Lateral-torsional buckling

t f .I z
2
h
I w = 4.197 . 10
10 6
 Figure J.2 Varping constant: Iw mm
4
2 .b .t f h .t w
3 3
I t = 2.811 . 10 mm
5 4
Torsional constant: It
3

W y = 2.926 . 10 mm
5 3
Lateral buckling length L cp Wy W el

Mp
 H.1.2 Moment relation ψ ψ = 0.442
M 1.Ed

TALAT 2710 37
1.4 . ψ 0.52 . ψ
2
 H.1.2(6) C1 - constant C1 1.88 C 1 = 1.363

E
G = 2.692 . 10 MPa
4
Shear modulus G
2.6

C 1 .π .E .I z I w L .G .I t
2 2
 H.1.3(3) M cr . L = 1000 mm M cr = 607.759 kNm
2.
E .I z
2 Iz
L π

α y .W y .f o
 5.6.6.3(3) λ LT λ LT= 0.369
M cr

## λ 0LT if class z > 2 , 0.4 , 0.6 λ 0LT= 0.4

φ LT 0.5 . 1 α LT . λ LT
2
 5.6.6.3(1) λ 0LT λ LT φ LT= 0.565

1
χ LT χ LT = 1.007
2 2
φ LT φ LT λ LT

Check sections

l zc cp

i 2.
i 1 .. 8 xs l zc
i 5
xs 0 .m xs b haz
1 2 T
xs
xs l zc b haz xs l zc = ( 0 0.035 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.965 1 )
7 8 l zc

## HAZ reduction factors (ω0 = 1 except at column ends)

fu γ M1
 (5.51) ω 0 ρ haz . . ω 0 if ω 0 > 1 , 1 , ω 0
i γ M2 fo i i i

## Weld at section i = 1 (column end) ω 0 if ( i < 2 ) ( i> 7 ) , ω 0 , 1

and at section i = 7 (fixing of purlin) i i

T
ω 0 = ( 0.682 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.682 )

ω 0 T
 (5.49) ω x ω x = ( 0.75 1.08 1.04 1 1 1.04 1.08 0.75 )
or (5.52) π .x s
χ z 1 χ z . sin
l zc

TALAT 2710 38
ω 0 T
 (5.50) ω xLT ω xLT = ( 0.68 0.99 1 1 1 1 0.99 0.68 )
or (5.53) π .x s
χ LT 1 χ LT . sin
l zc

η 0 α z .α y
2 2
 (5.42a) η 0 if η 0 < 1 , 1 , if η 0 > 2 , 2 , η 0 η 0= 1.184
2
 (5.42b) γ 0 α z γ 0 if γ 0 < 1 , 1 , if γ 0> 2 , 2 , γ 0 γ 0= 1
2
 (5.42c) ξ 0 α y ξ 0 if ξ 0 < 1 , 1 , ξ 0 ξ 0= 1.184

##  5.9.4.3 η c η 0 .χ z η c if η c < 0.8 , 0.8 , η c χ y= 0.494 η c= 1.08

γ c γ 0 χ z = 0.912 γ c= 1

## Lateral-torsional buckling of beam-column

xs
Bending moment in sectionxs M y.Ed M 1.Ed M 1.Ed Mp .
l zc
T
M y.Ed
= ( 1 0.98 0.888 0.777 0.665 0.554 0.462 0.442 )
M z.Ed 0 . kNm M 1.Ed

ηc γc ξ zc
N Ed M y.Ed M z.Ed
 (5.43) U LT
χ .zω x . N Rd χ LT . ω xLT . M y.Rd ω 0 . M z.Rd

T
U LT = ( 0.889 0.594 0.552 0.499 0.443 0.385 0.334 0.479 )

TALAT 2710 39
Max utilisation, lateral-torsional buckling U z.max max U LT U z.max = 0.889

## Max utilisation, flexural buckling U y = 0.99

ηc γc
N Ed M y.Ed
K Bz Oi 0.005
χ .zω x . N Rd χ LT . ω xLT . M y.Rd

0 Section 2, HAZ
Section 2, no HAZ

0.5

at purlin, no HAZ
1
0 0.5 1 at purlin, with HAZ
K (axial force)
Bz (bending moment)
K + Bz (sum)
(beam-column)

## 6.1.13 Design moment at column base

L1
Design section xs l yc = 4.5 m x s = 1.5 m
2
N Ed . W y 1 π .x s
Second order bending moment ∆ M . 1 . sin ∆ M= 7.43 kNm
A ef χ y l yc

## Axial force corresponding toM D.base N A.corre N Ed N A.corre = 138 kN

TALAT 2710 40
6.1.14 Deflections
1. . 3
tw . h 2 .t f I gr = 2.341 . 10 mm
3 7 4
 4.2.4 I gr bh b
12
To calculate the fictive second moment of areaI fic , the bending moment in the serviceability limit
state is supposed to be half the maximum bending moment at the ultimate limit state.
0.5 . M 1.Ed h
σ gr . σ gr= 64 MPa
I gr 2

Allowing for a reduced stress level,Ific may be used constant along the beam.
σ gr
 (4.2) I fic I gr . I I fic = 2.341 . 10 mm
7 4
fo gr I eff

I = 2.341 . 10 mm
7 4
I if class y 4 , I fic , I gr class y = 3

## Horisontal deformation according to FEM calculation δ 1 0.6 . mm

δ 2 4.1 . mm
Pre-camber δ 0 0 . mm
 (4.1) δ max δ 1 δ 2 δ 0 δ max = 4.7 mm

 4.2.3 Limit horizontal deformation for building frame withh top x 4. m h top = 5.5 m

h top
δ limit δ limit = 18 mm
300

6.1.15 Summary
M 1.Ed
M 1.Ed = 38 kNm M y.Rd = 75 kNm ω 0 = 0.682 ω x = 0.748 = 0.734
1 1 ω 0. M y.Rd
1
N Ed
N Ed = 138 kN N y.Rd = 562.6 kN χ y= 0.494 = 0.664
χ .yω x . N y.Rd
1

## Utilisation, lateral-torsional buckling U z.max = 0.889

δ max
δ limit= 18.3 mm δ max= 5 mm = 0.256
δ limit

I fic = 2.341 . 10 mm
7 4
Effective second moment of area

A gr = 4.86 . 10 mm
3 2
Cross section h = 160 mm b = 150 mm t w = 5 mm t f = 14 mm

TALAT 2710 41
6.2 Column B

## Flange height: h 200 . mm

Flange depth: b 160 . mm
Web thickness: tw 7 . mm
Flange thickness: tf 16 . mm

Overall length: L1 3 .m
Distance between purlins: cp 3 .m

##  (5.4), (5.5) f o f 0.2 fa fu

fo
 (5.6) fv
f v = 150 MPa E 70000 . MPa G 27000 . MPa
3

## Partial safety factors: γ M11.10 γ M2 1.25

Inner radius: r 5 . mm

## S.I. units: kN 1000 . newton kNm kN . m MPa 1000000 . Pa

TALAT 2710 42
6.2.2 Internal moments and forces
(5.4.2) Bending moments and axial forces for LC1, LC3 and LC4 in section 1 to 6 i 1 .. 6
(axial compression force = +)

## xi M LC1 M LC3 M LC4 N LC1 N LC3 N LC4

i i i i i i
= = = = = = =
i= m kNm kNm kNm kN kN kN
1 0 -3.04 -8.9 25.4 288 307 -11.7
2 3 -20.7 -10.6 -23 288 307 -11.7
3 3.1 32 24.7 5.25 198 240 -28.7
4 5.5 36.5 50.6 -12.1 198 240 -28.7
5 5.6 -69.1 -86.2 9.64 69.3 86.5 -11.5
6 6.5 -76.2 -89.3 9.98 69.3 86.5 -11.5

## Bending moment kNm Axial compressive force kN

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0
100 50 0 50 100 0 100 200 300 400

Moment in section 2 M LC1 = 20.7 kNm M LC3 = 10.6 kNm M LC4 = 23 kNm
2 2 2
Moment at column base 1 M LC1 = 3.04 kNm M LC3 = 8.9 kNm M LC4 = 25.4 kNm
1 1 1
Axial force in part 1-2 N LC1 = 288 kN N LC3 = 307 kN N LC4 = 11.7 kN
1 1 1

Preliminary calculations show that load case 1 is governing (except for welds in column base). Study
part 1-2 from column base to floor beam. Moment in top of part 1-2 (section 2) is larger than at column
base (section 1) whyM 1.Ed below correspond to section 2 andM 2.Ed to section 1 of the column.

Bending moment in section 2 M 1.Ed M LC1 M 1.Ed = 20.7 kNm
2
Bending moment at column base (1) M 2.Ed M LC1 M 2.Ed = 3.04 kNm
1
Axial force in part 1-2 (compression) N Ed N LC1 N Ed = 288 kN
1

TALAT 2710 43
6.2.3 Classification of the cross section in y-y-axis bending
β w bending
a) Web
b1
 5.4.3 b1 bw t1 tw β w 0.40 . β w= 9.029
t1
250 . newton
 Tab. 5.1 ε β 1w 11 . ε β 1w= 10.786
fo 2
mm
Heat treated, β 2w 16 . ε β 2w= 15.689
unwelded = no
longitudinal β 3w 22 . ε β 3w= 21.573
weld
class w if β w
> β 1w , if β w > β 2w , if β w > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class w = 1

##  5.4.5 Local buckling

β w 32 220
ρ cw if 22 , 1.0 , ρ cw= 1
ε β w β w
2

ε ε

## t w.ef.b if class w 4 , t w . ρ cw, t w (b = bending) t w.ef.b = 7.0 mm

b) Flanges
 5.4.3 ψ 1
0.8
 (5.7.),(5.8.) g if ψ > 1 , 0.7 0.3 . ψ , g=1
1 ψ
b tw 2 .r b2
b2 t2 tf β f g. β =f 4.469
2 t2

##  Tab. 5.1 ε = 0.981 β 1f 3 . ε β 1f= 2.942

β 2f 4.5 . ε β 2f= 4.413
β 3f 6 . ε β 3f= 5.883

##  5.4.5 Local buckling:

β f 10 24
ρ cf if 6 , 1.0 , ρ cf= 1
ε β f β f
2

ε ε

## class y if class f > class w , class f , class w class y = 3

TALAT 2710 44
6.2.4 Classification of the cross section in z-z-axis bending

## 6.2.5 Classification of the cross section in axial compression

β wc compression
a) Web
b1
b1 bw t1 tw β wc β wc = 22.571
t1

##  Tab. 5.1 β 1w= 10.786

β 2w= 15.689
β 3w= 21.573

class wc if β wc
> β 1w , if β wc > β 2w , if β wc > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class wc = 4

##  5.4.5 Local buckling

β wc 32 220
ρ cw if 22 , 1.0 , ρ cw= 0.975
ε β wc β wc
2

ε ε

## t w.ef if class wc 4 , t w . ρ cw, t w t w = 7 mm t w.ef = 6.8 mm

b) Flanges
Same as in bending t f.ef = 16.0 mm class f = 3

## Classification of the total cross-section in axial compression

class c if class f > class wc , class f , class wc class c = 4

6.2.6. Welds
 5.5
 Tab. 5.2 HAZ softening factor at column ends
ρ haz 0.65

TALAT 2710 45
 Fig. 5.6 Extent of HAZ (MIG-weld)

b haz = 30 mm

## 6.2.7 Design resistance, y-y-axis bending

 5.6.2
Elastic modulus of gross cross sectionWel:

2 .b .t f 2 .t f .t w A g = 6.296 . 10 mm
3 2
Ag h

1. . 3
tw . h 2 .t f
3
I gr bh b
12

I gr = 4.621 . 10 mm
7 4

I gr . 2
W el = 4.621 . 10 mm
5 3
W el
h

Plastic modulus

1.
b .h tw . h 2 .t f W pl = 5.204 . 10 mm
2 2 5 3
W pl b
4

## Elastic modulus of the effective cross sectionWeff :

t f = 16 mm t f.ef = 16 mm

bw
As tf.ef = tf then bc b c = 79 mm
2

t w = 7 mm t w.ef.b = 7 mm

bf 0.5 . b tw 2 .r b f = 71.5 mm

2 .b f . t f b c. t w A eff = 6.296 . 10 mm
3 2
A eff Ag t f.ef t w.ef.b

## Shift of gravity centre:

2
h tf bc 1
e ef 2 .b f . t f t f.ef . . t
w t w.ef.b . e ef = 0 mm
2 2 2 A eff

## Centre of gross cross section:

2 3
h tf bc
2 .b f . t f t f.ef . . t I eff = 4.621 . 10 mm
7 4
I eff I gr w t w.ef.b
2 2 3

TALAT 2710 46
Centre of effective gross section:

## e ef . A eff I eff = 4.621 . 10 mm

2 7 4
I eff I eff

I eff
W eff = 4.621 . 10 mm
5 3
W eff
h
e ef
2
 Tab. 5.3 Shape factor α
- for welded, class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

W pl
α 1.2.w α 1.2.w = 1.126
W el

## - for welded, class 3 cross-sections:

β 3w β w W pl W el
 (5.16) α 3.ww 1 . α 3.ww= 1.269
β 3w β 2w W el

β 3f β f W pl W el
 (5.16) α 3.wf 1 . α 3.wf= 1.121
β 3f β 2f W el

β, β2, β3 are the slenderness parameter and the limiting values for the most critical
α3.ww and α3.wf
element in the cross-section, so it is the smaller value of

## α 3.w if α 3.ww α 3.wf , α 3.ww , α 3.wf α 3.w= 1.121

W eff
- for welded, class 4 cross-sections: α 4.w α 4.w = 1
W el
class y = 3

## Design moment of resistance of the cross sectionM c,Rd

f o . α .yW el
 (5.14) M y.Rd M y.Rd = 122.5 kNm
γ M1

## 6.2.8 Design resistance, z-z-axis bending

Cross section class class z = 3
t f .b
3
Gross cross section: Iz 2 . I z = 1.092 . 10 mm
7 4
12
t f.ef . b
3
2. I z.ef = 1.092 . 10 mm
7 4
Effective cross section: I z.ef
12
I z.2 I z.ef . 2
Section moduli: Wz W z.ef
b b

TALAT 2710 47
Wz
Shape factor: α z α z=1
W z.ef
f o . α .zW z
Bending resistance: M z.Rd M z.Rd = 32.272 kNm
γ M1

## 6.2.9 Axial force resistance, y-y buckling

 5.8.4 Cross section area of gross cross sectionAgr

b .h tw . h 2 .t f A gr = 6.296 . 10 mm
3 2
A gr b

## Cross section area of effective cross sectionAef

2 .b f . t f b w. t w A ef = 6.268 . 10 mm
3 2
A ef A gr t f.ef t w.ef

## ( t f = 16 mm t w = 7 mm 2 . b 2 = 143 mm t w.ef = 6.825 mm t w.ef = 6.825 mm)

A ef
Effective cross section factor η η = 0.996
A gr

## Second moment of area of gross cross sectionIy:

2
2. . 3 h tf 1.
2 .b .t f . 2 .t f .t w
3
Iy btf h
12 2 12

##  Table 5.7 Buckling length factor Ky 1.5 L1=3 m l yc K y .L 1 l yc = 4.5 m

Case 5.
π .E .I y
2
N cr = 1.577 . 10 kN
3
6.2.11 below Buckling load N cr
2
l yc

A gr . η . f o
 5.8.4.1 Slenderness parameter λ y λ y= 1.017
N cr

## λ o if ( heat_treated 1 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ o= 0.1

0.5 . 1 α . λ y
2
φ λ o λ y φ = 1.109

1
χ y χ y = 0.645
2 2
φ φ λ y

##  Table 5.5 No longitudinal welds k2 1

fo
Axial force resistance N y.Rd χ .yη . k 1 . k 2 . .A
gr N y.Rd = 955.708 kN
γ M1

TALAT 2710 48
6.2.10 Axial force resistance, z-z axis buckling
 Table 5.5 Buckling length factor K 1 L1=3 m K .L 1 = 3 m

π .E .I z
Case 3 2

## Buckling load N cr N cr = 838.5 kN

K .L 1
2

A gr . η . f o
 5.8.4.1 Slenderness factor λ z λ z= 1.394
N cr

## λ o if ( heat_treated 1 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ o= 0.1

0.5 . 1 α . λ z
2
 5.8.4.1 φ λ o λ z φ = 1.601

1
χ z χ z = 0.419
2 2
φ φ λ z
k1 1
 Table 5.5 Symmetric profile
k2 1
 Table 5.5 No longitudinal welds

fo
 5.8.4.1 Axial load resistance N z.Rd χ .zη . k 1 . k 2 . .A
gr N z.Rd = 620.192 kN
γ M1

## (6.2.9) Compare y-y axis buckling N y.Rd = 955.708 kN

fo
η. .A N Rd = 1.482 . 10 kN
3
and without column buckling N Rd gr
γ M1

beam-column

## (6.2.9) K y = 1.5 l yc K y .L 1 l yc = 4.5 m

L1 xs
 5.8.4.1 The ends of column part 1-2 is designing xs = 0.333 x s = 1.5 m
2 l yc

TALAT 2710 49
 5.9.4.5 HAZ reduction factors ρ haz= 0.65
fu γ M1
 (5.51) ω 0 ρ haz . . ω 0 if ω 0 > 1 , 1 , ω 0 ω 0= 0.682
γ M2 f o
ω 0
 (5.49) ω x ω x= 0.716
π .x s
χ y 1 χ y . sin
l yc

## Exponents in interaction formulae

2
 (5.42c) ξ 0 α y ξ 0 if ξ 0 < 1 , 1 , ξ 0 ξ 0= 1.258

## Bending moment M y.Ed M 1.Ed M y.Ed = 20.7 kNm

ξ yc
N Ed M y.Ed
 5.4.4 Uy U y = 0.952
χ .zω x . N Rd ω 0 . M y.Rd

## or with simplified exponents

0.8 1.0
N Ed M y.Ed
U ys U ys = 0.955
χ .zω x . N Rd ω 0 . M y.Rd

## 6.2.12 Lateral-torsional buckling of beam-column

 5.9.4.3
t f .I z
2
h
I w = 9.245 . 10
10 6
 Figure J.2 Varping constant: Iw mm
4
2 .b .t f h .t w
3 3
I t = 4.598 . 10 mm
5 4
Torsional constant: It
3

W y = 4.621 . 10 mm
5 3
L L1 Wy W el

M 2.Ed
 H.1.2 Moment relation ψ
M 1.Ed ψ = 0.147

1.4 . ψ 0.52 . ψ
2
 H.1.2(6) C1 - constant C1 1.88 C 1 = 1.686

TALAT 2710 50
G = 2.7 . 10 MPa
4
Shear modulus

C 1 .π .E .I z I w L .G .I t
2 2
 H.1.3(3) M cr . M cr = 215.593 kN . m
2.
E .I
2 Iz
L π z

α y .W y .f o
 5.6.6.3(3) λ LT λ LT= 0.791
M cr

## λ 0LT if class z > 2 , 0.4 , 0.6 λ 0LT= 0.4

φ LT 0.5 . 1 α LT . λ LT
2
 5.6.6.3(1) λ 0LT λ LT φ LT= 0.852

1
χ LT χ LT = 0.856
2 2
φ LT φ LT λ LT

Check sections

l zc L1

i 1 .. 7
T
i 2. xs
xs l zc xs 0 .m xs b haz = ( 0 0.01 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 )
i 10 1 2 l zc

HAZ reduction factors (ω0 = 1 except at column ends with cross welds)

fu γ M1
 (5.51) ω 0 ρ haz . . ω 0 if ω 0 > 1 , 1 , ω 0
i γ M2 fo i i i

## Weld at section i = 0 (column end) ω 0 if i > 1 , 1 , ω 0

i i

T
ω 0 = ( 0.682 1 1 1 1 1 1 )

 (5.49) ω 0 T
ω x ω x = ( 1.63 2.29 1.67 1.32 1.12 1.03 1 )
or (5.52) π .x s
χ z 1 χ z . sin
l zc

 (5.50) ω 0 T
ω xLT ω xLT = ( 0.8 1.16 1.11 1.06 1.03 1.01 1 )
or (5.53) π .x s
χ LT 1 χ LT . sin
l zc

TALAT 2710 51
α z .α y
2 2
 (5.42a) η 0 η 0 if η 0 < 1 , 1 , if η 0 > 2 , 2 , η 0 η 0= 1.258
2
 (5.42b) γ 0 α z γ 0 if γ 0 < 1 , 1 , if γ 0> 2 , 2 , γ 0 γ 0= 1
2
 (5.42c) ξ 0 α y ξ 0 if ξ 0 < 1 , 1 , ξ 0 ξ 0= 1.258

## Lateral-torsional buckling check

xs
Bending moment in sectionxs M y.Ed M 1.Ed M 1.Ed M 2.Ed .
l zc
T
M y.Ed
= ( 1 0.991 0.915 0.829 0.744 0.659 0.573 )
M z.Ed 0 . kNm M 1.Ed

ηc γc ξ zc
N Ed M y.Ed M z.Ed
 (5.43) U LT
χ .zω x . N Rd χ LT . ω xLT . M y.Rd ω 0 . M z.Rd

T
U LT = ( 0.614 0.448 0.522 0.589 0.636 0.658 0.655 )
or with simplified exponents

0.8 1 0.8
N Ed M y.Ed M z.Ed
U LTs
χ .zω x . N Rd χ LT . ω xLT . M y.Rd ω 0 . M z.Rd

T
U LTs = ( 0.614 0.448 0.522 0.589 0.636 0.658 0.655 )

## Compare utilisation, flexural buckling U y = 0.952

ηc γc
N Ed M y.Ed
K Bz
χ .zω x . N Rd χ LT . ω xLT . M y.Rd

TALAT 2710 52
0 Section 2, HAZ
Section 2, no HAZ

0.5

## Middle of part 1-2

1.5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
K (axial force)
Bz (bending moment)
K + Bz (sum)

## 6.2.13 Design moment in column base

L1
Design section xs l yc = 4.5 m x s = 1.5 m
2

N Ed . W y 1 π .x s
Second order bending moment ∆ M . 1 . sin ∆ M= 10.12 kNm
A ef χ y l yc

## Axial force corresponding toM D.base N D.corre N Ed N D.corre = 288 kN

(+ = compression)
Minimum axial force, LC4 N D.max N LC4 N D.max = 11.7 kN
1

## Corresponding moment M D.corre M LC4 M D.corre = 25.4 kNm

1

V
The shear force is small why the first order moments are used to calculate
1
Load case 1 V M LC1 M LC1 . V = 5.89 kN
2 1 L

1
Load case 4 V M LC4 M LC4 . V = 16.1 kN
2 1 L

TALAT 2710 53
6.2.14 Deflections
To calculate the fictive second moment of areaI fic , the bending moment in the serviceability limit
state is supposed to be half the maximum bending moment at the ultimate limit state.

0.5 . M 1.Ed h
 4.2.4 σ gr . I gr = 4.621 . 10 mm
7 4
σ gr= 22 MPa
I gr 2

Allowing for a reduced stress level,Ific may be used constant along the beam.
σ gr
 (4.2) I fic I gr . I I eff I fic = 4.621 . 10 mm
7 4
fo gr

I = 4.621 . 10 mm
7 4
I if class y 4 , I fic , I gr class y = 3

δ 1 0 . mm δ 1= 0 mm

δ 2 4.7 . mm δ 2= 4.7 mm

Pre-camber δ 0 0 . mm

## Limit horizontal deformation for building frame with h building 6.5 . m

h building
δ limit δ limit = 22 mm
300

## Check if δ max< δ limit , "OK!" , "Not OK!" Check = "OK!"

6.2.15 Summary
M 1.Ed
M 1.Ed = 21 kNm M y.Rd = 122 kNm ω 0 = 0.682 = 0.248
1 ω 0. M y.Rd
1

ω x = 1.629 N Ed
N Ed = 288 kN N y.Rd = 955.7 kN 1 = 0.287
χ y= 0.645 χ .yω x . N y.Rd
1

## Utilisation, lateral-torsional buckling U z.max = 0.658

δ max
δ limit= 21.7 mm δ max= 4.7 mm = 0.217
δ limit

I fic = 4.621 . 10 mm
7 4
Effective second moment of area

A gr = 6.296 . 10 mm
3 2
Cross section h = 200 mm b = 160 mm t w = 7 mm t f = 16 mm

TALAT 2710 54
6.3 Column C

Comment: To reduce the extent of this example the check of column C is left out. It is
given the same cross section as column A.

TALAT 2710 55
6.4 Floor Beam D

## Flange height: h 300 . mm

Flange depth: b 120 . mm
Web thickness: tw 4 . mm t w2 tw
Flange thickness: tf 12 . mm
Flange web part: b w1 h 2 . t f . 0.5
Overall length: L 6 .m
Distance between joists: cp 0.6 . m
Depth of web plate:
hw h 2 .t f h w = 276 mm

##  (5.4), (5.5) f o f 0.2 fa fu

fo
 (5.6) fv newton newton newton
f v = 150 E 70000 . G 27000 .
3 mm
2
mm
2
mm
2

## S.A.E. units: kN 1000 . newton MPa 1000000 . Pa newton

MPa = 1
kNm kN . m
2
mm

TALAT 2710 56
6.4.2 Internal moments and forces

## (5.4.4) Bending moment in section 2 M Ed 86.4 . kNm

Shear force at support 3 V Ed 91.6 . kN
Bending moment at support 3 M 1Ed 64.4 . kNm
(3.1, 3.2 Concentrated load Q k.floor 1.5 . kN
and 3.3)
3.85 . kN . m
1
16.5 . kN . m
1
Distributed load, design value in the
serviceability limit state q Ed 1.0 . q p.floor 1.0 . q k.floor

## 6.4.3 Classification of the cross section

a) Web
Comment 1: As the flanges belong to a class < 4 (se below) and the cross section is symmetric, no iteration is
needed to find the final neutral axis to calculate ψ and g. See  Figure 5.17
Comment 2: As the longitudinal weld is close to the neutral axis, the web might have beenclassified as unwelded.
However, on the safe side, it is classified as welded.
bw 250 . newton
 5.4.3 ψ 1 β w 0.40 . β w= 27 ε
tw fo 2
mm
 Tab. 5.1 β 1w 9 . ε β 2w 13 . ε β 3w 18 . ε
Heat treated,
welded web β 1w= 8.825 β 2w= 12.748 β 3w= 17.65

class w if β w
> β 1w , if β w > β 2w , if β w > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class w = 4

##  5.4.5 Local buckling

β w 29 198
ρ cw if 18 , 1.0 ,
ε β w 2 ρ cw= 0.792
β w
ε ε
if class w 4 , t w .ρ
t w.ef.b cw, t w t w.ef.b = 3.2 mm

TALAT 2710 57
 5.4.3 b) Flanges
b tw 2 .r
 (5.7.),(5.8.) ψ 1 g 1 β f g. β =f 4.583
2 .t f
Heat treated, unwelded flange

##  Tab. 5.1 β 1f 3 . ε β 2f 4.5 . ε β 3f 6 . ε

β 1f= 2.942 β 2f= 4.413 β 3f= 5.883

##  5.4.5 Local buckling:

β f 10 24
ρ cf if 6 , 1.0 , ρ cf= 1
ε β f β f
2

ε ε
t f.ef if class f 4 , t f . ρ cf, t f t f.ef = 12.0 mm

## Classification of the total cross-section:

class if class f > class w , class f , class w class = 4

##  5.12.9 Elastic moment resistance utilised k 0.55 f of fo

h w k .E h w .t w
 (5.115) check if < . , "OK!" , "Not OK!" check = "OK!"
t w f of b .t f

6.4.4 Welds
 5.5

ρ haz 0.65

## b haz = 20 mm b' haz 2 . b haz b' haz = 40 mm

TALAT 2710 58
6.4.5 Bending resistance
 5.6.1 Elastic modulus of the gross cross sectionWgr:

2 .b .t f 2 .t f .t w A gr = 3.984 . 10 mm
3 2
A gr h

1. . 3
tw . h 2 .t f
3
I gr bh b
12

I gr = 6.676 . 10 mm
7 4

I gr . 2
W el = 4.451 . 10 mm
5 3
W el
h
As the weld is close to the centroidal axis
there is no reduction due to HAZ

W ele = 4.451 . 10 mm
5 3
W ele W el

## Plastic modulus of cross sectionWple:

1.
b .h tw . h 2 .t f
2 2
W ple b
W ple = 4.909 . 10 mm
5 3
4

## Elastic modulus of the effective cross sectionWeffe:

t f = 12 mm t f.ef = 12 mm

bw
As tf.ef = tf then bc b c = 135 mm
2
t w = 4 mm

t w.ef.b = 3.2 mm

bf 0.5 . b tw 2 .r b f = 55 mm

2 .b f . t f b c. t w A effe = 3.872 . 10 mm
3 2
A effe A gr t f.ef t w.ef.b

## Shift of gravity centre:

2
h tf bc 1
e ef 2 .b f . t f t f.ef . . t
w t w.ef.b . e ef = 1.958 mm
2 2 2 A effe

## Second moment of area with respect to centre of gross cross section:

2 3
h tf bc
2 .b f . t f t f.ef . . t I effe = 6.608 . 10 mm
7 4
I effe I gr w t w.ef.b
2 2 3

TALAT 2710 59
Second moment of area with respect to centre of effective gross section:

## e ef . A effe I effe = 6.607 . 10 mm

2 7 4
I effe I effe

I effe
W effe = 4.348 . 10 mm
5 3
W effe
h
e ef
2

##  Tab. 5.3 Shape factor α

- for welded, class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

W ple
α 1.2.w α 1.2.w = 1.103
W el

## W ele β 3w β w W ple W ele

 (5.16) α 3.ww . α 3.ww= 0.804
W el β 3w β 2w W el

## W ele β 3f β f W ple W ele

 (5.16) α 3.wf . α 3.wf= 1.091
W el β 3f β 2f W el

β, β2, β3 are the slenderness parameter and the limiting values for the most critical
α3.ww and α3.wf
element in the cross-section, so it is the smaller value of

## α 3.w if α 3.ww α 3.wf , α 3.ww , α 3.wf α 3.w= 0.804

W effe
- for welded, class 4 cross-sections: α 4.w α 4.w = 0.977
W el
class = 4
α if class> 2 , if class> 3 , α 4.w , α 3.w , α 1.2.w α = 0.977

## Design moment of resistance of the cross sectionM c,Rd

f o . α . W el
 (5.14) M c.Rd M c.Rd = 102.8 kNm
γ M1

TALAT 2710 60
6.4.6 Bending resistance in a section with holes
 (5.13) The resistance is based on the effective
elastic modulus of the net sectionWnet
times the ultimate strength.

## Allowance for bolt holes on the

tension flange is made by reducing
the width of the flanges with two bolt
diameters db .

db 12 . mm

## Holes are supposed in both flanges

2 3
h tf tf
2 .d b .t f . .2 2 .d b . .2 I net = 5.481 . 10 mm
7 4
I net I gr
2 12

## No allowance for HAZ

2 . I net fo
W net = 3.654 . 10 mm
5 3
W net = 236 MPa
h γ M1
f u . W net fu
 (5.13) M a.Rd = 248 MPa M a.Rd = 90.6 kNm
γ M2 γ M2

## M Rd if M a.Rd< M c.Rd , M a.Rd , M c.Rd M Rd = 90.6 kNm

TALAT 2710 61
6.4.7 Shear force resistance
 5.12.4 Design shear resistance Vw.Rd for web. A rigid end post is assumed.

hw fo
 (5.93) λ w 0.35 . . h w = 276 mm λ w= 1.472
tw E
fu
η 0.4 0.2 . η = 0.638
fo

## 0.48 0.48 0.48

 Tab. 5.12 ρ v if λ w > , if λ w 0.949 , , ,η ρ v= 0.326
η λ w λ w

1.32
ρ v if λ w > 0.949 , ,ρ v ρ v= 0.421
1.66 λ w
fo
 (5.95) V w.Rd ρ .vt w . h w . V w.Rd = 110 kN
γ M1

## Shear resistance contributionVf.Rd of the flanges is small and is omitted.

V Rd V w.Rd V Rd = 110 kN

6.4.8 Deflections
To calculate the fictive second moment of areaI fic , the bending moment in theserviceability limit
state is supposed to be half the maximum bending moment at the ultimate limit state.

0.5 . M Ed h
 4.2.4 σ gr . I gr = 6.676 . 10 mm
7 4
σ gr= 97 MPa
I gr 2

Allowing for a reduced stress level,Ific may be used constant along the beam.
σ gr
 (4.2) I fic I gr . I I fic = 6.65 . 10 mm
7 4
gr I effe
fo

I = 6.65 . 10 mm
7 4
I if class 4 , I fic , I gr class = 4

5 . q p.floor . L
4
0.45 . q p.floor = 3.85 kN . m
1
(Coefficient δ 1 δ 1= 6.3 mm
0.45 from 384 . E . I
FE-calcula- 5 . q k.floor . L
4
tion) 0.45 . q k.floor = 16.5 kN . m
1
δ 2 δ 2= 26.9 mm
384 . E . I

Pre-camber δ 0 0 . mm

TALAT 2710 62

## δ max δ 1 0.5 . δ 2 δ 0 δ max = 19.7 mm

L
δ limit for beams carrying floors δ limit = 24 mm
250

Summary
M Ed
M Ed = 86 kNm M Rd = 90.6 kNm M 1Ed = 64 kNm = 0.953
M Rd
V Ed = 91.6 kN V Rd = 110 kN V Ed
= 0.833
V Rd

I fic = 6.65 . 10 mm
7 4
δ limit= 24 mm δ max= 20 mm

A gr = 3.984 . 10 mm
3 2
Cross section h = 300 mm b = 120 mm t w = 4 mm t f = 12 mm

TALAT 2710 63
6.5 Roof Beam E

Comment: To reduce the extent of this example the check of roof beam E is left out. It is
given the same cross section as roof beam D.

TALAT 2710 64
6.6 Roof Beam F
6.6.1 Dimensions and material properties

## Flange height: h 570 . mm

Flange depth: b 160 . mm
Flange web part: b w2 50 . mm
Web thickness: t w2 5 . mm t w 5 . mm
Flange thickness: t f 15.4 . mm
Overall length: L 10 . m
Distance between purlins: cp 1.0 . m
Width of web plate:
b w1 h 2 . b w2 2 .t f b w1 = 439.2 mm

##  (5.4), (5.5) f o f 0.2 fa fu

fo
 (5.6) fv newton
f v = 150 E 70000 . MPa G 27000 . MPa
3 mm
2

## Bending moment in section 2 M Ed 336 . kNm

Shear force at support 1 V Ed 172 . kN
Bending moment at support 1 M 1Ed 146 . kNm
Concentrated load P crane 50 . kN

2.75 . kN . m
1
4.125 . kN . m
1

11 . kN . m
1
3.85 . kN . m
1

## Web-flange corner radius r 5 . mm

Welds: a 4 . mm
Web height: bw h 2 .t f 2 .r b w = 529 mm

## S.I. units kN 1000 . newton kNm kN . m MPa 1000000 . Pa

TALAT 2710 65
6.6.3 Classification of the cross section
a) Web
bw 250 . newton
 5.4.3 β w 0.40 . β w= 42.336 ε
tw fo 2
mm
Comment: As the flanges belong to a class < 4 (se below) and the cross section is symmetric, no iteration is
needed to find the final neutral axis to calculate ψ and g. See  Figure 5.17

##  Tab. 5.1 β 1w 9 . ε β 2w 13 . ε β 3w 18 . ε

Heat treated,
welded web β 1w= 8.825 β 2w= 12.748 β 3w= 17.65

class w if β w
> β 1w , if β w > β 2w , if β w > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class w = 4

##  5.4.5 Local buckling

β w 29 198
ρ cw if 18 , 1.0 , ρ cw= 0.565
ε β w β w
2

ε ε
if class w 4 , t w .ρ
t w.ef.b cw, t w t w.ef.b = 2.8 mm
( b = bending)

b) Flange
b tw 2 .r
 5.4.3 ψ 1 g 1 β f g. β =f 4.708
2 .t f

##  Tab. 5.1 β 1f 3 . ε β 2f 4.5 . ε β 3f 6 . ε

Heat treated,
unwelded β 1f= 2.942 β 2f= 4.413 β 3f= 5.883
flange
class f if β >f β 1f , if β f > β 2f , if β f > β 3f , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 class f = 3

##  5.4.5 Local buckling:

β f 10 24
ρ cf if 6 , 1.0 , ρ cf= 1
ε β f β f
2

ε ε
t f.ef if class f 4 , t f . ρ cf, t f t f.ef = 15.4 mm

## Classification of the total cross-section:

class if class f > class w , class f , class w class = 4

TALAT 2710 66
c) Flange induced buckling

##  5.12.9 Elastic moment resistance utilised k 0.55 f of fo hw h 2 .t f

h w k .E h w .t w
 (5.115) Check if < . , "OK!" , "Not OK!" Check = "OK!"
t w f of b .t f

6.6.4 Welds
 5.5

ρ haz 0.65

t1 tw

## b' haz 2.5 . t w . t w 2.5 . t w . 2.5 . t w

ρ haz .ρ ρ haz= 0.955
b' haz . t w haz

t w.ef.b t w.ef.b
ρ ´ haz if ρ haz < , ρ haz , ρ ´ haz= 0.565
tw tw

## 6.6.5 Bending moment resistance

 5.6.2
Elastic modulus of gross cross sectionWel:

2 .b .t f 2 .t f .t w A gr = 7.624 . 10 mm
3 2
A gr h

1. . 3
tw . h 2 .t f
3
I gr bh b
12

I gr = 4.444 . 10 mm
8 4

I gr . 2
W el = 1.559 . 10 mm
6 3
W el
h

Plastic modulus
1. bw
b .h tw . h 2 .t f b' haz . t w . 1 ρ haz. W ple = 1.728 . 10 mm
2 2 6 3
W ple b
4 2

TALAT 2710 67
Elastic modulus of the effective cross sectionWeffe:

## t f = 15.4 mm t f.ef = 15.4 mm

bw
As tf.ef = tf then bc b c = 264.6 mm
2
t w = 5 mm
t w.ef.b = 2.8 mm

## Allowing for local buckling:

A effe A gr b. t f t f.ef b c. t w t w.ef.b

A effe = 7.049 . 10 mm
3 2

## Allowing for HAZ:

A effe A effe 2 . b' haz . t w.ef.b ρ ´ haz. t w

A effe = 7.049 . 10 mm
3 2

## Shift of gravity centre:

2
h tf bc b w1
e ef b. t f t f.ef . . t t w.ef.b 2 . b' haz . t w.ef.b ρ ´ haz. t w . . 1
2 2 2 w 2 A effe
e ef = 10.79 mm

## Second moment of area with respect to centre of gross cross section:

2 3 2
h tf bc b w1
I effe I gr b. t f t f.ef . . t
w t w.ef.b 2 . b' .
haz t w.ef.b ρ ´ haz. t w .
2 2 3 2

I effe = 4.309 . 10 mm
8 4

## e ef . A effe I effe = 4.301 . 10 mm

2 8 4
I effe I effe

I effe
W effe = 1.454 . 10 mm
6 3
W effe W ele W effe
h
e ef
W ele = 1.454 . 10 mm
6 3
2

## Plastic modulus of the welded section,Wple: ρ haz= 0.955

2 .t f
2
h tf h b w1
2 .b .t f . .t b' haz . t w . 1 ρ haz. W ple = 1.728 . 10 mm
6 3
W ple w
2 4 2

TALAT 2710 68
 Tab. 5.3 Shape factor α
- for welded, class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

W ple
α 1.2.w α 1.2.w = 1.108
W el

## W ele β 3w β w W ple W ele

 (5.16) α 3.ww . α 3.ww= 0.048
W el β 3w β 2w W el

## W ele β 3f β f W ple W ele

 (5.16) α 3.wf . α 3.wf= 1.073
W el β 3f β 2f W el

β, β2, β3 are the slenderness parameter and the limiting values for the most critical
α3.ww and α3.wf
element in the cross-section, so it is the smaller value of

## α 3.w if α 3.ww α 3.wf , α 3.ww , α 3.wf α 3.w= 0.048

W effe
- for welded, class 4 cross-sections: α 4.w α 4.w = 0.933
W el
class = 4
α if class> 2 , if class> 3 , α 4.w , α 3.w , α 1.2.w α = 0.933

## Design moment of resistance of the cross sectionM c,Rd

f o . α . W el
 (5.14) M c.Rd M c.Rd = 343.7 kNm
γ M1

## 6.6.6 Lateral-torsional buckling between purlins

 5.9.4.3
2 .b .t f h .t w
3 3
I z = 1.052 . 10 mm
7 4
Lateral stiffness constant Iz
12 12
t f .I z
2
h
I w = 8.089 . 10
11 6
 Figure J.2 Varping constant: Iw mm
4
2 .b .t f h .t w
3 3
I t = 4.133 . 10 mm
5 4
Torsional constant: It
3

c p = 1 . 10 mm
3
Length between purlins cp

TALAT 2710 69
 H.1.2 Moment relation ψ 1 ψ =1

1.4 . ψ 0.52 . ψ
2
 H.1.2(6) C1 - constant C1 1.88 C1=1

G = 2.7 . 10 MPa
4
Shear modulus

C 1 .π .E .I z I w c p .G .I t
2 2
 H.1.3(3) M cr . Wy W el M cr = 2.035 . 10 kN . m
3
2.
E .I z
2 Iz
cp π
W y = 1.559 . 10 mm
6 3

α .W y .f o
 5.6.6.3(3) λ LT λ LT= 0.431
M cr

## λ 0LT if ( class> 2 , 0.4 , 0.6 ) λ 0LT= 0.4

φ LT 0.5 . 1 α LT . λ LT
2
 5.6.6.3(1) λ 0LT λ LT φ LT= 0.596

1
χ LT χ LT = 0.992
2 2
φ LT φ LT λ LT

## Design moment of resistance of the cross section Mc,Rd

f . α . W el
 (5.14) M c.Rd . o
χ LT M c.Rd = 341.1 kNm
γ M1

##  (5.13) The resistance is based on the effective

elastic modulus of the net sectionWnet
times the ultimate strength.

## Allowance for bolt holes on the

tension flange is made by reducing
the width of the flanges with two bolt
diameters db .

db 12 . mm

## Holes are supposed in both flanges

2 3
h tf tf
I net I gr 2 .d b .t f . .2 2 .d b . .2
2 12

I net = 3.875 . 10 mm
8 4

TALAT 2710 70
Allowance for HAZ ρ haz= 0.955
2
b w1
2 . t w . b' haz
3.
ρ haz 2 . t w . b' haz . 1 ρ haz . I net = 3.866 . 10 mm
8 4
I net I net 1
2
2 . I net fo
W net = 1.356 . 10 mm
6 3
W net = 236 MPa
h γ M1
f u . W net fu
 (5.13) M a.Rd = 248 MPa M a.Rd = 336.4 kNm
γ M2 γ M2

## 6.6.8 Shear force resistance

 5.12.4 Design shear resistance Vw.Rd for the web: A rigid end post is assumed

bw fo
 (5.93) λ w 0.35 . . b w = 529 mm λ w= 2.258
tw E
fu
η 0.4 0.2 . η = 0.638
fo

## 0.48 0.48 0.48

 Tab. 5.12 ρ v if λ w > , if λ w 0.949 , , ,η ρ v= 0.213
η λ w λ w

1.32
ρ v if λ w > 0.949 , ,ρ v ρ v= 0.337
1.66 λ w

hw h 2 .t w h w = 560 mm

fo
 (5.95) V w.Rd ρ .vt w . h w . V w.Rd = 222.99 kN
γ M1

##  5.12.5(7) Shear resistance contributionVf.Rd of the flanges.

fo M 1Ed
M f.Rd b .t f . h w tf . = 0.436 M f.Rd = 335 kNm
γ M1 M f.Rd

a = 1 . 10 mm
4
4.4 . b . t f . f o
2 a L
c 0.08 .a
c = 1.384 . 10 mm
4
twb fo. 2.

TALAT 2710 71
b .t f .f o
2 2
M 1Ed
 (5.101) V f.Rd if M 1Ed < M f.Rd , . 1 ,0 V f.Rd = 0.5 kN
c . γ M1 M f.Rd

## 6.6.9 Concentrated transverse force

 5.12.8
 Figure 5.24 Length of stiff bearing ss 50 . mm h w = 560 mm

f of . b f
 (5.109) Parameter m 1 bf b f of fo f ow fo m1 m 1 = 32
f ow . t w
2
hw
 Figure 5.24 Buckling coefficient kF 6 2. k F = 6.01
a
4 . t f . h w . f ow
2
ss hw
 (5.110) Parameter m 2 m2 if > 0.2 , 0.02 . ,0 m 2 = 26.4
k F .E .t w
2 tf

##  (5.111) Effective loaded lengthly ly ss 2 .t f . 1 m1 m2 l y = 316.3 mm

k F . l y . f ow . E 1
 (5.108) Design resistance FRd F Rd .
0.57 t w
2. . F Rd = 101.8 kN
hw γ M1

f ow f ow
F Rd if F Rd> t w . l y . , t w .l y . , F Rd F Rd = 101.8 kN
γ M1 γ M1

## Applied load F Ed q p.roof q snow . c p cp=1m F Ed = 13.75 kN

FEd << FRd OK!

6.6.10 Deflections
To calculate the fictive second moment of areaI fic , the bending moment in the serviceability limi
state is supposed to be half the maximum bending moment at the ultimate limit state.

0.5 . M Ed h
 4.2.4 σ gr . I gr = 4.444 . 10 mm
8 4
σ gr= 108 MPa
I gr 2

Allowing for a reduced stress level,Ific may be used constant along the beam.
σ gr
 (4.2) I fic I gr . I I fic = 4.385 . 10 mm
8 4
gr I effe
fo

I = 4.385 . 10 mm
8 4
I if class 4 , I fic , I gr class = 4

TALAT 2710 72
Approximate deflections (coefficients from FE calculations)

5 . q p.roof . L
4
0.7 . q p.roof = 2.75 kN . m
1
δ 1 δ 1= 8.2 mm
384 . E . I
5 . q k.roof . L
4
0.75 . q k.roof = 4.125 kN . m
1
δ k.roof δ k.roof= 13.1 mm
384 . E . I
P crane . L
3
δ crane 0.75 . P crane = 50 kN δ crane= 25.45 mm
48 . E . I
5 . q snow . L
4
0.65 . q snow = 11 kN . m
1
δ snow δ snow= 30.3 mm
384 . E . I
5 . q w.roof . L
4
0.75 . q w.roof = 3.85 kN . m
1
δ w.roof δ w.roof= 12.3 mm
384 . E . I

##  (9.16) δ 2 0 . δ k.roof 0.3 . δ crane 0.2 . δ snow 0 . δ w.roof δ 2= 14 mm

Pre-camber δ 0 0 . mm

##  (4.1) δ max δ 1 δ 2 δ 0 δ max = 21.9 mm

The FEM calculation gives for the same load combination δ max 20.2 . mm

L
(1.1) δ limit for beams carrying roof δ limit = 40 mm
250

## 6.6.11 Summary M Rd = 336 kNm

M Ed
M Ed = 336 kNm M c.Rd = 341 kNm M 1Ed = 146 kNm = 0.999
M Rd
V Ed = 172 kN V Rd = 223.5 kN V Ed
= 0.77
V Rd
I fic = 4.385 . 10 mm
8 4
δ limit= 40 mm δ max= 20 mm

t f = 15.4 mm A gr = 7.624 . 10 mm
3 2
Cross section h = 570 mm b = 160 mm t w = 5 mm

TALAT 2710 73
6.7 Welded Connections

## 6.7.1 Weld properties

The checking of welded connections includes two parts:
- the design of the welds
- the check of HAZ adjacent to welds ( 6.6.3.5)
In this design example three connections are checked. Other connections are treated in a similar wa

##  Tab 5.5.1 ρ haz 0.65 S.I. units: kN 1000 . newton

220 . MPa 97 . MPa kNm kN . m MPa 10 . Pa
6
 5.5.2 f a.haz f v.haz
 6.6.1 γ Mw 1.25
 Tab 6.8 f w 210 . MPa

## 6.7.2 Longitudinal weld of floor beam D

a) Design of weld
The longitudinal weld of floor beam D is submitted to shear
 6.6.3.3 stress and normal stress acting along the weld axis. In design
(10) NOTE the normal stress does not have to be considered.

## (6.4.2) Shear force acting along the beam V Ed 91.6 . kN

V Ed
Shear stress τ τ = 79.5 MPa
t w. h tf

## Choose weld throat a 3 . mm , two welds

τ .t w τ .t w
 (6.42) Check if a > 0.85 . , "OK!" , "Not OK!" 0.85 . = 1.6 mm Check = "OK!"
fw fw
γ Mw γ Mw

## b) Design strength in HAZ

Tensile force perpendicular to the failure plane: As the weld is located close to the neutral axis, ther
no need to check this point.

 (6.50) Shear stress in the failure plane at the toe of the weld:
f v.haz
τ = 79.5 MPa is at the same level as = 77.6 MPa . Can be accepted!
γ Mw

 (6.51) Shear stress at the failure plane at the fusion boundary:

## As in practice g 1 > t w , there is no need to check this formula

TALAT 2710 74
6.7.3 Base of column B

Note!
As the notations in  for perpendicular
and parallel cannot be used in Mathcad
expressions the notationsτ per and
τ ll are used.

## Cross section, see 6.2.1 and 6.2.7

h 200 . mm b 160 . mm
tw 7 . mm tf 16 . mm

6296 . mm
2
A
4.621 . 10 . mm
7 4
Iy

a) Design of welds
In order to use the expression for combined stress components ( (6.37)), we calculate the normal
stress σ per and the two shear stressesτ per and τ ll which are induced by the normal stressσ
and the shear stressτ in the connected member column B.

The base of column B is submitted to normal forceN Ed , bending moment M Ed and shear force V Ed .
Two cases are to be considered (see 6.2.13 of this example)

## 288 13.2 5.9 LC1, max N, compression

N Ed . kN M Ed . kNm V Ed . kN
11.7 25.5 16.1 LC4, min N, tension

## On the compression side, h N Ed M Ed 74.3

z σ c .z σ c= MPa
in extreme fibre 2 A Iy 53.3

## On the tension side h N Ed M Ed 17.2

z σ t .z σ t= MPa
in extreme fibre 1 2 A Iy 57

TALAT 2710 75
The compression stresses are transmitted 100
through the contact surface between the
column and the plate. No check of the weld is
needed. The HAZ is checked in 6.2.11 σc 50
i
(flexural buckling) and 6.2.12 (lateral-torsional
MPa
buckling) 0
0
σt
Check the tensile stressσ t = 57 MPa i
2 MPa
50
Weld throat a f 10 . mm around the flange.
100
Comment: For process reasons i
weld throat a f > tmin which is larger
than needed by the calculation.

## The normal stressσ t in the extreme fibre of

the member induces in the weld the normal
stress σ per and the shear stressτ per

σ t .t f
2
σ per σ per= 32.3 MPa
2 . 2 .a f

τ per σ per

The shear stress τ ll in the flange is neglected, but see comment below.

3 . τ ll
2 2 2
 (6.37) The resulting stressin the fillet weld is σ c σ per τ per σ c= 65 MPa

fw fw
 (6.38) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 168 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

h
At point 2 in the web there is a tensile stress for z tf a f. 2
2
N Ed M Ed 25.8
σ t .z σ t= MPa
A Iy 40.4
σ t .t w
6 . mm ,
2
In the welds, throata w σ per σ per= 16.7 MPa τ per σ per
2 . 2 .a w

The shear stress is: (S z is the first moment of area for the flange) Sz b . t f . 0.5 . h 0.5 . t f

V Ed . S z V Ed
2 2
τ τ = 11.7 MPa Compare: = 12.5 MPa
tw y.I t w. h tf

τ .t w
In the welds τ ll τ ll= 6.8 MPa
2 .a w

TALAT 2710 76
3 . τ ll
2 2 2
 (6.37) The resulting stressin the fillet weld is σ c σ per τ per σ c= 35 MPa

fw fw
 (6.38) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 168 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

Comment: The shear stress in the flange can be calculated with the expression:
V Ed
τ 0.925
t w. h tf τ= MPa
2 .t f . h tf . 1 2.523
6 .t f .b

b) Check of HAZ
 (6.46) The HAZ is checked in 6.2.11 (flexural buckling) and 6.2.12 (lateral-torsional
buckling).
 (6.47) As g 1 > a , no check at the fusion boundary is needed.

## 6.7.4 Connection between floor beam D and column B

The diagonal stiffeners (on both sides) are welded first with unsymmetric fillet welds. Then the
horizontal stiffeners are welded with butt weld to the flanges close to the diagonals and with fillet we
to the web.

TALAT 2710 77
a) Beam D, design of welds
h 300 . mm b 120 . mm A 3984 . mm
2
Cross section, see 6.4.1 and 6.4.7
t w 4 . mm t f 12 . mm I y 6.676 . 10 . mm
7 4

As the notations in  for perpendicular and parallel cannot be used in Mathcad expressions the
notations τ per and τ ll are used.

In order to use the expression for combined stress components ( (6.37)), we calculate the normal
stress σ per and the two shear stressesτ per and τ ll which are induced by the normal stressσ
and the shear stressτ in the connected member beam D.

The end of beam D is submitted to a shear forceV Ed and a bending momentM Ed . The normal force
N Ed is small and is neglected.

## On the tension side, h M Ed

z σ t .z σ t= 145 MPa
in extreme fibre 1 2 Iy

The normal stressσ t in the extreme fibre of the member induces in the weld the normal stress
σ per and the shear stressτ per . Weld throat a f 8 . mm

σ t .t f
σ per σ per= 76.7 MPa τ per σ per
2 . 2 .a f

## The shear stress τ ll in the flange is neglected. Then he

t resulting stress in the fillet weld is

3 . τ per
2 2
 (6.37) σ c σ per σ c= 153 MPa

fw fw
 (6.38) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 168 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

h
At point 2 in the web there is a tensile stress for z tf a f. 2 z = 127 mm
2
M Ed
σ t .z σ t= 122 MPa Comment: For process reasons a weld throat larger
Iy than needed by the calculation is used.

σ t .t w
Welds, throat a w 5 . mm , σ per σ per= 34.6 MPa τ per σ per
2 . 2 .a w

TALAT 2710 78
The shear stress is: (S z is the first moment of area for the flange) Sz b . t f . 0.5 . h 0.5 . t f

V Ed . S z V Ed
τ τ = 71.2 MPa Compare: = 79.6 MPa
t w .I y t w. h tf

τ .t w
In the welds τ ll τ ll= 28.5 MPa
2 .a w

3 . τ ll
2 2 2
 (6.37) The resulting stressin the fillet weld is σ c σ per τ per σ c= 85 MPa

fw fw
 (6.38) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 168 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

## In the middle of the web, point 3

V Ed τ .t w
σ t 0 . MPa τ τ ll τ ll= 31.8 MPa
t w. h tf 2 .a w

##  (6.37) The resulting stressin the fillet weld is σ c 3 . τ ll σ c= 55 MPa

fw fw
 (6.38) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 168 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

## Verify in the HAZ

f a.haz
3 .τ
2 2
 (6.54) - at the toe of the weld: σ
γ Mw

g 1 . f a.haz
3 .τ
2 2
 (6.55) - at the fusion boundary: σ
Mw t .γ
As in practice g 1 > t , there is no need to check the formula at the fusion boundary.

## 145 . MPa 0 . MPa 3 .τ

2 2
In the flange: σ σ 1 τ σ c σ 1 σ c= 145 MPa

f a.haz f a.haz
 (6.54) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 176 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

## 122 . MPa 71 . MPa 3 .τ

2 2
In the web: σ τ σ c σ σ c= 173 MPa

f a.haz f a.haz
 (6.54) Check if σ <c , "OK!" , "Not OK!" = 176 MPa Check = "OK!"
γ Mw γ Mw

TALAT 2710 79
c) Column B, design of weldsand stiffeners
(5.4.8) Moment M B3 32.4 . kNm M B2 34 . kNm
MD 64.4 . kNm
Shear force V B3 2.31 . kN V B2 18.2 . kN
VD 91.7
Axial force N B3 240 . kN N B2 307 . kN
ND 0 . kN

## The tensile force F 5 in the upper flange of beam D

and the distance h fD between the centre of the
flanges are needed to check the stiffeners in
column B

tf
F5 1 .σ .b .t F 5 = 200 kN
h 1 f

h fD h tf bD b

## Cross section column B see 6.2.1 and 6.2.7

200 . mm 160 . mm 6296 . mm
2
h b A
7 . mm 16 . mm 4.621 . 10 . mm
7 4
tw tf Iy

## Welds 5 between the upper stiffener and the column flange

These welds are given the same dimensions as weld 1. No check is needed

## Welds 4 between the upper stiffener and the column web

F 5 = 200 kN
The tensile force in the stiffener is the tensile force in the upper flange
This force is in equilibrium with the shear forceV B3 in column B above the stiffener, the shear force
V w in the web below the stiffener and the horizontal component
F 6 of the force in the diagonal
stiffener.

F5 V B3 Vw F6 0

The shear resistance in the web below the stiffener is the least of (fo 255 . MPa γ M1 1.1 )

fo f v.haz
V wo h 2 .t f .t w . and V w.haz h 2 .t f .t w .
3 .γ
γ Mw
M1
Vw if V wo < V w.haz , V wo , V w.haz V w = 91 kN

## As the web panel is stiffened, there is no risk of shear buckling.

TALAT 2710 80
The welds 4 are designed for the shear force V B3 V w = 93.6 kN Choose a 4 4 . mm

V B3 Vw fw
τ τ = 34.8 MPa < = 97 MPa OK !
4 .a 4 . h 2 .t f
3 .γ Mw

## Stiffener 4 and weld 6

The stiffener is in tension. Tension forceF 5 = 200 kN , width b D = 120 mm , thickness t4 12 . mm

F5 f a.haz
Stiffener, HAZ close to 5 σ σ = 139 MPa < = 176 MPa OK !
b D. t 4 γ Mw

F5 V B3 Vw fw
Weld 6, "butt weld" σ σ = 74 MPa < = 168 MPa OK !
b D. t 4 γ Mw

## Diagonal stiffener 6-7

Compression force F 67

2 2
h tf h fD
F6 F5 V B3 Vw F 67 F 6. F 67 = 199 kN
h tf

## Width b D = 120 mm , thickness t 67 12 . mm OK !

F 67 f a.haz
σ σ = 138 MPa < = 176 MPa OK !
b D. t 67 γ Mw
fw
Weld 6 and 7, "Unsymmertic butt weld" σ = 138 MPa < = 168 MPa
γ Mw

##  5.4.4 Local buckling, heat treated, welded stiffener

bD 250 . MPa
β β =5 ε β 3 5 .ε β 3= 4.95
2 . t 67 fo

## Check if a stiffener is needed due to web crippling according to  5.12.8.

Force F7 F5 F6 F 7 = 94 kN

 5.12.8 f of fo f ow fo bf b a 3 .m hw h tf

ss 12 . mm 2 . 2 . 8 . mm s s = 35 mm E 70000 . MPa

TALAT 2710 81
f of . b f
 (5.109) m1 m 1 = 22.9
f ow . t w
2
hw
 Fig 5.23 kF 6 2. k F = 6.01
a

4 . t f . h w . f ow
2
ss hw
 (5.110) m2 if > 0.2 , 0.02 . ,0 m 2 = 2.6
k F .E .t w
2 tf

##  (5.113) ly ss 2 .t f . 1 m1 m2 l y = 228 mm

k F . l y . f ow . E 1
0.57 . t w . .
2
 (5.108) F Rd F Rd = 293 kN
hw γ M1

f ow f ow
 (5.108) F Rd if F Rd> t w . l y . , t w .l y . , F Rd F Rd = 293 kN
γ M1 γ M1

TALAT 2710 82