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Water Conservation Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed.

Mahatma Gandhi With over 70 of our !or"d #overed !ith !ater, it is diffi#u"t to understand that the !or"d is fa#ing an a#ute !ater #risis$ %he fa#t is, over &.' bi""ion peop"e a#ross the !or"d don(t have a##ess to #"ean drin)ing !ater. *"most + mi""ion peop"e die ea#h year from !ater re"ated diseases. ,-%he !ater and sanitation. #risis #"aims more "ives through disease than any !ar #"aims through guns., *nd every /& se#onds, a #hi"d dies from a !ater0re"ated i""ness Water has been avai"ab"e on earth, sin#e its ear"y days. 1t is be"ieved that "ife started in !ater. %he net #ontent of !ater on our p"anet has remained #onstant over mi""ions of years. Mother 2ature has been re#y#"ing this pre#ious resour#e over the ages. 1n fa#t, the !ater !e are drin)ing today may !e"" have been #onsumed by the 3inosaurs. Earth has been ab"e to provide a"" its "ife forms !ith this essen#e of "ife. 4n Earth, 56.' of the p"anet's !ater is found in seas and o#eans, &.7 in ground!ater, &.7 in g"a#iers and the i#e #aps of *ntar#ti#a and Green"and, a sma"" fra#tion in other "arge !ater bodies, and 0.00& in the air as vapor, #"ouds 7formed of so"id and "i8uid !ater parti#"es suspended in air9, and pre#ipitation. 4n"y /.' of the Earth's !ater is fresh !ater, and 5:.: of that !ater is in i#e and ground!ater. ;ess than 0.< of a"" fresh!ater is in rivers, "a)es, and the atmosphere, and an even sma""er amount of the Earth's fresh!ater 70.00< 9 is #ontained !ithin bio"ogi#a" bodies and manufa#tured produ#ts. Water on earth moves #ontinua""y, through the !ater #y#"e of evaporation and transpiration, #ondensation, pre#ipitation, and runoff, and fina""y rea#hes the sea. Evaporation and transpiration #ontribute to the pre#ipitation over "and. %he #o""e#tive mass of !ater found on, under, and over the surfa#e of a p"anet is #a""ed the hydrosphere. %he 8uestion remains, if earth has abundan#e of this resour#e, then !hy !orry about !ater #onservation= %he ans!er "ies in !hat !e have done to our nature. %o a "arge e>tent it has been man(s greed, arrogan#e and #are"essness !hi#h have #reated this situation. ?efore !e go for!ard, it is important to understand !hat Water @#ar#ity is 0 Water scarcity invo"ves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. Water stress is the diffi#u"ty of obtaining sour#es of fresh !ater for use, be#ause of dep"eting resour#es. * water crisis is a situation !here the avai"ab"e potab"e, unpo""uted !ater !ithin a region is "ess than that region's demand. Whi"e the amount of fresh!ater on the p"anet has remained fair"y #onstant over timeA #ontinua""y re#y#"ed through the atmosphere and ba#) into our #upsAthe popu"ation has e>p"oded. %his means that every year #ompetition for a #"ean, #opious supp"y of !ater for drin)ing, #oo)ing, bathing, and sustaining "ife intensifies. %he goa"s of !ater conservation efforts include the fo""o!sB

Sustainability. %o ensure avai"abi"ity for future generations, the !ithdra!a" of fresh !ater from an e#osystem shou"d not e>#eed its natura" rep"a#ement rate.

Energy conservation. Water pumping, de"ivery and !aste !ater treatment fa#i"ities #onsume a signifi#ant amount of energy. 1n some regions of the !or"d over &' of tota" e"e#tri#ity #onsumption is devoted to !ater management. Habitat conservation. MinimiCing human !ater use he"ps to preserve fresh !ater habitats for "o#a" !i"d"ife and migrating !aterfo!", as !e"" as redu#ing the need to bui"d ne! dams and other !ater diversion infrastru#tures.

Water s#ar#ity is an abstra#t #on#ept to many and a star) rea"ity for others. 1t is the resu"t of myriad environmenta", po"iti#a", e#onomi#, and so#ia" for#es. Wherever they are, peop"e need !ater to survive. 2ot on"y is the human body 60 per#ent !ater, the resour#e is a"so essentia" for produ#ing food, #"othing, and #omputers, moving our !aste stream, and )eeping us and the environment hea"thy. Dnfortunate"y, humans have proved to be ineffi#ient !ater users. *##ording to the Dnited 2ations, !ater use has gro!n at more than t!i#e the rate of popu"ation in#rease in the "ast #entury. ?y /0/', an estimated &.: bi""ion peop"e !i"" "ive in areas p"agued by !ater s#ar#ity, !ith t!o0thirds of the !or"d's popu"ation "iving in !ater0stressed regions as a resu"t of use, gro!th, and #"imate #hange. *bout '0 of a"" avai"ab"e !ater is transboundary 0 !ater "o#ated in the rivers, "a)es or ground!ater systems of t!o or more #ountries 0 and #ooperation over this !ater is often troub"esome. *round t!o thirds of the !or"d's transboundary rivers "a#) agreements bet!een the #ountries that share them. %his situation, "in)ed to po"iti#a" #onf"i#ts in many of the sharing regions, has meant that transboundary !ater has been presented as a reason for vio"ent #onf"i#t and even !ar. Eo!ever, the !ater !ars that !ere feared a de#ade ago have fortunate"y not materia"ised. Water is more often a sour#e of #ooperation, even in situations of po"iti#a" tension. 1ndia and Fa)istan have !or)ed together in the management of the 1ndus Giver despite fighting four !ars. %here are a host of benefits derived from #ooperation in transboundary regionsB e#onomi#, environmenta" and so#ia". H"imate #hange adaptation and mitigation, f"ood and drought management are perhaps t!o of the most pub"i#"y re#ogniCab"e benefits. %hree years ago, the D2 Genera" *ssemb"y de#"ared /0&< to be the 1nternationa" Iear of Water Hooperation. *t the Wor"d Water Wee) in @to#)ho"m. 1n 1ndia, the Dnion Habinet has de#"ared the year /0&< as Water0Honservation year0/0&<. 4ver the years rising popu"ations, gro!ing industria"iCation, and e>panding agri#u"ture have pushed up the demand for !ater. Efforts have been made to #o""e#t !ater by bui"ding dams and reservoirs and digging !e""sJ some #ountries have a"so tried to re#y#"e and desa"inate 7remove sa"ts9 !ater. Water #onservation has be#ome the need of the day. %he idea of ground !ater re#harging by harvesting rain!ater is gaining importan#e in many #ities. 1n the forests, !ater seeps gent"y into the ground as vegetation brea)s the fa"". %his ground!ater in turn feeds !e""s, "a)es, and rivers. Frote#ting forests means prote#ting !ater '#at#hments'. 1n an#ient 1ndia, peop"e be"ieved that forests !ere the 'mothers' of rivers and !orshipped the sour#es of these !ater bodies.

Rainwater Harvesting 1n urban areas, the #onstru#tion of houses, footpaths and roads has "eft "itt"e e>posed earth for !ater to soa) in. 1n parts of the rura" areas of 1ndia, f"ood!ater 8ui#)"y f"o!s to the rivers, !hi#h then dry up soon after the rains stop. 1f this !ater #an be he"d ba#), it #an seep into the ground and re#harge the ground!ater supp"y. %his has be#ome a very popu"ar method of #onserving !ater espe#ia""y in the urban areas. Gain!ater harvesting essentia""y means #o""e#ting rain!ater on the roofs of bui"ding and storing it underground for "ater use. 2ot on"y does this re#harging arrest ground!ater dep"etion, it a"so raises the de#"ining !ater tab"e and #an he"p augment !ater supp"y. Gain!ater harvesting and artifi#ia" re#harging are be#oming very important issues. 1t is essentia" to stop the de#"ine in ground!ater "eve"s, arrest sea0!ater ingress, i.e. prevent sea0!ater from moving "and!ard, and #onserve surfa#e !ater run0off during the rainy season. %o!n p"anners and #ivi# authority in many #ities in 1ndia are introdu#ing by"a!s ma)ing rain!ater harvesting #ompu"sory in a"" ne! stru#tures. 2o !ater or se!age #onne#tion !ou"d be given if a ne! bui"ding did not have provisions for rain!ater harvesting. @u#h ru"es shou"d a"so be imp"emented in a"" the other #ities to ensure a rise in the ground!ater "eve". Gea"iCing the importan#e of re#harging ground!ater, the HGW? 7Hentra" Ground Water ?oard9 is ta)ing steps to en#ourage it through rain!ater harvesting in the #apita" and e"se!here. * number of government bui"dings have been as)ed to go in for !ater harvesting in 3e"hi and other #ities of 1ndia. @ome of the benefits of rain!ater harvesting are as fo""o!sB 1n#reases !ater avai"abi"ity Hhe#)s the de#"ining !ater tab"e 1s environmenta""y friend"y 1mproves the 8ua"ity of ground!ater through the di"ution of f"uoride, nitrate, and sa"inity Frevents soi" erosion and f"ooding espe#ia""y in urban areas %here are notab"e initiatives by #haritab"e organiCations "i)e *rghyam. Kor e>amp"e, the foundation(s !or) in fa#i"itating the transformation of a neg"e#ted temp"e tan) that #ou"d potentia""y ho"d appro>imate"y 7' "a)h "itres of !ater has to be "auded. Eo!ever, !hat is important for 1ndia as a #ountry is a "ong term approa#h to not on"y assess the avai"abi"ity of !ater resour#es in a region but a"so he"p in optima" p"anning of its uti"iCation that too in a sustainab"e manner. %his is !here deve"opment of hydro"ogi# mode" be#omes #ru#ia". Eydro"ogi# mode"s are deve"oped to mode" various #omponents of hydro"ogi# #y#"e "i)e runoff 7river f"o!s9, ground!ater, evapotranspiration 7return of moisture to the air through both evaporation from the soi" and transpiration by p"ants9 !ithin a region su#h as river basin, !atershed, state or a #ountry. %here are numerous hydro"ogi# mode"s deve"oped throughout the

!or"d, !hi#h are suitab"e for spe#ifi# areas "i)e urban area, rura" area, agri#u"tura" area, and forest area. 1n 1ndia, deve"opment of region spe#ifi# mode"s, !hi#h are !e"" #a"ibrated and va"idated, !i"" be very usefu". 1n this #onte>t, region refers to hydro"ogi#a""y uniform or simi"ar region and not ne#essari"y a po"iti#a" or administrative region su#h as ta"u), distri#t or state. Larious too"s su#h as remote sensing, geographi# information system 7G1@9, and digita" e"evation mode"ing 73EM9 !i"" provide essentia" inputs for the deve"opment of appropriate hydro"ogi# mode". Water #onservation is a mu#h "arger issue no! than it ever !as in the past. @ma"" fi>es #an ma)e a big differen#e. %his #ou"d be not "eaving the fau#et running !hi"e brushing teeth, or not a""o!ing a "ea) to #ontinue un#he#)ed. We have an ob"igation to our future. With !or"d popu"ation gro!ing at the rate it is, !e must ta)e pre#autions that those ahead of us don(t suffer be#ause of our neg"igen#e. Water is "ifeJ the number one ne#essity for surviva". 2ot on"y must !e #onserve no! to prevent future prob"ems, !e need to tea#h the #oming generations the importan#e of our !ater. %hat they in turn #an ma)e sure nothing !i"" ever happen to bring about disaster in the form of !ater shortage. 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000MMM0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 References: httpBNN!!!.un.orgN!aterfor"ifede#adeN!aterO#ooperationO/0&<Niy!#OandO!!d.shtm" httpBNNenvironment.nationa"geographi#.#o.inNenvironmentNfresh!aterNfresh!ater0#risis httpBNN!ater.orgN!ater0#risisN!ater0fa#tsN!aterN httpBNNmatadornet!or).#omN#hangeN+00sho#)ing0fa#ts0about0!aterN httpBNNedugreen.teri.res.inNe>p"oreN!aterN#onser.htm httpBNN!!!.indiaon!ard.#omNa0mode"0for0!ater0#onservationN 000Dr. D. Nagesh Kumar !rofessor De"t. of Civil Engineering #n$ian #nstitute of Science %angalore #n$ia httpBNN!!!.###india.#oNDdaiFresentation.pdf httpBNN!!!.theguardian.#omNsustainab"e0businessNg"oba"0!ater0#risis0po"iti#s0business0se#urity