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BOAT CREW Seamanship Manual

COMDTINST M16114.5C

“Train, Maintain, Operate”

BOAT CREW Seamanship Manual COMDTINST M16114.5C “Train, Maintain, Operate”
BOAT CREW Seamanship Manual COMDTINST M16114.5C “Train, Maintain, Operate”
Commandant United States Coast Guard COMMANDANT INSTRUCTION M16114.5C Subj: BOAT CREW SEAMANSHIP MANUAL 2100 Second

Commandant United States Coast Guard

COMMANDANT INSTRUCTION M16114.5C

Subj:

BOAT CREW SEAMANSHIP MANUAL

2100 Second Street, S.W. Washington, DC 20593-0001 Staff Symbol: G-OCS Phone: (202) 267-2868

COMDTINST M16114.5C SEP 16 2003

1.

PURPOSE. The Boat Crew Seamanship Manual presents the approved methods and procedures for the conduct of Coast Guard boat operations. The Coast Guard Auxiliary, for the conduct of vessel facility operations, also uses this Manual.

2.

ACTION. Area and district commanders, commanders of maintenance and logistics commands, commanding officers of headquarters units, and assistant commandants for directorates, Chief Counsel, special staff offices at Headquarters, group commanders, boat unit commanding officers and officers-in-charge shall ensure the contents of this Manual are utilized in all boat operations where applicable. Internet release authorized.

3.

DIRECTIVES AFFECTED. The Boat Crew Seamanship Manual, COMDTINST M16114.5B is canceled.

4.

DISCUSSION.

a. This update incorporates and standardizes the current best practices employed within the Coast Guard boat operations community. It is intended to be the primary reference for the Boat Crew Training Program and shore based boat operations and seamanship training.

b. This text represents a major revision of the previous Boat Crew Seamanship Manual last released in February 1998. The format has been changed to present information in a more readable style while at the same time reducing the overall size of the Manual.

5.

PROCEDURES. The standard methods and procedures presented in this Manual apply to all boat operations, crew training and certification.

a. Commanding Officers/Officers-in-Charge shall ensure that personnel tasked with boat crew responsibilities are trained in all methods and procedures in this Manual.

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NON-STANDARD DISTRIBUTION: 6 EXTRA COPIES TO MLC’S

COMDTINST M16114.5C

b. Units that conduct boat operations or provide oversight of the operations shall use the information, processes and procedures set forth in this Manual as a standard when conducting evaluations of boat crew performance.

c. Training facilities and traveling training teams conducting boat operations training shall use this Manual as the primary reference text for all training objectives and lesson plans.

6. CHANGES. This Manual is under continual review and will be updated as necessary. Recommendations for improvement or corrections are eagerly sought from all users. It is of critical importance that the most current and safest procedures be reflected within this text. All recommendations should be forwarded to the Office of Boat Forces (G-OCS), Coast Guard Headquarters.

7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT and IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS. Environmental considerations were examined in the development of this Manual and have been determined to be not applicable.

8. FORMS/REPORTS. None.

D. S. BELZ /s/ Assistant Commandant for Operations

2

Boat Crew Seamanship Manual

Table of Contents

Boat Crew Seamanship Manual Table of Contents I NTRODUCTION XXXVII References xxxvii Warnings, Cautions,

INTRODUCTION

XXXVII

References

xxxvii

Warnings, Cautions, Notes, and Memory Aids

xxxvii

Generalization

xxxvii

CHAPTER 1 BOAT CREW DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1-1

Section A.

The Boat Crew

1-2

A.1.

Determining Crew Size

1-2

A.2.

Minimum Crew Size

1-2

A.3. Qualification and Certification

1-2

A.4.

The Auxiliary

1-2

Section B.

Boat Crew Duties

1-3

Trainee

1-4

B.1. Description

1-4

B.2.

Knowledge and Performance Skills

1-4

Boat Crew Member

1-4

B.3. Description

1-4

B.4.

Knowledge and Performance Skills

1-4

Engineer

1-5

B.5. Description

1-5

B.6.

Knowledge and Performance Skills

1-5

Coxswain

1-5

B.7. Description

1-5

B.8.

Knowledge and Performance Skills

1-6

Surfman

1-6

B.9. Description

1-6

B.10. Knowledge and Performance Skills

1-6

Section C.

Watchstanding Responsibilities

1-7

Lookout Watch

1-7

C.1. Description

1-7

C.2.

Assign and Station

1-7

C.3.

Guidelines

1-8

C.4.

Lookout Positioning

1-8

C.5.

Lookout Equipment

1-9

C.6.

Object Identification

1-9

C.7.

Relative Bearing

1-9

C.8.

Position Angle

1-11

C.9.

Distance

1-12

C.10.

Making Reports

1-12

C.11.

Scanning

1-13

Night Lookout Watch

1-13

C.12. Description

1-13

C.13.

Guidelines

1-13

C.14.

Dark Adaptation

1-14

C.15.

Night Scanning

1-14

C.16.

Night Fog

1-14

Helm Watch

1-14

C.17. Description

1-14

C.18.

Guidelines

1-14

Towing Watch

1-15

C.19. Description

1-15

C.20.

Guidelines

1-15

C.21.

Observed Danger

1-15

C.22.

Maintaining Watch

1-15

Anchor Watch

1-15

C.23. Description

1-15

C.24.

Guidelines

1-16

C.25.

Checking for Chafing

1-16

i

Boat Crew Seamanship Manual C.26. Checking for Dragging 1-16 C.27. Checki ng Position 1-16 C

Boat Crew Seamanship Manual

C.26.

Checking for Dragging

1-16

C.27.

Checking Position

1-16

CHAPTER 2 AUXILIARY OPERATIONAL MISSIONS/PATROLS

2-1

Section A.

Safety Patrols

2-2

Benefits of Safety Patrols

2-2

A.1. Description

2-2

Auxiliary Safety Patrol Boat Duties

2-2

A.2.

Description

2-2

A.3.

Coxswain’s Responsibility

2-3

A.4.

Reporting Responsibility

2-3

A.5.

Patrolling

2-3

A.6.

Patrolling During Heavy Weather

2-3

A.7.

Assistance

2-4

A.8.

Assisting Other Patrols

2-4

A.9.

Permission to Secure

2-4

Section B.

Regatta Patrols and Marine Parades

2-4

Patrolling Regattas

2-5

B.1.

Functions of a Regatta Patrol

2-5

B.2.

Selecting the Patrol Commander

2-5

B.3. Designating an Auxiliary Boat Commander

2-5

B.4.

Establishing Sectors

2-5

B.5.

Grid System

2-6

B.6.

Patrolling Various Regattas

2-6

Patrol Boat Assignments

2-8

B.7.

Examining the Course

2-8

B.8.

Using Patrol Boats

2-8

B.9.

Displaying Boat Ensigns

2-9

B.10.

Patrol Boat

2-9

B.11.

Closing a Section

2-9

B.12.

Anchoring Spectator Boats

2-9

B.13.

Spectator Boats

2-9

B.14.

Assisting in a Casualty

2-10

B.15.

Securing a Regatta Patrol

2-10

Marine Parades

2-13

Section C.

Aids to Navigation Patrols

2-13

C.1.

Reporting AtoN Discrepancies

2-13

Section D.

Chart Updating Patrols

2-14

D.1. Discrepancies

2-15

Section E.

Disaster Patrols

2-15

E.1. Role of Boat Crew

2-15

E.2. Role of Coast Guard

2-15

Section F.

Port Security and Maritime Pollution

2-15

F.1.

Security Zone Patrol

2-15

F.2.

Pollution Patrol

2-16

F.3.

Safety and Security Patrol

2-16

Section G.

Law Enforcement (Prohibitions/Assistance) Policy

2-16

G.1.

Coast Guard Boarding from Auxiliary Facility

2-17

G.2.

Auxiliarist Translators

2-17

G.3. Prohibitions

2-17

CHAPTER 3 CREW EFFICIENCY FACTORS

3-1

Section A.

Physical Fitness Standards

3-2

A.1. Arm and Shoulder Strength

3-3

A.2. Abdominal and Trunk Strength

3-3

A.3.

Flexibility

3-4

A.4.

Endurance

3-4

A.5.

Annual Assessment

3-5

Section B. Crew Fatigue

3-5

B.1.

Fatigue

3-5

B.2.

Crew Responsibility

3-5

B.3.

Symptoms

3-6

ii

Table of Contents

Table of Contents B.4. Prevention 3-6 Section C. Motion Sickness 3-6 C.1. Causes of Motion Sickness

B.4.

Prevention

3-6

Section C.

Motion Sickness

3-6

C.1.

Causes of Motion Sickness

3-6

C.2.

Symptoms

3-7

C.3.

Prevention / Medication

3-7

C.4.

Medication Restrictions

3-7

Section D.

Lethal Fumes

3-7

D.1. Conditions Where CO may be Present

3-7

D.2.

Symptoms

3-8

D.3. Prevention

3-8

D.4.

Response to Victims

3-9

Section E.

Noise

3-9

E.1. Noise as a Fatigue Factor

3-9

E.2.

Noise Management

3-9

Section F.

Drugs and Alcohol

3-10

F.1.

Prescription Drugs

3-10

F.2. Alcohol

3-10

F.3.

Tobacco

3-10

F.4.

Caffeine

3-10

Section G.

Cold-Related Factors

3-11

Effects of Cold Weather

3-11

G.1. Operating in a Cold Climate

3-11

G.2.

Wind

3-11

G.3.

Crew Fatigue

3-11

Hypothermia

3-11

G.4.

Body Temperature

3-11

G.5.

Symptoms

3-12

G.6. Prevention

3-12

G.7.

Waivers for Wearing PPE

3-12

G.8. Treatment

3-12

Frostbite

3-13

G.9. Development Factors

3-13

G.10.

Symptoms

3-13

G.11. Prevention

3-13

Layering Clothing

3-13

G.12.

First Layer - Wicking

3-13

G.13. Second Layer - Insulation

3-13

G.14. Third Layer - Moisture Barrier

3-13

G.15. Extremities

3-14

Section H.

Sun and Heat-Related Factors

3-14

Sunburn

3-14

H.1.

Description

3-14

H.2.

Symptoms

3-14

H.3. Prevention

3-15

H.4. Treatment

3-15

Dehydration

3-15

H.5.

Description

3-15

H.6.

Symptoms

3-15

H.7. Prevention

3-16

H.8. Treatment

3-16

Heat Rash (Prickly Heat)

3-16

H.9. Description

3-16

H.10.

Symptoms

3-16

H.11. Prevention

3-16

H.12. Treatment

3-16

Heat Cramps

3-16

H.13. Description

3-16

H.14.

Symptoms

3-16

H.15. Prevention

3-17

H.16. Treatment

3-17

iii

Table of Contents   Heat Exhaustion 3-17 H.17. Description 3-17 H.18. Symptoms 3-17 H.19.

Table of Contents

 

Heat Exhaustion

3-17

H.17. Description

3-17

H.18.

Symptoms

3-17

H.19. Prevention

3-17

H.20. Treatment

3-17

Heat Stroke

3-17

H.21. Description

3-17

H.22.

Symptoms

3-17

H.23. Prevention

3-17

H.24. Treatment

3-18

Susceptibility to Heat Problems

3-18

H.25. Description

3-18

H.26.

Clothing and Equipment

3-18

H.27.

Fever

3-18

H.28.

Fatigue

3-18

H.29. Prior Heat Illnesses

3-18

CHAPTER 4 TEAM COORDINATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT

4-1

Section A.

Team Coordination

4-2

A.1.

Members of the Team

4-2

A.2.

Coxswain

4-2

A.3.

Team Coordination Skills

4-2

Section B.

Team Coordination Standards

4-3

Leadership Standard

4-4

B.1.

Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-4

B.2.

Coxswain Responsibilities

4-4

Mission Analysis Standard

4-5

B.3.

Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-5

B.4.

Coxswain Responsibilities

4-5

Adaptability and Flexibility Standard

4-6

B.5.

Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-6

B.6.

Coxswain Responsibilities

4-6

Situation Awareness Standard

4-6

B.7.

Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-6

B.8.

Coxswain Responsibilities

4-7

Decision-Making Standard

4-7

B.9. Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-7

B.10. Coxswain Responsibilities

4-7

Communication Standard

4-7

B.11.

Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-7

B.12.

Coxswain Responsibilities

4-8

Assertiveness Standard

4-8

B.13.

Boat Crew Responsibilities

4-8

B.14.

Coxswain Responsibilities

4-8

Section C.

Risk Management Process

4-9

C.1.

Four Rules of Risk Management

4-9

C.2.

Risk Management Process

4-10

Section D.

Informal Crew Briefing and Debriefing

4-13

D.1. Informal Crew Briefing

4-13

D.2. Informal Crew Debriefing

4-14

CHAPTER 5 FIRST AID

5-1

Section A.

Crewmembers’ Roles

5-2

A.1. Responsibilities

5-2

A.2. Handling and Transporting of Injured

5-3

Section B.

Treatment for Shock

5-4

Shock Syndrome

5-4

B.1. Description

5-4

B.2.

Causes

5-5

B.3.

Symptoms

5-5

B.4.

Assessment

5-6

B.5. Treatment

5-6

iv

Table of Contents

5-7

5-7

Anaphylactic Shock

B.6. Description

5-7

B.7.

Causes

5-7

B.8.

Symptoms

5-7

B.9.

Assessment

5-8

B.10. Treatment

5-8

Section C.

Resuscitation Methods and Emergencies

5-9

Resuscitation Procedures

5-9

C.1. Description

5-9

C.2.

Artificial Respiration

5-9

C.3.

Cardiac Compression

5-9

C.4. CPR

5-10

Heart Attack

5-11

C.5. Description

5-11

C.6.

Symptoms

5-11

C.7. Treatment

5-12

Stroke

5-12

C.8. Description

5-12

C.9.

Symptoms

5-12

C.10. Treatment

5-12

Scuba Incidents

5-12

C.11. Description

5-12

C.12.

Coast Guard Action

5-13

C.13.

Types of Scuba Incidents

5-13

C.14.

Treating Scuba Incidents

5-13

C.15.

Equipment Availability

5-14

Section D.

Treatment for Wounds, Fractures, and Burns

5-15

Bandages

5-15

D.1.

Types of Bandages

5-15

D.2.

Bandage Application

5-16

D.3.

Circulation

5-16

Bleeding

5-16

D.4.

Types of Bleeding

5-16

D.5.

Prevention of Bloodborne Pathogens

5-16

D.6.

Universal Medical Precaution

5-16

D.7.

Control of Bleeding

5-17

D.8. Treatment

5-21

Fractures (Broken Bones)

5-22

D.9. Types of Fractures

5-22

D.10.

Symptoms

5-22

D.11.

Handling a Fracture

5-23

D.12.

Treatment of Specific Bones

5-23

Burns

5-30

D.13.

Causes of Burns

5-30

D.14.

Burn Classification

5-31

D.15.

Burn First Aid

5-32

D.16.

Chemical Burns

5-33

Section E.

Environmental Injuries

5-33

Emergencies Caused by Heat

5-33

E.1.

Exposure to Heat

5-33

E.2.

Heat Cramps

5-33

E.3.

Heat Exhaustion

5-34

E.4.

Heat Stroke

5-34

Emergencies Caused by Cold

5-35

E.5.

Exposure to Cold

5-35

E.6.

Treatment

5-37

Hypothermia

5-37

E.7.

Loss of Body Heat

5-37

E.8. Survivability

5-37

E.9.

Symptoms

5-38

E.10. Rescue Precautions

5-39

v

Table of Contents E.11. Basic Treatment 5-40 E.12. Advanced Treatment 5-40 Near-Drowning 5-41

Table of Contents

E.11.

Basic Treatment

5-40

E.12.

Advanced Treatment

5-40

Near-Drowning

5-41

E.13.

Mammalian Diving Reflex

5-41

E.14.

Treatment

5-42

Fish Bites and Stings

5-42

E.15.

Types of Bites and Stings

5-42

E.16.

Effects and Treatment

5-43

Section F. Miscellaneous Emergencies

5-44

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

5-45

F.1.

Description

5-45

F.2.

Signs and Symptoms

5-45

F.3.

Treatment

5-45

Poisoning by Mouth

5-45

F.4.

Description

5-45

F.5.

Seeking Advice

5-45

F.6.

Medical Assistance Not Available

5-45

F.7.

Treatment

5-46

Eye Injuries

5-46

F.8.

Description

5-46

F.9.

Blindness

5-46

F.10.

Types of Eye Injuries

5-46

F.11.

Symptoms and Treatments

5-47

CHAPTER 6 SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT AND PYROTECHNICS

6-1

Section A.

Personal Flotation Device (PFD)

6-2

Type I PFD

6-2

A.1.

Description

6-2

A.2.

Advantages

6-2

A.3. Disadvantages

6-3

A.4.

Donning

6-3

A.5.

Entering the Water

6-3

Type II PFD

6-4

A.6.

Description

6-4

A.7.

Advantages

6-4

A.8. Disadvantages

6-4

A.9.

Donning

6-4

A.10. Entering the Water

6-4

Type III PFD

6-4

A.11. Description

6-4

A.12. Dynamic Strength-Tested Type III PFDs

6-5

A.13.

Advantages

6-5

A.14.

Disadvantages

6-5

A.15.

Donning

6-6

Type IV PFD

6-6

A.16. Description

6-6

A.17.

Advantages

6-6

A.18.

Disadvantages

6-6

Type V PFD

6-7

A.19. Description

6-7

A.20.

Hypothermia Protection

6-7

A.21.

Inflatable PFDs

6-7

A.22.

Advantages

6-7

A.23.

Disadvantages

6-7

A.24.

Donning

6-7

PFD Storage and Care

6-7

A.25. Description

6-7

 

A.26. Storage

6-7

A.27.

Care

6-8

PFD Survival Equipment

6-8

A.28. Description

6-8

vi

Table of Contents

6-8

6-8

A.29.

Standard Outfitting

A.30. Personnel Marker Light (PML)

6-8

A.31.

Retroreflective Material

6-10

Standard Navy Preserver

6-10

A.32. Description

6-10

Section B.

Hypothermia Protective Clothing

6-10

Requirements

6-11

B.1. Description

6-11

B.2.

Temperature Requirements

6-11

B.3.

Layered Clothing

6-12

B.4.

Maintaining Body Heat

6-12

B.5.

Wearing a PFD

6-12

B.6.

Distress Signal Devices

6-12

Anti-Exposure Coverall

6-12

B.7. Description

6-12

B.8. Characteristics

6-12

B.9.

Use

6-13

B.10. Donning

6-13

B.11. Entering the Water

6-13

Dry Suit

6-14

B.12. Description

6-14

B.13. Characteristics

6-15

B.14. Use

6-15

B.15. Donning

6-15

B.16. Entering the Water

6-15

Wet Suit

6-16

B.17. Description

6-16

B.18. Characteristics

6-16

B.19.

Use

6-17

B.20.

Donning

6-17

Immersion Suit

6-17

B.21. Description

6-17

B.22. Characteristics

6-17

B.23.

Use

6-17

B.24.

Donning

6-17

Section C.

Headgear

6-19

C.1. Thermal Protection

6-19

Section D.

Boat Crew Survival Vest

6-19

Contents of the Boat Crew Survival Vest

6-20

D.1. Description

6-20

Emergency Signaling Mirror

6-21

D.2.

Description

6-21

D.3. Use

6-21

D.4.

Characteristics

6-21

D.5.

Operation

6-22

Signal Whistle

6-22

D.6.

Description

6-22

D.7. Use

6-22

D.8.

Characteristics

6-22

D.9.

Operation

6-23

Smoke and Illumination Signal, MK-124 MOD 0

6-23

D.10. Description

6-23

D.11. Use

6-23

D.12.

Characteristics

6-23

D.13.

Operation

6-24

Illumination Signal Kit, MK-79 MOD 0

6-25

D.14. Description

6-25

D.15. Use

6-26

D.16.

Characteristics

6-26

D.17.

Operation

6-26

Distress Signal Light

6-27

vii

Table of Contents D.18. Description 6-27   D.19. Use 6-28 D.20. Characteristics 6-28 D.21.

Table of Contents

D.18. Description

6-27

 

D.19. Use

6-28

D.20.

Characteristics

6-28

D.21.

Operation

6-29

Survival Knife

6-29

D.22. Description

6-29

Personal Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (PEPIRB)

6-29

D.23. Description

6-29

D.24. Use

6-29

D.25.

Characteristics

6-29

D.26.

Operation

6-30

Section E.

Pyrotechnics

6-30

E.1.

Requirements

6-30

E.2.

Parachute Illumination Signal, MK-127A1

6-31

Section F.

Rescue and Survival Raft

6-34

F.1.

Automatic Inflation and Deployment

6-34

F.2.

Manual Deployment

6-34

F.3.

Boarding a Raft

6-35

F.4.

Tasks Onboard a Raft

6-36

F.5.

Conduct in a Raft

6-36

F.6.

Using a Raft to Rescue Others

6-37

Section G.

Emergency Procedures in the Event of Capsizing

6-39

G.1. Prevention

6-39

G.2.

Precautions

6-39

G.3.

Escape Procedures

6-40

CHAPTER 7 MARLINESPIKE SEAMANSHIP

7-1

Section A.

Types and Characteristics of Line

7-2

Line Characteristics

7-2

A.1. Composition

7-2

A.2.

Coast Guard Line

7-2

Natural Fiber Line

7-6

A.3. Composition

7-6

A.4.

Uses of Natural Fiber Line

7-6

A.5. Limitations

7-6

A.6. Construction

7-6

A.7.

Plain-Laid Lines

7-6

Synthetic Fiber Line

7-7

A.8. Composition

7-7

A.9. Commonly Used Types

7-7

A.10.

Slippage

7-8

A.11.

Considerations

7-8

A.12.

Cutting

7-8

Section B.

Inspection, Handling, Maintenance, and Stowage of Line

7-9

Inspection

7-9

B.1. Description

7-9

B.2.

Aging

7-9

B.3.

Fiber Wear

7-9

B.4.

Fiber Damage

7-10

B.5.

Chafing

7-10

B.6. Kinks

7-10

B.7.

Cockles

7-10

B.8.

Cutting

7-10

B.9.

Overloading or Shock-Loading

7-11

B.10.

Rust/Foreign Material

7-11

B.11.

Eye Splices (Double-Braided Nylon Line)

7-11

Uncoiling and Unreeling

7-11

B.12. Description

7-11

B.13.

Uncoiling Natural Fiber Laid Line

7-11

B.14.

Unreeling Synthetic Fiber Line

7-12

Maintenance

7-13

viii

Table of Contents

 
7-13

7-13

B.15. Description

B.16.

Keeping Lines Clean

7-13

B.17.

Using Chafing Gear

7-13

B.18.

Keeping Deck Fittings Clean and Smooth

7-13

B.19.

Watching for Frozen Water

7-13

B.20.

Avoiding Crushing or Pinching Lines

7-13

B.21. Being Cautious of Sharp Bends

7-13

B.22. Care of Natural Fiber Line

7-14

B.23. Care of Synthetic Fiber Line

7-14

Stowing Lines

7-14

B.24. Description

7-14

B.25.

Natural Fiber Lines

7-14

B.26.

Synthetic Fiber Lines

7-15

B.27.

Towline

7-15

B.28.

Coiling

7-15

B.29.

Flemishing a Line

7-15

Section C.

Breaking Strength (BS) and Working Load Limit (WLL)

7-16

Breaking Strength (BS) and Working Load Limit (WLL) of a Line

7-17

C.1. Description

 

7-17

C.2.

Breaking strength (BS)

7-17

C.3. Working Load Limit (WLL)

7-17

C.4. Various Types of Line

7-17

C.5.

Three-Strand Nylon Line

7-18

Estimating the Breaking Strength and Working Load Limit of Lines

7-19

C.6. Description

7-19

C.7. Breaking Strength of Natural Line

7-19

C.8.

Breaking Strength of Synthetic Line

7-19

C.9.

Comparison Factors

7-19

C.10.

Estimating BS of Synthetic Line

7-20

C.11.

WLL of Natural and Synthetic Line

7-20

C.12. Determining the Diameter of a Line

7-21

BS and WLL for Shackles and Hooks

7-22

C.13. Description

7-22

C.14.

Determining WLL

7-22

Estimating the WLL of Shackles

7-22

C.15. Description

7-22

C.16.

Estimating the WLL

7-22

Estimating the WLL of Hooks

7-23

C.17. Description

 

7-23

C.18.

Estimating the WLL

7-23

Considerations and Limitations

7-24

C.19. Description

7-24

C.20.

Keeping Alert

7-24

C.21.

Staying Within Limits

7-24

C.22.

Unknown BS and WLL

7-24

C.23.

Measuring Percentage of Elongation

7-24

Section D.

Knots and Splices

7-25

Estimating the Length of a Line

7-25

D.1. Procedure

 

7-25

Breaking Strength

7-26

D.2. Knots and Splices

7-26

Basic Knots

7-26

D.3.

Temporary

Knots

7-26

D.4.

Definitions

7-27

D.5. Anatomy of a Knot

 

7-28

Splices

7-43

D.6. Procedure

 

7-43

D.7. Eye Splice in Three-Strand Plain-Laid Line

7-44

D.8. Back Splice in Three-Strand Plain-Laid Line

7-46

D.9.

Short Splice

7-47

D.10. Eye Splice in Double-Braided Line

7-48

ix

Table of Contents Whipping 7-57 D.11. Importance 7-57 D.12. Temporary Whipping 7-57 D.13.

Table of Contents

Whipping

7-57

D.11.

Importance

7-57

D.12.

Temporary Whipping

7-57

D.13.

Permanent Whipping

7-59

Mousing Hooks and Shackles

7-60

D.14.

Mousing Hooks

7-60

D.15. Shackles

7-60

Section E.

Deck Fittings and Line Handling

7-62

E.1.

Deck Fittings

7-62

E.2.

Line Handling

7-62

CHAPTER 8 BOAT CHARACTERISTICS

8-1

Section A.

Boat Nomenclature and Terminology

8-2

A.1.

Definitions

8-2

A.2.

Bow

8-2

A.3. Amidships

8-2

A.4. Stern

8-2

A.5. Starboard

8-2

A.6.

Port

8-2

A.7.

Fore and Aft

8-2

A.8. Athwartships

8-2

A.9.

Outboard

8-2

A.10. Inboard

8-2

A.11.

Going Topside

8-2

A.12.

Going Below

8-2

A.13.

Going Aloft

8-2

A.14.

Weather Deck

8-2

A.15. Lifelines

8-2

A.16.

Windward

8-2

A.17.

Leeward

8-3

Section B.

Boat Construction

8-4

Hull Types

8-4

B.1.

Three Types

8-4

B.2.

Factors Influencing Hull Shapes

8-4

Displacement

8-5

B.3. Measurement

8-5

B.4.

Gross Tons

8-6

B.5.

Net Tons

8-6

B.6.

Deadweight

8-6

B.7.

Displacement Hull

8-6

B.8.

Planing Hull

8-7

B.9.

Semi-Displacement Hull

8-8

Keel

8-8

B.10.

Location

8-8

B.11.

Keel Parts

8-8

B.12.

Keel Types

8-9

Principle Boat Parts

8-9

B.13. Bow

8-9

 

B.14. Stern

8-9

B.15. Rudder

8-11

B.16. Propeller

8-11

B.17. Frames

8-12

B.18.

Decks

8-14

Hatches and Doors

8-14

B.19.

Hatches

8-14

B.20. Scuttles

8-15

B.21.

Doors

8-15

B.22. Gaskets

8-15

B.23.

Knife Edges

8-15

B.24.

Interior

8-16

Section C.

Watertight Integrity

8-16

x

Table of Contents

8-16

8-16

C.1.

Closing and Opening Watertight Doors and Hatches

C.2.

Entering a Closed Compartment After Damage

8-17

Section D.

General Boat Equipment

8-18

Section E.

Troubleshooting Basic Mechanical Problems

8-19

Troubleshooting Diesel Engines

8-20

E.1. Problems, Causes, and Solutions

8-20

Troubleshooting Gasoline Inboard Engines

8-23

E.2. Indicators

8-23

E.3.

Basic Troubleshooting

8-23

E.4.

Repairs

8-23

Casualties Common to Both Diesel and Gasoline Engines

8-25

E.5. Problems, Causes, and Solutions

8-25

Troubleshooting the Outboard

8-30

E.6. Problems and Corrections

8-30

Steering Casualty

8-31

E.7. Problems and Corrections

8-31

Basic Engine Maintenance for Auxiliary Facilities

8-32

E.8.

Maintenance Logs

8-32

E.9.

Basic Maintenance Actions

8-32

E.10.

Advanced Maintenance Actions

8-32

E.11.

Inboard Boats Kept in Salt Water

8-32

E.12.

Buying Engine Parts

8-32

CHAPTER 9 STABILITY

9-1

Section A.

Understanding Stability

9-2

A.1.

Center of Gravity

9-2

A.2.

Buoyancy

9-2

A.3. Equilibrium

9-3

A.4.

Types of Stability

9-4

A.5.

Moment and Forces

9-5

Section B.

Losing Stability

9-6

B.1.

Stability After Damage

9-7

B.2.

Free Surface Effect

9-7

B.3.

Free Communica