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Uc8gn, 1mQlcmcntutun und LXQcrmcntulAnuly88u 1Wu-5tugcUuu8t LunVcrtcr

ur Lrd Lunncctcd hutuVultuc5y8tcm


Nuh0mm0d P0mIt
School of Electrical and Computer Science Engineering
Hanyang University, ERCA Campus
Ansan, South Korea.
m _aamir80 l@hotmail.com
b5hucl1h8 paper proposes a two stage boost couverter
circuit for the grid couuected photovoItaic system. Each stage
is coutroIIed separateIy by opposite puIse width moduIated
siguaI. Due to uouIiuear I-Y characteristic of the photovoItaic
ceIIs, the couverter circuit is desigued for the rauge of iuput
voItage to b Y, Y output voItage aud maximum output
powerof Z watt. Dyuamic modeIiugof the couverteris doue
usiug state space averagiug techuique aud ecieut voItage
coutroI topoIogy is suggested. AIso operatiou, priucipIe aud
performauce characteristics of the proposed circuit are
discussed aud simuIated resuItsare vaIidated throughpracticaI
experimeuts.
AQk0rd5-b005l c0nPcrlcr; ]h0l0P0lluc 5y5lcm; Iynumc
m0dclng;
I. INTRODUCTION
For many years, fssile fel has been the primary souce
of energy. However, there is a limited supply of these fels
on Eath and they ae being used much more rapidly than
they are being created. Eventually, they will out. The
world trend nowadays is to fnd a non-depletable and clean
souce of energy. The most effective and harmless energy
source is probably sola energy. Solar energy is considered
one of the most promising energy source due to its infnite
power. Due to the high cost of the photo voltaic modules, the
focus is on the method to get the maximum energy fom the
Photovoltaic (PV) system. One of te interesting applications
of photovoltaic systems is grid connected photovoltaic
V-1-+Z++-+0-V/10/5Z.00 !Z010
Iu1
N0hmOOdXOuH08 5hIHW0tI
School of Electrical and Computer Science Engineering
Hanyang University, ERCA Campus
Ansan, South Korea
mahmood _shinwari@hotmail.com
systems [1]. Photovoltaic systems generate electricity
especially in summer times when the sunlight is available for
quiet long time and grids ae ofen loaded additionally by air
conditioning and other cooling systems. One of the required
featues of a grid connected photovoltaic converter is the
ability to get maximum power fom the photovoltaic arays
[2]. Therefore, te maximum power point tacking is
required, as the power obtained fom the photovoltaic system
depends on the environmental conditions such as the
intensity of the light [3]. Since the outut voltage of the
photovoltaic aray is considerably low and we require a very
high voltage level for the system to connect it to the grid, so
a single stage boost converter cannot achieve such a high
tansformation ratio. More importantly the duty ratio of the
converter has inverse relation with the efciency (q) of the
converter circuit [4].
_
(1) q
__ "L
\"locd
Where RL is the interal resistance of the inductor.
Thus considering (1) we cannot increase the duty ratio (D)
fom a certain maximum limit. Now for certain high step-up
applications, coupled-inductors converters such as Flyback
and isolation Sepic converters have been proposed. But these
converters have problems of high voltage stess due to
leaage inductance of the coupled inductors and also
degraded efciency [5]. Therefore, the bidirectional two
stage converter in cascade is proposed with high step-up
voltage ratio and maximum effciency. The bidirectional two
stage converter has been proposed in [7]. In that proposed
circuit, switch of each stage is provided with pulse width
modulated (PWM) signal at the same time and same duty
ratio. More importantly only simulated results of the
proposed model is presented witout explanation of the
circuit operation. This paper deals with the design and
operation of the two stage boost converter with opposite duty
ratio and more practical dimensioning of te components
depending on the statistics of each stage. The operation of
the circuit with this new methodology is explained; in
addition it is verifed by the simulation results and practical
experiments. More simple and innovative feedback control
technique for each stage is also presented in the paper.
Vc
Dag 1
Dag2
------
r - - - - - - - - -
1 [
|

|
I I I

L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ __ !
Figure 1. Two stage boost converter basic circuit design
YDW
II. BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPAL OF THE Nov AL
CIRCUIT
The basic circuit of the proposed converter is shown in
Fig 1. It is assumed that the switches are ideal. The input
voltage is instantaneous and constat and load is pure
resistive. Each stage of the converter is assumed to be
operated in a continuous conduction mode. The voltage
conversion ratio of boost converter is given by (2)
I
M(0}
I~U
(2)
Since there are two stages of boost converter connected
together so the voltage conversion ratio for the whole circuit
will be given equation (3)
IJo
M(0}
_I _I
I~Ug I~Ug
l!
Now depending on the input voltage range and outut
voltage for the paticula application the duty ratio of both
the stages has been derived. The stages of operation have
been described in fou steps. In this analysis some
consideration has been made i.e the active ad passive
elements of the circuit ae ideal.
ISl Sl6g. This step begins when the switch S 1 ts on.
Duing this period of operation, S2 will remain of. The
diode is reserve bias, thus isolating the right hand side of the
circuit which is now only connected to the ground as shown
in fg.2 (). The input supplies energy to the inductor Ll.
Thus the inductor will store energy. This step fnishes when
S 1 is ted off.
b6C0H0 bl6g. As SI ts of, te output of stage
receive energy from the inductor as well as fom the PV
aray as shown in the fg 2( c). Thus it will give step up
output voltage. The output flter capacitor is assumed to be
very large to ensure constant outut voltage. Vo (t) - Vo
1BI0 bl6g. This step stats in paallel operation with
step second. As SI ts of, S2 ts on. The diode D2 is
reverse bias, thus isolating the outut portion of second stage.
There is a point to be noted that the outut of stage 1 is the
now input of stage second as shown in the fg 2( c). The
outut fom the frst stage supplies energy to inductor L2.
Thus the inductor will store energy. This step fnish when S2
t off.
00IlB bl6g. When S2 ts off, the output of stage
second receive energy fom the input of stage 1 as well as the
store energy from the inductor L2 as shown in fg 2 (d).
L! O! L OZ
(a).Two stage boost converter with 35-60V input voltage. Sl and S2 are
Mosfets
|I U O7

J6V Ol

0zd

(b) Circuit operation when switch S 1 is on, and switch S2 is of


(c) Circuit operation when switch S 1 is off, and switch S2 is on
L! L
Mn


J0 Uu\

l Z .
(d). Circuit operation when switch S 1 again turs on, and switch S2 is of
Figure 2. Steps of operation of Two stage boost converter
III. DIMENSIONING OF THE CIRCUIT
As shown in the fg 2(a), the implemented circuit of the
converter has the following paameter: 35-60V input voltage,
350V outut voltage, 450-525 watt output power ad 20
Z switching fequency. Switching fequency can be
higher depending upon the circuit designer. The load current
will var fom 1.3A to 1.5A. Now the most important part of
the circuit is the perfect design of the inductors L1 ad L2
[6].
Equation (4) can be used to derive the inductor values.
L =
P_(1-)
z
T,
^0DH
(4)
IJb
5 is the switching period. J0 for the second stage is
known as shown in the specifcation of the circuit. So
inductance for second stage can easily be calculated using
above equation. But the J0 for the frst stage is not known.
First we have to fnd the J0 for the frst stage. Now
considering few basic equations
5ut
h

in
(5)
(6)
h for the frst stage can be fnd using (6) and J0 can be
fnd using (5). In the implemented circuit the L1 is 200uH
and L2 is 550uH
Equation (7) can be used to derive the capacitor values'
_

U
s\5
K\_
(7)
Where R is the load resistance and the V L is the output
ripple voltage. So the value of Cl is 630uF and C2 is 240u.
IV. DYNAMIC MODELING
A number of AC converter modeling techniques have
appeared in the literatue. In the proposed paper, state space
averaging technique is applied to model two stage boost
converter [8]. Conduction losses of the active and passive
components have been considered in te AC Modeling.
There ae two basic states of operation in the proposed
circuit. Fig 3 shows the state when Sl is close and S2 is
open. While fg 2 shows the contary state.
LT KLT

L HL HZ

H1

HZ Rload
Z
.
Figure 3. Circuit diagrm when S 1 is ON ad S2 is OFF
Now writing state equation for the circuit as shown by
the fg. 3
0IL
*
1
( ( ))
_ =
L1
V -RLl 7RS1
0ILZ
1 . _ LZ

=
- VC1 7 lL2Ra 7VC2
-1
0 L2
LOudLZ
0YL
*
_

(-i )
0
-
C1
L2
0YLZ_ 1
(
. _
1
_ 0Z _
y
(
1
)
---
lL2 C2
0 C2
OudLZ LOudLZ
Where
|I ML! M0! L ML

M!7

Vg M87

c c
.
M|oad
Figure 4. Circuit diagram when Sl is OFF ad S2 is ON
(S.a)
(S.b)
(S.c)
(S.d)
And the state equation for the circuit shown by the fgA
0IL
*
=
(V -i Ll (RLl 7RD2 7RCl) 7 i L2Rc1
-VCl)
0 L1
0YLZ_ 1 _ 1

--- -
C2
0 C2
LOudLZ
(9.a)
(9.b)
(9.c)
(9.d)
The next step is to evaluate the state space averaged
equilibrium equation. So weight (S.a) and (S.c) by D1, (S.b)
and (S.d) by (1-D1). Similarly weight (9.a) and (9.c) by D2,
(9.b) and (9.d) by (I-D2)
IJ

l
`

ll
_

|
b
l
;
J

,!

r
!\|
J| r
|

;
!

;
J
r
|

_
_ r

U
1
A
ll
=
L1
(( D1 -1
)(RLl 7RD2 7RC1
) -D1(RLl 7RS1))
A =
L
*
(
1 -D1
) 12
L2
A -
(1-D1)
13 -
A =
L
*
D
2
21
L2
1
A
22
=
@(-D
2
(Rc1 7RL2 7RS2) 7 (1 -D1
)Ra)
1
A
23
=
.
L2
A
2
4 =
(1-D2)
_ LZ
-1

L2
LOudLZ
(
1 -D1
)
A
31=
C1
A -

_
1
_ 0Z
4
2 -
(1-D2)
OudLZ
1 _ 1

A
44 =--
C2
LOudLZ
1
B
1
=
.
L1
Thus we can assess the behavior of the converter using
above stat-space model.
V. EXPERMENTAL RESULTS
The experimental results of te proposed circuit are
shown. In Fig.9 the prototype design has been shown. The
switches used are IPW60R04SCS, and FFH60UP40S. Fig.S
shows the waveforms of the inductor current in relation with
the duty cycle. You will notice a high inductor cuent in the
frst stage and low inductor cu ent m the second stage. Also
the duty cycle is opposite for both the switches. Fig.6 shows
that inductor current for each stage gets its maximum value
alterately depending on the duty cycle.
Figure 5. Waveform of the Y signal for the switches and
Inductor Current Waveform of both the stages (lOv/div, IOA/div,
IOV/div, SA/div respectively)
Figure 6. Waveform of the inductor current of both the stages
(IOA/div, SA/div respectively)
IJb
Figure 7. Waveform of the Y signal provided to switches
SlandS2, with inductor current waveforms ofL! and L2
Fig. 7 shows the experimental waveform of the inductor
currents, when the same duty cycle is provided to both the
switches. Now a discontinuous conduction mode has been
examined in the waveform of the inductor curent. But the
converter circuit should be operated in the continuous
conduction mode. Under this situation either the load
resistance should increase or inductance of the second stage
should be increased. But the load resistance is fxed. So the
second option of increasing inductance can be used. Now if
the inductace is increased, than inductor L2 goes into
saturation as can be seen by the peas of the inductor cu ent
waveforms. So this situation can only be solved by providing
PW signal alteratively to the switches of the both the
stages.
TABLE I. (Exrrmwu1~iD~1~)
Vio |io Voat |oat Poat
D: Dz
EH|c|en
0| |^l 0| |^l Yl %
35 5.3 350 0.5 177 59 53 95
37 .11 350 0.1 Z4 59 53 %
39 .70 350 0.70 24 1 52 %
41 7.30 350 0.80 280 1 52 %
43 8.0 350 0.91 323 2 51 %
45 8.2 350 1 347 0 51 %
47 8.7 J0 1.1 381.8 1 50 %
49 9.1 350 1.2 419.8 0 50 %
50 9.3 350 1.3 452 0 52 %
Table.1 shows the step by step increase in input voltage
provided by the photovoltaic system. The outut voltage of
the system remains 350 V but the load keeps on increasing
form 0.5A to 1.5A, thus giving maximum output power of
525 watt.
VI. CONTROL STRATEGY
Fig 8 shows the control circuit of two stage converter.
For the contol of the circuit, a simple PI controller has been
employed [9]. Each stage is controlled by its isolated PI
controller. Output voltage of each stage is compared with a
reference voltage using eror amplifer and the eror signal is
generated. This error signal is provided to the modulator
which compaes it with the ramp signal and thus provides the
pulse width modulated signal according to the requirement.
For sensing outut voltage of each stage a suitable voltage
divider is used. So the above topology for the contol of the
converter ca easily be done using any efcient controller
(TL494). Fig. 9 shows the contol pat of the circuit in
practical design.
cI L 02

82

02 M|oad
to1: /e5I
Figure 8. Close loop control of the converter circuit
VII. CONCLUSION
A high efciency two stage boost converter circuit for
continuous input cuent operation is proposed for a wide
input photovoltaic module application. Key featue of the
proposed circuit are reduction of transformer, high voltage
transmission ratio, close loop contol system and more
practical dimensioning of the circuit elements. The circuit
has been designed, simulated and implemented with 35-60v
input, 50V outut and 50W outut power. Experimental
results verif the validity of the novel circuit.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research work is sponsored by 'Higher Education
Commission (HEC), Govt. of Pakistan' under the scholarship
program titled: MS level training Korea
UniversitieslIndustry.
IJJ
REFERENCES
[I] Boeke U., van der Broeck H., "Transformer-Less Converter Concept
for a Grid-Connection ofhin-Film photovoltaic Modules" IEEE
Interational Conference on Industrial Application Society Annual
Meeting, 2008.
[2] Hohar D. and Ropp M., " Comparative study of Maximum Power
Point tracking Algorithms Using a Expeimental, programmable,
Maximum power point Tracking Test Bed", IEEE Photovoltaic
Specialists Conference, September 2000, pp. 1699-1702
[3] Hussein k.h.,Mutta I., hoshino T., and Oskakada M., " Maximum
photovoltaic power point tracking: An algorithm for rapidly changing
atmospheric conditions", IEEE procedings, Generation, Transmission,
and Distribution, Vol. 142, No. I, january 1995
[4] Robert W. Erickson and Dragon Maksimovic, " Fundamentals of
power electronics" Second Edition
[5] Qun Zhao, Lee F.C., " High-efciency, high Step-Up DC-DC
converters" IEEE Trasactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 18, No. I,
january 2003.
[6] Ned Mohan, tore M. Underland , and William P. robbins "Power
Electronics : Converters, Apllications, and Design" Third Edition.
[7] Grgger J.V., himmelstoss, and Pirker F. "Analysis and Control of a
Bidirectional two-stage Boost Converter" Interational symposium on
Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion,
SPEEDAM 2008.
[8] Galotto L., Canesin C. A., Cordero R., Quevudo, c.A., Gazineu, R.
"Non-Linear Controller Appled to Boost DC-DC Converters Using
The State Space Average Model" IEEE interational Power
Electronics Conference, 2009.
[9] Jin Nan., Tang Hou-jun, Liu Wei, Ye Peng-sheng, "Analysis and
Control of Buck-Boost Chopper type AC voltage regulator" IEEE
6th Interational Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference,
2009.
Figure 9. Hardware of the two-stage boost converter