
I I I
L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ __ !
Figure 1. Two stage boost converter basic circuit design
YDW
II. BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPAL OF THE Nov AL
CIRCUIT
The basic circuit of the proposed converter is shown in
Fig 1. It is assumed that the switches are ideal. The input
voltage is instantaneous and constat and load is pure
resistive. Each stage of the converter is assumed to be
operated in a continuous conduction mode. The voltage
conversion ratio of boost converter is given by (2)
I
M(0}
I~U
(2)
Since there are two stages of boost converter connected
together so the voltage conversion ratio for the whole circuit
will be given equation (3)
IJo
M(0}
_I _I
I~Ug I~Ug
l!
Now depending on the input voltage range and outut
voltage for the paticula application the duty ratio of both
the stages has been derived. The stages of operation have
been described in fou steps. In this analysis some
consideration has been made i.e the active ad passive
elements of the circuit ae ideal.
ISl Sl6g. This step begins when the switch S 1 ts on.
Duing this period of operation, S2 will remain of. The
diode is reserve bias, thus isolating the right hand side of the
circuit which is now only connected to the ground as shown
in fg.2 (). The input supplies energy to the inductor Ll.
Thus the inductor will store energy. This step fnishes when
S 1 is ted off.
b6C0H0 bl6g. As SI ts of, te output of stage
receive energy from the inductor as well as fom the PV
aray as shown in the fg 2( c). Thus it will give step up
output voltage. The output flter capacitor is assumed to be
very large to ensure constant outut voltage. Vo (t)  Vo
1BI0 bl6g. This step stats in paallel operation with
step second. As SI ts of, S2 ts on. The diode D2 is
reverse bias, thus isolating the outut portion of second stage.
There is a point to be noted that the outut of stage 1 is the
now input of stage second as shown in the fg 2( c). The
outut fom the frst stage supplies energy to inductor L2.
Thus the inductor will store energy. This step fnish when S2
t off.
00IlB bl6g. When S2 ts off, the output of stage
second receive energy fom the input of stage 1 as well as the
store energy from the inductor L2 as shown in fg 2 (d).
L! O! L OZ
(a).Two stage boost converter with 3560V input voltage. Sl and S2 are
Mosfets
I U O7
J6V Ol
0zd
J0 Uu\
l Z .
(d). Circuit operation when switch S 1 again turs on, and switch S2 is of
Figure 2. Steps of operation of Two stage boost converter
III. DIMENSIONING OF THE CIRCUIT
As shown in the fg 2(a), the implemented circuit of the
converter has the following paameter: 3560V input voltage,
350V outut voltage, 450525 watt output power ad 20
Z switching fequency. Switching fequency can be
higher depending upon the circuit designer. The load current
will var fom 1.3A to 1.5A. Now the most important part of
the circuit is the perfect design of the inductors L1 ad L2
[6].
Equation (4) can be used to derive the inductor values.
L =
P_(1)
z
T,
^0DH
(4)
IJb
5 is the switching period. J0 for the second stage is
known as shown in the specifcation of the circuit. So
inductance for second stage can easily be calculated using
above equation. But the J0 for the frst stage is not known.
First we have to fnd the J0 for the frst stage. Now
considering few basic equations
5ut
h
in
(5)
(6)
h for the frst stage can be fnd using (6) and J0 can be
fnd using (5). In the implemented circuit the L1 is 200uH
and L2 is 550uH
Equation (7) can be used to derive the capacitor values'
_
U
s\5
K\_
(7)
Where R is the load resistance and the V L is the output
ripple voltage. So the value of Cl is 630uF and C2 is 240u.
IV. DYNAMIC MODELING
A number of AC converter modeling techniques have
appeared in the literatue. In the proposed paper, state space
averaging technique is applied to model two stage boost
converter [8]. Conduction losses of the active and passive
components have been considered in te AC Modeling.
There ae two basic states of operation in the proposed
circuit. Fig 3 shows the state when Sl is close and S2 is
open. While fg 2 shows the contary state.
LT KLT
L HL HZ
H1
HZ Rload
Z
.
Figure 3. Circuit diagrm when S 1 is ON ad S2 is OFF
Now writing state equation for the circuit as shown by
the fg. 3
0IL
*
1
( ( ))
_ =
L1
V RLl 7RS1
0ILZ
1 . _ LZ
=
 VC1 7 lL2Ra 7VC2
1
0 L2
LOudLZ
0YL
*
_
(i )
0

C1
L2
0YLZ_ 1
(
. _
1
_ 0Z _
y
(
1
)

lL2 C2
0 C2
OudLZ LOudLZ
Where
I ML! M0! L ML
M!7
Vg M87
c c
.
Moad
Figure 4. Circuit diagram when Sl is OFF ad S2 is ON
(S.a)
(S.b)
(S.c)
(S.d)
And the state equation for the circuit shown by the fgA
0IL
*
=
(V i Ll (RLl 7RD2 7RCl) 7 i L2Rc1
VCl)
0 L1
0YLZ_ 1 _ 1
 
C2
0 C2
LOudLZ
(9.a)
(9.b)
(9.c)
(9.d)
The next step is to evaluate the state space averaged
equilibrium equation. So weight (S.a) and (S.c) by D1, (S.b)
and (S.d) by (1D1). Similarly weight (9.a) and (9.c) by D2,
(9.b) and (9.d) by (ID2)
IJ
l
`
ll
_

b
l
;
J
,!
r
!\
J r

;
!
;
J
r

_
_ r
U
1
A
ll
=
L1
(( D1 1
)(RLl 7RD2 7RC1
) D1(RLl 7RS1))
A =
L
*
(
1 D1
) 12
L2
A 
(1D1)
13 
A =
L
*
D
2
21
L2
1
A
22
=
@(D
2
(Rc1 7RL2 7RS2) 7 (1 D1
)Ra)
1
A
23
=
.
L2
A
2
4 =
(1D2)
_ LZ
1
L2
LOudLZ
(
1 D1
)
A
31=
C1
A 
_
1
_ 0Z
4
2 
(1D2)
OudLZ
1 _ 1
A
44 =
C2
LOudLZ
1
B
1
=
.
L1
Thus we can assess the behavior of the converter using
above statspace model.
V. EXPERMENTAL RESULTS
The experimental results of te proposed circuit are
shown. In Fig.9 the prototype design has been shown. The
switches used are IPW60R04SCS, and FFH60UP40S. Fig.S
shows the waveforms of the inductor current in relation with
the duty cycle. You will notice a high inductor cuent in the
frst stage and low inductor cu ent m the second stage. Also
the duty cycle is opposite for both the switches. Fig.6 shows
that inductor current for each stage gets its maximum value
alterately depending on the duty cycle.
Figure 5. Waveform of the Y signal for the switches and
Inductor Current Waveform of both the stages (lOv/div, IOA/div,
IOV/div, SA/div respectively)
Figure 6. Waveform of the inductor current of both the stages
(IOA/div, SA/div respectively)
IJb
Figure 7. Waveform of the Y signal provided to switches
SlandS2, with inductor current waveforms ofL! and L2
Fig. 7 shows the experimental waveform of the inductor
currents, when the same duty cycle is provided to both the
switches. Now a discontinuous conduction mode has been
examined in the waveform of the inductor curent. But the
converter circuit should be operated in the continuous
conduction mode. Under this situation either the load
resistance should increase or inductance of the second stage
should be increased. But the load resistance is fxed. So the
second option of increasing inductance can be used. Now if
the inductace is increased, than inductor L2 goes into
saturation as can be seen by the peas of the inductor cu ent
waveforms. So this situation can only be solved by providing
PW signal alteratively to the switches of the both the
stages.
TABLE I. (Exrrmwu1~iD~1~)
Vio io Voat oat Poat
D: Dz
EHcen
0 ^l 0 ^l Yl %
35 5.3 350 0.5 177 59 53 95
37 .11 350 0.1 Z4 59 53 %
39 .70 350 0.70 24 1 52 %
41 7.30 350 0.80 280 1 52 %
43 8.0 350 0.91 323 2 51 %
45 8.2 350 1 347 0 51 %
47 8.7 J0 1.1 381.8 1 50 %
49 9.1 350 1.2 419.8 0 50 %
50 9.3 350 1.3 452 0 52 %
Table.1 shows the step by step increase in input voltage
provided by the photovoltaic system. The outut voltage of
the system remains 350 V but the load keeps on increasing
form 0.5A to 1.5A, thus giving maximum output power of
525 watt.
VI. CONTROL STRATEGY
Fig 8 shows the control circuit of two stage converter.
For the contol of the circuit, a simple PI controller has been
employed [9]. Each stage is controlled by its isolated PI
controller. Output voltage of each stage is compared with a
reference voltage using eror amplifer and the eror signal is
generated. This error signal is provided to the modulator
which compaes it with the ramp signal and thus provides the
pulse width modulated signal according to the requirement.
For sensing outut voltage of each stage a suitable voltage
divider is used. So the above topology for the contol of the
converter ca easily be done using any efcient controller
(TL494). Fig. 9 shows the contol pat of the circuit in
practical design.
cI L 02
82
02 Moad
to1: /e5I
Figure 8. Close loop control of the converter circuit
VII. CONCLUSION
A high efciency two stage boost converter circuit for
continuous input cuent operation is proposed for a wide
input photovoltaic module application. Key featue of the
proposed circuit are reduction of transformer, high voltage
transmission ratio, close loop contol system and more
practical dimensioning of the circuit elements. The circuit
has been designed, simulated and implemented with 3560v
input, 50V outut and 50W outut power. Experimental
results verif the validity of the novel circuit.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research work is sponsored by 'Higher Education
Commission (HEC), Govt. of Pakistan' under the scholarship
program titled: MS level training Korea
UniversitieslIndustry.
IJJ
REFERENCES
[I] Boeke U., van der Broeck H., "TransformerLess Converter Concept
for a GridConnection ofhinFilm photovoltaic Modules" IEEE
Interational Conference on Industrial Application Society Annual
Meeting, 2008.
[2] Hohar D. and Ropp M., " Comparative study of Maximum Power
Point tracking Algorithms Using a Expeimental, programmable,
Maximum power point Tracking Test Bed", IEEE Photovoltaic
Specialists Conference, September 2000, pp. 16991702
[3] Hussein k.h.,Mutta I., hoshino T., and Oskakada M., " Maximum
photovoltaic power point tracking: An algorithm for rapidly changing
atmospheric conditions", IEEE procedings, Generation, Transmission,
and Distribution, Vol. 142, No. I, january 1995
[4] Robert W. Erickson and Dragon Maksimovic, " Fundamentals of
power electronics" Second Edition
[5] Qun Zhao, Lee F.C., " Highefciency, high StepUp DCDC
converters" IEEE Trasactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 18, No. I,
january 2003.
[6] Ned Mohan, tore M. Underland , and William P. robbins "Power
Electronics : Converters, Apllications, and Design" Third Edition.
[7] Grgger J.V., himmelstoss, and Pirker F. "Analysis and Control of a
Bidirectional twostage Boost Converter" Interational symposium on
Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion,
SPEEDAM 2008.
[8] Galotto L., Canesin C. A., Cordero R., Quevudo, c.A., Gazineu, R.
"NonLinear Controller Appled to Boost DCDC Converters Using
The State Space Average Model" IEEE interational Power
Electronics Conference, 2009.
[9] Jin Nan., Tang Houjun, Liu Wei, Ye Pengsheng, "Analysis and
Control of BuckBoost Chopper type AC voltage regulator" IEEE
6th Interational Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference,
2009.
Figure 9. Hardware of the twostage boost converter
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