Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals



All contents of this White Paper are Copyrighted. © Copyright 2013-2014 TIQ LTD

Page 1/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

How Email Works Today ?

Electronic mail, commonly referred to as e-mail is the recent method of exchanging messages from one user to the other. In the modern world, emails are sent over an internet, a global system of interconnected computer networks that use a standard internet protocol suite. In the early email systems, emails were only sent and received when both the users were online (instant messaging), unlike today’s emails which operate on a (store and forward) model. In store and forward model, the email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages regardless of whether the users and the computer are online at the same time. The users just need to connect briefly to the mail servers for the process to be complete.

Actually, the emailing system is an integrated machine with servers and clients who operate within the set mailing standards. The questions that underlie here are; who actually owns these emails? Who is behind the emails? Who sets and makes changes to the mailing standards? Who maintains the mail servers?

In order to answer these questions, we first must ask ourselves who owns the internet where all the mailing process runs. The internet is where the email systems operate in. Let us have a close examination of the internet, its origin, and ownership.

Page 2/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

Who Owns Current Global Email System? Who Is Behind?

According to the edited Networking 101 report, ICANN, which stands for Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers, is the authority that governs the internet. ICANN oversees all the tasks related to IP addresses and domain name assignments. However, it is argued that IANA, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority is still the authority that handles the daily oversight of the assigning of the real IP addresses, domain name management, as well as root-level DNS operations. Therefore, it is understood that IANA was the father of internet that gave the authority to ICANN. However, IANA delegates a set of numbers to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) who then share the assigned IP addresses to the large community.

The IP addresses managed and shared by ICANN are resolved to domain names by the DNS (Domain Name System). ICANN is still the new authority that assigns top-level domain names to the RIRs, therefore governing the entire DNS.

Another question that comes in between here is; how is DNS related to Emails? Emails, through the mail servers are transmitted through a mail standard called Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), the SMTP uses the DNS as a directory to convert a name to a list of servers that can receive connections for that name and actually to find the IP address of the specific server. Therefore, by looking up a destination server’s address in the DNS, the sending server can properly route the message to the recipient. In this case, the DNS uses two records Mail Exchanger MX that maps a domain name to the names of one or more mail hosts and an A records which maps the host name to the IP address of the server.

This makes it clear that the mail servers use the DNS records, for example, servers that receive internet mail perform a reverse look up to DNS records to determine the host name for a given IP address hence make it easy to verify the source of the message.

ICANN is a non-profit organization set up by the internet community to help coordinate IANAs areas of responsibilities. Its revenues for 2013 was $78 million (http:

Page 3/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

An internet community is a community that exists in the internet and whose members enables it existence through taking part in membership ritual. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANA is responsible for operation aspects of coordinating the internet’s unique identifiers and maintaining the trust of the community to provide these services in impartial responsible and effective manner. Regional Internet Registry (RIRs) is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of internet of internet number resources within a particular region of the world. Its revenues for 2012 was $ 14,991,492. Internet Number resource include IP addresses and Autonomous Number (AS). Internet Engineering Task Force IETF purpose is to improve the performance of the internet through production of high quality and relevant technical document meant to influence the way people design use and manage the internet. Its revenue for 2013 was $ 3,346,000

Page 4/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

Who Sets Email Standards?

The emailing system operate under standards, still looked up in DNS as IP addresses which are resolved to domain names converted to mail servers. The ICANN deals with protocols which confer with Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which develops internet standards and protocols. Therefore, anything developed under IETF is conferred by ICANN. For instance, the RFCs that give the new or fresh mailing standards are first seen in IETF site where the mail servers are supposed to comply to. From this point, it is understood that the IETF under ICANN decides the standards, has the authority to change or bring in new mail standards.

Standards related to the characters to be used in an email address The Internet standards Request for Comments(RFC) for protocols mandate that component hostname labels Characters may contain only the ASCII letters A to Z (in a case-insensitive manner), the digits 0 through 9, and the hyphen (-).The standard recommend the use of lower case characters, numbers and the underscore to create secure email addresses.

Standards related to the size of an email address. RFC 5321 specify the maximum length of email address the total length of a reverse-path or forward-path is 256 characters. The definition of the path is path = “< “ [A-d-1 “ ; “] mailbox « > » the email address has angle bracket around it to form path therefore, the mailbox must be less than 254 characters to keep the path under 256 characters.

Standards related to an email object size SMTP transports mail object that contains content and envelope. The envelope is sent as a series of SMTP protocol consisting of originator address, one or more recipient addresses and optional protocol extension material. The SMTP content is sent to the SMTP Data protocol unit with two parts the header and the body. The header forms a collection of field pairs structured according to the message format specification. Where the body is structured, it is defined according to MIME. The content is textual in nature.

Page 5/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

Standards related to the attachment size to email MIME parts provide copies of files. Attachment serves the purpose of sending binary files of unspecified size. The IMSS SMTP servers are configured to reject any messages received that are larger than 30MB. Attempting to send an e-mail to an address that is larger than that will fail.

Standards related to the determining of what TO/CC/BCC does Message transfer occurs in a connection between the originator SMTP-sender and the end TO; SMTP-recipient and series of intermediary systems. The standard protocol requires that server either deliver a message properly or report the failure. After establishing the transmission channel, the SMTP user initiates a mail transaction i.e. series of command specifying the originator and the destination (TO/CC/BCC) of mail and transmission of the content, when the same message is needed to reach many recipients the same intermediary relay host.

Page 6/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

Who Maintains The Servers?

All the mail servers work exclusively with the DNS root servers. The list of servers converted by SMTP from the DNS directory look up for destination for the servers to ensure the sending server properly roots the message to the recipient. Therefore, the DNS system is responsible for all the servers and the roles they play to emailing. It is the responsibility of the ICANN to maintain the entire DNS system, hence taking care of the DNS and mail servers in ensuring that DNS root servers and mail servers are networked properly to work together with the given domain names. The mail servers rely on the database stored by the DNS root servers on the domain names and IP addresses, implying that the DNS should be properly maintained by ICANN to make sure the servers respond accurately. Some sources state that the DNS major root servers are 13, which are named A, B, C to M where the top ten servers are maintained in the United States, one in London, one in Japan, one in Stockholm, one in UK and Sweden. The full list of servers can be accessed here :

Page 7/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

Conclusion : why TIQQED ?

This research provides accurate, detailed, interesting, and representative finding of the type of custom questions: Who owns current E-mail? Who is behind it? Who maintain and set the standards? This finding can be compared with NSA spying where all evidence are intended to recall the credible accounts and information the general report gives details history of the investigation and end to end review.

All the organizations mentioned in this document have their headquarters based in North America. However, internet users in North America accounted for only 11.4% of internet users worldwide in 2012. (

That is the reason why TIQQED aims at :

delivering new paths for electronic mails

proposing new standards

The ultimate goal is to make electronic messenging more reliable, secure and efficient.

Page 8/9

Tiq Limited – Messenging for Professionals

References Charlie Schluting (2008) Networking 101: Who Governs the internet? Available at [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014] The Mail Authority, TTL in DNS available at [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014] Bradley Mitchell (2014) What is a DNS server? Available at [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014] Nominate (2014) DNS – Domain Naming Service available at [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014] Domino Administrator (2008) The Domain Name System and SMTP mail routing available at

%2FH_DOMAIN_NAMING_SERVICE_DNS_OVER.html [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014] Chris Gonyea (2010) DNS: Why it’s important and How it works available at [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014] Matt Muller (2013) The Internet: Who manages/runs/maintains DNS servers? Available at [Accessed on 21 Feb. 2014]

Page 9/9