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R. Luxenhurger, P. Schegner M. Igel

Dresden University of Technology, Germany ALSTOM Energietechnik GmhH, Germany

The objective of this investigation is the modelling of protective current transformers. Based on a model for CTs of class P, models were developed for CTs of class TPX (closed-core), TPY and TPZ (non-closed-core). All models are based on known rated values of the CTs. This is an advantage of the presented method, because no additional measurements of parameters of the CTs are needed. Application examples are pointed out and a simulation example is presented.

i =ip/n,,

where n, is the rated transformation ratio. The second part is a non-ideal CT, it consist of the non-linear magnetizing inductance Lb, the internal resistance R,, and the internal inductance Lo, and the burden resistance RBand the burden inductance LB. The current i, represents the measured current, the current iI re the current. I presents ,__ _ magnetizing ______ ___________,

Transient simulation of protective current transformers (CT) is very common in power systems analysis, hut nevertheless difficult to achieve. One example is the testing of new protection algorithms in general. Another example is the verification of customer specific protection applications. This investigation is based on an ATP/EMTP (1) model which has been developed for close-core current transformer of class P (2). Non-linearity, remanence and hysteresis are taken into account and could he simulated using this model. The settings of this model are based on rated values and a typical core characteristic. It has already been used for verification of protection systems e.g. line differential or transformer differential protection (3). Models for CTs of class TPX, TPY and TPZ (4) have also been developed. The parameters of the model are also calculated based on rated values of the CTs to avoid additional measurements. An adaptation of the class P model is required, because the TP-type CTs have more standardized rated values and are non-closed-core (only TPY and TPZ).

CT with measuring error Figure 1: Equivalent Circuit Diagram of a CT

Calculation of Model Parameters




The non-linear magnetizing inductance LI, mainly determines the transfer characteristic of a CT. One goal of the model is to use only type label data for the calculation of the parameters. This purpose is realized by assuming a typical core material for all current transformers. Figure 2 shows the dynamical characteristic of the used magnetic sheet steel. This open-circuit characteristic is used for the non-linear magnetizing inductance 4,. To adapt the normalized characteristic to a given CT two scaling parameters are used. Scaling parameter i,, represents the amplitude of the magnetizing current at accuracy limit conditions. The parameter is calculated with
P = &K,,

MODEL OF CLASS P CTs Equivalent Circuit Diagram

Figure 1 shows the equivalent circuit diagram of the used model. It consists of an ideal transformer, scaling only the primary current.


where K,, is the accuracy limit factor, Ipr is the rated primary current and E is the accuracy in percent. The scaling parameter represents the amplitude of the magnetic flux multiplied with the number of tums at accuracv limit conditions. The value is calculated with

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where Z,,,, is the total rated burden calculated with


+ R ~ f rJ ( L o s + L B r )

there is a large impact on the model of these CTs. Table 1 shows the limits of emor. at primary rated current I,, angle of ratio phase

and L..I is the secondary current at accuracy limit conditions calculated with


is+l = K~~ ~ , , r / n r ~ ( ~ - j ~ / ~ ~ ~ ) .

This procedure corresponds to the dimensioning of the electrical and geometrical design of CTs, which is done by the manufacturer. The accuracy of the presented model and the impacts on simulation tasks are analysed in (5). It should he mentioned, that the model could easily be adapted, if more values than only rated values are known. If a CT has to be simulated and the magnetizing characteristic of the core is known, the normally used typical characteristic could be easily substituted by this known magnetizing characteristic.

at accuracy limit conditions in %

t i n minutes TPY

flux times

TPZ 11,o + I 80118 =IO The accuracy limit conditions expect a full asymmetrical short-circuit with the magnitude of the or an rated primary short-circuit current I,, unsuccessful automatic reclosing with this current. The accuracy of CTs of class TPX and TPY is defined . loo; s:=--i_ 6 &I_ and for TPZ



where i- is the amplitude of the measuring error and

i_ is the amplitude of the a.c. component of the measuring error.


0 current Figure 2: Magnetizing characteristic and scaling parameters


This class of C T s is an oversized closed-core CT with additional rated parameters specifying the transient performance. There is no limit for the remanence flux The parameter K,,, which is used to scale the normalized core characteristic in equation 2 and 5 , is not a rated value of class TPX. The parameter must he calculated I<,, = K,$_, 8 where Kldis the rated transient dimensioning factor and K,,, is the rated symmetrical short circuit factor. The amplitude of the measuring error is is calculated with FE =&K&#= ID,/n,.~/lOO, 9 Combining equation 6 and 9 it follows E = i/Kd IO where i: is the accuracy given in table 1, and E is the parameter used in the scaling equation 2 and 5 . With the equation 8 and 10 the needed parameters for the scaling equation are all known. The modelling of CTs of class TPX could be realized in exact the same manner as CTs of class P.

Implementation of model The simulation is done using ATPIEMTP. The CT is implemented as described in the equivalent circuit diagram in figure 1. The internal resistance &,, the internal inductance L,, the burden resistance Rn and the burden inductance LB. are linear elements. The nonlinear reactance element "TYPE 96" is used in order to simulate the non-linear magnetizing inductance Lh. The element "TYPE 96" is able to simulate remanence and hysteresis. This ability is required to model CTs. For example in cases of an unsuccessful automatic'reclosing models taking into account remanence and hysteresis is required to calculate the correct physical behaviour of the CT.





The standard specifications of these CTs are defined in (4). An overview of the standard 1 s given below, because



MODELLING OF CLASS TPZ This class of CT is a non-closed-core CT with additional rated parameters specifying the transient performance. & has to be negligible Additionally the remanence flux I low. Therefore CTs of class TPZ could not he modelled considering the accuracy limit current. This is contrary to closed core CTs of class P and TPX. The modelling must be based on the angle of phase displacement 'p. calculated with


This class of CT is also a non-closed-core CT with additional rated parameters specifying the transient performance. The remanence flux yV has to he lower than 10 % o f the saturation flux. One additional rated value is the time constant T, of the CT (4). This allows modelling CTs of class TPY in the same manner as CTs of class TPZ.

.where Ts is the secondary time constant of the CT calculated with T, = L, + L e r



+ KR,

RBr is the rated burden resistance and Lnr is the rated burden inductance (see figure 1). Converting equation 11 to
13 (Vs ' the time constant T, could be calculated using the angle of phase displacement cp6 in table 1. This results in T, =60,7ms+lO%. 14 Based on this value the magnetizing inductance Lh at the rated current is calculated converting equation I 1 to
0 tan

T, =

15 L, = T (Rcc+ Re, L B , 3 where Lo, is negligible. All other values are known. The magnetizing inductance Lh at the rated current is equal to the gradient of the magnetizing characteristic in the zero point (see figure 3). That means, if Lh is calculated, one of the two needed scaling parameters is known. The second scaling parameter is the saturation flux i s , , which could he calculated in the same manner exolained

There are some different examples for transient simulation of secondary values and transient analysis of protection systems. One important application is a more general investigation of the protection device. Examples are the testing of new protection and regulation algorithms, testing of prototype devices and testing and verification of existing protection devices. In this case the secondary currents and voltages measured by the protection device will be simulated. The test equipment will generate currents and voltages and the reaction of the real protection device can be analysed in real-time. Another important application is the verification of specific protection systems in case of network disturbances. One example is the post-fault analysis, if a protection device has tripped unexpected. The verification of a planned protection system can also be important, if large time constants and large short circuit currents could cause CT saturation. Considering CT saturation typical requirements are: No CT saturation till the protection device has detected the fault. No measurement error caused by saturation in case of a.fault at the decision zone. Correct operating in case of an unsuccessful automatic reclosing. No malfunction caused by a delayed release of starting. e , No error in fault locating caused by the angle of phase displacement 'pe The considered CTs of class TPX, TPY and TPZ fulfil accurately specified requirements. They are normally used in high voltage transmission networks, where the CT requirements are high. CT simulation can help to identify the optimal parameters and therefore those CTs will be optimised for the specific application. Thereby avoiding oversized dimensioned CTs can save costs.


Figure 3: Magnetizing characteristic and scaling parameters for CTs of class TPZ

Simulation Example
The fault reactance calculated by a distance relay was considered as an example. Figure 4 shows the simulated


current in case of CT saturation. The magnetizing current causes a calculation error of the fault reactance. Figure 5 shows the fault reactance, calculated with the algorithm Phadkeilbrahim.


If protection devices are tested in general, they have to operate with all kinds of CT. In this case a lot of simulations have lo he done modifying the parameters of both the power system and the CTs. The accuracy of the model based on rated values is sufficient for such investigations. The adaption of the CT model e.g. to take manufacturer specific parameters into account can be done very easily. References

1. W. Scott Meyer, T Lin: Alternativ Transients Program (ATP) Rule Book, Canadian f American
0 0 05
time I" s

Figure 4: Measured current I ideal signal (unsaturated CT) 2 with CT saturation


EMTP User Group, 1987 92 2. EN 60044-1, Instrument transformers, Part I : Current transformers, German Version 1999 3. R. Luxenburger. P. Schegner: Application testing of line differential protection systems under special consideration of current transformer saturation, PSP 2002, Bled 4. EN 60044-6, Instrument transformers, Part 6: Requirements for protective current transformers for transient performance, German Version 1999 5 . R. Luxenburger. P. Schegner: Accuracy of current transformer modelling and impacts on simulation tasks, 3rd Balkan Power Conference 2003, Bucharest

0 '



time in J

Figure 5: Fault reactance calculated based on Phadkeflhrahim algorithm 1 ideal signal (unsaturated CT) 2 with CT saturation

Based on a model for CTs of class P, models of class TPX (closed-core) and models of class TPY and TPZ (non-closed-core) were developed. The presented models are based on a minimum number of rated values. Therefore CTs could he simulated without measuring additional model parameters. If more parameters of a CT are known (for example the magnetizing characteristic) those parameters could he easily taken in to account. Two major tasks of simulating protective CTs are: Testing of new protection devices or algorithms. Verification of specific protection applications, considering the design of the protection system and the dimensioning of the CTs. Both could he done with the presented models.