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History of Islam

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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the history of Islam as a culture and polity. For the history of the Islamic faith, see Spread of Islam. For Islamic civilization, see Muslim world. For military conquests, see Islamic conquests. For chronology, see Timeline of Islamic history. {{jjljjk The history of Islam is the history of the Muslim people. Muslims are adherents of slam. They have impacted political history, economic history, and military history. Follo!ing its origin in Mecca and Medina, the slamic !orld e"panded to include people of the slamic civili#ation, inclusive of non$Muslims living in that civili#ation. Three centuries after the death of the slamic prophet Muhammad, the %ra& 'aliphates e"tended from the %tlantic (cean in the !est to 'entral %sia in the east. The su&se)uent empires of the *mayyads, %&&asids, Fatimids, +ha#navids, ,elju)s, ,afavids, Mughals, and (ttomans !ere among the influential and distinguished po!ers in the !orld. The slamic civili#ation gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced nota&le scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the +olden %ge of slam. Technology flourished- there !as investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals- and the importance of reading the .ur/an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace. n the later Middle %ges, destructive Mongol invasions from the 0ast, and the loss of population in the 1lack 2eath, greatly !eakened the traditional centre of the slamic !orld, stretching from 3ersia to 0gypt, and the (ttoman 0mpire !as a&le to con)uer most %ra&ic$ speaking areas, creating an slamic !orld po!er again, although one that !as una&le to master the challenges of the 0arly Modern period. 4ater, in modern history 567th and 68th centuries9, many slamic regions fell under the influence of 0uropean +reat po!ers. %fter the First World War, (ttoman territories 5a 'entral 3o!ers mem&er9 !ere partitioned into several nations under the terms of the Treaty of ,:vres. Modern interpretations of slamic te"ts advocate the unification of religion and state ruled &y a 'aliph. ,uch a polity has not e"isted since the early slamic city$states and universal imperial period &eginnings. The common slogan al islam dinun was dawlatun; 5translation: slam is a religion and a state9 is neither a <oranic verse nor a )uote from the hadith, &ut a 68th century political ,alafi

slogan populari#ed in opposition to Western 0gyptian influence.=6> ,uch a recent origin !as a handicap for a &elief system &ound &y the scripture revealed, and the !ays of those !ho lived, t!elve centuries earlier. %lthough affected &y ideologies such as communism during much of the ?@th century, the slamic identity and the dominance of slam on political issues intensified during the early ?6st century. +lo&al interests in slamic regions, international conflicts and glo&ali#ation changed the influence of slam on the ?6st century. =?>


6 Major periods ? slamic (rigins A 'ity$states and mperial period o A.6 The *mayyad 'aliphate A.6.6 'aliphs at 2amascus B *niversal period and decentrali#ation o B.6 slamic +olden %ge B.6.6 +olden 1aghdad %&&asids o B.? Cegional po!ers B.?.6 Digh 1aghdad %&&asids B.?.? Middle 1aghdad %&&asids B.?.A 4ate 1aghdad %&&asids B.?.B 'airo %&&asid 'aliphs o B.A Fatimid 0mpire B.A.6 Fatimid caliphs o B.B 1er&ers and &erian *mayyads B.B.6 0mirs of 'Erdo&a B.B.? 'aliphs at 'Erdo&a B.B.A %lmoravid fri)iyah and &eria B.B.B %lmohad caliphs

B.F The 'rusades B.F.6 %yyu&id dynasty B.F.? ,ultans of 0gypt B.F.A ,ultans and 0mirs of 2amascus B.F.B 0mirs of %leppo o B.G Mongol invasions o B.H The Mamluks B.H.6 1ahri ,ultans B.H.? 1urji ,ultans o B.7 %frican region B.7.6 Maghre& region B.7.? 0ast %frican region B.7.A West %frican region o B.8 %sia and the Far 0ast B.8.6 ,outh %sia B.8.? 'hina o B.6@ ,outheast %sia F Fragmentation period o F.6 Three 0arly Modern empires o F.? Mughal 0mpire o F.A ,afavid 0mpire o F.B (ttoman 0mpire o F.F Modern history F.F.6 (ttoman 0mpire partition F.F.? ndian partition F.F.A 3ost$68BF era F.F.B 3ersian revolutions o F.G Iational period F.G.6 %ra&$ sraeli conflict F.G.? %natolian region

F.G.A %ra& ,pring G ,ee also H Iotes 7 Ceferences and further reading

8 0"ternal links

[edit] Major periods

Main article: Distoriography of early slam The slamic state and Muslim/s system of government evolved through various stages.=A> The precise dates of various periods in history are more or less ar&itrary. The !ity state period lasted from G?@s to GA@s. The Imperial period lasted from GA@s to HF@s. The "niversal period lasted from HF@s to around 8@@s. These correspond to the early period of the Middle %ges. The #$ecentralization# period lasted from around 8@@s to the early 6F@@s. This correspond to the high period and late period of the Middle %ges. The #Fragmentation# period lasted from around 6F@@s to the late 686@s. The contemporary period, referred to as the %ational period, lasted from 686@s into the t!enty$first century.

$ates are appro&imate, consult particular article for details. Further information: Timeline of Muslim history ,ee also: 2isputed issues in early slamic history

[edit] Islamic Origins

Main articles: .uraysh 5tri&e9, 1anu Dashim, Muhammad, and <oran n pre$ slamic %ra&ia %ra& people lived in the %ra&ian 3late. n the south of Dedja# 5principal religious and commercial centre of Middle %ges %ra&ia9, the %ra&ic tri&e of .uraysh 5%dnani %ra&s9, to !hich Mohammed &elonged, had &een in e"istence. Iear Mecca, the tri&e !as increasing in po!er. The .uraysh !ere the guardians of the <aa&a !ithin the to!n of Mecca and !as the dominant tri&e of Mecca upon the appearance of slam. The <aa&a !as an important pagan shrine. t &rought revenues to Mecca &ecause of the multitude of pilgrims that it attracted. Muhammad !as &orn into the 1anu Dashim tri&e of the .uraysh clan,=B> a &ranch of the 1anu <inanah tri&e, descended from <hu#aimah and derived its inheritance from the <hu#a/imah 5Douse of <hu#a/a9.

Muhammad <aa&an IakkaJ (sman, stan&ul 56F8F9 50d., note artists &egan representing the veil$covered face of Muhammad from the 6Gth century on!ards9 %ccording to the traditional slamic vie!, the .ur/an 5<oran9 &egan !ith revelations to Muhammad <oranic revelations in G6@. The history of the .ur/an &egan !hen its verses !ere revealed to the ,aha&ah during Muhammad/s life. The rise of slam &egan around the

time the Muslims took flight in the Dijra, moving to Medina. With slam, &lood feuds among the %ra&s lessened. 'ompensation !as paid in money rather than &lood or only the culprit !as e"ecuted. n G?7, the Makkah tri&e of .uraish and the Muslim community in Medina signed a truce called the Treaty of Duday&iyya &eginning a ten$year period of peace. War returned !hen the .uraish and their allies, the tri&e of /1akr/, attacked the tri&e of /<hu#a/ah/, !ho !ere Muslim allies. n GA@, Muslims con)uered Mecca. Muhammad died in June GA?. The 1attle of Kamama !as fought in 2ecem&er of the same year, &et!een the forces of the first caliph %&u 1akr and Musailima.

[edit] City-states and Imperial period

Main articles: ,uccession to Muhammad and 'aliphate %fter Muhammed died, a series of 'aliphs governed the slamic ,tate: %&u 1akr 5GA?$GAB9, *mar i&n al$<hatta& 5*mar L, GAB$GBB9, *thman i&n %ffan 5GBB$GFG9, %li i&n %&i Tali& 5GFG$GG69. These leaders are kno!n as the MCashidunM or Mrightly guidedM 'aliphs in ,unni slam. They oversa! the initial phase of the Muslim con)uests, advancing through 3ersia, 0gypt, the Middle 0ast and Iorth %frica. 1egun in the time of *thman i&n %ffan, the compilation of the .ur/an !as finished sometime &et!een GF@ and GFG, *thman sent copies to the different centers of the e"panding slamic empire. From then on, thousands of Muslim scri&es &egan copying the .ur/an.=F> %fter!ards, factions arose and the last t!o Cashidun caliphs !ere murdered. The death of *thman !as follo!ed &y a civil !ar kno!n as the First Fitna, and the succession to %li i&n %&i Tali& !as disputed, leading to the split &et!een the ,unni and ,hia sects, and later to competing caliphates !hen the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and %li set up separate Fatimid societies. %fter the peace treaty !ith %li/s son, Dassan i&n %li, and the suppression of the revolt of the <harijites,=G> Mua!iyah proclaimed himself 'aliph in GG6 and &egan consolidating po!er.=H> n GGA, a ne! <harijite revolt resulted in the death of their chief.=H> n GGB, Mua!iyah and Niyad i&n %&i ,ufyan reached an agreement: the 'aliph recognised Niyad as a &rother and appointed him governor at 1asra. Niyad took the name i&n %&i ,ufyan. Mua!iyah arranged for his son Ka#id to &e appointed caliph on his death, !hich came in G7@. Dusain i&n %li, &y then Muhammad/s only living grandson, refused to s!ear allegiance to Ka#id. De !as killed in the 1attle of <ar&ala the same year, an event still mourned &y Muslims on the 2ay of %shura. *nrest continued in the ,econd Fitna, &ut Muslim rule !as e"tended under Mua!iyah to Chodes, 'rete, <a&ul, 1ukhara, and ,amarkand, and e"panded in Iorth %frica. n GGB, %ra& armies con)uered <a&ul,=7> and in GGF pushed into the Maghre&.=8>

,uccession and *mayyad accession

!onsult particular article for details

[edit] The Umayyad Caliphate

Main articles: *mayyad 'aliphate and Muslim con)uests

City-states and Imperial period

The "mayyad dynasty 5or 'mmiads9, !hose name derives from *mayya i&n %&d ,hams, the great$grandfather of the first *mayyad caliph, ruled from GG6 to HF@. %lthough the *mayyad family came from the city of Mecca, 2amascus !as the capital. %fter the death of %&du/l$Cahman i&n %&u 1akr in GGG,=6@>=66> Mua!iyah consolidated his po!er. Mua!iyah moved his capital to 2amascus from Medina, !hich led to profound changes in the empire. n the same !ay, at a later date, the transfer of the 'aliphate from 2amascus to 1aghdad marked the accession of a ne! family to po!er. !onquest %ra&sO,aracensO*p to the death of Mohammed, GA? *nder the first three caliphs, GA?PGFG (mmiad 'alifs, GG6$HF@ (oundary of the 'alifate of the 0ast Coman 51y#antine9 0mpire The *mayyads vie!ed slam as a religion e"clusively for %ra&s. The *mayyads paid for the state &y ta"ing the 2himmis. % non$%ra& !ho !anted to convert !as supposed to first &ecome a client of an %ra& tri&e. 0ven after conversion, non$%ra&s 5ma!ali9 did not achieve social and economic e)uality. %t its largest e"tent, the *mayyad dynasty covered more than F,@@@,@@@ s)uare miles 56A,@@@,@@@ km?9 making it one of the largest empires the !orld had yet seen,=6?> and the fifth largest contiguous empire ever. %fter the *mayyads !ere overthro!n &y the %&&asid 'aliphate, they fled across Iorth %frica to %l$%ndalus, !here they esta&lished the 'aliphate of 'Erdo&a, !hich lasted until 6@A6. [edit] Caliphs at Damascus

!onsult particular article for details Mua!iyah &eautified 2amascus, and developed a court to rival that of 'onstantinople. De e"panded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the edge of 'onstantinople at one point, though the 1y#antines drove him &ack and he !as una&le to hold any territory in %natolia. ,unni Muslims credit him !ith saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post$civil !ar anarchy. Do!ever, ,hia Muslims accuse him of instigating the !ar, !eakening the Muslim nation &y dividing the *mmah, fa&ricating self$aggrandi#ing heresies=6A> slandering the 3rophet/s family=6B> and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the 1y#antine empire.=6F> (ne of Mua!iyah/s most controversial and enduring legacies !as his decision to designate his son Ka#id as his successor. %ccording to ,hi/a doctrine, this !as a clear violation of the treaty he made !ith Dasan i&n %li. 2uring the caliphate of Ka#id, Muslims suffered several set&acks. n G7? %2 Ka#id restored *)&a i&n Iafi as the governor of Iorth %frica. *)&a !on &attles against the 1er&ers and 1y#antines.=6G> From there *)&a marched thousands of miles !est!ard to!ards Tangier, !here he reached the %tlantic coast, and then marched east!ards through the %tlas Mountains.=6H> With a&out A@@ cavalrymen, he proceeded to!ards 1iskra !here he !as am&ushed &y a 1er&er force under <aisala. *)&a and all his men died fighting. The 1er&ers attacked and drove Muslims from north %frica for a period.=67> They also lost supremacy at sea, and had to a&andon the islands of Chodes and 'rete.

2ome of the Cock The Mosque of 'mar, on %sh$Daram %l$,harif 5the Temple Mount9, &uilt &y %&d al$Malik- completed at the end of the ,econd Fitna. The period under Mua!iya !as marked &y civil !ars 5,econd Fitna9. This !ould ease in the reign of %&d al$Malik i&n Mar!an, a !ell$educated and capa&le ruler. 2espite the many political pro&lems that impeded his rule, all important records !ere translated into %ra&ic. n his reign, a currency for the Muslim !orld !as minted. This led to !ar !ith the 1y#antine 0mpire under Justinian 51attle of ,e&astopolis9 in G8? in %sia Minor. The 1y#antines !ere decisively defeated &y the 'aliph after the defection of a large contingent of ,lavs. The slamic currency !as then made the e"clusive currency in the Muslim !orld. De reformed agriculture and commerce. %&d al$Malik consolidated Muslim rule and e"tended it, made %ra&ic the state language, and organi#ed a regular postal service.

*mayyad Mos)ue The )reat Mosque of $amascus !as &uilt &y %l$Walid- completed &y the time of the succession of ,ulayman. %l$Walid &egan the ne"t stage of slamic con)uests. *nder him the early slamic empire reached its farthest e"tent. De recon)uered parts of 0gypt from the 1y#antine 0mpire and moved on into 'arthage and across to the !est of Iorth %frica. Muslim armies under Tari) i&n Niyad crossed the ,trait of +i&raltar and &egan to con)uer ,pain using Iorth %frican 1er&er armies. The Qisigoths of ,pain !ere defeated !hen the *mayyad con)uered 4is&on. ,pain !as the farthest e"tent of slamic control of 0urope 5they !ere stopped at the 1attle of Tours9. n the east, slamic armies under Muhammad &in .asim made it as far as the ndus Qalley. *nder %l$Walid, the caliphate empire stretched from ,pain to ndia. %l$Dajjaj &in Kousef played a crucial role in the organi#ation and selection of military

commanders. %l$Walid paid great attention to the e"pansion of an organi#ed military, &uilding the strongest navy in the *mmayad era., This tactic !as crucial for the e"pansion to ,pain. Dis reign is considered to &e the ape" of slamic po!er. ,ulayman i&n %&d al$Malik !as hailed as caliph the day al$Walid died. De appointed Ka#id i&n al$Muhalla& governor of Mesopotamia. ,ulayman ordered the arrest and e"ecution of the family of al$Dajjaj, one of t!o prominent leaders 5the other !as .utai&ah &in Muslim9 !ho had supported the succession of al$Walid/s son Ka#id, rather than ,ulayman. %l$Dajjaj had predeceased al$ Walid, so he posed no threat. .utai&ah renounced allegiance to ,ulayman, though his troops rejected his appeal to revolt. They killed him and sent his head to ,ulayman. ,ulayman did not move to 2amascus on &ecoming 'aliph, remaining in Camla. ,ulayman sent Maslamah i&n %&d al$Malik to attack the 1y#antine capital 5siege of 'onstantinople9. The intervention of 1ulgaria on the 1y#antine side proved decisive. The Muslims sustained heavy losses. ,ulayman died suddenly in H6H.

The ,econd %ra& siege of 'onstantinople from the 6Bth$century 1ulgarian translation of the Manasses 'hronicle.

,ulayman/s successor *mar strictly enforced ,haria.=68> De a&olished the Ji#ya ta" for converts, !ho had &een ta"ed even after conversion under other *mayyad rulers. *mar ordered the first official collection of hadith material, fearing that some might &e lost. %&u 1akr i&n Muhammad i&n Da#m and &n ,hiha& al$Nuhri are among those !ho did so.=?@> *mar also sent &n Datim i&n al$ Iu/man to repel Turks invading %#er&aijan. De faced <harijite uprising and preferred negotiations to armed conflict, personally holding talks !ith t!o <harijite envoys shortly &efore his death. De recalled the troops &esieging 'onstantinople, a serious &lo! to *mayyad prestige. Ka#id came to po!er on the death of *mar . Ka#id fought the <harijites, !ith !hom *mar had &een negotiating, and killed the <harijite leader ,ha!dha&. n Ka#id/s reign, civil !ars &egan in different parts of the empire.=?6> Ka#id e"panded the 'aliphate/s territory into the 'aucasus, &efore dying in H?B. nheriting the caliphate from his &rother, Disham i&n %&d al$Malik ruled an empire !ith many pro&lems. De !as effective in addressing these pro&lems, and in allo!ing the *mayyad empire to continue as an entity. Dis long rule !as an effective one, and rene!ed reforms introduced &y *mar . *nder Disham/s rule, regular raids against the 1y#antines continued. n Iorth %frica, <harijite teachings com&ined !ith local restlessness to produce a significant 1er&er revolt. De !as also faced !ith a revolt &y Nayd &in %li. Disham suppressed &oth revolts. The %&&asids continued to gain po!er in <hurasan and ra). Do!ever, they !ere not strong enough to make a move yet. ,ome !ere caught and punished or e"ecuted &y eastern governors. The 1attle of %kroinon, a decisive 1y#antine victory, !as during the final campaign of the *mayyad dynasty. =??> Disham died in HBA. %l$Walid sa! political intrigue during his reign. Ka#id spoke out against his cousin Walid/s MimmoralityM !hich included discrimination on &ehalf of the 1anu .ays %ra&s against Kemenis and non$%ra& Muslims, and Ka#id received further support from the .adariya and Murji/iya 5&elievers in human free !ill9.=?A> Walid !as shortly thereafter deposed in a coup.=?B> Ka#id dis&ursed funds from the treasury and acceded to the 'aliph. De e"plained that he had re&elled on &ehalf of the 1ook of %llah and the ,unna. Ka#id reigned for only si" months, !hile various groups refused allegiance and dissident movements arose, after !hich he died. &rahim i&n al$Walid, named heir apparent &y his &rother Ka#id , ruled for a short time in HBB, &efore he a&dicated. Mar!an ruled from HBB until he !as killed in HF@. De !as the last *mayyad ruler to rule from 2amascus. Mar!an named his t!o sons *&aydallah and %&dallah heirs. De appointed governors and asserted his authority &y force. %nti$*mayyad feeling !as very prevalent, especially in ran and ra). The %&&asids had gained much support. Mar!an/s reign as caliph !as almost entirely devoted to trying to keep the *mayyad empire together. Dis death signalled the end of *mayyad rule in the 0ast, and !as follo!ed &y the massacre of *mayyads &y the %&&asids. %lmost the entire *mayyad dynasty !as killed, e"cept for the talented prince %&d ar$Cahman !ho escaped to ,pain and founded a dynasty there. Further information: 1y#antineP%ra& Wars

[edit] Uni ersal period and decentrali!ation

[edit] Islamic "olden #ge
Main articles: %&&asid and slamic +olden %ge %&&asid dynasty rose to po!er in HF@, consolidating the gains of the earlier 'aliphates. nitially, they con)uered Mediterranean islands including the 1alearics and ,icily.=?F> The ruling party had &een instated on the !ave of dissatisfaction !ith the *mmayads, cultured &y the %&&asid revolutionary, %&u Muslim.=?G>=?H> *nder the %&&asids slamic civili#ation flourished. Most nota&le !as the development of %ra&ic prose and poetry, termed &y The !ambridge *istory of Islam as its Mgolden ageM.=?7> 'ommerce and industry 5considered a Muslim %gricultural Cevolution9, and the arts and sciences 5considered a Muslim ,cientific Cevolution9 also prospered under %&&asid caliphs al$Mansur 5ruled HFB R HHF9, Darun al$Cashid 5ruled H7G R 7@89, al$Ma/mun 5ruled 7@8 R 76A9 and their immediate successors.=?8>

Islamic $tates Uni ersal "olden period

1aghdad &ecame the capital 5moved 2amascus9 due to the importance placed &y the %&&asids upon eastern affairs in 3ersia and Transo"ania. =?8> %t this time the caliphate sho!ed signs of fracture amid the rise of regional dynasties. %lthough the *mmayad family had &een killed &y the revolting %&&asids, one family mem&er, %&d ar$Cahman , escaped to ,pain and esta&lished an independent caliphate there in HFG. n the Maghre&, Darun al$Cashid appointed the %ra& %ghla&ids as virtually autonomous rulers, although they continued to recognise central authority. %ghla&id rule !as short$lived, and they !ere deposed &y the ,hiite Fatimid dynasty in 8@8. 1y around 8G@, the Fatimids had con)uered %&&asid 0gypt, &uilding a capital there in 8HA called Mal +ahirahM 5meaning Mthe planet of victoryM, kno!n today as 'airo9. n 3ersia the Turkic +ha#navids snatched po!er from the %&&asids.=A@>=A6> %&&asid influence had &een consumed &y the +reat ,elju) 0mpire 5a Muslim Turkish clan !hich had migrated into mainland 3ersia9 &y 6@FF.=?8>

0astern hemisphere/s ,tates and 0mpires 57?@9 %&&asid 'aliphate Multan %ghla&ids ,ultans of ,indh drisid dynasty &erian *mayyads Decentrali!ed territory

*mayyads 5'Erdo&a9 1uyjids 5Tahirids9 drisids 51er&ers9 %lijds 5Niyarids9 Custamid 5 &Sdiyya of Damdamid Tahirid9 5Mar!anidO*)aylid9 %ghla&ids 50mirate of ,amanids 5+reater fri)iya9 <horasan9 TulunidsO rshkids ,affrids 51aloch9 .armatians 5'armathians9 ,ajids 5,hirvanshah9 ,egions are appro&imate, consult particular article for details.

0"pansion continued, sometimes &y force, sometimes &y peaceful proselytising.=?F> The first stage in the con)uest of ndia &egan just &efore the year 6@@@. 1y some ?@@ 5from 668A R 6?@89 years later, the area up to the +anges river had fallen. n su&$,aharan West %frica, slam !as esta&lished just after the year 6@@@. Muslim rulers !ere in <anem starting from sometime &et!een 6@76 to 6@8H, !ith reports of a Muslim prince at the head of +ao as early as 6@@8. The slamic kingdoms associated !ith Mali reached prominence in the 6Ath century.=?F> The %&&asids developed initiatives aimed at greater slamic unity. slamic faith and mos)ues separated &y doctrine, history, and practice !ere pushed to cooperate. The %&&asids also distinguished themselves from the *mayyads &y attacking &oth their moral character and administration. %ccording to ra 4apidus, MThe %&&asid revolt !as supported largely &y %ra&s, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Mar! !ith the addition of the Kemeni faction and their Ma!aliM.=A?> The %&&asids also appealed to non$%ra& Muslims, kno!n as mawali, !ho remained outside the kinship$&ased society of the %ra&s and !ere perceived as a lo!er class !ithin the *mayyad empire. slamic ecumenism, promoted &y the %&&asids, refers to the idea of unity of the "mmah in the literal meaning: that there !as a single faith. slamic philosophy developed as the ,hariah !as codified, and the four Madha&s !ere esta&lished. This era also sa! the rise of classical ,ufism. The achievement, ho!ever, !as completion of the canonical collections of Dadith of ,ahih 1ukhari and others.=AA> slam recogni#ed to a certain e"tent the validity of the %&rahamic religions, the .ur/an identifying Je!s, 'hristians, Noroastrians, and M,a&i/unM or M&aptistsM 5usually taken as a reference to the Mandeans and related Mesopotamian groups9 as Mpeople of the &ookM. To!ard the &eginning of the high Middle %ges, the doctrines of the ,unni and ,hia, t!o major denominations of slam, solidified and the divisions of the !orld &eyond their control !ould form. These trends !ould continue into the Fatimid and %yyu&id periods. 3olitically, the %&&asid 'aliphate evolved into an slamic monarchy 5unitary system of government.9 The regional ,ultanate and 0mirate governors/ e"istence, validity, or legality !ere ackno!ledged for unity of the state.=AB> n early slamic philosophy of the &erian *mayyads, %verroes presented an argument in -The $ecisive Treatise providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official %sh/ari theology, thus %verroism has &een considered a precursor to modern secularism.=AF>=AG> [edit] "olden %aghdad #&&asids .arly Middle /ges

!onsult particular article for details %ccording to %ra& sources in the year HF@, %l$,affah, the founder of the %&&asid 'aliphate, launched a massive re&ellion against the *mayyad 'aliphate from the province of <hurasan near Talas. %fter eliminating the entire *mayyad family and victory at the 1attle of the Na&, %l$,affah and his forces marched into 2amascus and founded a ne! dynasty. Dis forces confronted many regional po!ers and consolidated the realm of the %&&asid 'aliphate.=citation needed> n %l$Mansur/s time, 3ersian scholarship emerged. Many non$%ra&s converted to slam. The *mayyads actively discouraged conversion in order to continue the collection of the ji#ya, or the ta" on non$Muslims. slam nearly dou&led !ithin its territory from 7T of residents in HF@ to 6FT &y the end of %l$Mansur/s reign. %l$Mahdi, !hose name means MCightly$guidedM or MCedeemerM, !as proclaimed caliph !hen his father !as on his death&ed. 1aghdad &lossomed during %l$Mahdi/s reign, &ecoming the !orld/s largest city. t attracted immigrants from %ra&ia, ra), ,yria, 3ersia and as far a!ay as ndia and ,pain. 1aghdad !as home to 'hristians, Je!s, Dindus, and Noroastrians, in addition to the gro!ing Muslim population. 4ike his father %l$Dadi !as very open to his people and allo!ed citi#ens to address him in the palace at 1aghdad. De !as considered an Menlightened rulerM, and continued the progressive policies of his %&&asid predecessors. Dis short rule !as plagued &y military conflicts.=citation needed>

%n %ra&ic manuscript !ritten under the second half of the %&&asid 0ra. The military conflicts su&sided as Darun al$Cashid ruled. Dis reign !as marked &y scientific, cultural and religious prosperity. De esta&lished the li&rary 1ayt al$Dikma 5MDouse of WisdomM9 and the arts and music flourished during his reign. The 1armakids family played a decisive role in esta&lishing the 'aliphate, &ut declined during his rule.=citation needed> %ccording to signed pledges during a pilgrimage to Mecca, %l$%min received the 'aliphate from his father Darun %l$Cashid. %l$ %min faced internal re&ellions. +eneral l Tahir i&n Dusayn re&elled and &esieged 1aghdad. Tahir led reinforcements to regain positions lost &y another officer. When Tahir pushed into the city, %l$%min sought to negotiate safe passage. Tahir agreed on the condition %l$%min turn over his sceptre, seal and other signs that he !as caliph. %l$%min tried to leave on a &oat and rejected !arnings that he !ait. Tahir/s forces attacked the &oat and %l$%min !as thro!n into the !ater. De s!am to shore !here he !as captured and e"ecuted. Dis head !as placed on the %l %n&ar +ate.=citation needed>

[edit] 'egional po(ers

The %&&asids soon &ecame caught in a three$!ay rivalry among 'optic %ra&s, ndo$3ersians, and immigrant Turks.=AH> n addition, the cost of running a large empire &ecame too great.=A7> The Turks, 0gyptians, and %ra&s adhered to the ,unnite sect- the 3ersians, a great portion of the Turkic groups, and several of the princes in ndia !ere ,hia. The political unity of slam &egan to disintegrate. *nder

the influence of the %&&asid caliphs, independent dynasties appeared in the Muslim !orld and the caliphs recogni#ed such dynasties as legitimately Muslim. The first !as the Tahirid dynasty in <horasan, !hich !as founded during the caliph %l$Ma/mun/s reign. ,imilar dynasties included the ,affarids, ,amanids, +ha#navids and ,elju)s. 2uring this time, advancements !ere made in the areas of astronomy, poetry, philosophy, science, and mathematics.=citation needed> [edit] High %aghdad #&&asids .arly Middle /ges

!onsult particular article for details *pon %l$%min/s death, %l$Ma/mun &ecame 'aliph. %l$Ma/mun gre! the %&&asid empire some!hat during his reign and dealt !ith re&ellions.=A8> %l$Ma/mun had &een named governor of <hurasan &y Darun, and after his ascension to po!er, the caliph named Tahir as governor of his military services in order to assure his loyalty. Tahir and his family &ecame entrenched in ranian politics and &ecame po!erful, frustrating %l$Ma/mun/s desire to centrali#e and strengthen 'aliphal po!er. The rising po!er of the Tahirid dynasty &ecame a threat as %l$Ma/mun/s o!n policies alienated them and other opponents.=citation needed> %l$Ma/mun !orked to centrali#e po!er and ensure a smooth succession. %l$Mahdi proclaimed that the caliph !as the protector of slam against heresy, and also claimed the a&ility to declare orthodo"y. Celigious scholars averred that %l$Ma/mun !as overstepping his &ounds in the Mihna 5the %&&asid in)uisition9 !hich he introduced in 7AA, four months &efore he died.=B@> The "lama emerged as a force in slamic politics during %l$Ma/mun/s reign for opposing the in)uisitions. The "lema and the major slamic la! schools took shape in the period of %l$Ma/mun. n parallel, ,unnism &ecame defined as a religion of la!s. 2octrinal differences &et!een ,unni and ,hi/a slam &ecame more pronounced.=citation needed> 2uring the %l$Ma/mun regime, &order !ars increased. %l$Ma/mun made preparations for a major campaign, &ut died !hile leading an e"pedition in ,ardis. %l$Ma/mun gathered scholars of many religions at 1aghdad, !hom he treated !ell and !ith tolerance. De sent an

emissary to the 1y#antine 0mpire to collect the most famous manuscripts there, and had them translated into %ra&ic.=B6> Dis scientists originated alchemy. ,hortly &efore his death, during a visit to 0gypt in 7A?, the caliph ordered the &reaching of the +reat 3yramid of +i#a to search for kno!ledge and treasure. Workers tunneled in near !here tradition located the original entrance. %l$Ma/mun later died near Tarsus under )uestiona&le circumstances and !as succeeded &y his half$&rother, %l$Mu/tasim, rather than his son, %l$%&&as i&n %l$Ma/mun.=citation needed> %s 'aliph, %l$Mu/tasim promptly ordered the dismantling of al$Ma/mun/s military &ase at Tyana. De faced <hurramite revolts. (ne of the most difficult pro&lems facing this 'aliph !as the ongoing uprising of 1a&ak <horramdin. %l$Mu/tasim overcame the re&els and secured a significant victory. 1y#antine emperor Theophilus launched an attack against %&&asid fortresses. %l$Mu/tasim sent %l$ %fshin, !ho met and defeated Theophilus/ forces at the 1attle of %n#en. (n his return he &ecame a!are of a serious military conspiracy !hich forced him and his successors to rely upon Turkish commanders and ghilman slave$soldiers 5foreshado!ing the Mamluk system9. The <hurramiyyah !ere never fully suppressed, although they slo!ly declined during the reigns of succeeding 'aliphs. Iear the end of al$Mu/tasim/s life there !as an uprising in 3alestine, &ut he defeated the re&els.=citation needed> 2uring %l$Mu/tasim/s reign, the Tahirid dynasty continued to gro! in po!er. The Tahirids !ere e"empted from many tri&utes and oversight functions. Their independence contri&uted to %&&asid decline in the east. deologically, al$Mu/tasim follo!ed his half$ &rother al$Ma/mun. De continued his predecessor/s support for the slamic Mu/ta#ila sect, applying &rutal torture. %ra& mathematician %l$<indi !as employed &y %l$Mu/tasim and tutored the 'aliph/s son. %l$<indi had served at the Douse of Wisdom and continued his studies in +reek geometry and alge&ra under the caliph/s patronage.=citation needed> %l$Wathi) succeeded his father. %l$Wathi) dealt !ith opposition in %ra&ia, ,yria, 3alestine and in 1aghdad. *sing a famous s!ord he personally joined the e"ecution of the 1aghdad re&els. The revolts !ere the result of an increasingly large gap &et!een %ra& populations and the Turkish armies. The revolts !ere put do!n, &ut antagonism &et!een the t!o groups gre!, as Turkish forces gained po!er. De also secured a captive e"change !ith the 1y#antines. %l$Wathi) !as a patron of scholars, as !ell as artists. De personally had musical talent and is reputed to have composed over one hundred songs.=citation needed>

Minaret at the +reat Mos)ue of ,amarra. When %l$Wathi) died of high fever, %l$Muta!akkil succeeded him. %l$Muta!akkil/s reign is remem&ered for many reforms and is vie!ed as a golden age. De !as the last great %&&asid caliph- after his death the dynasty fell into decline. %l$Muta!akkil ended the Mihna. %l$Muta!akkil &uilt the +reat Mos)ue of ,amarra=B?> as part of an e"tension of ,amarra east!ards that &uilt upon part of the !alled royal hunting park. 2uring his reign, %l$Muta!akkil met famous 1y#antine theologian 'onstantine the 3hilosopher, !ho !as sent to strengthen diplomatic relations &et!een the 0mpire and the 'aliphate &y 0mperor Michael . %l$Muta!akkil involved himself in religious de&ates, as reflected in his actions against minorities. The ,hUi faced repression em&odied in the destruction of the shrine of Dussayn i&n %lU, an action that !as ostensi&ly carried out to stop pilgrimages. %l$Muta!akkil continued to rely on Turkish statesmen and slave soldiers to put do!n re&ellions and lead &attles against foreign empires, nota&ly capturing ,icily from the 1y#antines. %l$Muta!akkil !as assassinated &y a Turkish soldier.=citation needed> %l$Muntasir succeeded to the 'aliphate on the same day !ith the support of the Turkish faction, though he !as implicated in the murder. The Turkish party had al$Muntasir remove his &rothers from the line of succession, fearing revenge for the murder of their father. 1oth &rothers !rote statements of a&dication. 2uring his reign, %l$Muntasir removed the &an on pilgrimage to the tom&s of Dassan and Dussayn and sent Wasif to raid the 1y#antines. %l$Muntasir died of unkno!n causes. The Turkish chiefs held a council to select his successor, electing %l$Musta/in. The %ra&s and !estern troops from 1aghdad !ere displeased at the choice and attacked. Do!ever, the 'aliphate no longer depended on %ra&ian choice, &ut depended on Turkish support. %fter the failed Muslim campaign against the 'hristians, people &lamed the Turks for &ringing disaster on the faith and murdering their 'aliphs. %fter the Turks &esieged 1aghdad, %l$Musta/in planned to a&dicate to %l$Mu/ta## &ut !as put to death &y his order. %l$Mu/ta## !as enthroned &y the Turks, &ecoming the youngest %&&asaid 'aliph to assume po!er.=citation needed>

%l$Mu/ta## proved too apt a pupil of his Turkish masters, &ut !as surrounded &y parties jealous of each other. %t ,amarra, the Turks !ere having pro&lems !ith the MWesternsM 51er&ers and Moors9, !hile the %ra&s and 3ersians at 1aghdad, !ho had supported al$ Musta/in, regarded &oth !ith e)ual hatred. %l$Mu/ta## put his &rothers %l$Mu/eiyyad and %&u %hmed to death. The ruler spent recklessly, causing a revolt of Turks, %fricans, and 3ersians for their pay. %l$Mu/ta## !as &rutally deposed shortly thereafter. %l$Muhtadi &ecame the ne"t 'aliph. De !as firm and virtuous compared to the earlier 'aliphs, though the Turks held the po!er. The Turks killed him soon after his ascension. %l$Mu/tamid follo!ed, holding on for ?A years, though he !as largely a ruler in name only. %fter the Nanj Ce&ellion, %l$Mu/tamid summoned al$Mu!affak to help him. Thereafter, %l$Mu!affa) ruled in all &ut name. The Damdanid dynasty !as founded &y Damdan i&n Damdun !hen he !as appointed governor of Mardin in %natolia &y the 'aliphs in 78@. %l$Mu/tamid later transferred authority to his son, al$ Mu/tadid, and never regained po!er. The Tulunids &ecame the first independent state in slamic 0gypt, !hen they &roke a!ay during this time.=citation needed>

High #&&asids )urisprudence Four constructions of Islamite law %&u Danifa 5 ra) teacher9 Malik &in %nas 5Medina mam9 Muhammad i&n dris ash$,hafi;i 50gyptian man9

%hmad i&n Dan&al 51aghdad teacher9 *arly #&&asids +iterature and $cience Dunayn i&n sha), physician, +reek translator&n Fadlan, e"plorer%l 1attani, astronomerTa&ari, historian and theologian%l$Ca#i, philosopher, medic, chemist%l$Fara&i, chemist and philosopher%&u Iasr Mansur, mathematician%lha#en, mathematician%l$1iruni, mathematician, astronomer, physicist(mar <hayyVm , poet, mathematician, and astronomerMansur %l$Dallaj, ,ufism mystic, !riter and teacher

%l$Mu/tadid a&ly administered the 'aliphate. 0gypt returned to allegiance and Mesopotamia !as restored to order. De !as tolerant to!ards ,hi/i, &ut to!ard the *mayyad community he !as not so just. %l$Mu/tadid !as cruel in his punishments, some of !hich are not surpassed &y those of his predecessors. For e"ample, the <harijite leader at Mosul !as paraded a&out 1aghdad clothed in a ro&e of

silk, of !hich <harijites denounced as sinful, and then crucified. *pon %l$Mu/tadid/s death, his son &y a Turkish slave$girl, %l$ Muktafi, succeeded to the throne.=citation needed> %l$Muktafi &ecame a favorite of the people for his generosity, and for a&olishing his father/s secret prisons, the terror of 1aghdad. 2uring his reign, the 'aliphate overcame threats such as the 'armathians. *pon %l$Muktafi/s death, the va#ir ne"t chose %l$Mu)tadir. %l$Mu)tadir/s reign !as a constant succession of thirteen Qa#irs, one rising on the fall or assassination of another. Dis long reign &rought the 0mpire to its lo!est e&&. %frica !as lost, and 0gypt nearly. Mosul thre! off its dependence, and the +reeks raided acoss the undefended &order. The 0ast continued to formally recognise the 'aliphate, including those !ho virtually claimed independence.
=citation needed>

%t the end of the 0arly 1aghdad %&&asids period, 0mpress Noe <ar&onopsina pressed for an armistice !ith %l$Mu)tadir and arranged for the ransom of the Muslim prisoner=BA> !hile the 1y#antine frontier !as threatened &y 1ulgarians. This only added to 1aghdad/s disorder. Though despised &y the people, %l$Mu)tadir !as again placed in po!er after upheavals. %l$Mu)tadir !as eventually slain outside the city gates, !hereupon courtiers chose his &rother al$.ahir. De !as even !orse. Cefusing to a&dicate, he !as &linded and cast into prison.=citation needed> Dis son %r$Cadi took over only to e"perience a cascade of misfortune. 3raised for his piety, he &ecame the tool of the de facto ruling Minister, &n Caik 5%mir al$*mara- /%mir of the %mirs/9. &n Caik held the reins of government and his name !as joined !ith the 'aliph/s in pu&lic prayers. %round this period, the Dan&alis, supported &y popular sentiment, set up in fact a kind of /,unni in)uisition/. %r$Cadi is commonly regarded as the last of the real 'aliphs: the last to deliver orations at the Friday service, to hold assem&lies, to commune !ith philosophers, to discuss the )uestions of the day, to take counsel on the affairs of ,tate- to distri&ute alms, or to temper the severity of cruel officers. Thus ended the 0arly 1aghdad %&&asids.=citation needed> n the late mid$8A@s, the khshidids of 0gypt carried the %ra&ic title MWaliM reflecting their position as governors on &ehalf of the %&&asids, The first governor 5Muhammad &in Tughj %l$ khshid9 !as installed &y the %&&asid 'aliph. They gave him and his descendants the Wilayah for A@ years. The last name khshid is ,oghdian for MprinceM.=citation needed> %lso in the 8A@s, W%lU i&n 1Xyah and his t!o younger &rothers, al$Dassan and %mad founded the 1Xyid confederation. (riginally a soldier in the service of the NiySrUds of a&aristSn, W%lU !as a&le to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from 1aghdad named KS)Xt in 8AB. (ver the ne"t nine years the three &rothers gained control of the remainder of the caliphate, !hile accepting the titular authority of the caliph in 1aghdad. The 1Xyids made large territorial gains. Fars and Ji&al !ere con)uered. 'entral ra) su&mitted in

8BF, &efore the 1Xyids took <ermSn 58GH9, (man 58GH9, the Ja#Ura 58H89, a&aristSn 587@9, and +organ 58769. %fter this the 1Xyids !ent into slo! decline, !ith pieces of the confederation gradually &reaking off and local dynasties under their rule &ecoming de facto independent.=BB> [edit] Middle %aghdad #&&asids .arly *igh Middle /ges

!onsult particular article for details

Mediterrean 'egion %t the &eginning of the Middle 1aghdad %&&asids, the 'aliphate had &ecome of little importance. 1ajkam, %mir al$*mara, contented himself !ith dispatching his secretary to 1aghdad to assem&le local dignitaries to elect a successor. The choice fell on %l$Mutta)i. 1ajkam !as killed on a hunting party &y marauding <urds. n the ensuing anarchy in 1aghdad, &n Caik persuaded the 'aliph to flee to Mosul !here he !as !elcomed &y the Damdanid. They assassinated &n Caik. Damdanid Iasir ad$2aula advanced on 1aghdad, !here mercenaries and !ell$organised Turks repelled them. Turkish general Tu#un &ecame %mir al$*mara. The Turks !ere staunch Cegional ,tates, ca. 667@. ,unnis. % fresh conspiracy placed the 'aliph in danger. Damdanid troops %lmohad 2ominion ,m. Turkic states helped ad$2aula escape to Mosul and then to Iasi&in. Tu#un and the <ingdom of ,icily 'rusader states Damdanid !ere stalemated. %l$Mutta)i !as at %r Ca))ah, moving to Tu#un Fatimid 'aliphate <omnenian 1y#antines !here he !as deposed. Tu#un installed the &linded 'aliph/s cousin as %&&asid 'aliphate <ingdom of Dungary successor, !ith the title of %l$Mustakfi. With the ne! 'aliph, Tu#un attacked the 1u!ayhid dynasty and the Damdanids. ,oon after, Tu#un died, and !as succeeded &y one of his generals, %&u Ja/far. The 1u!ayhids then attacked 1aghdad, and %&u Ja/far fled into hiding !ith the 'aliph. 1u!ayhid ,ultan Mui# ud$2aula assumed command forcing the 'aliph into a&ject su&mission to the %mir. 0ventually, %l$Mustakfi !as &linded and deposed. The city fell into chaos, and the 'aliph/s palace !as looted.=citation needed>
and the $tates of the Crusades

(nce the 1u!ayhids controlled 1aghdad, %l$Muti &ecame caliph. The office !as shorn of real po!er and ,hi/a o&servances !ere esta&lished. The 1u!ayhids held on 1aghdad for over a century. Tthrough the 1u!ayhid reign the 'aliphate !as at its lo!est e&&, &ut !as recogni#ed religiously, e"cept in &eria. 1u!ayhid ,ultan Mui# ud$2aula !as prevented from raising a ,hi/a 'aliph to the throne &y fear for his o!n safety, and fear of re&ellion, in the capital and &eyond.=citation needed>

$ignificant Middle #&&asid Muslims &n Cushd 5%veroes9, philosopher al$Fara&i, 3ersian 5,oghdian9 philosopher %l$Mutane&&i, %ra&ic poet

%&u %li Dusain i&n %&dallah i&n ,ina 5%vicenna9, physician, philosopher, and scientist

The ne"t 'aliph, %l$Ta/i, reigned over factional strife in ,yria among the Fatimids, Turks, and 'armathians. The 1u!ayhid dynasyty also fractured. The %&&asid &orders !ere the defended only &y small &order states. 1y#antine 0mperor John T#imisces/s attacked and deposed %l$Ta/i.=citation needed> 1y 6@@@ the glo&al Muslim population had clim&ed to a&out B per cent of the !orld total compared to the 'hristian population of 6@ per cent. %l$.adir !as recalled and appointed to the office. 2uring his 'aliphate, Mahmud of +ha#ni looked after the empire. The great Mahmud of +ha#ni, of 0astern fame, !as friendly to!ards the 'aliphs, and his victories in the ndian 0mpire !ere accordingly announced from the pulpits of 1aghdad in grateful and glo!ing terms. %l$.adir fostered the ,unni struggle against ,hiism and outla!ed heresies such as the 1aghdad Manifesto and the createdness of the .uran. De outla!ed the Muta#ila. 2uring this and the ne"t period, slamic literature, especially 3ersian literature, flourished under the patronage of the 1u!ayhids.=citation needed> 2uring %l$.a/im/s reign, the 1u!ayhid ruler often fled the capital and the ,elju) dynasty gained po!er. ToghrYl overran ,yria and %rmenia. De then made his !ay into the 'apital, !here he !as !ell$received &oth &y chiefs and people. n 1ahrain, the .armatian state collapsed in %l$Dasa. %ra&ia recovered from the Fatimids and again ackno!ledged the spiritual jurisdiction of the %&&asids. %l$ Mu)tadi !as honored &y the ,elju) ,ultan Malik$,hah , during !hose reign the 'aliphate !as recogni#ed throughout the e"tending range of ,elju) con)uest. The ,ultan !as critical of the 'aliph/s interference in affairs of state, &ut died &efore deposing the last of the Middle 1aghdad %&&asids.=citation needed> [edit] +ate %aghdad #&&asids 0ate *igh Middle /ges

#l-#,sa Mos,ue

3lan of %l$%)sa Mos)ue, year 87F

2ome of %l %)sa Mous)ue

!onsult particular article for details The 4ate 1aghdad %&&asids reigned from the &eginning of the 'rusades to the ,eventh 'rusade. The first 'aliph !as %l$Musta#hir. De !as politically irrelevant, despite civil strife at home and the First 'rusade in ,yria. Caymond Q of Toulouse attempted to attack 1aghdad, losing at the 1attle of Man#ikert. The glo&al Muslim population clim&ed to a&out F per cent as against the 'hristian population of 66 per cent &y 66@@. Jerusalem !as captured &y crusaders !ho massacred its inha&itants. 3reachers travelled throughout the caliphate proclaiming the tragedy and rousing men to recover the %l$%)sa Mos)ue from the Fran1ss 50uropean 'rusaders9. 'ro!ds of e"iles rallied for !ar against the infidel. Ieither the ,ultan nor the 'aliph sent an army !est.=citation needed>

%l$Mustarshid achieved more independence !hile the sultan Mahmud of +reat ,elju) !as engaged in !ar in the 0ast. The 1anu Ma#yad 5Ma#yadid ,tate9 general, 2u&ays i&n ,ada)a=BF> 5emir of %l$Dilla9, plundered 1osra and attacked 1aghdad together !ith a young &rother of the sultan, +hiyath ad$2in Mas/ud. 2u&ays !as crushed &y a ,elju) army under Nengi, founder of Nengid dynasty. Mahmud/s death !as follo!ed &y a civil !ar &et!een his son 2a!ud, his nephe! Mas/ud and the ata&eg Toghrul . Nengi !as recalled to the 0ast, stimulated &y the 'aliph and 2u&ays, !here he !as &eaten. The 'aliph then laid siege to Mosul for three months !ithout success, resisted &y Mas/ud and Nengi. t !as nonetheless a milestone in the caliphate/s military revival.=citation needed> %fter the siege of 2amascus 566AB9,=BG> Nengi undertook operations in ,yria. %l$Mustarshid attacked sultan Mas/ud of !estern ,elju) and !as taken prisoner. De !as later found murdered.=BH> Dis son, %l$Cashid failed to gain independence from ,elju) Turks. Nengi, &ecause of the murder of 2u&ays, set up a rival ,ultanate. Mas/ud attacked- the 'aliph and Nengi, hopeless of success, escaped to Mosul. The ,ultan regained po!er, a council !as held, the 'aliph !as deposed, and his uncle, son of %l$Mu)tafi, appointed as the ne! 'aliph. %r$Cashid fled to sfahan and !as killed &y Dashshashins.=citation needed> 'ontinued disunion and contests &et!een ,elju) Turks allo!eBd al$Mu)tafi to maintain control in 1aghdad and to e"tend it throughout ra). n 66A8, al$Mu)tafi granted protection to the Iestorian patriarch %&disho . While the 'rusade raged, the 'aliph successfully defended 1aghdad against Muhammad of ,elju) in the ,iege of 1aghdad 566FH9. The ,ultan and the 'aliph dispatched men in response to Nengi/s appeal, &ut neither the ,elju)s, nor the 'aliph, nor their %mirs, dared resist the 'rusaders. The ne"t caliph, %l$Mustanjid, sa! ,aladin e"tinguish the Fatimid dynasty after ?G@ years, and thus the %&&asids again prevailed. %l$ Mustadi reigned !hen ,aladin &ecome the sultan of 0gypt and declared allegiance to the %&&asids. %n$Iasir, MThe 2ictor for the ,eligion of )odM, attempted to restore the 'aliphate to its ancient dominant role. De consistently held ra) from Tikrit to the +ulf !ithout interruption. Dis forty$seven year reign !as chiefly marked &y am&itious and corrupt dealings !ith the Tartar chiefs, and &y his ha#ardous invocation of the Mongols, !hich ended his dynasty. Dis son, %#$Nahir, !as 'aliph for a short period &efore his death and %n$Iasir/s grandson, %l$Mustansir, !as made caliph. %l$Mustansir founded the Mustansiriya Madrasah. n 6?AG Zgedei <han commanded to raise up <horassan and populated Derat. The Mongol military governors mostly made their camp in Mughan plain, %#er&aijan. The rulers of Mosul and 'ilician %rmenia surrendered. 'horma)an divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts &ased on military hierarchy. =B7> n +eorgia, the population !ere temporarily divided into eight tumens.=B8> 1y 6?AH the Mongol 0mpire had su&jugated most of 3ersia, e"cluding %&&asid ra) and smaili strongholds, and all of %fghanistan and <ashmir.=F@>

%l$Musta/sim !as the last %&&asid 'aliph in 1aghdad and is noted for his opposition to the rise of ,hajar al$2urr to the 0gyptian throne during the ,eventh 'rusade. To the east, Mongol forces under Dulagu <han s!ept through the Transo"iana and <horasan. 1aghdad !as sacked and the caliph deposed soon after!ards. The Mamluk sultans and ,yria later appointed a po!erless %&&asid 'aliph in 'airo.=citation needed> [edit] Cairo #&&asid Caliphs /bbasid #shadow# caliph of !airo 0ate Middle /ges

!onsult particular article for details The %&&asid Mshado!M caliph of 'airo reigned under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans and nominal rulers used to legitimi#e the actual rule of the Mamluk sultans. %ll the 'airene %&&asid caliphs !ho preceded or succeeded %l$Musta/in !ere spiritual heads lacking any temporal po!er. %l$Musta/in !as the only 'airo$&ased %&&asid caliph to even &riefly hold political po!er. %l$ Muta!akkil !as the last Mshado!M caliph. n 6F6H, (ttoman sultan ,elim defeated the Mamluk ,ultanate, and made 0gypt part of the (ttoman 0mpire.=citation needed>

[edit] -atimid *mpire

Main article: Fatimids

The /l *a1im Mosque 'airo, 0gypt- south of 1a& %l$Futuh M slamic 'airoM &uilding !as named after %l$Dakim &i$%mr %llah, &uilt &y Fatimid vi#ier +a!har %l$,i)illi, and e"tended &y 1adr al$+amali. The Fatimids originated in fri)iya 5modern$day Tunisia and eastern %lgeria9. The dynasty !as founded in 8@8 &y Abdullh alMahd Billah, !ho legitimised his claim through descent from Muhammad &y !ay of his daughter FStima as$Nahra and her hus&and Al ibn-Ab-Tlib, the first Sha mSm, hence the name al F3timiyy4n MFatimidM.=citation needed> %&dullSh al$Mahdi/s control soon e"tended over all of central Maghre&, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, %lgeria, Tunisia and 4i&ya, !hich he ruled from Mahdia, his capital in Tunisia.=citation needed> The Fatimids entered 0gypt in the late 6@th century, con)uering the khshidid dynasty and founding a capital at al +3hira5'airo9 in 8G8.=F6> The name !as a reference to the planet Mars, MThe ,u&duerM, !hich !as prominent in the sky at the moment that city construction started. 'airo !as intended as a royal enclosure for the Fatimid caliph and his army, though the actual administrative and economic capital of 0gypt !as in cities such as Fustat until 66G8. %fter 0gypt, the Fatimids continued to con)uer surrounding areas until they ruled from Tunisia to ,yria and even crossed the Mediterranean into ,icily and southern taly. *nder the Fatimids, 0gypt &ecame the center of an empire that included at its peak Iorth %frica, ,icily, =3alestine, 4e&anon, ,yria, the Ced ,ea coast of %frica, Kemen and the Deja#.=F?> 0gypt flourished, and the Fatimids developed an e"tensive trade net!ork in &oth the Mediterranean and the ndian (cean. Their trade and diplomatic ties e"tended all the !ay to 'hina and its ,ong 2ynasty, !hich determined the economic course of 0gypt during the Digh Middle %ges. *nlike other governments in the area, Fatimid advancement in state offices !as &ased more on merit than heredity. Mem&ers of other &ranches of slam, including ,unnis, !ere just as likely to &e appointed to government posts as ,hiites. Tolerance covered non$

Muslims such as 'hristians and Je!s- they took high levels in government &ased on a&ility. =FA> There !ere, ho!ever, e"ceptions to this general attitude of tolerance, nota&ly %l$Dakim &i$%mr %llah. The Fatimid palace !as in t!o parts. t !as in the <han el$<halili area at 1in 0l$.uasryn street.=FB> [edit] -atimid caliphs .arly and *igh Middle /ges

!onsult particular article for details /lso see: 'airo %&&asid 'aliphs 5a&ove9 2uring the &eginning of the Middle 1aghdad %&&asids, the Fatimid 'aliphs claimed spiritual supremacy not only in 0gypt, &ut also contested the religious leadership of ,yria. %t the &eginning of the %&&asid realm in 1aghdad, the %lids faced severe persecution &y the ruling party as they !ere a direct threat to the 'aliphate. (!ing to the %&&asid in)uisitions, the forefathers opted for concealment of the 2a!a/s e"istence. ,u&se)uently, they traveled to!ards the ranian 3lateau and distanced themselves from the epicenter of the political !orld. %l Mahdi/s father, %l Dusain al Mastoor returned to control the 2a!a/s affairs. De sent t!o 2ai/s to Kemen and Western %frica. %l Dusain died soon after the &irth of his son, %l Mahdi. % system of information gatherers helped update %l Mahdi on each development !hich took place in Iorth %frica.=citation needed> %l Mahdi esta&lished the first mam of the Fatimid dynasty. De claimed genealogic origins dating as far &ack as Fatimah through Dusayn and smail. %l Mahdi esta&lished his head)uarters at ,alamiyah and moved to!ards north$!estern %frica, under %ghla&id rule. Dis success of laying claim to &eing the precursor to the Mahdi !as instrumental among the 1er&er tri&es of Iorth %frica, specifically the <utamah tri&e. %l Mahdi esta&lished himself at the former %ghla&id residence at Ca))adah, a su&ur& of %l$.ayra!an in Tunisia. %t the time of his death he had e"tended his reign to Morocco of the drisids, as !ell as 0gypt itself. n 8?@, %l Mahdi took

up residence at the ne!ly esta&lished capital of the empire, %l$Mahdiyyah. %fter his death, %l Mahdi !as succeeded &y his son, %&u %l$.asim Muhammad %l$.aim, !ho continued his e"pansionist policy. =citation needed>

[edit] %er&ers and I&erian Umayyads

The interiors of the %lham&ra in +ranada, ,pain decorated !ith ara&es)ue designs. Main articles: *mayyad con)uest of Dispania, %l$%ndalus, and Taifa

The %ra&s, under the command of the 1er&er +eneral Tarik i&n Niyad, first &egan their con)uest of southern ,pain or al$%ndalus in H66. % raiding party led &y Tarik !as sent to intervene in a civil !ar in the Qisigothic kingdom in Dispania. 'rossing the ,trait of +i&raltar 5named after the +eneral9, it !on a decisive victory in the summer of H66 !hen the Qisigothic king Coderic !as defeated and killed on July 68 at the 1attle of +uadalete. Tari)/s commander, Musa &in Iusair crossed !ith su&stantial reinforcements, and &y H67 the Muslims dominated most of the peninsula. ,ome later %ra&ic and 'hristian sources present an earlier raid &y a certain Srif in H6@ and also, the %d ,e&astianum recension of the !hronicle of /lfonso III, refers to an %ra& attack incited &y 0r!ig during the reign of Wam&a 5GH?P7@9. The t!o large armies may have &een in the south for a year &efore the decisive &attle !as fought.=FF> The rulers of %l$%ndalus !ere granted the rank of 0mir &y the *mayyad 'aliph %l$Walid in 2amascus. %fter the %&&asids came to po!er, some *mayyads fled to Muslim ,pain to esta&lish themselves there. 1y the end of the 6@th century, the ruler %&d al$Cahman took over the title of .mir of !5rdoba586?$8G69.=FG> ,oon after, the *mayyads !ent on developing a strengthened state !ith its capital as 'Erdo&a. %l$Dakam succeeded to the 'aliphate after the death of his father %&d ar$Cahman in 8G6. De secured peace !ith the 'hristian kingdoms of northern &eria,=FH> and made use of the sta&ility to develop agriculture through the construction of irrigation !orks.=F7> 0conomical development !as also encouraged through the !idening of streets and the &uilding of markets. The rule of the 'aliphate is kno!n as the heyday of Muslim presence in the peninsula.=F8> The *mayyad 'aliphate collapsed in 6@A6 due to political divisions and civil unrest during the rule of Dicham !ho !as ousted &ecause of his indolence.=G@> %l$%ndalus then &roke up into a num&er of states called taifa 1ingdoms 5%ra&ic, Mulu1 al aw36if0nglish, 3etty kingdoms9. The decomposition of the 'aliphate into those petty kingdoms !eakened the Muslims in the &erian 3eninsula vis 7 vis the 'hristian kingdoms of the north. ,ome of the taifas, such as that of ,eville, !ere forced to enter into alliances !ith 'hristian princes and pay tri&utes in money to 'astille.=G6> ,ee also: Cecon)uista and Timeline of the Muslim presence in the &erian peninsula [edit] *mirs of C.rdo&a Main article: 0mirs of 'Erdo&a

!onsult particular article for details %&d al$Cahman and 1edr 5a former +reek slave9 escaped !ith their lives after the popular revolt kno!n as the %&&asid Cevolution. Cahman continued south through 3alestine, the ,inai, and then into 0gypt. Cahman !as one of several surviving *mayyad family mem&ers to make a perilous trek to fri)iya at this time. Cahman and 1edr reached modern day Morocco near 'euta. Ie"t step !ould &e to cross to sea to al$%ndalus, !here Cahman could not have &een sure !hether he !ould &e !elcome. Follo!ing the 1er&er Cevolt 5HB@s9, the province !as in a state of confusion, !ith the *mmah torn &y tri&al dissensions among the %ra&s and racial tensions &et!een the %ra&s and 1er&ers. 1edr lined up three ,yrian commanders P (&eid %llah i&n *thman and %&d %llah i&n <halid, &oth originally of 2amascus, and Kusuf i&n 1ukht of .innasrin and contacted al$,umayl 5then in Narago#a9 to get his consent, &ut al$,umayl refused, fearing Cahman !ould try to make himself emir. %fter discussion !ith Kemenite commanders, Cahman !as told to go to al$%ndalus. ,hortly thereafter, he set off !ith 1edr and a small group of follo!ers for 0urope. %&d al$Cahman landed at %lmu[\car in al$%ndalus, to the east of MVlaga. 2uring his &rief time in MVlaga, he )uickly amassed local support. Ie!s of the prince/s arrival spread throughout the peninsula. n order to help speed his ascension to po!er, he took advantage of the feuds and dissensions. Do!ever, &efore anything could &e done, trou&le &roke out in northern al$%ndalus. %&d al$Cahman and his follo!ers !ere a&le to control Narago#a. Cahman fought to rule al$ %ndalus in a &attle at the +uadal)uivir river, just outside of 'Erdo&a on the plains of Musarah 51attle of Musarah9. Cahman !as victorious, chasing his enemies from the field !ith parts of their army. Cahman marched into the capital, 'Erdo&a, fighting off a counterattack, &ut negotiations ended the confrontation. %fter Cahman consolidated po!er, he proclaimed himself the al$%ndalus emir. Cahman did not claim the Muslim caliph, though.=G?> The last step !as to have al$Fihri/s general, al$,umayl, garroted in 'Erdo&a/s jail. %l$%ndalus !as a safe haven for the house of *mayya that managed to evade the %&&asids.=citation needed> n 1aghdad, the %&&asid caliph al$Mansur had planned to depose the emir. Cahman and his army confronted the %&&asids, killing most of the %&&asid army. The main %&&asid leaders !ere decapitated, their heads preserved in salt, !ith identifying tags pinned to their ears. The heads !ere &undled in a gruesome package and sent to the %&&asid caliph !ho !as on pilgrimage at Mecca. Cahman

)uelled repeated re&ellions in al$%ndalus. Iear the end of his life, it is said that %&d al$Cahman &ecame increasingly paranoid and se)uestered himself in his palaces.=citation needed>

The e"terior of the Me#)uita. Cahman /s successor !as his son Disham . 1orn in 'Erdo&a, he &uilt many mos)ues and completed the Me#)uita. De called for a jihad that resulted in a campaign against the <ingdom of %sturias and the 'ounty of Toulouse- in this second campaign he !as defeated at (range &y William of +ellone, first cousin to 'harlemagne. Dis successor %l$Dakam came to po!er and !as challenged &y his uncles, other sons of Cahman . (ne, %&dallah, !ent to the court of 'harlemagne in %i"$la$'hapelle to negotiate for aid. n the mean time 'Erdo&a !as attacked, &ut !as defended. Dakam spent much of his reign suppressing re&ellions in Toledo, ,aragossa and M\rida.=citation needed> %&d ar$Cahman succeeded his father and engaged in nearly continuous !arfare against %lfonso of %sturias, !hose south!ard advance he halted. Cahman repulsed an assault &y Qikings !ho had disem&arked in 'adi#, con)uered ,eville 5!ith the e"ception of its citadel9 and attacked 'Erdo&a. Thereafter he constructed a fleet and naval arsenal at ,eville to repel future raids. De responded to William of ,eptimania/s re)uests of assistance in his struggle against 'harles the 1ald/s nominations.=citation needed> Muhammad /s reign !as marked &y the movements of the Muladi 5ethnic &erian Muslims9 and Mo#ara&s 5Muslim$ &eria 'hristians9. Muhammad !as succeeded &y his son Mundhir . 2uring the reign of his father, Mundhir commanded military operations against the neigh&ouring 'hristian kingdoms and the Muladi re&ellions. %t his father/s death, he inherited the throne. 2uring his t!o year

reign, Mundhir fought against *mar i&n Dafsun. De died in 777 at 1o&astro, succeeded &y his &rother %&dullah i&n Muhammad al$ *ma!i. *ma!i sho!ed no reluctance to dispose of those he vie!ed as a threat. Dis government !as marked &y continuous !ars &et!een %ra&s, 1er&ers and Muladi. Dis po!er as emir !as confined to the area of 'Erdo&a, !hile the rest had &een sei#ed &y re&el families. The son he had designated as successor !as killed &y one of *ma!i/s &rothers. The latter !as in turn e"ecuted &y *ma!i/s father, !ho named as successor %&d ar$Cahman , son of the killed son of *ma!i.=citation needed> [edit] Caliphs at C.rdo&a Main article: 'aliphate of 'Erdo&a

!onsult particular article for details Cahman to help in his fight against the invasion &y the Fatimids claimed the 'aliphate in opposition to the generally recogni#ed %&&asid 'aliph of 1aghdad.=citation needed> [edit] #lmora id Ifri,iyah and I&eria Main article: %lmoravid dynasty

!onsult particular article for details fri)iyah, &erian [edit] #lmohad caliphs Main article: %lmohad dynasty

!onsult particular article for details

[edit] The Crusades

Main article: The 'rusades

,aladin and +uy of 4usignan after 1attle of Dattin

+ist of Crusades .arly period ] First 'rusade 6@8FP6@88 ] ,econd 'rusade 66BHP66B8 ] Third 'rusade 667HP668? 0ow 8eriod ] Fourth 'rusade 6?@?P6?@B ] Fifth 'rusade 6?6HP6??6 ] ,i"th 'rusade 6??7P6??8 0ate period ] ,eventh 'rusade 6?B7P6?FB ] 0ighth 'rusade 6?H@ ] Iinth 'rusade 6?H6P6?H? 1eginning in the 7th century, the &erian 'hristian kingdoms had &egun the Cecon)uista aimed at retaking %l$%ndalus from the Moors. n 6@8F, 3ope *r&an , inspired &y the con)uests in ,pain &y 'hristian forces and implored &y the eastern Coman emperor to help defend 'hristianity in the 0ast, called for the First 'rusade from Western 0urope !hich captured (dessa, %ntioch, Tripoli and Jerusalem.=citation needed> n the early period of the 'rusades, the 'hristian <ingdom of Jerusalem emerged and for a time controlled Jerusalem. The <ingdom of Jerusalem and other smaller 'rusader kingdoms over the ne"t 8@ years formed part of the complicated politics of the 4evant, &ut did not in threaten the slamic 'aliphate nor other po!ers in the region. %fter ,hirkuh ended Fatimid rule in 66G8, uniting it !ith ,yria, the 'rusader kingdoms !ere faced !ith a threat, and his nephe! ,aladin recon)uered most of the area in 667H, leaving the 'rusaders holding a fe! ports.=citation needed> n the Third 'rusade armies from 0urope failed to recapture Jerusalem, though 'rusader states lingered for several decades, and other crusades follo!ed. The 'hristian Cecon)uista continued in %l$%ndalus, and !as eventually completed !ith the fall of +ranada in 6B8?. 2uring the lo! period of the 'rusades, the Fourth 'rusade !as diverted from the 4evant and instead took 'onstantinople, leaving the 0astern Coman 0mpire 5no! the 1y#antine 0mpire9 further !eakened in their long struggle against the Turkish peoples to the east. Do!ever, the crusaders did manage to damage slamic caliphates- preventing them from further e"pansion into 'hristendom and targets of the Mamluks and the Mongols.=citation needed>

,ee also: Digh Middle %ges, Frankokratia, and 'rusader states [edit] #yyu&id dynasty Main article: %yyu&id dynasty The %yyu&id dynasty !as founded &y ,aladin and centered in 0gypt. n 66HB, ,aladin proclaimed himself ,ultan and con)uered the Iear 0ast region. The %yyu&ids ruled much of the Middle 0ast during the 6?th and 6Ath centuries, controlling 0gypt, ,yria, northern Mesopotamia, Deja#, Kemen, and the Iorth %frican coast up to the &orders of modern$day Tunisia. %fter ,aladin, his sons contested control over the sultanate, &ut ,aladin/s &rother al$%dil eventually esta&lished himself in 6?@@. n the 6?A@s, ,yria/s %yyu&id rulers attempted to !in independence from 0gypt and remained divided until 0gyptian ,ultan as$,alih %yyu& restored %yyu&id unity &y taking over most of ,yria, e"cluding %leppo, &y 6?BH. n 6?F@, the dynasty in the 0gyptian region !as overthro!n &y slave regiments. % num&er of attempts to recover it failed, led &y an$Iasir Kusuf of %leppo. n 6?G@, the Mongols sacked %leppo and !rested control of !hat remained of the %yyu&id territories soon after.=citation needed> [edit] $ultans of *gypt

!onsult particular article for details [edit] $ultans and *mirs of Damascus

!onsult particular article for details [edit] *mirs of #leppo

!onsult particular article for details

[edit] Mongol in asions

,ee also: lkhanate and +olden Dorde

The Mongol ruler, +ha#an, studying the .uran. %fter the 'rusades the Mongols invaded in the 6Ath century, marking the end of the slamic +olden %ge. ,ome historians assert that the eastern slamic !orld never fully recovered. *nder the leadership of +enghis <han, The Mongols ended to the %&&asid era. The

Mongol invasion of 'entral %sia &egan in 6?68 at a huge cost in civilian life and economic devastation. The Mongols spread throughout 'entral %sia and 3ersia: the 3ersian city of sfahan had fallen to them &y 6?AH.=citation needed> With the election of <han Mongke in 6?F6, Mongol targeted the %&&asid capital, 1aghdad. Mongke/s &rother, Dulegu, !as made leader of the Mongol %rmy assigned to the task of su&duing 1aghdad. The fall of 1agdhad in 6?F7 destroyed !hat had &een the largest city in slam. The last %&&asid caliph, al$Musta/sim, !as captured and killed- and 1aghdad !as ransacked and destroyed. The cities of 2amascus and %leppo fell in 6?G@. 3lans for the con)uest of 0gypt !ere delayed due to the death of Mongke at around the same time. The %&&asid army lost to the superior Mongol army, &ut the invaders !ere finally stopped &y 0gyptian Mamluks north of Jerusalem in 6?G@.=citation needed> *ltimately, the lkhanate, +olden Dorde, and the 'hagatai <hanate $ three of the four principal Mongol khanates $ em&raced slam.=GA> =GB>=GF> n po!er in ,yria, Mesopotamia, 3ersia and further east, over the rest of the 6Ath century gradually all converted to slam. Most lkhanid rulers !ere replaced &y the ne! Mongol po!er founded &y Timur 5himself a Muslim9, !ho con)uered 3ersia in the 6AG@s, and moved against the 2elhi ,ultanate in ndia and the (ttoman Turks in %natolia. Dis invasions !ere e)ually destructive, sacking 1agdhad, 2amascus, 2elhi and many other cities, !ith enormous loss of life. Timur had attacked areas still recovering from the 1lack 2eath, !hich may have killed one third of the population of the Middle 0ast. The plague &egan in 'hina, and reached %le"andria in 0gypt in 6ABH, spreading over the follo!ing years to most slamic areas. The com&ination of the plague and the !ars left the Middle 0astern slamic !orld in a seriously !eakened position. The Timurid dynasty !ould found had many &ranches of slam, including the Mughals of ndia.=citation needed>

[edit] The Mamlu/s

n 6?F@, the %yyu&id 0gyptian dynasty !as overthro!n &y slave regiments, and the Mamluk ,ultanate !as &orn. n the 6?G@s, the Mongols sacked and control the slamic Iear 0ast territories. The Mamluks, !ho !ere Turkic, forced out the Mongols 5see 1attle of %in Jalut9 after the final destruction of the %yyu&id dynasty. Thus they united ,yria and 0gypt for the longest interval &et!een the %&&asid and (ttoman empires 56?F@P6F6H9.=GG> The Mamluks e"perienced a continual state of political conflict, military tension, pro"y !ars, and economic competition &et!een the MMuslim territoryM 52ar al$ slam9 and Mnon$Muslim territoryM 52ar al$Dar&9.=citation

%s part of their chosen role as defenders of slamic orthodo"y, the Mamluks sponsored numerous religious &uildings, including mos)ues, madrasas and khan)ahs. Though some construction took place in the provinces, the vast &ulk of these projects e"panded the capital. Many Mamluk &uildings in 'airo survive, particularly in (ld 'airo.=citation needed> [edit] %ahri $ultans Main article: 1ahri dynasty

!onsult particular article for details % former Mamluk slave !ho !as &orn a prince, %y&ak 5kno!n as 0ion of /in 9aloot9 replaced the Mamluks in 6?F@. %y&ak, &y then a general, married ,hajar al$2urr, the !ido! of %yyu&id caliph al$,alih %yyu&. Military prestige !as at the center of Mamluk society, and it played a key role in the confrontations !ith the Mongol forces. %fter %y&ak/s assassination and the accession of .utu# in 6?F8, the Mamluks challenged and routed the Mongols at the 1attle of %in Jalut in late 6?G@. The Mongols !ere again defeated &y the Mamluks at the 1attle of Dims a fe! months later, and then driven out of ,yria altogether.=A6> With this, the Mamluks !ere a&le to concentrate their forces and to con)uer the last of the crusader territories in the 4evant. [edit] %urji $ultans Main article: 1urji dynasty

0astern Mediterranean 6BF@

!onsult particular article for details See also: slamic 0gypt governors, Mamluks 0ra The glo&al Muslim population had reached a&out 7 per cent of the !orld total as against the 'hristian population of 6B per cent &y 6B@@.

#frican region
Main article: slam in %frica

The first continent outside of %ra&ia to have an slamic history !as %frica, particularly %&yssinia 5modern day 0thiopia via modern day 0ritrea9.=citation needed> Maghre& region

The +reat Mos)ue of <airouan also kno!n as the Mos)ue of *)&a !as founded in GH@ &y the %ra& general and con)ueror *)&a i&n Iafi, it is the oldest mos)ue in the Maghre&, situated in the city of <airouan, Tunisia. <airouan in Tunisia !as the first city founded &y Muslims in the Maghre&. %ra& general *)&a i&n Iafi erected the city 5in GH@9 and, in the same time, the +reat Mos)ue of <airouan=GH> considered as the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the !estern slamic !orld.=G7> This part of slamic territory has had independent governments during most of slamic history. The drisid !ere the first %ra& rulers in the !estern Maghre& 5Morocco9, ruling from H77 to 87F. The dynasty is named after its first sultan dris .=citation needed> The %lmoravid dynasty !as a 1er&er dynasty from the ,ahara flourished over a !ide area of Iorth$Western %frica and the &erian 3eninsula during the 66th century. *nder this dynasty the Moorish empire !as e"tended over present$day Morocco, Western ,ahara, Mauritania, +i&raltar, Tlemcen 5in %lgeria9 and a part of !hat is no! ,enegal and Mali in the south, and ,pain and 3ortugal in the north.=citation needed> The %lmohad 2ynasty or Mthe *nitariansM, !ere a 1er&er Muslim religious po!er !hich founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 6?th century, and con)uered all Iorthern %frica as far as 0gypt, together !ith %l$%ndalus.=citation needed>

*ast #frican region slam came to 0ast %frica along e"isting trade routes.=G8> They learned from them the manners of the Muslims and this led to their conversion &y the Muslim %ra&s. slam in 0ast %frica dates &ack to the hijra- in G6F, a group of Muslims !ere counseled &y Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to %&yssinia 5an act kno!n as the First migration to %&yssinia9, !hich !as ruled &y, in Muhammad/s estimation, a pious 'hristian king named al %a:ashi 5Iegus, <ing of %&yssinia9. The people overthre! the current ruler. slamic tradition states that the first mue##in, 1ilal al$Da&eshi, !as a companion of Muhammad from %&yssinia 5*abasha9.=H@> 0ast %frican slamic governments centered in Tan#ania 5then Nan#i&ar9. The people of ;ayd !ere Muslims that immigrated to 0ast %frica. n pre$colonial 0ast %frica, the structure of slamic authority !as held up through the "lema 5wanawyuonis, in ,!ahili language9. These leaders had some degree of authority over most of the Muslims in 0ast %frica &efore territorial &oundaries !ere esta&lished. The chief .adi there !as recogni#ed for having the final religious authority.=H6> 0est #frican region Much later, *sman dan Fodio after the Fulani War, found himself in command of the largest state in %frica, the Fulani 0mpire. 2an Fodio !orked to esta&lish an efficient government grounded in slamic la!s. %lready aged at the &eginning of the !ar, he retired in 676F passing the title of ,ultan of ,okoto to his son Muhammed 1ello.=citation needed>

#sia and the -ar *ast

Main article: slam in %sia $outh #sia

The Taj Mahal Main article: Muslim con)uest in the ndian su&continent (n the ndian su&continent, slam first appeared in the south!estern tip of the peninsula, in today/s <erala state. %ra&s traded !ith Mala&ar even &efore the &irth of Muhammad. Iative legends say that a group of ,aha&a, under Malik &n 2eenar, arrived on the Mala&ar 'oast and preached slam. %ccording to that legend, the first mos)ue of ndia !as &uilt &y ,econd 'hera <ing 'heraman 3erumal, !ho accepted slam and received the name Ta:udheen. De traveled to %ra&ia to meet Muhammad and died on the trip &ack, some!here in today/s (man. Distorical records suggest that the 'heraman 3erumal Mos)ue !as &uilt in Dijra F 5G?89.=citation needed> slamic rule came to ndia in the 7th century, !hen Muhammad &in .asim con)uered ,indh. Muslim con)uests e"panded under Mahmud and the +ha#navids until the late 6?th century, !hen the +hurids overran the +ha#navids and e"tended the con)uests in Iorthern ndia. .ut&$ud$din %y&ak con)uered 2elhi in 6?@G and &egan the reign of the 2elhi ,ultanates.=citation needed> n the 6Bth century, %lauddin <hilji e"tended Muslim rule south to +ujarat, Cajasthan and 2eccan. Qarious other Muslim dynasties also formed and ruled across ndia from the 6Ath to the 67th century such as the .ut& ,hahi and the 1ahmani, &ut none rivalled the po!er and e"tensive reach of the Mughal 0mpire at its peak.=citation needed> ,ee also: slam in ndia China

Further information< *istory of Islam in !hina n 'hina, four ,aha&as 5,a/ad i&n a&i Wa))as, Wah& %&u <a&cha, Jafar i&n %&u Tali& and Jahsh9 preached in G6GO6H and on!ards after follo!ing the 'hittagongP<amrupPManipur route after sailing from %&yssinia in G6FO6G. %fter con)uering 3ersia in GAG, ,a/ad i&n a&i Wa))as !ent !ith ,a/id i&n Naid, .ais i&n ,a/d and Dassan i&n Tha&it to 'hina in GAH taking the complete .uran. ,a/ad i&n a&i Wa))as headed for 'hina for the third time in GF@$F6 after 'aliph *thman asked him to lead an em&assy to 'hina, !hich the 'hinese emperor received.=citation needed>

$outheast #sia
,ee also: The spread of slam in ndonesia 56?@@ to 6G@@9 Many of historian predict that slam reached ,outh 0ast %sia, espescially !estern part of ndonesia %rchipelago on the 6Ath 'entury. 1ut, More than T!o Thousands years ago %ra& traders from Kaman had &een connected to other far east %sia through trading and traveling &y sea. The trader from %ra& is the intermediary trader &et!een 0urope to %frican, ndian, ,outh 0ast %sian, and Far 0ast %sian, including Japan and 'hina. They !ere not just sold goods from %ra&, &ut also goods from %frica, ndia, and so on, such as ivory, fragrance, spice, seasoning, gold, etc.=H?> slam reached the islands of ,outheast %sia through traders from Mecca in the first century of slamic 'alendar or in the Hth century.=A6> The traders !ho also a good slamic 1elievers !as mingled to native. n their interaction, many of the native in south east %sia adopt slam as their ne! faith. 1ecause slam offer them more freedom of speech, freedom of faith, and also freedom of caste in society. There are many strong possi&ility that slam had &een spread &y %ra& traders to ,outh 0ast %sia in the 6st 'entury of slamic 'alendar or Hth 'entury of 'hristianO+regorian 'alendar. This Fact is much stronger, according to T.W. %rnold in The 3reaching of slam $ n the ?nd 'entury of slamic 'alender 5Dijri9, %ra& trader had &een trade to 'eylon or ,rilangka 5island in southern part of ndia9. The same argument has &een told &y 3rof.2r. 1.D. 1urger and 3rof.2r.Mr. 3rajudi in Sed:arah .1onomis Sosiologis Indonesia 5Distory of ,ocio 0conomic of ndonesia9=HA> There are more possi&ility that slam !as spread &y %ra& Traders to ,outh 0ast %sia. %ccording to %l 1iruni, the Muslim ,cholar +eographical 0"perty, 8HA $ 6@B7 %2, in his World %tlas !ritten that ndian or ndonesia (cean used to &e call as 3ersian (cean. %fter the Western mperialist ruled, it is replaced 3ersian (cean to &e ndian (cean.=HB>

,oon, many ,ufi missionaries translated classical ,ufi literature from %ra&ic and 3ersian into Malay. 'oupled !ith the composing of original slamic literature in Malay, this led the !ay to the transformation of Malay into an slamic language.=HF> 1y 6?8?, !hen Marco 3olo visited ,umatra, most of the inha&itants had converted to slam. The ,ultanate of Malacca !as founded &y 3arames!ara, a ,rivijayan 3rince in the Malay peninsula. Through trade and commerce, slam spread to 1orneo and Java, ndonesia. 1y the late 6Fth century, slam had &een introduced to the 3hilippines.=HG> %s slam spread from Hth 'entury %2, the social changes had &een developed, from the individual faith changes to society changes. ,oon, after five centuries of mingled and interraced !ith assimilation and acculturation !ith the native south east %sia society, slam !as emerged as political po!er in the region. ,o, as slam spread, three main Muslim political po!ers emerged. %ceh, the most important Muslim po!er, !as &ased in Iorthern ,umatra. t controlled much of the area &et!een ,outheast %sia and ndia. The ,ultanate also attracted ,ufi poets. The second Muslim po!er !as the ,ultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula. The ,ultanate of 2emak !as the third po!er, appearing in Java, !here the emerging Muslim forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 6Gth century.=HH> %lthough the sultanate managed to e"pand its territory some!hat, its rule remained &rief.=A6> 3ortuguese forces captured Malacca in 6F66 under the naval general %fonso de %l&u)uer)ue. With Malacca su&dued, the %ceh ,ultanate and 1runei esta&lished themselves as centers of slam in ,outheast %sia. 1runei/s sultanate remains intact even to this day. =A6>

-ragmentation period
Three *arly Modern empires
Main article: 0arly modern history n the 6Fth and 6Gth centuries three major Muslim empires formed: the (ttoman 0mpire in the Middle 0ast, the 1alkans and Iorthern %frica- the ,afavid 0mpire in +reater ran- and the Mughul 0mpire in ,outh %sia. These imperial po!ers !ere made possi&le &y the discovery and e"ploitation of gunpo!der and more efficient administration.=H7> 1y the end of the 68th century, all three had declined, and &y the early ?@th century, !ith the (ttomans/ defeat in World War , the last Muslim empire collapsed.

2ar al$/%hd 5Douse of truce9 &egan to develop in the (ttoman 0mpire/s relationship !ith its tri&utary states. n the contemporary %ational period, the term referred to non$Muslim governments that had armistice or peace agreements !ith Muslim governments. Today, the actual status of the non$Muslim country in )uestion may vary from ackno!ledged e)uality to tri&utary states.=citation needed>

Mughal *mpire

*umayun6s Tomb in 2elhi, ndia. Main article: Mughal 0mpire The Mughal 0mpire !as a product of various 'entral %sian invasions into the ndian su&continent. t !as founded &y the Timurid prince 1a&ur in 6F?G !ith the destruction of the 2elhi sultanate, placing its capital in %gra. 1a&ur/s death some years later and the indecisive rule of his son, Dumayun, &rought insta&ility to Mughal rule. The resistance of the %fghani ,her ,hah, !ho administered a string of defeats to Dumayun, !eakened the empire. % year &efore his death, ho!ever, Dumayun managed to recover much of the lost territories, leaving a su&stantial legacy for his son, the 6A year old %k&ar 5later kno!n as /1bar the )reat9, in 6FFG. *nder %k&ar, consolidation of the Mughal 0mpire occurred through &oth e"pansion and administrative reforms. %fter %k&ar, Jahangir and ,hah Jahan came to po!er. ,u&se)uently, %uranga#e& ruled vast areas including %fghanisthan, 3akistan, ndia and 1angladesh.=A6>=H8> The empire ruled most of present$day ndia, 3akistan, 1angladesh and %fghanistan for several centuries. ts decline in the early 67th century allo!ed ndia to &e divided into smaller kingdoms and states. The Mughal dynasty !as dissolved &y the 1ritish 0mpire after the ndian re&ellion of 67FH.=A6>=H8> t left a lasting legacy on ndian culture and architecture. Famous &uildings &uilt &y the Mughals, include: the Taj Mahal, the Ced Fort, the 1adshahi Mos)ue, the 4ahore Fort, the ,halimar +ardens and the %gra Fort. 2uring the

empire/s reign, Muslim communities flourished all over ndia, in +ujarat, 1engal and Dydera&ad. Qarious ,ufi orders from %fghanistan and 3ersia !ere active throughout the region. More than a )uarter of the population converted to slam.=H8>

$afa id *mpire
Main article: ,afavids

,hah ,uleiman and his courtiers, sfahan, 6GH@. 3ainter is %li .oli Ja&&ador, and is kept at The ,t. 3eters&urg nstitute of (riental ,tudies in Cussia, ever since it !as ac)uired &y Tsar Iicholas . Iote the t!o +eorgian figures !ith their names at the top left. The ,afavids dynasty from %#ar&aijan ruled from 6F@6 to 6HAG, and !hich esta&lished T!elver ,hi/a slam as the region/s official religion and united its provinces under a single sovereignty, there&y reigniting the 3ersian identity. %lthough claiming to &e the descendants of %li i&n %&u Tali&, the ,afavids !ere ,unni 5the name M,afavidM comes from a ,ufi order called Safavi9. Their origins go &ack to Firu# ,hah Narrinkolah, a local dignitary from the north. 2uring their rule, the ,afavids recogni#ed T!elver ,hi/a slam as the ,tate religion, thus giving the region a separate identity from its ,unni neigh&ours. n 6F?B, Tahmasp acceded to the throne, initiating a revival of the arts. 'arpetmaking &ecame a major industry. The tradition of 3ersian miniature painting in manuscripts reached its peak, until Tahmasp turned to strict religious o&servance in middle age,

prohi&iting the consumption of alcohol and hashish and removing casinos, taverns and &rothels. Tahmasp/s nephe! &rahim Mir#a continued to patroni#e a last flo!ering of the arts until he !as murdered, after !hich many artists !ere recruited &y the Mughal dynasty. Tahmasp/s grandson, ,hah %&&as , restored the shrine of the eighth T!elver ,hi/a mam, %li al$Cidha at Mashhad, and restored the dynastic shrine at %rda&il. 1oth shrines received je!elry, fine manuscripts and 'hinese porcelains. %&&as moved the capital to sfahan, revived old ports, and esta&lished thriving trade !ith 0uropeans. %mongst %&&as/s most visi&le cultural achievements !as the construction of %aqsh e 9ahan Square 5M2esign of the WorldM9. The pla#a, located near a Friday mos)ue, covered ?@ acres 576,@@@ m?9.=7@>

Ottoman *mpire
Main article: (ttoman 0mpire The ,elju) Turks declined in the second half of the 6Ath century, after the Mongol invasion.=76> This resulted in the esta&lishment of multiple Turkish principalities, kno!n as &eyliks. (sman , the founder of the (ttoman dynasty, assumed leadership of one of these principalities 5,^_Yt9 in 6?76, succeeding his father 0rtu_rul. 2eclaring an independent (ttoman emirate in 6?88, (sman after!ards led it in a series of &attles !ith the 1y#antine 0mpire.=7?> 1y 6AA6, the (ttomans had captured Iicaea, the former 1y#antine capital, under the leadership of (sman/s son and successor, (rhan .=7A> Qictory at the 1attle of <osovo against the ,er&s in 6A78 then facilitated their e"pansion into 0urope. The (ttomans !ere esta&lished in the 1alkans and %natolia &y the time 1aye#id ascended to po!er in the same year, no! at the helm of a gro!ing empire.=7B> +ro!th halted !hen Mongol !arlord Timur 5also kno!n as MTamerlaneM9 captured 1aye#id in the 1attle of %nkara in 6B@?, &eginning the (ttoman nterregnum. This episode !as characteri#ed &y the division of the (ttoman territory amongst 1aye#id /s sons, !ho su&mitted to Timurid authority. When a num&er of (ttoman territories regained independent status, ruin for the 0mpire loomed. Do!ever, the empire recovered, as the youngest son of 1aye#id , Mehmed , !aged offensive campaigns against his ruling &rothers, there&y reuniting %sia Minor and declaring himself sultan in 6B6A.=A6> %round this time the (ttoman naval fleet developed, such that they !ere a&le to challenge Qenice, a naval po!er. They also attempted to recon)uer the 1alkans. 1y the time of Mehmed /s grandson, Mehmed 5ruled 6BBB R 6BBG- 6BF6 R 6B769, the (ttomans could lay siege to 'onstantinople, the capital of 1y#antium. % factor in this siege !as the use of muskets and large cannons introduced &y

the (ttomans. The 1y#antine fortress succum&ed in 6BFA, after FB days of siege. Mehmed renamed it Istanbul. Without its capital the 1y#antine 0mpire disintegrated.=A6> The future successes of the (ttomans and later empires !ould depend upon the e"ploitation of gunpo!der.=H7>

The ,uleiman Mos)ue 5,Yleymaniye 'amii9 in stan&ul !as &uilt on the order of sultan ,uleiman the Magnificent &y the (ttoman architect Mimar ,inan in 6FFH n the early 6Gth century, the ,hi/ite ,afavid dynasty assumed control in 3ersia under the leadership of ,hah smail , defeating the ruling Turcoman federation %) .oyunlu 5also called the MWhite ,heep TurkomansM9 in 6F@6. The (ttoman sultan ,elim sought to repel ,afavid e"pansion, challenging and defeating them at the 1attle of 'haldiran in 6F6B. ,elim also deposed the ruling Mamluks in 0gypt, a&sor&ing their territories in 6F6H. ,uleiman 5also kno!n as Suleiman the Magnificent9, ,elim /s successor, took advantage of the diversion of ,afavid focus to the *#&eks on the eastern frontier and recaptured 1aghdad, !hich had fallen under ,afavid control. 2espite this, ,afavid po!er remained su&stantial, rivalling the (ttomans. ,uleiman advanced deep into Dungary follo!ing the 1attle of MohVcs in 6F?G R reaching as far as the gates of Qienna thereafter, and signed a Franco$(ttoman alliance !ith Francis of France against 'harles Q of the Coman 0mpire 6@ years later. ,uleiman /s rule 56F?@ R 6FGG9 !as the ape" of the (ttoman 0mpire. The rapid 0uropean industriali#ation thereafter sent it into a relative decline.=A6>=7F>

Modern history
Main article: Modern history The modern age &rought technological and organi#ational changes to 0urope !hile the slamic region continued the patterns of earlier centuries. The +reat 3o!ers glo&ali#ed economically and coloni#ed much of the region. Ottoman *mpire partition Main article: 3artitioning of the (ttoman 0mpire

1y the end of the 68th century, the (ttoman empire had declined. The decision to &ack +ermany in World War meant they shared the 'entral 3o!ers/ defeat in that !ar. The defeat led to the overthro! of the (ttomans &y Turkish nationalists led &y the victorious general of the 1attle of +allipoli: Mustafa <emal, !ho &ecame kno!n to his people as %tatYrk, MFather of the Turks.M %tatYrk !as credited !ith renegotiating the treaty of ,:vres 568?@9 !hich ended Turkey/s involvement in the !ar and esta&lishing the modern Cepu&lic of Turkey, !hich !as recogni#ed &y the %llies in the Treaty of 4ausanne 568?A9. %tatYrk !ent on to implement an am&itious program of moderni#ation that emphasi#ed economic development and seculari#ation. De transformed Turkish culture to reflect 0uropean la!s, adopted Dindu$%ra&ic numerals, the 4atin script, separated the religious esta&lishment from the state, and emancipated !omanReven giving them the right to vote in parallel !ith !omen/s suffrage in the !est.=7G> Follo!ing World War , the vast majority of former (ttoman territory outside of %sia Minor !as handed over to the victorious 0uropean po!ers as protectorates. 2uring the !ar the %llies had promised the su&ject peoples independence in e"change for their assistance fighting the Turkish po!ers. To their dismay, they found that this system of MprotectoratesM !as a smoke$screen for their continued su&jugation &y the 1ritish and the French. The struggles for independence from their Turkish overlords and the cooperation of partisan forces !ith the 1ritish !ere romantici#ed in the stories of 1ritish secret intelligence agent T. 0. 4a!renceRlater kno!n as M4a!rence of %ra&ia.M=7H> (ttoman successor states include today/s %l&ania, 1osnia and Der#egovina, 1ulgaria, 0gypt, +reece, ra), 4e&anon, Comania, ,audi %ra&ia, ,er&ia, ,yria, Jordan, Turkey, 1alkan states, Iorth %frica and the north shore of the 1lack ,ea.=77> Many Muslim countries sought to adopt 0uropean political organi#ation and nationalism &egan to emerge in the Muslim !orld. 'ountries like 0gypt, ,yria and Turkey organi#ed their governments sought to develop national pride amongst their citi#ens. (ther places, like ra), !ere not as successful due to a lack of unity and an ina&ility to resolve age$old prejudices &et!een Muslim sects and against non$Muslims. ,ome Muslim countries, such as Turkey and 0gypt, sought to separate slam from the secular government. n other cases, such as ,audi %ra&ia, the government &rought out religious e"pression in the re$emergence of the puritanical form of ,unni slam kno!n to its detractors as Waha&ism, !hich found its !ay into the ,audi royal family. ,ee also: (ttoman 'aliphate and Turkish War of ndependence Indian partition Main article: 3artition of ndia

The partition of India refers to the creation in %ugust 68BH of the no! sovereign states of ndia and 3akistan. The t!o nations !ere formed out of the former 1ritish Caj, including treaty states, !hen 1ritain granted independence to the area 5see *ndivided ndia9. n particular, the term refers to the partition of 1engal and 3unja&, the t!o main provinces of !hat !ould &e 3akistan.=citation needed> n 68BH, after the partition of ndia, 3akistan &ecame the largest slamic country in the !orld 5&y population9 and the tenth largest post$World War state in the modern !orld. n 68H6, after a &loody !ar of independence, the 1engal part of 3akistan &ecame an independent state called 1angladesh. 3akistan in the contemporary era is the second largest slamic country in the !orld, follo!ing ndonesia. 3akistan is the only nuclear po!er among predominantly Muslim nations.=citation needed> 1ost-2345 era 1et!een 68FA and 68GB, <ing ,aud reorgani#ed the government of the monarchy his father, &n ,aud, had created. ,audi %ra&ia/s ministries included 'ommunication 568FA9, %griculture and Water 568FA9, 3etroleum 568G@9, 3ilgrimage and slamic 0ndo!ments 568G@9, 4a&our and ,ocial %ffairs 568G?9 and nformation 568GA9. De also put Talal, one of his many younger &rothers 5?8 years his junior9 in charge of the Ministry of Transport.=citation needed> n 68F7$F8, Talal proposed the formation of a Iational 'ouncil. %s he proposed it, it !ould have &een a consultative &ody, not a legislature. ,till, he thought of it as a first step to!ard &roader popular participation in the government. Talal presented this proposal to the king !hen the 'ro!n 3rince !as out of the country. ,aud for!arded the proposal to the ulama asking them !hether a Iational 'ouncil !as a legitimate institution in slam. The idea then disappeared until it !as revived more than three decades later. % 'onsultative 'ouncil came into e"istence in 688?.=citation needed> The (rgani#ation of 3etroleum 0"porting 'ountries came into e"istence in 68G@. For the first decade or more of its e"istence, it !as una&le to increase revenue for the mem&er nations. Tension &et!een Faisal and ,aud continued to mount until a sho!do!n in 68GB. ,aud threatened to mo&ili#e the Coyal +uard against Faisal and Faisal threatened to mo&ili#e the Iational +uard against ,aud. ,aud then a&dicated and left for 'airo, then +reece, !here he !ould die in 68G8. Faisal then &ecame <ing.=citation needed> The ,i"$2ay War of June FP6@, 68GH, !as fought &et!een srael and the neigh&ouring states of 0gypt, Jordan, and ,yria. t closed the ,ue# canal, and may have contri&uted to the revolution in 4i&ya that put Muammar al$+addafi in po!er. t led in May 68H@ to the closure of the MtaplineM from ,audi %ra&ia through ,yria to 4e&anon. These developments had the effect of increasing the importance of petroleum in 4i&ya, !hich is a short 5and canal$free9 shipping distance from 0urope.=citation needed>

n 68H@, (ccidental 3etroleum &roke !ith other oil companies and accepted .addafi/s demands for price increases.=citation needed> n (cto&er 68HA, another !ar &et!een srael and its Muslim neigh&ors, kno!n as the Kom <ippur War, &roke out just as oil company &egan meeting !ith (30' leaders. (30' had &een em&oldened &y the success of 4i&ya/s demands and the !ar strengthened their unity.=citation needed> The %ra& defeats in 68GH and 68HA triggered the 68HA oil crisis. n response to the emergency resupply effort &y the West that ena&led srael to defeat 0gyptian and ,yrian forces, the %ra& !orld imposed the 68HA oil em&argo against the *nited ,tates and Western 0urope. Faisal agreed that ,audi %ra&ia !ould use some of its oil !ealth to finance the Mfront$line statesM, those that &ordered srael, in their struggle.=citation needed> The centrality of petroleum, the %ra&$ sraeli 'onflict and political and economic insta&ility and uncertainty remain constant features of the politics of the region.=citation needed> 1ersian re olutions The ranian 'onstitutional Cevolution took place &et!een 68@F and 6866. The revolution marked the &eginning of the end of ran/s feudalistic society and led to the esta&lishment of a parliament in 3ersia and the restriction of the po!er of the ,hah 5king9. ran approved its first constitution at this time. The modernist and conservative &locks then &egan to fight !ith each other. World War intervened and all of the com&atants invaded ran. This !eakened the government and threatened the country/s independence. The constitutional monarchy created &y the decree of Mo##afar al$2in ,hah that !as esta&lished in 3ersia as a result of the Cevolution, !as damaged in 68?F !ith the dissolution of the .ajar dynasty and the ascension of Ce#a ,hah 3ahlavi to the throne.=citation needed> n 68H8 the ranian Cevolution transformed ran from a constitutional monarchy, under ,hah Mohammad Ce#a 3ahlavi, to a populist theocratic slamic repu&lic under the rule of %yatollah Cuhollah <homeini, a ,hi;i Muslim cleric and mar:a. Follo!ing the Cevolution, and a ne! constitution !as approved and a referendum esta&lished the government, electing Cuhollah <homeini as ,upreme 4eader. 2uring the follo!ing t!o years, li&erals, leftists, and slamic groups fought each other, and the slamics captured po!er. %t the same time, the *.,., the *,,C, and most of the %ra& governments of the Middle 0ast feared that their dominance in the region !ould &e challenged &y the slamic ideology, so they encouraged and supported ,addam Dussein to invade ran, !hich resulted in the ran$ ra) !ar.=citation needed>

Contemporary 6ational period

slam in the modern !orld ,unni countries ,hia countries &adi countries

6ational period
Main article: 'ontemporary history [edit] #ra&-Israeli conflict Main article: %ra&$ sraeli conflict The %ra&$ sraeli conflict spans a&out a century of political tensions and open hostilities. t involves the esta&lishment of the modern ,tate of srael as a Je!ish nation state, the conse)uent displacement of the 3alestinian people, as !ell as the adverse relationship &et!een the %ra& nations and the state of srael 5see related sraeli$3alestinian conflict9. 2espite at first involving only the %ra& states &ordering srael, animosity has also developed &et!een other Muslim nations and srael. Many countries, individuals and non$ governmental organi#ations else!here in the !orld feel involved in this conflict for reasons such as cultural and religious ties !ith slam, %ra& culture, 'hristianity, Judaism, Je!ish culture or for ideological, human rights, or strategic reasons. While some consider the %ra&$ sraeli conflict a part of 5or a precursor to9 a !ider clash of civili#ations &et!een the Western World and the %ra& or Muslim !orld,=78>=8@> others oppose this vie!.=86> %nimosity emanating from this conflict has caused numerous attacks on supporters 5or perceived supporters9 of each side &y supporters of the other side in many countries around the !orld.

#natolian region Main articles: slam in Turkey and ,ecularism in Turkey ,ince the esta&lishment of the Cepu&lic of Turkey in 68?A, there has &een a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey esta&lished and institutionali#ed &y %tatYrk/s Ceforms. %lthough the First +rand Iational %ssem&ly of Turkey had rallied support from the population for the ndependence War against the occupying forces on &ehalf of slamic principles, slam !as omitted from the pu&lic sphere after the ndependence War. The principle of secularism !as thus inserted in the Turkish 'onstitution as late as 68AH. This legal action !as assisted &y stringent state policies against domestic slamist groups and esta&lishments to neutrali#e the strong appeal of slam in Turkish society. 0ven though an over!helming majority of the population, at least nominally, adheres to slam in Turkey, the state, !hich !as esta&lished !ith the <emalist ideology has no official religion nor promotes any and it monitors the area &et!een the religions using the 3residency of Celigious %ffairs. The Cepu&lic 3rotests !ere a series of mass rallies &y Turkish secular citi#ens that took place in Turkey in ?@@H. The target of the first protest !as the possi&le presidential candidacy of the 3rime Minister Cecep Tayyip 0rdo_an, afraid that if elected 3resident of Turkey 0rdo_an !ould alter the Turkish secularist state. #ra& $pring Main article: %ra& ,pring n the Iear 0ast and Iorth %frica, a series of protests and demonstrations calling for democracy and freedom across the region &ecame kno!n as the %ra& ,pring. The protests, uprisings and revolutions &rought a&out the overthro! of the Tunisian and 0gyptian governments. The period of political li&erali#ation also affected countries that !ere not part of the %ra& !orld.

$ee also

Distory of the 1alkans slam &y country $ a list 4ist of the Muslim 0mpires list of dynasties of Muslim Culers

6. ?. A. B. F. 7 Dalliday, Fred, 6@@ Myths a&out the Middle 0ast, ,a)i 1ooks, ?@@F. p.7F$G 7 Milestones of slamic Distory 7 <haddXrU ?@@?, pp. 68P?@ 7 Mecca: a literary history of the Muslim Doly 4and 1y Francis 0. 3eters 7 ,chimmel, %nnemarie- 1ar&ar Civolta 5,ummer, 688?9. M slamic 'alligraphyM. The Metropolitan Museum of %rt 1ulletin, Ie! ,eries F@ 569: A. 7 W. Montgomery Watt. =h3ri:ite thought in the "mayyad 8eriod. 2er slam. Qolume AG, ssue A, 3ages ?6FP?A6, ,,I 5(nline9 6G6A$@8?7, ,,I 53rint9 @@?6$6767, 2( : 6@.6F6FOislm.68G6.AG.A.?6F, OO68G6 ` a b The 0ncyclopadia 1ritannica &y Dugh 'hisholm. 3age ?7 7 Co&erts, J: MDistory of the World.M. 3enguin, 688B. 7 2ermenghem, 0. 568F79. Muhammad 53eace 1e *pon Dim9 and the slamic tradition. Ie! Kork: Darper 1rothers. 3age 67A. 7 The ,uccession to Muhammad: % ,tudy of the 0arly 'aliphate 1y Wilferd Madelung. 3age AB@. 7 0ncyclopaedic ethnography of Middle$0ast and 'entral %sia: %$ , Qolume 6 edited &y C. <hanam. 3age FBA 7 1lankinship, <halid Kahya 5688B9. The .nd of the 9ihad State, the ,eign of *isham Ibn 6/bd al Mali1 and the collapse of the "mayyads. ,tate *niversity of Ie! Kork 3ress. p. AH. ,1I @H86B67?H7 7 ans!ering$ ch 7. 7 ans!ering$ ch H. 7 <oka& !a Cifi Fa#al$e$%li <aram %llah Wajhu, 3age B7B, 1y ,yed Mohammed ,u&h$e$<ashaf %lTirmidhi, *rdu translation &y ,yed ,harif Dussein ,her!ani ,a&#a!ari, 3u&lished &y %loom %lMuhammed, num&er 16? ,had&agh, 4ahore, 6 January 68GA. 3age B7B. 7 Distory of the %ra& &y 3hilip < Ditti 7 Distory of slam &y prof.Masudul Dasan 7 The 0mpire of the %ra&s &y sir John +lu&& 7 *mar pushing to end drinking and &athhouses !here men and !omen !ould mi" freely. *mar is considered one of the finest rulers in Muslim history, second only to the Four Cightly +uided 'aliphs. De continued the !elfare programs of the last fe! *mayyad caliphs, e"panding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute. 7 http:OOpeople.unc!.eduO&erghOpar?BGO4?6CDadith'riticism.htm 7 n the %l %ndalus 5the &erian 3eninsula9, Iorth %frica and in the east populations revolted. n %.D. 6@? 5H?@$H?69 in fri)iyah, the harsh governor Ka#id i&n Muslim !as overthro!n and Muhammad i&n Ka#id, the former governor, restored to po!er. The caliph accepted this and confirmed Muhammad i&n Ka#id as governor of fri)iyah.

H. 7. 8. 6@. 66. 6?. 6A. 6B. 6F. 6G. 6H. 67. 68. ?@. ?6.


7 b0ggen&erger, 2avid 5687F9. /n .ncyclopedia of (attles< /ccounts of 'ver >,?@A (attles from >BCD (!. to the 8resent . 'ourier 2over 3u&lications. ,1I @$B7G$?B86A$6 p. A. ?A. 7 von 0ss, M<adarM, 0ncyclopedia of slam ?nd 0d. ?B. 7 Theophilus. .uoted Co&ert Doyland, ,eeing slam as (thers ,a! t 52ar!in 3ress, 68879, GG@ ?F. ` a b c M slamM. .ncyclopaedia of Islam 'nline. ?G. 7 4e!is 688A, p. 7B ?H. 7 Dolt 68HHa, p. 6@F ?7. 7 Dolt 68HH&, pp. GG6PGGA ?8. ` a b c M%&&asid 2ynastyM, The %ew .ncyclopEdia (ritannica 5?@@F9 A@. 7 M slamM, The %ew .ncyclopEdia (ritannica 5?@@F9 A6. ` a b c d e f g h i j %pplied Distory Cesearch +roup. MThe slamic World to 6G@@M. *niversity of 'alagary. http:OO!!!.ucalgary.caOappliedchistoryOtutorOislamOinde"?.html. Cetrieved ?@@H$@B$67. A?. 7 4apidus ?@@?, p. FB AA. 7 Iasr ?@@A, p. 6?6 AB. 7 <haddXrU ?@@?, pp. ?6P?? AF. 7 %&del Waha& 0l Messeri. 0pisode ?6: &n Cushd, .verything you wanted to 1now about Islam but was afraid to /s1, 8hilosophia Islamica. AG. 7 Fau#i M. Iajjar 5,pring, 688G9. The de&ate on slam and secularism in 0gypt, /rab Studies +uarterly F/S+G. AH. 7 Iasr ?@@A, pp. 6?6P6?? A7. 7 4apidus 6877, p. 6?8 A8. 7 Dindu re&ellions in ,indh !ere put do!n, and most of %fghanistan !as a&sor&ed !ith the surrender of the leader of <a&ul. Mountainous regions of ran !ere &rought under a tighter grip of the central %&&asid government, as !ere areas of Turkestan. There !ere distur&ances in ra) during the first several years of %l$Ma/mun/s reign. 0gypt continued to &e un)uiet. ,indh !as re&ellious, &ut +hassan i&n %&&ad su&dued it. %n ongoing pro&lem for %l$Ma/mun !as the uprising headed &y 1a&ak <horramdin. n ?6B 1a&ak routed a 'aliphate army killing its commander Muhammad i&n Dumayd. B@. 7 The Mihna su&jected traditionalist scholars !ith social influence and intellectual )uality to imprisonment, religious tests, and loyalty oaths. %l$Ma/mun introduced the Mihna !ith the intention to centrali#e religious po!er in the caliphal institution and test the loyalty of his su&jects. The Mihna had to &e undergone &y elites, scholars, judges and other government officials, and consisted of a series of )uestions relating to theology and faith. The central )uestion !as a&out the )uality and state of the creation of the .ur/an, if the interrogatee stated he &elieved the .ur/an to &e created, he !as free to leave and continue his profession. =citation needed> B6. 7 t is said that, had he &een victorious over the 1y#antine 0mperor, %l$Ma/mun !ould have made a condition of peace &e that the emperor hand over of a copy of the M%lmagestM. =citation needed>

B?. BA. BB. BF. BG. BH. B7. B8. F@. F6. F?. FA. FB. FF. FG. FH. F7. F8. G@. G6. G?. GA. GB. GF.

7 ts minaret !ere spiralling cones FF metres 567@ ft9 high !ith a spiral ramp and had 6H aisles !ith its !all paneled !ith mosaics of dark &lue glass.=citation needed> 7 % sum of 6?@,@@@ golden pieces !as paid for the freedom of the captives. 7 0"amples of the former include the loss of Mosul in 88@, and the loss of a&aristSn and +urgSn in 88H. %n e"ample of the latter is the <akXyid dynasty of sfahSn, !hose fortunes rose !ith the decline of the 1Xyids of northern ran. =citation needed> 7 ## al$2Un &n al$%thUr, 2onald ,idney Cichards, The chronicle of Ibn al /thHr for the crusading period from al =3mil fH6l ta6rH1h< The years BD> ?B>I>ADC >>B@ < the coming of the Fran1s and the Muslim response. 7 Jean Cichard, The 4atin kingdom of Jerusalem: Qolume 6. 68H8. 3age AG. 7 t is supposed &y an emissary of the Dashshashins, !ho had no love for the 'aliph. Modern historians have suspected that Mas/ud instigated the murder although the t!o most important historians of the period &n al$%thir and &n al$Ja!#i did not speculate on this matter. 7 +rigor of %kanc$The history of the nation of archers, 5tr. C.3.1lake9 A@A 7 <alistriat ,alia$Distory of the +eorguan Iation, p.?6@ 7 Thomas T. %llsen$'ulture and 'on)uest in Mongol 0urasia, p.7B 7 1eeson, rene 5,eptem&erO(cto&er 68G89. M'airo, a MillennialM. Saudi /ramco Jorld: ?B, ?GPA@. http:OO!!!.saudiaramco!orld.comOissueO68G8@FOcairo$a.millennial.htm. Cetrieved ?@@H$@7$@8. 7 Firestone, C. 5?@@79. %n introduction to slam for Je!s. 3hiladelphia: J3,OJe!ish 3u&lication ,ociety. 3age GG 7 4ane, J.$0., Cedissi, D., d aydS!U, C. 5?@@89. Celigion and politics: slam and Muslim civili#ation. Farnham, 0ngland: %shgate 3u&. 'ompany. 3age 7A 7 'airocofcthecmind, 7 'ollins ?@@B, p. 6A8 7 Dourani ?@@A, p. B6 7 +lu&&, John 1agot 568GG9. The course of empire< The /rabs and their successors . 3rentice$Dall. pp. 6?7. 7 +lick, Thomas F. 5?@@F9. Islamic and !hristian Spain in the early Middle /ges. 1C 44. pp. 6@?. ,1I 8$@@B6$BHH6$A. 7 4uscom&e, 2avid 0d!ard- Jonathan Ciley$,mith 5?@@B9. The new !ambridge medieval history. 'am&ridge *niversity 3ress. pp. F88. ,1I @$F?6B$6B6@$F. 7 (/'allaghan, Joseph F. 5687A9. / *istory of Medieval Spain. 'ornell *niversity 3ress. pp. 6AA. ,1I @$7@6B$8?GB$F. 7 'onsta&le, (livia Cemie 5688H9. MThe 3olitical 2ilemma of a +ranadan CulerM. Medieval Iberia< ,eadings from !hristian, Muslim, and 9ewish Sources. *niversity of 3ennsylvania 3ress. pp. 6@A. ,1I @$76??$6FG88. 7 This !as likely &ecause al$%ndalus !as a land &esieged &y many different loyalties, and the proclamation of caliph !ould have likely caused much unrest. %&d al$Cahman/s progeny !ould, ho!ever, take up the title of caliph. 7 .ncyclopedia /mericana, +rolier ncorporated, p. G7@ 7 The spread of slam: the contri&uting factors 1y %&X al$Fa#l ##atU, %. 0##ati, pg. ?HB 7 slam in Cussia: the four seasons 1y Cavil 1ukharaev, pg. 6BF

GG. GH. G7. G8.

7 Dourani ?@@A, p. 7F 7 <airouan 'apital of 3olitical 3o!er and 4earning in the fri)iya 5Muslim Deritage.com9 7 'lifford 0dmund 1os!orth, *istoric cities of the Islamic world. 1rill. ?@@H. p. ?GB 7 Iicolini, 1., d Watson, 3.$J. 5?@@B9. Makran, (man, and Nan#i&ar: Three$terminal cultural corridor in the !estern ndian (cean, 6H88$67FG. 4eiden: 1rill. 3age AF H@. 7 'urtis, 0d!ard 0. 5?@@?9. Islam in (lac1 /merica< identity, liberation, and difference in /frican /merican Islamic thought . ,*IK 3ress. pp. 668. ,1I @$H86B$FAH@$H. H6. 7 Iimt#, Jr., %ugust D. 5687@9. Islam and 8olitics in .ast /ftrica. the Sufi 'rder in Tanzania. Minneapolis: *niversity of Minnesota 3ress. H?. 7 +ustave 4e 1on. 68FG. Dadarat al %ra&. Translation of 4a 'ivilisation$des %ra&es. Ard 3rint. 'airo. 3.8F. HA. 7 ,uryanegara, %hmad Mansyur.?@@8. %3 ,ejarah. 6st 3rinted. 1andung. ndonesia. 3. ? $ A HB. 7 ,ir Thomas %rnold and %lfred +uilaume, 50ditor9, 68GF. The 4egacy of slam. ("ford *niversity 3ress, Ie! Kork, 3.7H. HF. 7 Iasr ?@@A, p. 6BA HG. 7 ,pencer '. Tucker, The encyclopedia of the Spanish /merican and 8hilippine /merican wars< a political, social, and military history, 2olume >, %1'$'4 (, ?@@8, page B68 HH. 7 1loom d 1lair ?@@@, pp. ??GP?A@ H7. ` a b %rmstrong ?@@@, p. 66G H8. ` a b c 1loom d 1lair ?@@@, pp. ?66P?68 7@. 7 1loom d 1lair ?@@@, pp. 688P?@B 76. 7 Dolt 68HHa, p. ?GA 7?. 7 <ohn, +. '. 5?@@G9. 2ictionary of !ars. Ie! Kork: Facts on File. 3age 8B. 7A. 7 <oprulu 688?, p. 6@8 7B. 7 <oprulu 688?, p. 666 7F. 7 !!!.muslimdecline.& 7G. 7 1entley d Niegler ?@@G, pp. 8G6, 8G8 7H. 7 1entley d Niegler ?@@G, pp. 8H6P8H? 77. 7 McIeill, 1entley d 'hristian ?@@F, p. 6B@?9 78. 7 'auses of %nti$%mericanism in the %ra& World: % ,ocio$3olitical 3erspective &y %&del Mahdi %&dallah 5M0C % Journal. Qolume H, Io. B $ 2ecem&er ?@@A 8@. 7 %ra&$ sraeli 'onflict: Cole of religion 5 srael ,cience and Technology9 86. 7 %ra&$%merican 3sychiatrist Wafa ,ultan: There is Io 'lash of 'ivili#ations &ut a 'lash &et!een the Mentality of the Middle %ges and That of the ?6st 'entury

'eferences and further reading

%oo/s8 articles8 and journals

%rmstrong, <aren 5?@@@9. Islam< / Short *istory. Modern 4i&rary. ,1I 8H7$@GH8GB@B@@. 1loom- 1lair 5?@@@9. Islam</ Thousand Kears of Faith and 8ower. 0sposito, John 5?@@@&9. '&ford *istory of Islam. ("ford *niversity 3ress. ,1I 8H7$@68F6@H888. Dart, Michael 568H79. The >AA<,an1ing of the most influential persons in history. Ie! Kork: 'arol 3u&lishing +roup. ,1I @$ 7@GF$6@FH$8. Dolt, 3. M.- 1ernard 4e!is 568HHa9. !ambridge *istory of Islam, 2ol. >. 'am&ridge *niversity 3ress. ,1I @F?6?86AGB. Dolt, 3. M.- %nn <. ,. 4am&ton, 1ernard 4e!is 568HH&9. !ambridge *istory of Islam, 2ol. L. 'am&ridge *niversity 3ress. ,1I @F?6?86AH?. Dourani, %l&ert- Cuthven, Malise 5?@@A9. / *istory of the /rab 8eoples. 1elknap 3ress- Cevised edition. ,1I 8H7$ @GHB@6@6H7. <haddXrU, MajUd 5?@@?9. The Islamic 0aw of %ations< Shaybani6s Siyar. JD* 3ress. pp. 68P?@. ,1I @7@67G8HFH, 8H7@7@67G8HFB. http:OO& idf78spa<1ytcM'dprintsecffrontcoverdd)fmajidgkhaddurigsiyardhlfdadeif843@Tfm(+N<+v%(@F4De1gdsafhdoi f&ookcresultdctfresultdresnumf6dvedf@''@.G%0!%%ivfonepaged)fT??theT?@stagesT?@throughT?@!hich T??dfffalse. <oprulu, Mehmed Fuad- 4eiser, +ary 5688?9. The 'rigins of the. ,*IK 3ress. ,1I @H86B@7686. 4apidus, ra M. 5?@@?9. / *istory of Islamic societes. 'am&ridge *niversity 3ress. ,1I @$F?6$HH@FG$B. 4e!is, 1. 5688A9. The /rabs in *istory. ("ford *niversity 3ress. ,1I @$68$?7F?F7$?. Cahman, F. 5687?9. Islam M Modernity< Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. *niversity of 'hicago 3ress. ,1I @$ ??G$H@?7B$H. Iasr, ,eyyed Dossein 5?@@A9. Islam<,eligion, *istory and !ivilization. Ie! Kork: Darper'ollins 3u&lishers. ,1I @$@G$ @F@H6B$B. ,onn, Tamara 5?@@B9. / (rief *istory of Islam. 1lack!ell 3u&lishing 4td. ,1I 6$B@F6$@8@@$8. %nkerl, +uy 5?@@@9. !oe&isting !ontemporary !ivilizations< /rabo Mulsim, (harati, !hinese, and Jestern. I*3ress. ,1I ?$776FF$@@B$F. Dourani, %l&ert 5?@@?9. / *istory of the /rab 8eoples. Fa&er d Fa&er. ,1I @$FH6$?6F86$?.

al$1alSdhurU, %. K.- Ditti, 3. <. 5686G9. The origins of the Islamic state< (eing a translation from the /rabic accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the =itNbfutO al buldNn of al ImNm abu l6/bbNs /mad ibn 9Nbir al (alNdhuri. Ie! Kork. http:OO&'%%%%K%%J. Williams, D. ,., ed. 568@B9. The historians6 history of the world< 8arthians, Sassanids, and /rabs. The crusades and the papacy. Ie! Kork: The (utlook 'ompany. http:OO& 4e, ,. +. 568@@9. (aghdad during the /bbasid caliphate< From contemporary /rabic and 8ersian sources. ("ford: 'larendon 3ress. http:OO& 1entley, Jerry D.- Niegler, Der&ert F. 5?@@G9. Traditions and .ncounters< / )lobal 8erspective on the 8ast. Ie! Kork: Mc+ra!$Dill. NaydSn, J.- Margoliouth, 2. ,. 568@H9. M1eing the fourth part of Jurjj NaydVn/s history of slamic civili#ation.M. "mayyads and /bbPsids. 4eyden: 0.J. 1rill, imprimerie orientale. http:OO& M slam %flame !ith CevoltM. The Jorld6s wor1. Ie! Kork: 2ou&leday, 3age d 'o. 68@@. http:OO& idf KhI%%%%M%%Jdpgf3%6AG. ,mith, 0lder 567HH9. The life of Mahomet< from original sources. http:OO& %%J. rving, W. 567G79. Mahomet and his successors. Ie! Kork: 3utnam. http:OO& %%J. ,ale, +.- 3salmana#ar, +.- 1o!er, %.- ,helvocke, +.- 'amp&ell, J.- ,!inton, J. 5HH89. / universal history< From the earliest accounts to the present time.. 92. 4ondon: '. 1athurst. http:OO&$%%%%K%%. b1rill %rchive, ed. / history of muslim historiography. http:OO&*%%%% %%J.


3.J. 1earman, Th. 1ian)uis, '.0. 1os!orth, 0. van 2on#el, W.3. Deinrichs, ed. .ncyclopaedia of Islam 'nline. 1rill %cademic 3u&lishers. ,,I 6FHA$A86?. (er1shire .ncyclopedia of Jorld *istory. 4. 1erkshire 3u&lishing +roup. ?@@F. ,1I 8H7$@$8HBA@86$@$6. The %ew .ncyclopEdia (ritannica. 0ncyclopadia 1ritannica, ncorporated- Cev 0d edition. ?@@F. ,1I 8H7$6$F8AA8$?AG$8. 1aynes, T. ,. 567779. The 0ncyclopadia 1ritannica: % dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. Ie! Kork, I.K: D.+. %llen. 3age FBF $ G@G. n 3ace, 0. %. 568??9. The !atholic encyclopedia< /n international wor1 of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline and history of the !atholic !hurch. Ie! Kork: 0ncyclopedia 3ress. MMohammed and Mohammedanism.M. 3g. B?BPB?7

*:ternal lin/s

11' slamic Distory ,pecial 'hronological history of slam and Muslims up to current time slam: GG?%2 $ 3resent nternet slamic Distory ,ource&ook % history of slam in %merica 0thiopian Muslims Distory The Daven of the First Dijra 5Migration9: an %frican nation is the Muslimsk first refuge 1rief history of slam 'hronological history of slam % history of slamic culture slamic 'ivili#ation slamic Distorical pictures $ +alleryO