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Faculty advisor: soumitra panday Team members Arun Patel Roll No.


Ashish Raikwar 0610EC091006 Mahendra Yadav 0610EC091016 Rahul Prajapati 0610EC091021

Project description The framework for the home automation The communication Mobile Interface Hardware connection Conclusion

Designing and implementing a Mobile-Based Home Automation (HA) system by Power line controlling system Controlling home appliances such as lights, electric doors, or any other application

Developing a HA system that gives the user complete control over all aspects of his or her home The automated system will have the ability to be controlled from a Mobile. Use a Mobile to turn on and off a light, as well as monitor a door The real objective is to Create a basic framework for a home monitoring system

The main components needed to build a prototype Mobile Interface Microcontrollers Type Specification Circuit construction Sensors Light module Door module

Is a 40-pin IC and belongs to the mega AVR category of AVR family. Some of the features of Atmega16 are: 16KB of Flash memory 1KB of SRAM 512 Bytes of EEPROM Available in 40-Pin DIP 8-Channel 10-bit ADC Two 8-bit Timers/Counters Figure 3.2 atmega16 functional diagram One 16-bit Timer/Counter 4 PWM Channels In System Programmer (ISP) Serial USART SPI Interface Digital to Analog Comparator.


MEMORY Atmega16 consist of three


different memory sections:

1. Flash EEprom Flash EEPROM


or simple flash memory is used to store the program dumped or burnt by the user on to the microcontroller. It can be easily erased electrically as a single unit. Flash memory is non-volatile i.e., it retains the program even if the power is cut-off. Atmega16 is available with 16KB of in system programmable Flash EEPROM. 2. Byte Addressable EEPROM: This is also a nonvolatile memory used to store data like values of certain variables. Atmega16 has 512 bytes of EEPROM, this memory can be useful for storing the lock

code if we are designing an application like electronic door lock.

3. SRAM:




Memory, this is the volatile memory of microcontroller i.e., data is lost as soon as power is turned off. Atmega16 is equipped with 1KB of internal SRAM. A small portion of SRAM is set aside for general purpose registers used by CPU and some for the peripheral subsystems of the microcontroller.

Internal calibrated oscillator:

Atmega16 is equipped with an internal oscillator for driving its clock. By default Atmega16 is set to operate at internal calibrated oscillator of 1 MHz. The maximum frequency of internal oscillator is 8Mhz. Alternatively, ATmega16 can be

operated using an external crystal oscillator with a maximum frequency of 16MHz. In this case you need to modify the fuse bits.

ADC interface: (PORT A) Atmega16

is equipped with an 8 channel ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) with a resolution of 10-bits. ADC reads the analog input for e.g., a sensor input and converts it into digital information which is understandable by the microcontroller. Timers/counters: Atmega16 consists of two 8-bit and one 16-bit timer/counter. Timers are useful for generating precision actions for e.g., creating time delays between two operations. . The main features are: Single Compare Unit Counter

Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload) Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) Frequency Generator External Event Counter 10-bit Clock Prescaler Overflow and Compare Match Interrupt Sources (TOV0 and OCF0)


Atmega16 have 3 in built timers:

Timer0 Timer1 Timer2 Timer 1 has 2 in built pwm channels which can be configured with 8 bit to 10 bit of resolutions.

is present with internal oscillator. Watchdog timer continuously monitors and resets the controller if the code gets stuck at any execution action for more than a defined time interval.

Watchdog timer:

Interrupts: Atmega16 consists of 21

interrupt sources out of which four are external. The remaining are internal interrupts which support the peripherals like USART, ADC, Timers etc. Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter interface is available for interfacing with


external device capable of communicating serially (data transmission bit by bit).

General purpose registers:

Atmega16 is equipped with 32 general purpose registers which are coupled directly with the Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) of CPU.

ISP: AVR family of controllers have

In System Programmable Flash Memory which can be programmed without removing the IC from the circuit, ISP allows to reprogram the controller while it is in the application circuit. (PIN 6-11, excluding PIN10)

SPI: Serial Peripheral Interface, SPI

port is used for serial communication

between two devices on a common clock source. The data transmission rate of SPI is more than that of USART. TWI: Two Wire Interface (TWI) can be used to set up a network of devices, many devices can be connected over TWI interface forming a network, the devices can simultaneously transmit and receive and have their own unique address.

Microcontroller Specification
The Specification for ATMEGA16 Microcontroller is very easy to Assembly Program Low cost


Here is the detailed information of the NEXTSAPIENS Development Board
Regulated 5v Power Output Motor 2 L 293D Motor 1 ISP header

DC Jack Max 232 Regulated 5v Power Output RS 232 Microswitches

Sensor Input

Sensor Input

Port D

Atmega 16 Port C

LCD Connector Port A

Figure 4.2 component details for development board


This board consists of a center tap CHAPTER 9 transformer 12v-0-12v, capacitor, resistor, diodes, DPDT or SPDT relay, 817A Optocoupler, TIP122.



All the sections work on 12 volts but the home automation section requires 24 volts for its working. Therefore the 12 volts supply wire is cut into two parts which are then combined to give an output of 24volts. This supply is fed to a capacitor through a diode, so that the supply becomes uniform (without ripples).

6.2. RELAY
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with

complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal

A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is held in

place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function.

Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays. A relay will switch one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of three ways: The following designations are commonly encountered:


Single Pole Single Throw. These have two terminals which can be connected or disconnected. Including two for the coil, such a relay has four terminals in total. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity.

SPDT Single Pole Double Throw. A

common terminal connects to either of two others. Including two for the coil, such a relay has five terminals in total.


Double Pole Single Throw. These have two pairs of terminals. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Including two for the coil, such a relay has six terminals in total. The poles may be Form A or Form B (or one of each).

DPDT Double Pole Double Throw.

These have two rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Such a relay has eight terminals, including the coil.(figure 6.1)

Figure 6.2 Pole and throw


Automatic bidirectional visitor counter

A counter that can change its state in either direction, under control of an updown selector input, is known as an updown counter. The circuit given here can count numbers from 0 to 9999 in up and down modes depending upon the state of the selector. It can be used to count the number of persons entering a hall in the up mode at entrance gate. In the down mode, it can count the number of persons leaving the hall by decrementing the count at exit gate. It can also be used at gates of parking areas and other public places.

This circuit divided in three parts: sensor, controller and counter

display. The sensor would observe an interruption and provide an input to the controller which would run the counter in up/down mode depending upon the selector setting. The same count is displayed on a set of 7segment controller. displays through the

In this circuit, two infrared (IR) sensor modules are used each for up and down counting, respectively.

Whenever an interruption is observed by the first IR sensor, it increments the counter value. Similarly, when the second sensor detects an obstacle, the count is decremented The count value is calculated

depending upon the sensors input and is displayed on a set of four

seven segment displays by using the concept of multiplexing (for concept of multiplexing refer seven segment multiplexing). The data pins of each 7-segment display are connected to port P2 of the microcontroller

ATMEGA16 The first four pins of port P1 (P1^0-P1^3) are connected to

control pins to enable a particular 7segment

This project is the most common and interesting to start with. The application is counting the number of persons entering in and exiting out like in Delhi Metro stations, Industries, offices, lift, car parking, and many more.

Our objective is to count the objects (persons) entering and exiting the room so we need some sensors to detect the objects and a control unit which calculates the object, below you can find the block diagram and circuit diagram which illustrate the solution and the Embedded C source code which calculate the object. Remember that this circuit is used with GP_KIT_MCS51-2.02 from BISD Labs, New Delhi; the kit contains rest of circuit like 8051 microcontroller, interfacing two digit seven segments, on board voltage regulator to provide +5V D.C, ISP circuit, and a lot. Also refer the user manual of this kit.

From the block diagram it is clear that the sensor pairs are placed face to face so that an IR radiations from IR LED are continuously received by phototransistor which makes its emitter base junction forward and collector current Ic equals to emitter current Ie (i.e, Ic=Ie) assuming base current to be negligible. Hence the voltage at collector node becomes zero (logic 0) which is feed to microcontroller port pin P3.2 and P3.3, if any object is placed in between the sensor pair blocks the IR radiation which in turns put the phototransistor in cut-off mode and Ic!=Ie, this makes collector voltage to +5V (logic 1) In our program we have to poll both the inputs from both the sensors at port pin P3.2 and P3.3 to detect for the entry or

exit, if sensor pair one is been obstructed (P3.2 becomes one) first, implies persons entry and second pair is obstructed (P3.3 becomes one) first shows exit.

16 Pin LCD Header: A 16 Pin

header is provided to interface one 16 * 2 Alphanumeric LCD. Given below are the pin configuration details Lcdpin Db4 Db5 Db6 Db7 E = Rs = = Pin = Portb.4 = Portb.5 = Portb.6 = Portb.7 Portb.3 Portb.2

DB4 to DB7: = Data Buses of LCD E: = Enable pin of LCD Rs: = Register Select of LCD These pin configuration are only for the LCD which is 16 * 2 alphanumeric display. For other type of LCD this may vary. Refer to related datasheet of the LCD incase if you are using a different one.

CONCLUSION The entire report is presented in a chapter wise format, introducing level-tolevel components and their details. Atmega 16 and the control board that is the main processing part of the control unit is explained in the initial chapters. Whenever a sensor detects a change in the environment or notification is generated, Atmega16 processes that information and act according to the automation code burnt in its flash. The initial attempts of interrupt programming were dropped due to limited availability of external INT pins (INT 0, INT1, INT2). The DTMF(dual tone multi frequency) module that enables remote accessibility of the system is explained in chapter 5.

For home automation, the home automation board is used that enables automatic switching of the appliances based on the instruction code sent by the user via DTMF


A Synopsis Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of


Electronics and Communication Engineering

SESSION: 2012-13
Submitted to


Submitted by

Arun Patel 0610EC091005

Ashish Raikwar 0610EC091006

Mahendra Yadav 0610EC091016

Under the Guidance of

Rahul Prajapati 0610EC091022

Er. Somitra Pandey

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering


Infinity Management and Engineering College, Sagar (M.P.) 470002 Name of Institute: Infinity Management and Engineering College, Sagar Department : Electronics & Communication


This is to certify that synopsis report entitled HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal by Arun Patel Ashish Raikwar Mahendra Yadav Rahul Prajapati is a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree in B.E with specialization in Electronics and Communication. The matter embodied is the actual work by Arun Patel Ashish Raikwar Mahendra Yadav Rahul Prajapati and this work has not been submitted earlier (in part or full) for the award of any other degree. Candidate Name : Arun Patel Ashish Raikwar Mahendra Yadav Rahul Prajapati Enrollment No : (0610EC091005 0610EC091006 0610EC091016 0610EC091022)
Er. Somitra Pandey

Guide, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, IMEC, Sagar




Head, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, IMEC, Sagar

Principal IMEC, Sagar


The synopsis entitled HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM being submitted by by Arun Patel (0610EC091005), Ashish Raikwar (0610EC091006), Mahendra Yadav (0610EC091016) and Rahul Prajapati (0610EC091022) has been examined by us and is hereby approved for the award of degree Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication), for which it has been submitted. It is understood that by this approval that the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein, but approve the dissertation only for the purpose for which it has been submitted.

(Internal Examiner)

(External Examiner)