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Project Gutenberg's The Verbalist, by Thomas Embly Osmun, (AKA Alfred Ayres This e!

oo" is for the use of anyone any#here at no cost and #ith almost no restrictions #hatsoe$er% &ou may co'y it, gi$e it a#ay or re(use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg )icense included #ith this e!oo" or online at ###%gutenberg%org Title* The Verbalist A +anual ,e$oted to !rief ,iscussions of the -ight and the .rong /se of .ords and to 0ome Other +atters of 1nterest to Those .ho .ould 0'ea" and .rite #ith Pro'riety% Author* Thomas Embly Osmun, (AKA Alfred Ayres -elease ,ate* August 23, 4335 6E!oo" 744895: )anguage* English ;haracter set encoding* 10O(<<9=(> ??? 0TA-T O@ TA10 P-OBE;T G/TEC!E-G E!OOK TAE VE-!A)10T ???

Produced by !arbara ToDier, !ill ToDier, 0te'hen !lundell and the Online ,istributed Proofreading Team at htt'*EE###%'gd'%net

THE

VERBALIST:

A MANUAL
DEVOTED

TO BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF THE RIGHT AND THE WRONG USE OF WORDS


AND

TO SOME OTHER MATTERS OF INTEREST TO THOSE WHO WOULD SPEAK AND WRITE WITH PROPRIETY.

BY

ALFRED AYRES.
We remain shackled by timidity till we have learned to speak with propriety.JOHNSON. As a man is known by his company, so a man's company may be known by his manner o e!pressin" himsel .SW#$%.

N&W 'O()* +. A,,-&%ON AN+ .O/,AN',


0, 1, AN+ 2 3ON+ S%(&&%.

0445.

.O,'(#6H% 3'

+. A,,-&%ON AN+ .O/,AN',


0440

Transcri !r"s N#$!


/inor typo"raphical errors have been corrected witho7t note. Archaic spellin"s have been retained as printed. All 6reek words have mo7se8hover transliterations, 9:;<:;=>, and appear as printed in the ori"inal p7blication.

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PREFATORY NOTE.
%he title8pa"e s7 iciently sets orth the end this little book is intended to serve. $or convenience' sake # have arran"ed in alphabetical order the s7bAects treated o , and or economy's sake # have kept in mind that Bhe that 7ses many words or the e!plainin" o any s7bAect doth, like the c7ttle8 ish, hide himsel in his own ink.B %he c7rio7s inC7irer who sets himsel to look or the learnin" in the book is advised that he will best ind it in s7ch works as 6eor"e ,. /arsh's B-ect7res on the &n"lish -an"7a"e,B $itDedward Hall's B(ecent &!empli ications o $alse ,hilolo"y,B and B/odern &n"lish,B (ichard 6rant White's BWords and %heir Eses,B &dward S. 6o7ld's B6ood &n"lish,B?," F@William /athews' BWords* their Ese and Ab7se,B +ean Al ord's B%he G7een's &n"lish,B 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon's B3ad &n"lish,B and B%he +ean's &n"lish,B 3lank's BH7l"arisms and Other &rrors o Speech,B Ale!ander 3ain's B&n"lish .omposition and (hetoric,B 3ain's BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar,B 3ain's B.omposition 6rammar,B G7ackenbos' B.omposition and (hetoric,B John Nichol's B&n"lish .omposition,B William .obbett's B&n"lish 6rammar,B ,eter 37llions' B&n"lish 6rammar,B 6oold 3rown's B6rammar o &n"lish 6rammars,B 6raham's B&n"lish Synonymes,B .rabb's B&n"lish Synonymes,B 3i"elow's BHandbook o ,7nct7ation,B and other kindred works. S7""estions and criticisms are solicited, with the view o pro itin" by them in 7t7re editions. # B%he HerbalistB receive as kindly a welcome as its companion vol7me, B%he OrthoIpist,B has received, # shall be content. A. A. N&W 'O(), October, 0440.

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&schew ine words as yo7 wo7ld ro7"e.HA(&. .ant is properly a do7ble8distilled lieJ the second power o a lie..A(-'-&. # a "entleman be to st7dy any lan"7a"e, it o7"ht to be that o his own co7ntry.-O.)&. #n lan"7a"e the 7nknown is "enerally taken or the ma"ni icent.(#.HA(+ 6(AN% WH#%&. He who has a s7perlative or everythin", wants a meas7re or the "reat or small.-AHA%&(. #nacc7rate writin" is "enerally the e!pression o inacc7rate thinkin".(#.HA(+ 6(AN% WH#%&. %o acC7ire a ew ton"7es is the labor o a ew yearsJ b7t to be eloC7ent in one is the labor o a li e.ANON'/OES. Words and tho7"hts are so inseparably connected that an artist in words is necessarily an artist in tho7"hts.8W#-SON $-A66.

#t is an invariable ma!im that words which add nothin" to the sense or to the clearness m7st diminish the orce o the e!pression..A/,3&--. ,ropriety o tho7"ht and propriety o diction are commonly o7nd to"ether. Obsc7rity o e!pression "enerally sprin"s rom con 7sion o ideas./A.AE-A'. He who writes badly thinks badly. .on 7sedness in words can proceed rom nothin" b7t con 7sedness in the tho7"hts which "ive rise to them..O33&%%.

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THE VERBALIST.
A%An. %he second orm o the inde inite article is 7sed or the sake o e7phony only. Herein everybody a"rees, b7t what everybody does not a"ree in is, that it is e7phonio7s to 7se an be ore a word be"innin" with an aspiratedh, when the accented syllable o the word is the second. $or mysel , so lon" as # contin7e to aspirate theh's in s7ch words as heroic, harangue, and historical, # shall contin7e to 7se a be ore themJ and when # adopt the .ockney mode o prono7ncin" s7ch words, then # shall 7se anbe ore them. %o my ear it is A7st as e7phonio7s to say, B# will crop o rom the top o his yo7n" twi"s a tender one, and will plant it 7pon an hi"h mo7ntain and eminent,B as it is to say an haran"7e, an heroic, or an historical. An is well eno7"h be ore the do7bt 7l 3ritish aspiration, b7t be ore the distinct American aspiration it is wholly o7t o place. %he reply will perhaps be, B37t these h's are silentJ the chan"e o accent rom the irst syllable to the second ne7traliDes their aspiration.B However tr7e this may be in &n"land, it is not at all tr7e in AmericaJ hence we Americans sho7ld 7se a and not an be ore s7ch h's 7ntil we decide to ape the .ockney mode o prono7ncin" them. &rrors are not 7n reC7ently made by omittin" to repeat the article in a sentence. #t sho7ld always be repeated?," 4@when a no7n or an adAective re errin" to a distinct thin" is introd7cedJ take, or e!ample, the sentence, BHe has a black and white horse.B # two horses are meant, it is clear that it sho7ld be, BHe has a black and a white horse.B See %H&. A i&i$'%Ca(aci$'. %he distinctions between these two words are not always observed by those who 7se them. BCapacity is the power o receivin" and retainin" knowled"e with acilityJ ability is the power o applyin" knowled"e to practical p7rposes. 3oth these ac7lties are reC7isite to orm a "reat character* capacity to conceive, and ability to e!ec7te desi"ns. .apacity is shown in C7ickness o apprehension. Ability s7pposes somethin" doneJ somethin" by which the mental power is e!ercised in e!ec7tin", or per ormin", what has been perceived by the capacity.B6raham's B&n"lish Synonymes.B A #r$i)!. An o7tlandish 7se o this word may be occasionally met with, especially in the newspapers. BA lad was yesterday ca7"ht in the act o abortively appropriatin" a pair o shoes.B %hat is abortive that is 7ntimely, that has not been borne its 7ll time, that is immat7re. We o ten hear abortion 7sed in the sense o ail7re, b7t never by those that st7dy to e!press themselves in chaste &n"lish.

A #)!. %here is little a7thority or 7sin" this word as an adAective. #nstead o , Bthe above statement,B say, Btheforegoing statement.B Above is also 7sed very inele"antly or more thanJ as, Babove a mile,B Babove a tho7sandBJ also, or beyondJ as, Babove his stren"th.B Acci*!n$. See .ASEA-%'. Acc#r*. BHe ?the Secretary o the %reas7ry@ was shown thro7"h the b7ildin", and the in ormation he desired was accorded him.B(eporters' &n"lish.?," K@
"The heroes prayed, and Pallas from the skiesAccords their vow."Pope.

%he "oddess o wisdom, when she "ranted the prayers o her worshipers, may be said to have accordedJ not so, however, when the clerks o o7r S7b8%reas7ry answer the inC7iries o their chie . Acc+s!. See 3-A/& #% ON. Ac,+ain$anc!. See $(#&N+. A*. %his abbreviation or the word advertisement is very A7stly considered a "ross v7l"arism. #t is do7bt 7l whether it is permissible 7nder any circ7mstances. A*a($%Dra-a$i.!. #n speakin" and in writin" o sta"e matters, these words are o ten mis7sed. %o adapt a play is to modi y its constr7ction with the view o improvin" its orm or representation. ,lays translated rom one lan"7a"e into another are 7s7ally more or less adaptedJ i. e., altered to s7it the taste o the p7blic be ore which the translation is to be represented. %o dramatize is to chan"e the orm o a story rom the narrative to the dramaticJ i. e., to make a drama o7t o a story. #n the irst instance, the prod7ct o the playwri"ht's labor is called an adaptationJ in the second, a dramatization. A*/!c$i)!s. BHery o ten adAectives stand where adverbs mi"ht be e!pectedJ as, 'drink deep,' 'this looksstrange,' 'standin" erect.' BWe have also e!amples o one adAective C7ali yin" another adAectiveJ as, 'wide open,' 'red hot,' 'the pale bl7e sky.' Sometimes the correspondin" adverb is 7sed, b7t with a di erent meanin"J as, '# o7nd the way easyeasily'J 'it appears clearclearly.' Altho7"h there is a propriety in the employment o the adAective in certain instances, yet s7ch orms as 'indifferent well,' 'extreme bad,' are "rammatical errors. 'He was interro"ated relative to that circ7mstance,'?," 0L@sho7ld be relatively, or in relation to. #t is not 7n7s7al to say, '# wo7ld have done it independent o that circ7mstance,' b7t independently is the proper constr7ction. B%he employment o adAectives or adverbs is acco7nted or by the ollowin" considerations* BM0.N #n the classical lan"7a"es the ne7ter adAective may be 7sed as an adverb, and the analo"y wo7ld appear to have been e!tended to &n"lish. BMO.N #n the oldest &n"lish the adverb was re"7larly ormed rom the adAective by addin" 'e,' as 'so t, so te,' and the droppin" o the 'e' le t the adverb in the adAective ormJ th7s, 'clne,' adverb, became 'clean,' and appears in the phrase 'clean "one'J 'fste, ast,' 'to stick fast.' 3y a alse analo"y, many adAectives that never ormed adverbs in -e were reely 7sed as adverbs in the a"e o &liDabeth* '%ho7 didst it excellent,' 'equal M or equallyN "ood,' 'excellentwell.' %his "ives precedent or s7ch errors as those mentioned above. BM1.N %here are cases where the s7bAect is C7ali ied rather than the verb, as with verbs o incomplete predication, 'bein",' 'seemin",' 'arrivin",' etc. #n 'the matter seems clear,' 'clear' is part o the predicate o 'matter.' '%hey arrivedsafe'* 'sa e' does not C7ali y 'arrived,' b7t "oes with it to complete the predicate. So, 'he sat silent,' 'he stood firm.' '#t comes beautiful' and 'it comes

beautifully' have di erent meanin"s. %his e!planation applies especially to the 7se o participles as adverbs, as in So7they's lines on -odoreJ the participial epithets applied there, altho7"h appearin" to modi y 'came,' are really additional predications abo7t 'the water,' in ele"antly shortened orm. '%he ch7rch stood gleaming thro7"h the trees'* '"leamin"' is a shortened predicate o 'ch7rch'J and the 7ll orm wo7ld be, 'the ch7rch stood and gleamed.' %he participle retains?," 00@its orce as s7ch, while actin" the part o a coPrdinatin" adAective, complement to 'stood'J 'stood "leamin"' is little more than '"leamed.' %he eelin" o adverbial orce in '"leamin"' arises rom the s7bordinate participial orm Aoined with a verb, 'stood,' that seems capable o predicatin" by itsel . ' assing stran"e' is elliptical* 'passin" Ms7rpassin"Nwhat is stran"e.'B3ain. B%he comparative adAectives wiser, better, larger, etc., and the contrastin" adAectives different, other, etc., are o ten so placed as to render the constr7ction o the sentence awkwardJ as, '%hat is a m7ch better statement o the case thanyo7rs,' instead o , '%hat statement o the case is m7ch better than yo7rs'J ''o7rs is a larger plot o "ro7nd thanJohn's,' instead o , ''o7r plot o "ro7nd is larger thanJohn's'J '%his is a different co7rse o proceedin" fromwhat # e!pected,' instead o , '%his co7rse o proceedin" isdifferent from what # e!pected'J '# co7ld take no othermethod o silencin" him than the one # took,' instead o , '# co7ld take no method o silencin" him other than the one # took.'B6o7ld's B6ood &n"lish,B p. QK. A*-inis$!r. B.arson died rom blows administeredby policeman Johnson.BBNew 'ork %imes.B # policeman Johnson was as barbaro7s as is this 7se o the verb to administer, it is to be hoped that he was han"ed. 6overnments, oaths, medicine, a airss7ch as the a airs o the state are administered, b7t not blows* they are dealt. A*#($. %his word is o ten 7sed instead o to decide upon, and o to ta!eJ th7s, B%he meas7res adopted ?by ,arliament@, as the res7lt o this inC7iry, will be prod7ctive o "ood.B 3etter, B%he meas7res decided upon,B etc. #nstead o , BWhat co7rse shall yo7 adopt to "et yo7r payRB say, BWhat co7rse shall yo7 ta!e,B etc. Adopt is properly 7sed in a sentence like this* B%he co7rse Mor meas7resN?," 0O@proposed by /r. 3lank was adopted by the committee.B %hat is, what was 3lank's was adopted by the committeea correct 7se o the word, as to adopt, means, to ass7me as one's own. Adopt is sometimes so mis7sed that its meanin" is inverted. BWanted to adopt,B in the headin" o advertisements, not 7n reC7ently is intended to mean that the advertiser wishes to be relieved o the care o a child, not that he wishes to assume the care o one. A00ra)a$!. %his word is o ten 7sed when the speaker means to provoke, irritate, or an"er. %h7s, B#t aggravates?provokes@ me to be contin7ally o7nd a7lt withBJ BHe is easily aggravated ?irritated@.B %o aggravate means to make worse, to hei"hten. We there ore very properly speak o aggravating circ7mstances. %o say o a person that he isaggravated is as incorrect as to say that he is palliated. A0ric+&$+ris$. %his word is to be pre erred to agriculturalist. See .ONH&(SA%#ON#S%. A&i1!. %his word is o ten most b7n"lin"ly co7pled with both. %h7s, B%hese bonnets are both alike,B or, worse still, i possible, Bboth A7st alike.B %his reminds one o the story o Sam and Jem, who were very like each other, especially Sam. A&&. See EN#H&(SA-. A&& #)!r. B%he disease spread all over the co7ntry.B #t is more lo"ical and more emphatic to say, B%he disease spread over all the co7ntry.B

A&&!0#r'. An elaborated metaphor is called an allegoryJ both are i"7rative representations, the words 7sed si"ni yin" somethin" beyond their literal meanin". %h7s, in the ei"htieth ,salm, the Jews are represented 7nder the symbol o a vine* B%ho7 hast bro7"ht a vine o7t o &"ypt* tho7 hast?," 01@cast o7t the heathen, and planted it. %ho7 preparedst room be ore it, and didst ca7se it to take deep root, and it illed the land. %he hills were covered with the shadow o it, and the bo7"hs thereo were like the "oodly cedars. She sent o7t her bo7"hs 7nto the sea, and her branches 7nto the river. Why hast tho7 then broken down her hed"es, so that all they which pass by the way do pl7ck herR %he boar o7t o the wood doth waste it, and the wild beast o the ield doth devo7r it.B An alle"ory is sometimes so e!tended that it makes a vol7meJ as in the case o Swi t's B%ale o a %7b,B Arb7thnot's BJohn 37ll,B 37nyan's B,il"rim's ,ro"ress,B etc. $ables and parables are short alle"ories. A&&#2. %his word is reC7ently mis7sed in the West and So7th, where it is made to do service or assert or to be of opinion. %h7s, BHe allows that he has the inest horse in the co7ntry.B A&&+*!. %he treatment this word has received is to be specially re"retted, as its mis7se has well8ni"h robbed it o its tr7e meanin", which is, to intimate delicately, to re er to witho7t mentionin" directly. Allude is now very rarely 7sed in any other sense than that o to speak o , to mention, to name, which is a lon" way rom bein" its le"itimate si"ni ication. %his de"radation is do7btless a direct o7tcome o 7nt7tored desire to be ine and to 7se bi" words. A&#n!. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed or only. %hat is alone which is 7naccompaniedJ that is only o which there is no other. BHirt7e alone makes 7s happy,B means that virt7e 7naided s7 ices to make 7s happyJ BHirt7e only makes 7s happy,B means that nothin" else can do itthat that, and that only Mnot aloneN, can do it. B%his means o comm7nication is employed by man alone.B?," 0F@+r. G7ackenbos sho7ld have written, B3y man onlyB. See also ON-'. A-a$!+r%N#)ic!. %here is m7ch con 7sion in the 7se o these two words, altho7"h they are entirely distinct rom each other in meanin". An amateur is one versed in, or a lover and practicer o , any partic7lar p7rs7it, art, or science, b7t not en"a"ed in it pro essionally. A novice is one who is new or ine!perienced in any art or b7sinessa be"inner, a tyro. A pro essional actor, then, who is new and 7nskilled in his art, is a novice and not an amateur. An amate7r may be an artist o "reat e!perience and e!traordinary skill. A-!&i#ra$!. B%he health o the &mpress o 6ermany is "reatly ameliorated.B Why not say improvedR A-#n0. See 3&%W&&N. A-#+n$ #3 P!r3!c$i#n. %he observant reader o periodical literat7re o ten notes orms o e!pression which are perhaps best characteriDed by the word bizarre. O these C7eer loc7tions, amount of perfection is a very "ood e!ample. /r. 6. $. Watts, in the BNineteenth .ent7ry,B says, BAn amount of perfection has been reached which # was by no means prepared or.B What /r. Watts meant to say was, do7btless, that a degree of excellence had been reached. %here are not a ew who, in their prepossession or everythin" transatlantic, seem to be o opinion that the &n"lish lan"7a"e is "enerally better written in &n"land than it is in America. %hose who think so are co7nseled to e!amine the diction o some o the most noted &n"lish critics and essayists, be"innin", i they will, with /atthew Arnold.

An*. $ew v7l"arisms are more common than the 7se o and or to. &!amples* B.ome and see me be ore yo7 "oBJ B%ry and do what yo7 can or himBJ B6o and see?," 02@yo7r brother, i yo7 can.B #n s7ch sentences as these, the proper particle to 7se is clearly to and not and. And is sometimes improperly 7sed instead o orJ th7s, B#t is obvio7s that a lan"7a"e like the 6reek and -atinB Mlan"7a"eRN, etc., sho7ld be, Ba lan"7a"e like the 6reek or the -atinB Mlan"7a"eN, etc. %here is no s7ch thin" as a 6reek and -atin lan"7a"e. Ans2!r%R!(&'. %hese two words sho7ld not be 7sed indiscriminately. An answer is "iven to a C7estionJ a reply, to an assertion. When we are addressed, we answerJ when we are acc7sed, we reply. We answer letters, and reply to any ar"7ments, statements, or acc7sations they may contain. .rabb is in error in sayin" that replies Bare 7sed in personal disco7rse only.B "eplies, as well as answers, are written. We very properly write, B# have now, # believe, answered all yo7r C7estions and replied to all yo7r ar"7ments.B A re#oinder is made to a reply. BWho "oes thereRB he criedJ and, receivin" no answer, he ired. B%he advocate replied to the char"es made a"ainst his client.B An$ici(a$!. -overs o bi" words have a ondness or makin" this verb do d7ty or expect. Anticipate is derived rom two -atin words meanin" before and to ta!e, and, when properly 7sed, means, to take be orehandJ to "o be ore so as to precl7de anotherJ to "et the start or ahead o J to enAoy, possess, or s7 er, in e!pectationJ to oretaste. #t is, there ore, mis7sed in s7ch sentences as, BHer death is ho7rly anticipatedBJ B3y this means it is anticipated that the time rom &7rope will be lessened two days.B An$i$4!sis. A phrase that opposes contraries is called an antithesis.
"! see a "hief who leads my "hosen sons,#ll armed with points, antitheses, and p$ns."%P& '6(

%he ollowin" are e!amples*


"Tho$&h &entle, yet not d$ll)*tron&, witho$t ra&e) witho$t o+erflowin&, f$ll." ",ontrasted fa$lts thro$&h all their manners rei&n)Tho$&h poor, l$-$rio$s) tho$&h s$.missive, vain)Tho$&h &rave, yet triflin&) /ealo$s, yet $ntr$e)#nd e+en in penan"e plannin& sins anew."

%he ollowin" is an e!cellent e!ample o personificationand antithesis combined*


"Talent "onvin"es) 0eni$s .$t e-"ites1That tasks the reason) this the so$l deli&hts.Talent from so.er 2$d&ment takes its .irth,#nd re"on"iles the pinion to the earth)0eni$s $nsettles with desires the mind,,ontented not till earth .e left .ehind."

#n the ollowin" e!tract rom Johnson's B-i e o ,ope,B individ7al pec7liarities are contrasted by means o antitheses* BO "eni7sthat power which constit7tes a poetJ that C7ality witho7t which A7d"ment is cold, and knowled"e is inertJ that ener"y which collects, combines, ampli ies, and animatesthe s7periority m7st, with some hesitation, be allowed to +ryden. #t is not to be in erred that o this poetical vi"or ,ope had only a little, beca7se +ryden had moreJ or every other writer, since /ilton, m7st "ive place to ,opeJ and even o +ryden it m7st be said that, i he has bri"hter para"raphs, he has not better poems. +ryden's per ormances were always hasty, either e!cited by some e!ternal occasion or e!torted by domestic necessityJ he composed witho7t consideration and p7blished witho7t correction. What his mind co7ld s7pply at call or "ather in one e!c7rsion was all that he so7"ht and all that he "ave. %he dilatory ca7tion o ,ope enabled him to condense?," 05@his sentiments, to m7ltiply his ima"es, and to acc7m7late all that st7dy mi"ht prod7ce or chance mi"ht s7pply. # the li"hts o +ryden, there ore, are hi"her, ,ope contin7es lon"er on the win". # o +ryden's ire the blaDe is bri"hter, o ,ope's the heat is more re"7lar and

constant. +ryden o ten s7rpasses e!pectation, and ,ope never alls below it. +ryden is read with reC7ent astonishment, and ,ope with perpet7al deli"ht. +ryden's pa"e is a nat7ral ield, risin" into ineC7alities, and diversi ied by the varied e!7berance o ab7ndant ve"etationJ ,ope's is a velvet lawn, shaven by the scythe, and leveled by the roller.B %here are orms o antithesis in which the contrast is only o a secondary kind. An'. %his word is sometimes made to do service orat all. We say properly, BShe is not any betterBJ b7t we can not properly say, BShe does not see any,B meanin" that she is blind. An' #*' !&s!. B,7blic School %eachers are in ormed that anybody else's is correct.BBNew 'ork %imes,B S7nday, J7ly 10, 0440. An &n"lish writer says* B#n s7ch phrases as anybody else, and the like, else is o ten p7t in the possessive caseJ as, 'anybody else's servant'J and some "rammarians de end this 7se o the possessive case, ar"7in" that somebody else is a compo7nd no7n.B #t is better "rammar and more e7phonio7s to consider else as bein" an adAective, and to orm the possessive by addin" the apostrophe and s to the word that else C7ali iesJ th7s, anybody's else, nobody's else, somebody's else. An'4#2. BAn e!ceedin"ly v7l"ar phrase,B says ,ro essor /athews, in his BWords* %heir Ese and Ab7se.B B#ts 7se, in any manner, by one who pro esses to write and speak the &n"lish ton"7e with p7rity, is 7npardonable.B?," 04@,ro essor /athews seems to have a special dislike or this colloC7ialism. #t is reco"niDed by the le!ico"raphers, and # think is "enerally acco7nted, even by the care 7l, permissible in conversation, tho7"h incompatible with di"ni ied diction. An5i!$' #3 Min*. See &GEAN#/#%' O$ /#N+ . A(#s$r#(4!. %7rnin" rom the person or persons to whom a disco7rse is addressed and appealin" to some person or thin" absent, constit7tes what, in rhetoric, is called the apostrophe. %he ollowin" are some e!amples*
"4 &entle sleep,5at$re+s soft n$rse, how have ! fri&hted thee,That tho$ no more wilt wei&h my eyelids down,#nd steep my senses in for&etf$lness6""*ail on, tho$ lone imperial .ird4f 7$en"hless eye and tireless win&8" "9elp, an&els, make assay8:ow, st$..orn knees8 and heart with strin&s of steel,:e soft as sinews of the new;.orn .a.e1#ll may yet .e well8"

A((!ar. See S&&/. A((r!cia$!. # any word in the lan"7a"e has ca7se to complain o ill8treatment, this one has. Appreciatemeans, to estimate #ustlyto set the true val7e on men or thin"s, their worth, bea7ty, or advanta"es o any sort whatsoever. %h7s, an overestimate is no more appreciationthan is an 7nderestimateJ hence it ollows that s7ch e!pressions as, B# appreciate it, or her, or him, highly,B can not be correct. We value, or prize, thin"s hi"hly, notappreciate them hi"hly. %his word is also very improperly made to do service or rise, or increase, in val7eJ th7s, B-andappreciates rapidly in the West.B +r. -. %. %ownsend?," 0K@bl7nders in the 7se o appreciate in his BArt o Speech,B vol. i, p. 0FO, th7s* B%he laws o harmony ... may allow copio7sness ... in parts o a disco7rse ... in order that the condensation o other parts may be the more highly appreciated.B A((r!4!n*%C#-(r!4!n*. %he &n"lish o ten 7se the irst o these two words where we 7se the second. 3oth e!press an e ort o the thinkin" ac7ltyJ b7t to apprehendis simply to take an idea into the mindit is the mind's irst e ortwhile to comprehend is fully to understand. We are d7ll or C7ick o apprehension. .hildren apprehendm7ch that they do not comprehend. %rench says* BWeapprehend many tr7ths which we do not comprehend.B BApprehend,B says

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.rabb, Be!presses the weakest kind o belie , the havin" ?o @ the least idea o the presence o a thin".B A($. O ten mis7sed or li!ely, and sometimes or liable. BWhat is he apt to be doin"RB BWhere shall # be apt to ind himRB B# properly directed, it will be apt to reach me.B #n s7ch sentences as these, li!ely is the proper word to 7se. B# yo7 "o there, yo7 will be apt to "et into tro7ble.B Here either li!ely or liable is the proper word, accordin" to the tho7"ht the speaker wo7ld convey. Arc$ics. See (E33&(S. Ar$is$. O late years this word has been appropriated by the members o so many cra ts, that it has well8ni"h been despoiled o its meanin". 'o7r cook, yo7r barber, yo7r tailor, yo7r boot8 maker, and so on to satiety, are allartists. ,ainters, sc7lptors, architects, actors, and sin"ers, nowadays, "enerally pre er bein" th7s called, rather than to be spoken o as artists. As. BNot as # knowB* read, Bnot that # know.B B%his is not as "ood as the lastB* read, Bnot so "ood.B?," OL@B#t may be complete so ar as the speci ication is concernedB* correctly, Bas ar as.B As, preceded by such or by same, has the orce o a relative applyin" to persons or to thin"s. BHe o ered me thesame conditions as he o ered yo7.B B%he same conditionsthatB wo7ld be eC7ally proper. See, also, -#)&. Ascri !. See #/,E%&. A$. %hin"s are sold by, not at, a7ction. B%he scene is more bea7ti 7l at ni"ht than by dayB* say, Bby ni"ht.B A$ a&&. B#t is not stran"e, or my 7ncle is )in" o +enmark.B Had Shakespeare written, B#t is not at allstran"e,B it is clear that his diction wo7ld have been m7ch less orcible. B# do not wish or any at allBJ B# saw no one at allBJ B# he had any desire at all to see me, he wo7ld come where # am.B %he at all in sentences like these is s7per l7o7s. 'et there are instances in which the phrase is certainly a very convenient one, and seems to be 7nobAectionable. #t is m7ch 7sed, and by "ood writers. A$ !s$. #nstead o at best and at worst, we sho7ld say at the best and at the worst. A$ &as$. See A% -&N6%H. A$ &!as$. %his adverbial phrase is o ten misplaced. B'%he (omans 7nderstood liberty at least as well as we.' %his m7st be interpreted to mean, '%he (omans 7nderstood liberty as well as we 7nderstand liberty.' %he intended meanin" is, 'that whatever thin"s the (omans ailed to 7nderstand, they 7nderstood liberty.' %o e!press this meanin" we mi"ht p7t it th7s* '%he (omans 7nderstoodat least liberty as well as we do'J 'liberty, at least, the (omans 7nderstood as well as we do.' 'A tear, at least, is d7e to the 7nhappy'J 'at least a tear is d7e to the 7nhappy'J 'a tear is d7e at least to the 7nhappy'J 'a tear is d7e to the 7nhappy at least'all e!press di erent meanin"s.?," O0@'%his can not, often at least, be done'J 'this can not be done often$ at least.' M0. '#t o ten happens that this can not be done.' O. '#t does not o ten happen that this can be done.'N So, 'man is always capable o la7"hin"'J 'man is capable o la7"hin" always.'B3ain. A$ &!n0$4. %his phrase is o ten 7sed instead o at last. BAt length we mana"ed to "et awayB* read, Bat last.B BAt length we heard rom him.B %o hear rom any one at length is to hear 7llyJ i. e., in detail. A+$4#r!ss. With re"ard to the 7se o this and certain other words o like ormation, /r. 6o7ld, in his B6ood &n"lish,B says* B oet means simply a person who writes poetryJ and author, in the sense 7nder consideration, a person who writes poetry or prosenot a man who writes, b7t a person who writes. Nothin" in either word indicates se!J and everybody knows that the

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7nctions o both poets and a7thors are common to both se!es. Hence, authoressand poetess are s7per l7o7s. And they are s7per l7o7s, also, in another respectthat they are very rarely 7sed, indeed they hardly can be 7sed, independently o the name o the writer, as /rs., or /iss, or a emale .hristian name. %hey are, besides, philolo"ical abs7rdities, beca7se they are abricated on the alse ass7mption that their primaries indicatemen. %hey are, moreover, liable to the char"e o a ectation and prettiness, to say nothin" o pedantic pretension to acc7racy. B# the ess is to be permitted, there is no reason or e!cl7din" it rom any no7n that indicates a personJ and the ne!t editions o o7r dictionaries may be made complete by the addition o writress, officeress, manageress, superintendentess,secretaryess, treasureress, wal!eress, tal!eress, and so on to the end o the vocab7lary.B A)#ca$i#n. See HO.A%#ON.?," OO@ Ba* c#&*. #nasm7ch as colds are never good, why say a bad coldR We may talk abo7t slight colds and severecolds, b7t not abo7t bad colds. Ba00a0!. See -E66A6&. Ba&anc!. %his word is very reC7ently and very erroneo7sly 7sed in the sense o rest, remainder. #t properly means the excess of one thing over another, and in this sense and in no other sho7ld it be 7sed. Hence it is improper to talk abo7t the balance o the edition, o the evenin", o the money, o the toasts, o the men, etc. #n s7ch cases we sho7ld say the rest or the remainder. Bar aris-. +e ined as an o ense a"ainst "ood 7sa"e, by the 7se o an improper word, i. e., a word that is antiC7ated or improperly ormed. reventative, enthuse, agriculturalist,donate, etc., are barbarisms. See also SO-&.#S/. B!!n $#. We not 7n reC7ently hear a s7per l7o7s totacked to a sentenceJ th7s, BWhere have yo7 been toRB B!0. We o ten see letters be"in with the words, B#beg to acknowled"e the receipt o yo7r avor,B etc. We sho7ld write, B# beg leave to acknowled"e,B etc. No one wo7ld say, B# be" to tell yo7,B instead o , B# be" leave to tell yo7.B B!0in%C#--!nc!. %hese words have the same meanin"J care 7l speakers, however, "enerally pre er to 7se the ormer. #ndeed, there is rarely any "ood reason or "ivin" the pre erence to the latter. See also .O//&N.&. B!in0 +i&$. See #S 3&#N6 3E#-%. B!&#n0in0s. An old idiomatic e!pression now comin" into 7se a"ain. B!si*!%B!si*!s. #n the later 7nabrid"ed editions o Webster's dictionary we ind the ollowin" remarks concernin" the 7se o these two words* B%eside and besides,?," O1@whether 7sed as prepositions or adverbs, have been considered synonymo7s rom an early period o o7r literat7re, and have been reely interchan"ed by o7r best writers. %here is, however, a tendency in present 7sa"e to make the ollowin" distinction between them* 0. %hat beside be 7sed only and always as a preposition, with the ori"inal meanin" by the side ofJ as, to sit beside a o7ntainJ or with the closely allied meanin" aside from, or out ofJ as, this is beside o7r present p7rpose* ',a7l, tho7 art besidethysel .' %he adverbial sense to be wholly trans erred to the co"nate word. O. %hat besides, as a preposition, take the remainin" sense, in addition toJ as, besides all thisJbesides the consideration here o ered* '%here was a amine in the land besides the irst amine.' And that it also take the adverbial sense o moreover, beyond, etc., which had been divided between the wordsJ as, besides, there are other considerations which belon" to this case.B

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B!s$. See A% 3&S%. B!$2!!n. %his word is o ten mis7sed or amongJ th7s, B%he word fellow, however m7ch in 7se it may be betweenmen, so7nds very obAectionable rom the lips o women.BB-ondon G7een.B Sho7ld be, Bamong men.B %etween is 7sed in re erence to two thin"s, parties, or personsJ among, in re erence to a "reater n7mber. B.astor and ,oll7! with one so7l between them.B B'o7 have among yo7 many a p7rchased slave.B B&a-! i$ #n. Here is a "ross v7l"arism which we sometimes hear rom persons o considerable c7lt7re. %hey 7se it in the sense o accuse or suspectJ th7s, BHe blames it on his brother,B meanin" that he accuses or suspects his brother o havin" done it, or o bein" at a7lt or it. B#0+s. A colloC7ial term incompatible with di"ni ied diction.?," OF@ B#$4. We sometimes hear s7ch abs7rd sentences as, B%hey both resemble each other very m7chBJ B%hey areboth alikeBJ B%hey both met in the street.B %oth is likewise red7ndant in the ollowin" sentence* B#t per orms at the same time the o ices both o the nominative and obAective cases.B B#+n*. %he 7se o this word in the sense o determinedis not only inele"ant b7t inde ensible. B# ambound to have it,B sho7ld be, B# am determined to have it.B Bra)!r'%C#+ra0!. %he careless o ten 7se these two words as tho7"h they were interchan"eable. %ravery is inborn, is instinctiveJ courage is the prod7ct o reason, calc7lation. %here is m7ch merit in bein" co7ra"eo7s, little merit in bein" brave. /en who are simply brave are careless, while the co7ra"eo7s man is always ca7tio7s. %raveryo ten de"enerates into temerity. &oral courage is that irmness o principle which enables a man to do what he deems to be his d7ty, altho7"h his action may s7bAect him to adverse criticism. %r7e moral courage is one o the rarest and most admirable o virt7es. Al red the 6reat, in resistin" the attacks o the +anes, displayed braveryJ in enterin" their camp as a spy, he displayedcourage. Brin0%F!$c4%Carr'. %he indiscriminate 7se o these three words is very common. %o bring is to convey to or towarda simple actJ to fetch means to go and brin"a compo7nd actJ to carry o ten implies motion rom the speaker, and is ollowed by away or off, and th7s is opposed to bring and fetch. 'et one hears s7ch e!pressions as, B6o to /rs. +.'s and bring her this b7ndleJ and here, yo7 may fetch her this book also.B We 7se the words correctly th7s* B'etch, or go bring, me an apple rom the cellarBJ?," O2@BWhen yo7 come home bring some lemonsBJ BCarry this book home with yo7.B Bri$is4 a0ains$ A-!rican En0&is4. B%he most important pec7liarity o American &n"lish is a la!ity, irre"7larity, and con 7sion in the 7se o particles. %he same thin" is, indeed, observable in &n"land, b7t not to the same e!tent, tho7"h some "ross depart7res rom idiomatic propriety, s7ch as different to or different from, are common in &n"land, which none b7t very i"norant persons wo7ld be "7ilty o in America.... #n the tenses o the verbs, # am inclined to think that well8ed7cated Americans con orm more closely to "rammatical propriety than the correspondin" class in &n"land.... #n "eneral, # think we may say that, in point o naked syntactical acc7racy, the &n"lish o America is not at all in erior to that o &n"landJ b7t we do not discriminate so precisely in the meanin" o words, nor do we habit7ally, in either conversation or in writin", e!press o7rselves so "race 7lly, or employ so classic a diction, as the &n"lish. O7r taste in lan"7a"e is less astidio7s, and o7r licenses and inacc7racies are more reC7ently o a character

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indicative o want o re inement and ele"ant c7lt7re than those we hear in ed7cated society in &n"land.B6eor"e ,. /arsh. Bri$is4 a0ains$ A-!rican Or$4#6('. B%he ca7ses o the di erences in pron7nciation ?between the &n"lish and the Americans@ are partly physical, and there ore di ic7lt, i not impossible, to resistJ and partly owin" to a di erence o circ7mstances. O this latter class o in l7ences, the 7niversality o readin" in America is the most obvio7s and important. %he most marked di erence is, perhaps, in the len"th or prosodical C7antity o the vowelsJ and both o the ca7ses # have mentioned conc7r to prod7ce this e ect. We are said to drawl o7r words by protractin" the?," OQ@vowels and "ivin" them a more diphthon"al so7nd than the &n"lish. Now, an &n"lishman who reads will habit7ally 7tter his vowels more 7lly and distinctly than his co7ntryman who does notJ and, 7pon the same principle, a nation o readers, like the Americans, will prono7nce more deliberately and clearly than a people so lar"e a proportion o whom are 7nable to read, as in &n"land. $rom o7r 7niversal habit o readin", there res7lts not only a "reater distinctness o artic7lation, b7t a stron" tendency to assimilate the spoken to the written lan"7a"e. %h7s, Americans incline to "ive to every syllable o a written word a distinct en7nciationJ and the pop7lar habit is to say dic-tion-ar-y,mil-it-ar-y, with a secondary accent on the pen7ltimate, instead o sinkin" the third syllable, as is so common in &n"land. %here is, no do7bt, somethin" disa"reeably sti in an an!io7s and a ected con ormity to the very letter o ortho"raphyJ and to those acc7stomed to a more h7rried 7tterance we may seem to drawl, when we are only "ivin" a 7ll e!pression to letters which, tho7"h etymolo"ically important, the &n"lish habit7ally sl7r over, sp7tterin" o7t, as a Swedish satirist says, one hal o the word, and swallowin" the other. %he tendency to make the lon" vowels diphthon"al is noticed by orei"ners as a pec7liarity o the orthoIpy o o7r lan"7a"eJ and this tendency will, o co7rse, be stren"thened by any ca7se which prod7ces "reater slowness and 7llness o artic7lation. 3esides the in l7ence o the habit o readin", there is some reason to think that climate is a ectin" o7r artic7lation. #n spite o the coldness o o7r winters, o7r lora shows that the climate o even o7r Northern States belon"s, 7pon the whole, to a more so7thern type than that o &n"land. #n so7thern latit7des, at least within the temperate Done, artic7lation is "enerally m7ch more distinct than in the northern re"ions. Witness?," O5@the pron7nciation o Spanish, #talian, %7rkish, as compared with &n"lish, +anish, and 6erman. ,articipatin", then, in the physical in l7ences o a so7thern climate, we have contracted somethin" o the more distinct artic7lation that belon"s to a dry atmosphere and a clear sky. And this view o the case is con irmed by the act that the inhabitants o the So7thern States incline, like the people o so7thern &7rope, to throw the accent toward the end o the word, and th7s, like all nations that 7se that accent7ation, brin" o7t all the syllables. %his we observe very commonly in the comparative Northern and So7thern pron7nciation o proper names. # mi"ht e!empli y by citin" amiliar instancesJ b7t, lest that sho7ld seem invidio7s, it may s7 ice to say that, not to mention more important chan"es, many a Northern member o .on"ress "oes to Washin"ton adactyl or a trochee, and comes home an amphibrach or aniambus. Why or how e!ternal physical ca7ses, as climate and modes o li e, sho7ld a ect pron7nciation, we can not sayJ b7t it is evident that material in l7ences o some sort are prod7cin" a chan"e in o7r bodily constit7tion, and we are ast acC7irin" a distinct national An"lo8American type. %hat the delicate or"ans o artic7lation sho7ld participate in s7ch tendencies is alto"ether nat7ralJ and the operation o the ca7ses which "ive rise to them is palpable even in o7r handwritin", which, i not 7ni orm with itsel , is "enerally, nevertheless, so 7nlike common &n"lish script as to be readily distin"7ished rom it.

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B%o the Aoint operation, then, o these two ca7ses7niversal readin" and climatic in l7ences we m7st ascribe o7r habit o dwellin" 7pon vowel and diphthon"al so7nds, or o drawlin", i that term is insisted 7pon.... 37t it is o ten noticed by orei"ners as both makin" 7s more readily 7nderstood by them when speakin" o7r own ton"7e, and as?," O4@connected with a le!ibility o or"an, which enables 7s to acC7ire a better pron7nciation o other lan"7a"es than is 7s7al with &n"lishmen. #n any case, as, in spite o the old ada"e, speech is "iven 7s that we may make o7rselves 7nderstood, o7r drawlin", however prolon"ed, is pre erable to the na7seo7s, o""y, m7mblin" thickness o artic7lation which characteriDes the cockney, and is not 7n reC7ently a ected by &n"lishmen o a better class.B6eor"e ,. /arsh. Br'an$"s Pr#4i i$!* W#r*s. See #N+&S &S,E(6A%O(#ES. B+$. %his word is mis7sed in vario7s ways. B# do not do7bt but he will be hereB* read, do7bt that. B# sho7ld not wonder butB* read, if. B# have no do7bt butthat he will "oB* s7ppress but. B# do not do7bt but that it is tr7eB* s7ppress but. B%here can be no do7bt butthat the b7r"lary is the work o pro essional cracksmen.BBNew 'ork Herald.B +o7bt that, and not but that. BA care 7l canvass leaves no do7bt but that the nomination,B etc.* s7ppress but. B%here is no reasonable do7bt butthat it is all it pro esses to beB* s7ppress but. B%he mind no sooner entertains any proposition but it presently hastens,B etc.* read, than. BNo other reso7rce but this was allowed himB* read, than. B'. See A%. Ca&c+&a$!. %his word means to ascertain by comp7tation, to reckon, to estimateJ and, say some o the p7rists, it never means anythin" else when properly 7sed. (f this is true, we can not say a thin" is calculated to do harm, b7t m7st, i we are ambitio7s to have o7r &n"lish irreproachable, choose some other orm o e!pression, or at least some other word, li!ely or apt, or e!ample. .obbett, however, says, B%hat, to Her, whose "reat e!ample is so well calculated?," OK@to inspire,B etc.J and, B%he irst two o the three sentences are well eno7"h calculated or 7sherin",B etc.Calculate is sometimes v7l"arly 7sed or intend, purpose,expectJ as, BHe calculates to "et o to8morrow.B Ca&i !r. %his word is sometimes 7sed very abs7rdlyJ as, B3rown's &ssays are o a m7ch hi"her caliber than Smith's.B #t is plain that the proper word to 7se here isorder. Can$. Cant is a kind o a ectationJ a ectation is an e ort to sail 7nder alse colorsJ an e ort to sail 7nder alse colors is a kind o alsehoodJ and alsehood is a term o -atin ori"in which we o ten 7se instead o the stron"er Sa!on term -'#N6T BWho is not amiliar,B writes +r. William /atthews, Bwith scores o pet phrases and cant terms which are repeated at this day apparently witho7t a tho7"ht o their meanin"R Who ever attended a missionary meetin" witho7t hearin" 'the /acedonian cry,' and an acco7nt o some 'little interest' and ' ields white or the harvest'R Who is not weary o the din"8don" o 'o7r Uion,' and the solecism o 'in o7r midst'J and who does not lon" or a verbal millenni7m when .hristians shall no lon"er ' eel to take' and '"rant to "ive'RB BHow m7ch # re"ret,B says .olerid"e, Bthat so many reli"io7s persons o the present day think it necessary to adopt a certain cant o manner and phraseolo"y ?and o tone o voice@ as a token to each other ?one another@T %hey improve this and that te!t, and they m7st do so and so in a prayer 7l wayJ and so on.B Ca(aci$'. See A3#-#%'.

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Ca($i#n. %his word is o ten 7sed or heading, b7t, th7s 7sed, it is condemned by care 7l writers. %he tr7e meanin" o caption is a seiD7re, an arrest. #t does not come rom?," 1L@a -atin word meanin" a head, b7t rom a -atin word meanin"to seize. Car!$. .obbett writes o the caret to his son* B%he last thin" # shall mention 7nder this head is the caret ?V@, which is 7sed to point 7pward to a part which has been omitted, and which is inserted between the line where the caret is placed and the line above it. %hin"s sho7ld be called by their ri"ht names, and this sho7ld be called the blunder-mar!. # wo7ld have yo7, my dear James, scorn the 7se o the thin". )hin! be ore yo7 writeJ let it be yo7r c7stom to write correctly and in a plain hand. 3e care 7l that neatness, "rammar, and sense prevail when yo7 write to a blacksmith abo7t shoein" a horse as when yo7 write on the most important s7bAects. Habit is power 7l in all casesJ b7t its power in this case is tr7ly wonder 7l. When yo7 write, bear constantly in mind that some one is to read and to understand what yo7 write. %his will make yo7r handwritin" and also yo7r meanin" plain. $ar, # hope, rom my dear James will be the ridic7lo7s, the contemptible a ectation o writin" in a slovenly or ille"ible hand, or that o si"nin" his name otherwise than in plain letters.B Carr'. See 3(#N6. Cas!. /any persons o considerable c7lt7re contin7ally make mistakes in conversation in the 7se o the cases, and we sometimes meet with "ross errors o this kind in the writin"s o a7thors o rep7te. Witness the ollowin"* BAnd everybody is to know him e!cept (.B6eor"e /erideth in B%he %ra"ic .omedies,B &n". ed., vol. i, p. 11. B-et's yo7 and ( "oB* say, me. We can not say, -et ("o. ,roperly, -et's "o, i. e., let 7s "o, or, let yo7 and me"o. BHe is as "ood as meB* say, as (. BShe is as tall ashimB* say, as he. B'o7 are older than meB* say, than (. BNobody said so b7t heB* say, b7t him. B&very one can?," 10@master a "rie b7t he that hath itB* correctly, b7t him. BJohn went o7t with James and (B* say, and me. B'o7 are stron"er than himB* say, than he. B3etween yo7 and (B* say, and me. B3etween yo7 and theyB* say, and them. BHe "ave it to John and (B* say, and me. B'o7 told John and (B* say, and me. BHe sat between him and (B* say, and me. BHe e!pects to see yo7 and (B* say, and me. B'o7 were a d7nce to do it. WhoR meRB say, (. S7pply the ellipsis, and we sho7ld have, WhoR me a d7nce to do itR BWhere are yo7 "oin"R WhoR meRB say, (. We can't say, me "oin". B*ho do yo7 meanRB say, whom. BWas it themRB say,they. B# # was him, # wo7ld do itB* say, were he. B# # was her, # wo7ld not "oB* say, were she. BWas it himRB say, he. BWas it herRB say, she. B$or the bene it o thosewhom he tho7"ht were his riendsB* say, who. %his error is not easy to detect on acco7nt o the parenthetical words that ollow it. # we drop them, the mistake is very apparentJ th7s, B$or the bene it o those whom were his riends.B BOn the s7pposition,B says 3ain, Bthat the interro"ativewho has whom or its obAective, the ollowin" are errors* 'who do yo7 take me to beR' 'who sho7ld # meet the other dayR' 'who is it byR' 'who did yo7 "ive it toR' 'who toR' 'who orR' 37t, considerin" that these e!pressionsoccur with the best writers and spea!ers, that they are more energetic than the other orm, and that they lead to no ambiguity, it may be do7bted whether "rammarians have not e!ceeded their province in condemnin" them.B .obbett, in writin" o the prono7ns, says* BWhen the relatives are placed in the sentence at a distance rom their antecedents or verbs or prepositions, the ear "ives 7s no assistance. '*ho, o all the men in the world, do yo7?," 1O@think # saw to8dayR' '*ho, or the sake o n7mero7s services, the o ice was "iven to.' #n both these cases it sho7ld be whom. 3rin" the verb in the irst and the preposition in the second case closer to the relative, as, who ( saw, to who the office was given, and yo7 see the error at once. 37t take careT '*hom, o all the men in the world, do

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yo7 think, was chosen to be sent as an ambassadorR' '*hom, or the sake o his n7mero7s services, had an o ice o honor bestowed 7pon him.' %hese are nominative cases, and o7"ht to have whoJ that is to say, who was chosen, who had an office.B B/ost "rammarians,B says +r. 3ain, in his BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar,B Bhave laid down this r7le* '%he verb to be has the same case a ter as be ore it.' /aca7lay cens7res the ollowin" as a solecism* '#t was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad i"7re b7t as an a7thor.' %hackeray similarly adverts to the same deviation rom the r7le* 'B#s that himRB said the lady in questionable grammar.' 37t, notwithstandin" this,B contin7es +r. 3ain, Bwe certainly hear in the act7al speech o all classes o society s7ch e!pressions as 'it was me,' 'it was him,' 'it was her,' more reC7ently than the prescribed orm.?0@ '%his shy creat7re, my brother says, is me'J 'were it me, #'d show him the di erence.'.larissa Harlowe. '#t is not me?O@ yo7 are in love with.'Addison. '# there is one character more base than another, it is him who,' etc.Sydney Smith. '# # were him'J 'i # had been her,' etc. %he a7thority o "ood writers is stron" on the side o obAective orms.?," 11@%here is also the analo"y o the $rench lan"7a"eJ or while '# am here' is #e suis ici, the answer to 'who is thereR' ismoi MmeNJ and c'est moi Mit is meN is the le"itimate phraseneverc'est #e Mit is #N.B 37t moi, accordin" to all $rench "rammarians, is very o ten in the nominative case. &oi is in the nominative case when 7sed in reply to BWho is thereRB and also in the phrase B.'est moi,B which makes B#t is (B the correct translation o the phrase, and not B#t is me.B %he $rench eC7ivalent o B#T # am here,B is B/oiT Ae s7is ici.B %he $renchman 7ses moi in the nominative case when #e wo7ld be inharmonio7s. &7phony with him is a matter o more importance than "rammatical correctness. 3escherelle "ives many e!amples o moi in the nominative. Here are two o them* B/on avocat et moi sommes de cet avis. G7i ve7t aller avec l7iR /oi.B # we 7se s7ch phraseolo"y as B#t is me,B we m7st do as the $rench doconsider meas bein" in the nominative case, and o er euphony as o7r reason or th7s 7sin" it. When shall we p7t no7ns Mor prono7nsN precedin" verbal, or participial, no7ns, as they are called by some "rammariansin initives in ing, as they are called by othersin the possessive caseR B'# am s7rprised at +ohn's Mor his, your, etc.N refusingto "o.' '# am s7rprised at +ohn Mor him, you, etc.N refusingto "o.' ?#n the latter sentence refusing is a participle.@ %he latter constr7ction is not so common with prono7ns as with no7ns, especially with s7ch no7ns as do not readily take the possessive orm. '%hey prevented him going orward'* better, '%hey prevented his going orward.' 'He was dismissed witho7t any reason being assi"ned.' '%he boy died thro7"h his clothes being b7rned.' 'We hear little o any connection being kept 7p between the two nations.'?," 1F@'%he men rowed vi"oro7sly or ear o the tide turninga"ainst 7s.' %ut most examples of the construction without the possessive form are O3H#OES-' +E& %O /&(& S-OH&N-#N&SS.... '#n case o your being absent'* here being is an in initive ?verbal, or participial, no7n@ C7ali ied by the possessive your. '#n case o you being present'* herebeing wo7ld have to be constr7ed as a participle. )he possessive construction is$ in this case$ the primitive and regular constructionJ %H& O%H&( #S A /&(& -A,S&. %he di ic7lty o adherin" to the possessive orm occ7rs when the s7bAect is not a person* '#t does not seem sa e to rely on the r7le o demand creatin" s7pply'* in strictness, ',emand'screatin" s7pply.' 'A petition was presented a"ainst the license being "ranted.' 37t or the awkwardness o e!tendin" the possessive to impersonal s7bAects, it wo7ld be ri"ht to say, 'a"ainst the license's being "ranted.' 'He had cond7cted the ball witho7t any complaint being 7r"ed a"ainst him.' %he possessive wo7ld be s7itable, b7t 7ndesirable and 7nnecessary.B,ro essor Ale!ander 3ain.

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B%ho7"h the ordinary synta! o the possessive case is s7 iciently plain and easy, there is, perhaps, amon" all the p7DDlin" and disp7table points o "rammar, nothin" more di ic7lt o decision than are some C7estions that occ7r respectin" the ri"ht mana"ement o this case. %he observations that have been made show that possessives be ore participles are seldom to be approved. %he ollowin" e!ample is mani estly inconsistent with itsel J and, in my opinion$ the three possessives are all wrong* '%he kitchen, too, now be"ins to "ive dread 7l note o preparationJ not rom armorers accomplishin" the kni"hts, b7t rom theshopmaid's choppin" orce8meat, the apprentice's cleanin" knives, and the #ourneyman's receivin" a practical lesson in?," 12@the art o waitin" at table.' '%he daily instances o men'sdyin" aro7nd 7s.' Say rather, 'O men dyin" aro7nd 7s.' %he leadin" word in sense o7"ht not to be made the adA7nct in constr7ction.B6oold 3rown. Cas+a&$'. %his word is o ten heard with the incorrect addition o a syllable, casuality, which is not reco"niDed by the le!ico"raphers. Some writers obAect to the word cas7alty, and always 7se its synonym accident. C!&! ri$'. BA n7mber o celebrities witnessed the irst representation.B %his word is reC7ently 7sed, especially in the newspapers, as a concrete termJ b7t it wo7ld be better to 7se it in its abstract sense only, and in sentences like the one above to say distinguished persons. C4arac$!r%R!(+$a$i#n. %hese two words are not synonyms, tho7"h o ten 7sed as s7ch. Character means the s7m o distin"7ishin" C7alities. BActions, looks, words, steps, orm the alphabet by which yo7 may spell characters.B-avater. "eputation means the estimation in which one is held. One's rep7tation, then, is what is tho7"ht o one's characterJ conseC7ently, one may have a "ood rep7tation and a bad character, or a "ood character and a bad rep7tation. .al7mny may inA7re reputation, b7t not character. Sir ,eter does not leave his character behind him, b7t his reputationhis good name. C4!a(. %he dictionaries de ine this adAective as meanin", bearin" a low price, or to be had at a low priceJ b7t nowadays "ood 7sa"e makes it mean that a thin" may be had, or has been sold, at a bar"ain. Hence, in order to make s7re o bein" 7nderstood, it is better to say low-priced, when one means low8priced, than to 7se the word cheap. What is low8priced, as everybody knows, is o ten dear, and what is hi"h8priced is o ten cheap. A diamond necklace?," 1Q@mi"ht be cheap at ten tho7sand dollars, and a pinchbeck necklace dear at ten dollars. C4!r+ i-. %he Hebrew pl7ral o cherub. BWe are a7thoriDed,B says +r. .ampbell, Bboth by 7se and analo"y, to say either cherubs and seraphs, accordin" to the &n"lish idiom, or cherubim and seraphim, accordin" to the Oriental. %he ormer s7its better the amiliar, the latter the solemn, style. As the words cherubim and seraphim are pl7ral, the terms cherubims and seraphims, as e!pressin" the pl7ral, are C7ite improper.BB,hilosophy o (hetoric.B Ci$i.!n. %his word properly means one who has certain political ri"htsJ when, there ore, it is 7sed, as it o ten is, to desi"nate persons who may be aliens, it, to say the least, betrays a want o care in the selection o words. BSeveral citizens were inA7red by the e!plosion.B Here some other wordpersons, or e!amplesho7ld be 7sed. C&!)!r. #n this co7ntry the word clever is most improperly 7sed in the sense o "ood8nat7red, well8disposed, "ood8hearted. #t is properly 7sed in the sense in which we are wont most inele"antly to 7se the word smart, tho7"h it is a less colloC7ial term, and is o wider application. #n &n"land the phrase Ba clever manB is the eC7ivalent o the $rench phrase, Bun homme d'esprit.B %he word is properly 7sed in the ollowin" sentences* B&very work o Archbishop

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Whately m7st be an obAect o interest to the admirers o clever reasonin"BJ B.obbett's letter ... veryclever, b7t very mischievo7sBJ B3onaparte was certainly asclever a man as ever lived.B C&i-a5. A cla7se, a sentence, a para"raph, or any literary composition whatsoever, is said to end with a climaxwhen, by an artistic arran"ement, the more e ective is made to ollow the less e ective in re"7lar "radation. Any "reat depart7re rom the order o ascendin" stren"th?," 15@is called an anti-climax. Here are some e!amples o clima!* B6ive all dili"enceJ add to yo7r aith, virt7eJ and to virt7e, knowled"eJ and to knowled"e, temperanceJ and to temperance, patienceJ and to patience, "odlinessJ and to "odliness, brotherly kindnessJ and to brotherly kindness, charity.B BWhat is every year o a wise man's li e b7t a criticism on the pastT %hose whose li e is the shortest live lon" eno7"h to la7"h at one hal o itJ the boy despises the in ant, the man the boy, the sa"e both, and the .hristian all.B BWhat a piece o work is manT how noble in reasonT how in inite in ac7ltiesT in orm and movin", how e!press and admirableT in action, how like an an"elT in apprehension, how like a "odTB C#. %he pre i! co sho7ld be 7sed only when the word to which it is Aoined be"ins with a vowel, as in co-eval, co-incident,co-operate, etc. Con is 7sed when the word be"ins with a consonant, as in con-temporary, con-#unction, etc.Co-partner is an e!ception to the r7le. C#--!nc!. %he 3ritons 7se or mis7se this word in a manner pec7liar to themselves. %hey say, or e!ample, Bcommenced merchant,B Bcommenced actor,B Bcommenced politician,B and so on. +r. Hall tells 7s that commence has been employed in the sense o Bbe"in to be,B Bbecome,B Bset 7p as,B by irst8class writers, or more than two cent7ries. .are 7l speakers make small 7se o commence in any senseJ they pre er to 7se its Sa!on eC7ivalent, begin. See, also, 3&6#N. C#-(aris#n. When only two obAects are compared, the comparative and not the s7perlative de"ree sho7ld be 7sedJ th7s, B/ary is the older o the twoBJ BJohn is the?," 14@stronger o the twoBJ B3rown is the richer o the two, and the richest man in the cityBJ BWhich is the more desirable, health or wealthRB BWhich is the most desirable, health, wealth, or "eni7sRB
"4f two s$"h lessons, why for&etThe nobler and the manlier one6"

C#-(&!$!*. %his word is o ten incorrectly 7sed orfinished. %hat is complete which lacks nothin"J that isfinished which has had all done to it that was intended. %he b7ilder o a ho7se may finish it and yet leave it veryincomplete. C#n*i0n. #t is sa e to say that most o those who 7se this word do not know its meanin", which is, s7itable, deserved, merited, proper. BHis endeavors shall not lackcondign praiseBJ i. e., his endeavors shall not lack properor their merited praise. BA villain condignly p7nishedB is a villain p7nished according to his deserts. %o 7se condignin the sense o severe is A7st as incorrect as it wo7ld be to 7se deserved or merited in the sense o severe. C#n3ir-!* In)a&i*. %his phrase is a convenient mode o e!pressin" the idea it conveys, b7t it is di ic7lt to de end, inasm7ch as confirmed means stren"thened, established. C#ns!,+!nc!. %his word is sometimes 7sed instead o importance or momentJ as, B%hey were all persons o more or less consequenceB* read, Bo more or less importance.B B#t is a matter o no consequenceB* read, Bo nomoment.B C#nsi*!r. B%his word,B says /r. (ichard 6rant White, in his BWords and %heir Eses,B Bis perverted rom its tr7e meanin" by most o those who 7se it.B Considermeans, to meditate, to deliberate, to re lect, to revolve in the mindJ and yet it is made to do service or?," 1K@thin!,

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suppose, and regard. %h7s* B# consider his co7rse very 7nA7sti iableBJ B# have always considered it my d7ty,B etc.J B# consider him as bein" the cleverest man o my acC7aintance.B C#n$!-($i &!. %his word is sometimes 7sed or contemptuous. An old story says that a man once said to +r. ,arr, BSir, # have a contemptible opinion o yo7.B B%hat does not s7rprise me,B ret7rned the +octorJ Ball yo7r opinions are contemptible.B What is worthless or weak iscontemptible. +espicable is a word that e!presses a still more intense de"ree o the contemptible. A traitor is adespicable character, while a poltroon is only contemptible. C#n$in+a&&'. See ,&(,&%EA--'. C#n$in+! #n. %he on in this phrase is "enerally s7per l7o7s. BWe contin7ed on o7r wayB is idiomatic &n"lish, and is more e7phonio7s than the sentence wo7ld be witho7t the particle. %he meanin" is, BWe contin7ed to travelon o7r way.B #n s7ch sentences, however, as B.ontin7eon,B BHe contin7ed to read on,B B%he ever contin7edon or some ho7rs,B and the like, the on "enerally serves no p7rpose. C#n)!rsa$i#nis$. %his word is to be pre erred toconversationalist. /r. (ichard 6rant White says that conversationalistand agriculturalist are inadmissible. On the other hand, +r. $itDedward Hall says* BAs or conversationistand conversationalist, agriculturist and agriculturalist, as all are alike le"itimate ormations, it is or convention to decide which we are to pre er.B C#n)#1!%C#n)!n!. At one time and another there has been some disc7ssion with re"ard to the correct 7se o these two words. Accordin" to .rabb, B%here is nothin" imperative on the part o those that assemble, or convene, and nothin" bindin" on those assembled, or convened* one?," FL@assembles, or convenes, by invitation or reC7estJ one attends to the notice or not, at pleas7re. Convo!e, on the other hand, is an act of authorityJ it is the call o one who has the a7thority to "ive the callJ it is heeded by those who eel themselves bo7nd to attend.B ,roperly, then, ,resident Arth7r convo!es, not convenes, the Senate. C#r(#r!a&%C#r(#ra&. %hese adAectives, tho7"h re"arded as synonyms, are not 7sed indiscriminately. Corporalis 7sed in re erence to the body, or animal rame, in its proper senseJ corporeal, to the animal s7bstance in an e!tended senseopposed to spirit7al. Corporal p7nishmentJcorporeal or material orm or s7bstance.
"That to corporeal s$.stan"es "o$ld add*peed most spirit$al."=ilton. ">hat seemed corporal =elted as .reath into the wind."*hakespeare.

C#+(&!. #n its primitive si"ni ication, this word does not mean simply two, b7t two that are 7nited by some bondJ s7ch as, or e!ample, the tie that 7nites the se!es. #t has, however, been so lon" 7sed to mean two o a kind considered to"ether, that in this sense it may be deemed permissible, tho7"h the s7bstit7tion o the word two or it wo7ld o ten materially improve the diction. C#+ra0!. See 3(AH&('. Cri-!%Vic!%Sin. %he con 7sion that e!ists in the 7se o these words is d7e lar"ely to an imper ect 7nderstandin" o their respective meanin"s. Crime is the violation o the law o a stateJ hence, as the laws o states di er, what is crime in one state may not be crime in another.-ice is a co7rse o wron"8doin", and is not modi ied either by co7ntry, reli"ion, or condition. As or sin, it is very di ic7lt to de ine what it is, as what is sin 7l in the eyes o one man may not be sin 7l in the eyes o anotherJ what is?," F0@sin 7l in the eyes o a Jew may not be sin 7l in the eyes o a .hristianJ and what is sin 7l in the eyes o a .hristian o one co7ntry may not be sin 7l in the

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eyes o a .hristian o another co7ntry. #n the days o slavery, to harbor a r7naway slave was a crime, b7t it was, in the eyes o most people, neither a vice nor a sin. Cr+s4!* #+$. B%he rebellion was inally crushed out.B O7t o whatR We may crush the li e o7t o a man, orcrush a man to death, and crush, not crush out, a rebellion. C+&$+r!*. %his word is said to be a prod7ct o 3ostonan e!cellent place or anybody or anythin" to come rom. /any persons obAect to its 7se on the "ro7nd that there can be no s7ch participial adAective, beca7se there is no verb in 7se rom which to orm it. We have in 7se the s7bstantive culture, b7t, tho7"h the dictionaries reco"niDe the verb to culture, we do not 7se it. 3e this obAection valid or be it not, cultured havin" b7t two syllables, while its synonym cultivated has o7r, it is likely to ind avor with those who employ short words when they convey their meanin" as well as lon" ones. Other adAectives o this kind are, moneyed, whiskered, slippered, lettered, talented, cotta"ed, lilied, an"7ished, "i ted, and so orth. C+ri#+s. %his word is o ten 7sed instead o strangeor remar!able. BA curious actB* better, Ba remar!able act.B BA curious proceedin"B* better, Ba strange proceedin".B Dan0!r#+s. BHe is pretty sick, b7t not dangerous.B +an"ero7s people are "enerally most dan"ero7s when they are most vi"oro7s. Say, rather, BHe is sick, b7t not in danger.B D!ar!s$. BA "entleman once be"an a letter to his?," FO@bride th7s* '/y dearest /aria.' %he lady replied* '/y dear John, # be" that yo7 will mend either yo7r morals or yo7r "rammar. 'o7 call me yo7r Bdearest /ariaBJ am # to 7nderstand that yo7 have other /arias'RB/oon's B3ad &n"lish.B D!c!i)in0. B'o7 are deceiving me.B Not 7n reC7entlydeceiving is 7sed when the speaker means trying to deceive. #t is when we do not s7spect deception that we are deceived. D!ci-a$!. %his word, meanin" as it properly does to tithe, to take the tenth part, is hardly permissible in the sense in which it is 7sed in s7ch sentences as, B%he re"iment held its position, tho7"h terribly decimated by the enemy's artillery.B B%ho7"h terribly tithedB wo7ld be eC7ally correct. D!-!an. %his word is sometimes erroneo7sly 7sed in the sense o to debase, to disgrace, to humble. #t is a re le!ive verb, and its tr7e meanin" is to behave, to carry, to conductJ as, BHe demeans himself in a "entlemanly manner,B i. e., He behaves, or carries, or conducts, himsel in a "entlemanly manner. D!n+*!. B%he v7lt7re,B says 3rande, Bhas some part o the head and sometimes o the neck denuded o eathers.B /ost birds mi"ht be denuded o the eathers on their headsJ not so, however, the v7lt7re, or his head is always eatherless. A thin" can not be denuded o what it does not have. +en7din" a v7lt7re's head and neck o the eathers is like denuding an eel o its scales. D!(r!ca$!. Stran"ely eno7"h, this word is o ten 7sed in the sense o disapprove, cens7re, condemnJ as, BHe deprecates the whole proceedin"BJ B'o7r co7rse, rom irst to last, is 7niversally deprecated.B 37t, accordin" to the a7thorities, the word really means, to endeavor to?," F1@avert by prayerJ to pray e!emption or deliverance romJ to be" o J to entreatJ to 7r"e a"ainst. B+aniel kneeled 7pon his knees to deprecate the captivity o his people.BHewyt. D!s(i$!. %his word is o ten incorrectly preceded byin and ollowed by ofJ th7s, B(n despite of all o7r e orts to detain him, he set o7tBJ which sho7ld be, B+espite all o7r e orts,B etc., or B(n spite of all o7r e orts,B etc.

2'

D!$!r-in!*. See 3OEN+. Dic$i#n. %his is a "eneral term, and is applicable to a sin"le sentence or to a connected composition. %ad dictionmay be d7e to errors in "rammar, to a con 7sed disposition o words, or to an improper 7se o words. ,iction, to be "ood, reC7ires to be only correct and clear. O e!cellent e!amples o bad diction there are very many in a little work by +r. -. %. %ownsend, ,ro essor o Sacred (hetoric in 3oston Eniversity, the irst vol7me o which has lately come 7nder my notice. %he irst ten lines o +r. %ownsend's pre ace are* B%he leadin" "eni7s0 o the ,eople's .olle"e at .ha7ta7C7a -ake, with a ?theR@ view o providin" or his co7rseOa te!t8book, asked or the p7blication o the ollowin" laws and principles o speech.1 B%he a7thor, not seein" s7 icient reasonF or withholdin" what had been o m7ch practical bene it2 to himsel , consented.Q B%he s7bAect8matter herein contained is an o7t"rowth rom5 occasional instr7ctions4 "ivenK while occ7pyin" the chair0L o Sacred (hetoric.B 0. %he phrase leading genius is badly chosen. $o7nder, proAector, head, or"aniDer, principal, or presidentsome one o these terms wo7ld probably have been appropriate. O. What co7rseR (ace8co7rse, co7rse o ethics, Wsthetics,?," FF@rhetoric, or whatR?1@ 1. B%he ollowin" laws and principles o speech.B And how came these laws and principles in e!istenceR Who made themR We are to in er, it wo7ld seem, that ,ro essor %ownsend made them, and that the world wo7ld have had to "o witho7t the laws that "overn lan"7a"e and the principles on which lan"7a"e is ormed had it pleased ,ro essor %ownsend to withhold them. F. B.ufficient reasonBT %hen there were reasons why ,ro essor %ownsend o7"ht to have kept these "ood thin"s all to himsel J only, they were not sufficient. 2. B,ractical bene itBT #s there any s7ch thin" as impractical bene itR Are not all bene its practicalR and, i they are, what p7rpose does the epithet practical serveR Q. .onsented to whatR #t is easy to see that the +octor means acceded to the request, b7t he is a lon" way rom sayin" so. %he obAect writers 7s7ally have in view is to convey tho7"ht, not to set their readers to "7essin". 5. )he outgrowth of wo7ld be &n"lish. 4. BOccasional instr7ctionsBT Hery va"7e, and well calc7lated to set the reader to "7essin" a"ain. K. 6iven to whomR 0L. B)he chair.B %he de inite article made it necessary or the writer to speci y what partic7lar chair o Sacred (hetoric he meant. %hese ten lines are a air specimen o the diction o the entire vol7me. ,a"e 010. B%o render a given ambiguous or 7nintelli"ible sentence transparent, the ollowin" s7""estions are recommended.B %he words in italics are 7nnecessary, since what is ambi"7o7s is 7nintelli"ible. %hen who has ever heard o recommending suggestionsR +r. %ownsend speaks o mastering a sub#ect before publishing it. ,7blishin" a s7bAectR?," F2@ ,a"e 011. BHiolations o simplicity, whatever the type, show either that the mind of the writer is tainted with a ectation, or else that an effort is ma!ing to conceal consciouspoverty o sentiment 7nder lo tiness o e!pression.B Here is an e!ample o a kind o sentence that can be mended in only one wayby rewritin", which mi"ht be done th7s* Hiolations o simplicity, whatever the type, show either that the writer is tainted with a ectation, or that he is makin" an e ort to conceal poverty o tho7"ht 7nder lo tiness o e!pression. ,a"e 0F1. B%his quality is 7lly stated and recommended,B etc. Who has ever heard o stating a qualityR

22

On pa"e 0F2 +r. %ownsend says* BA person can not read a sin"le book o poor style witho7t havin" his own style vitiated.B A boo! of poor style is an awkward e!pression, to say the least. A single badly-written boo! wo7ld have been 7nobAectionable. ,a"e 0QL. B%he presented pict7re prod7ces instantly a de inite e ect.B Why this 7n7s7al disposition o wordsR Why not say, in accordance with the idiom o the lan"7a"e, B%he pict7re presented instantly prod7ces,B etc.R ,a"e 0Q0. B%he boy st7dies ... "eo"raphy and hates everythin" connected with the sea and land.B Why theboyR As there are ew thin"s besides seals and t7rtles that are connected with the sea and land, the boy in C7estion has ew thin"s to hate. On pa"e 052, +r. %ownsend heads a chapter th7s* BArt o acC7irin" .!ill in the 7se o ,oetic Speech.B %his reminds one o the man who tried to li t himsel over a ence by takin" hold o the seat o his breeches. B/owto acC7ire skillB is probably what is meant. On pa"e O1O, BJeremy %aylor is amon" the best?," FQ@models o lon" sentences which are both clear and lo"ical.B Jeremy %aylor is a clear and lo"ical lon" sentenceRT %r7e, o7r learned rhetorician says so, b7t he doesn't mean it. He means, B#n Jeremy %aylor we ind some o the best e!amples o lon" sentences which are at once clear and lo"ical.B Since the ore"oin" was written, the second vol7me o ,ro essor %ownsend's BArt o SpeechB has been p7blished. #n the brie pre ace to this vol7me we ind this characteristic sentence* B%he a7thor has elt that clergymen more than those o other pro essions will st7dy this treatise.B %he antecedent o the relative those bein" clergymen, the sentence, it will be perceived, says* B%he a7thor has elt that clergymen more than clergymen of other professions will st7dy this treatise.B .omment on s7ch BartB as ,ro essor %ownsend's is not necessary. # ind several noteworthy e!amples o bad diction in an article in a recent n7mber o an A7stralian ma"aDine. %he ollowin" are some o them* B0arge capital always mana"es to make itself master o the sit7ationJ it is the small capitalist and the small landholder that wo7ld s7 er,B etc. Sho7ld be, B)he large capitalist 111 himself,B etc. A"ain* B%he small armer wo7ld ... be despoiled ... o the mea"er pro it which strenuous labor had conC7ered rom the reluctant soil.B Not only are the epithets in italics s7per l7o7s, and conseC7ently weakenin" in their e ect, b7t idiom does not permit strenuous to be 7sed to C7ali y labor* hard labor and strenuous e ort. A"ain* B.apital has always the choice of a lar"e ield.B Sho7ld be, Bthe choice offered by a lar"e ield.B A"ain* BSho7ld capital be withdrawn, tenements wo7ld soon prove ins7 icient.B Sho7ld be, Bthe number of tenements wo7ld,B etc. A"ain* B/en o wealth, there ore, wo7ld ind their $i th?," F5@Aven7e mansions and their s7mmer villas a little more b7rdened with ta!es, b7t with this increase happily balanced by the e!emption o their bonds and mort"a"es, their plate and 7rnit7re.B %he tho7"ht here is so simple that we easily divine itJ b7t, i we look at the sentence at all care 7lly, we ind that, tho7"h we s7pply the ellipses in the most charitable manner possible, the sentence really says* B/en wo7ld ind their mansions more b7rdened, b7t wo7ld ind them with this increased b7rden happily balanced by the e!emption,B etc. %he sentence sho7ld have been ramed somewhat in this wise* B/en ... wo7ld ind their ... mansions ... more b7rdened with ta!es, b7t this increase in the ta!es on their real estate wo7ld be happily balanced by the e!emption rom ta!ation o their bonds, mort"a"es, plate, and 7rnit7re.B A"ain* B/en "enerally ... wo7ld be inclined to la7"h at the idea o intr7stin" the modern politician with s7ch "i"antic opport7nities or enrichin" his avorites.B We do not intrust one another with opportunities.)o enrich wo7ld better the diction. A"ain* B%he val7e o land that has accr7ed rom labor is not ... a A7st obAect or con iscation.B .orrectly* B%he val7e o land that has resulted

23

rom labor is not #ustly ... an obAect ofcon iscation.B Accrue is properly 7sed more in the sense o spontaneous growth. A"ain* B# the state attempts to con iscate this increase by means o ta!es, either rentals will increase correspondin"ly, or s7ch a check will be p7t 7ponthe "rowth of each place and all the enterprises connected with it that "reater inA7ry wo7ld be done than i thin"s had been le t 7nto7ched.B We have here, it will be observed, a con 7sion o moodsJ the sentence be"ins in the indicative and ends in the conditional. %he words in italics are worse than s7per l7o7s. (ewritten* B# the state should attempt to con iscate this increase by means o ta!es, either rentals?," F4@would increase correspondin"ly, or s7ch a check would be p7t 7pon "rowth and enterprise that "reater inA7ry wo7ld,B etc. A"ain* B%he theory that land ... is a boon o Nat7re, to which every person has an inalienable ri"ht eC7al to every other person, is not new.B %he words theory andboon are here mis7sed. A theory is a system o s7ppositions. %he thin"s man receives rom Nat7re are gifts, not boons* the "i t o reason, the "i t o speech, etc. %he sentence sho7ld be* B%he declaration Mor assertionN that land ... is a gift o Nat7re, to which every person has an inalienable ri"ht eC7al to that of any other person, is not new.B Or, more simply and C7ite as orcibly* B... to which one person has an inalienable ri"ht eC7al to that o another, is not new.B Or, more simply still, and more orcibly* B... to which one man has as "ood a ri"ht as another, is not new.B 3y s7bstit7tin" the word man or person, we have a word o one syllable that e!presses, in this connection, all that the lon"er word e!presses. %he ewer the syllables, i the tho7"ht be 7lly e!pressed, the more vi"oro7s the diction. #nalienability bein" orei"n to the disc7ssion, the lon" wordinalienable only enc7mbers the sentence. BWe have th7s0 passed in reviewO the chan"es and improvements1which the revision containsF in the $irst &pistle to the .orinthians. #t has2 not, indeed,Q been possible to re er to5 them allJ b7t so many ill7strations4 have been "iven inK the several classes described that the reader will have0L a satis actory00 s7rvey o the whole s7bAect. Whatever may be said o other portions0O o the New %estament, we think it will be "enerally admitted that in this &pistle the chan"es have improved the old01 translation. %hey are s7ch as0F make the &n"lish version02 con orm more completely0Q to the 6reek ori"inal. # this be05 tr7e, the revisers have done a "ood work or the .h7rch.04 # it?," FK@be tr7e0K with re"ard to all the New %estament books, the work which they have done will remainOL a blessin" to the readers o those books orO0 "enerations to come. 37t the blessin" will be only in the clearer presentation o the +ivine tr7th, and, there ore, it will be only to the "lory o 6od.B %his astonishin"ly slipshod bit o composition is rom the pen o the (ev. +r. %imothy +wi"ht. # the learned ,ro essor o +ivinity in 'ale .olle"e deemed it worth while to "ive a little tho7"ht to manner as well as to matter, it is probable that his diction wo7ld be very di erent rom what it isJ and, i he were to "ive a ew min7tes to the makin" o verbal corrections in the ore"oin" para"raph, he wo7ld, perhaps, do somethin" like this* 0, chan"e thus to nowJ O, write some of the chan"esJ 1, strike o7t and improvementsJ F, or contains changes s7bstit7te some other orm o e!pressionJ 2, instead o has been, write wasJ Q, strike o7t indeedJ 5, instead o refer to, write citeJ 4, chan"e illustrationsto examplesJ K, instead o in, write ofJ 0L, instead o the reader will have, write the reader will be able to getJ 00, chan"e satisfactory to tolerableJ 0O, chan"e portions topartsJ 01, not talk o the old translation, as we have no new oneJ 0F, strike o7t as s7per l7o7s the words are such asJ 02, chan"e version to textJ 0Q, s7bstit7te nearly orcompletely, which does not admit o comparisonJ 05, s7bstit7te the indicative or the conditionalJ 04, end sentence with the word wor!J 0K, introd7ce also a ter beJ OL, instead o remain, in the sense o be, 7se beJ O0, introd7cethe a ter for. As or the last sentence, it reminds one o /endelssohn's BSon"s witho7t Words,B tho7"h here we have, instead o a son" and no

24

words, words and no son", or rather no meanin". As is o ten tr7e o cant, we have here simply a syntactical arran"ement o words si"ni yin"nothin".?," 2L@ # ,ro essor +wi"ht were o those who, in common with the Addisons and /aca7lays and Newmans, think it worth while to "ive some attention to diction, the tho7"ht conveyed in the para"raph 7nder consideration wo7ld, perhaps, have been e!pressed somewhat in this wise* BWe have now passed in review some o the chan"es that, in the revision, have been made in the $irst &pistle to the .orinthians. #t was not possible to cite them all, b7t a s7 icient n7mber o e!amples o the several classes described have been "iven to enable the reader to "et a tolerable s7rvey o the whole s7bAect. Whatever may be said o the other parts o the New %estament, we think it will be "enerally admitted that in this &pistle the chan"es have improved the translation. %hey make the &n"lish te!t con orm more nearly to the 6reek. %his bein" tr7e, the revisers have done a "ood workJ and, i it be also tr7e with re"ard to all the New %estament books, the work which they have done will be a blessin" to the readers o these books or the "enerations to come.B Di! 2i$4. /an and br7te die of, and not with, evers, cons7mption, the pla"7e, pne7monia, old a"e, and so on. Di33!r. Writers di er from one another in opinion with re"ard to the particle we sho7ld 7se with this verb. Some say they di er with, others that they di er from, their nei"hbors in opinion. %he wei"ht o a7thority is on the side o always 7sin" from, tho7"h A may di er with . rom + in opinion with re"ard, say, to the siDe o the i!ed stars. B# di er, as to this matter, from 3ishop -owth.B.obbett.,ifferent to is heard sometimes instead o different from. Dir!c$&'. %he 3ritons have a way o 7sin" this word in the sense o when, as soon as. %his is C7ite orei"n to its tr7e meanin", which is immediately, at once, strai"htway. ?," 20@%hey say, or e!ample, B,irectly he reached the city, he went to his brother's.B B+irectly he ?the saint@ was dead, the Arabs sent his woolen shirt to the soverei"n.BB-ondon News.B +r. Hall says o its 7se in the sense o as soon as* B37t, a ter all, it may simply anticipate on the &n"lish o the 7t7re.B Dir$. %his word means ilth or anythin" that renders o7l and 7nclean, and means nothin" else. #t is o ten improperly 7sed or earth or loam, and sometimes even or sand or "ravel. We not 7n reC7ently hear o a dirt road when an 7npaved road is meant. Disc#--#*!. %his word is rarely 7sedJ incommodeis acco7nted the better orm. Disr!-!- !r. %his is a word v7l"arly 7sed in the sense o forget. #t is said to be more reC7ently heard in the So7th than in the North. Dis$in0+is4. %his verb is sometimes improperly 7sed or discriminate. We distinguish by means o the senses as well as o the 7nderstandin"J we discriminate by means o the 7nderstandin" only. B#t is di ic7lt, in some cases, to distinguish between,B etc.* sho7ld be, B#t is di ic7lt, in some cases, to discriminate between,B etc. We distinguishone thin" from another, and discriminate between two or more thin"s. D#c1%W4ar3. %he irst o these words is o ten improperly 7sed or the second. O docks there are several kinds* a naval doc! is a place or the keepin" o naval stores, timber, and materials or ship8b7ildin"J a dry doc! is a place where vessels are drawn o7t o the water or repairsJ a wet doc! is a place where vessels are kept a loat at a certain level while they are loaded and 7nloadedJ a sectional doc! is a contrivance or raisin" vessels o7t o the water on a series o air8ti"ht bo!es. A doc!, then, is a place into?," 2O@which thin"s are receivedJ hence, a man mi"ht

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all into a dock, b7t co7ld no more all off a dock than he co7ld all o a hole. A wharf is a sort o C7ay b7ilt by the side o the water. A similar str7ct7re b7ilt at a ri"ht an"le with the shore is "enerally called a pier. Hessels lie at wharves andpiers, not at doc!s. D#na$!. %his word, which is de ined as meanin" to "ive, to contrib7te, is looked 7pon by most champions o "ood &n"lish as bein" an abomination. ,onation is also little 7sed by care 7l writers. B,onate,B says /r. 6o7ld, Bmay be dismissed with this remark* so lon" as its place is occ7pied by give, bestow, grant, present, etc., it is not neededJ and it sho7ld be 7nceremonio7sly bowed o7t, or thr7st o7t, o the seat into which it has, temporarily, intr7ded.B D#n!. %his past participle is o ten very inele"antly, i not improperly, 7sed th7s* BHe did not cry o7t as some have done a"ainst it,B which sho7ld read, BHe did not cry o7t as some have a"ainst itBJ i. e., Bas some have cried outa"ainst it.B B+one is reC7ently a very "reat o ender a"ainst "rammar,B says .obbett. B)o do is the act of doing. We see people write, '# did not speak yesterday so well as # wished to have done.' Now, what is meant by the writerR He means to say that he did not speak so well as he thenwished, or was wishin", to spea!. %here ore, the sentence sho7ld be, '# did not speak yesterday so well as # wishedto do.' %hat is to say, 'so well as # wished to do it'J that is to say, to do or to per orm the act of spea!ing. B%ake "reat care not to be too ree in yo7r 7se o the verb to do in any o its times or modes. #t is a nice little handy word, and, like o7r oppressed it, it is made 7se o very o ten when the writer is at a loss or what to p7t down.)o do is to act, and there ore it never can, in any o its?," 21@parts, s7pply the place o a neuter verb. 'How do yo7 doR' Here do re ers to the state, and is essentially passive or ne7ter. 'et, to employ it or this p7rpose is very common. +r. 3lair, in his O1d -ect7re, says* '#t is somewhat 7n ort7nate that this N7mber o the BSpectatorB did not end, as it mi"ht have done, with the ormer bea7ti 7l period.' %hat is to say, done it. And then we ask, +one whatR Not the act of ending, beca7se in this case there is no action at all. %he verb means to come to an end, to cease, not to go any further. %his same verb to end is sometimes an active verb* '# end my sentence'Jthen the verb to do may s7pply its placeJ as, '# have not ended my sentence so well as # mi"ht have done'J that is, done itJ that is, done, or per ormed, the act of ending. 37t the N7mber o the 'Spectator' was no actorJ it was e!pected to perform nothin"J it was, by the +octor, wished to haveceased to proceed. '+id not end as it very well mi"ht have ended....' %his wo7ld have been correctJ b7t the +octor wished to avoid the repetition, and th7s he ell into bad "rammar. '/r. Speaker, # do not feel so well satis ied as # sho7ld have done i the (i"ht Honorable 6entleman had e!plained the matter more 7lly.' %o feel satis ied iswhen the satis action is to arise rom conviction prod7ced by act or reasonin"a senseless e!pressionJ and to s7pply its place, when it is, as in this case, a ne7ter verb, by to do, is as senseless. +one whatR +one the act of feelingT '# do not feel so well satis ied as # sho7ld have done, or executed, or performed the act of feeling'T What incomprehensible wordsTB D#n"$. &verybody knows that don't is a contraction o do not, and that doesn't is a contraction o does notJ and yetnearly everybody is "7ilty o 7sin" don't when he sho7ld 7se doesn't. BSo yo7 don't "oJ John doesn't either, # hear.B?," 2F@ D#+ &! G!ni$i)!. An anecdote o /r. -incolnan anecdote o /r. -incoln's. We see at a "lance that these two phrases are very di erent in meanin". So, also, a portrait o 3rowna portrait o 3rown's. No precise r7le has ever been "iven to "7ide 7s in o7r choice between these two orms o the possessive case. Sometimes it is not material which orm is employedJ where,

26

however, it is materialand it "enerally iswe m7st consider the tho7"ht we wish to e!press, and rely on o7r discrimination. Dra-a$i.!. See A+A,%. Dra2in07r##-. See ,A(-O(. Dr!ss%G#2n. Within the memory o many persons the o7ter "arment worn by women was properly called agown by everybody, instead o bein" improperly called adress, as it now is by nearly everybody. Dri)!. See (#+&. D+!%O2in0. %hese two words, tho7"h close synonyms, sho7ld not be 7sed indiscriminately. %he mistake 7s7ally made is in 7sin" due instead o owing. %hat is duewhich o7"ht to be paid as a debtJ that is owing which is to be re erred to as a so7rce. B#t was owing to his e!ertions that the scheme s7cceeded.B B#t was owing to yo7r ne"li"ence that the accident happened.B BA certain respect isdue to men's preA7dices.B B%his was owing to an indi erence to the pleas7res o li e.B B#t is due to the p7blic that # sho7ld tell all # know o the matter.B Eac4 #$4!r. B%heir "reat a7thors address themselves, not to their co7ntry, b7t to each other.B37ckle. 2ach other is properly applied to two onlyJ one another m7st be 7sed when the n7mber considered e!ceeds two. 37ckle sho7ld have written one another and not each other, 7nless he meant to intimate that the 6ermans had only two "reat a7thors, which is not probable.
?," 22@

Ea$. 6rammarians di er very widely with re"ard to the conA7"ation o this verbJ there is no do7bt, however, that rom every point o view the pre erable orms or the preterite and past participle are respectively ate and eaten. %o re ined ears the other orms smack o v7l"arity, altho7"h s7pported by "ood a7thority. B# ate an apple.B B# haveeaten dinner.B BJohn ate s7pper with me.B BAs soon as yo7 have eaten break ast we will set o7t.B E*i$#ria&. %he 7se o this adAective as a s7bstantive is said to be an Americanism. E*+ca$i#n. %his is one o the most mis7sed o words. A man may be well acC7ainted with the contents o te!t8books, and yet be a person o little educationJ on the other hand, a man may be a person o "ood ed7cation, and yet know little o the contents o te!t8books. Abraham -incoln and &dwin $orrest knew comparatively little o what is "enerally learned in schoolsJ still they were men o c7lt7re, men o education. A man may have ever so m7ch book8knowled"e and still be a boorJ b7t a man can not be a person o "ood ed7cation and not beso ar as manner is concerneda "entleman. 2ducation, then, is a whole o which #nstr7ction and 3reedin" are the parts. %he man or the womaneven in this democratic co7ntry o o7rswhodeserves the title o "entleman or lady is always a person o ed7cationJ i. e., he or she has a s7 icient acC7aintance with books and with the 7sa"es o social interco7rse to acC7it himsel or hersel creditably in the society o c7ltivated people. Not moral worth, nor learnin", nor wealth, nor all three combined, can 7naided make a "entleman, or with all three a man mi"ht be uneducatedi. e., coarse, 7nbred, 7nschooled in those thin"s which alone make men welcome in the society o the re ined. E33!c$+a$!. %his word, to"ether with ratiocinate and?," 2Q@eventuate, is said to be a "reat avorite with the r7ral members o the Arkansas le"islat7re. E33&+)i+-. %he pl7ral o this word is effluvia. #t is a common error with those who have no knowled"e o -atin to speak o Ba disa"reeable e l7via,B which is as incorrect as it wo7ld be to talk abo7t Ba disa"reeable vapors.B

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E33#r$ 2i$4#+$ E33!c$. BSome writers deal in e!pletives to a de"ree that tires the ear and o ends the 7nderstandin". With them everythin" is excessively, or immensely, or extremely, or vastly, or surprisingly, or wonderfully, orabundantly, or the like. %he notion o s7ch writers is that these words "ive strength to what they are sayin". %his is a "reat error. Stren"th m7st be o7nd in the thought, or it will never be o7nd in the words. 3i"8so7ndin" words, witho7t tho7"hts correspondin", are e ort witho7t e ect.BWilliam .obbett. See $O(.#3-&8$&&3-& . E0#is$. BOne o a class o philosophers who pro essed to be s7re o nothin" b7t their own e!istence.B(eid. E0#$is$. BOne who talks m7ch o himsel .B BA tribe o egotists or whom # have always had a mortal aversion.BBSpectator.B Ei$4!r. %his word means, strictly, the one or the othero two. Enlike both, which means two taken collectively,either, like each, may mean two considered separatelyJ b7t in this sense each is the better word to 7se. B6ive me eithero themB means, 6ive me the one or the other o two. BHe has a arm on either side o the riverB wo7ld mean that he has two arms, one on each Mor eitherN side o the river. BHe has a arm on both sides o the riverB wo7ld mean that his arm lies partly on the one side o the river and partly on the other. %he 7se o either in the sense o each, tho7"h biblical and de ensible, may be acco7nted little i any better than an a ectation. 3either is the ne"ative?," 25@o either. 2ither is responded to by or, neither by norJ as, Beither this or that,B Bneither this nor that.B 2itherand neither sho7ld notstrictlybe 7sed in relation to more than two obAects. 37t, tho7"h both either and neitherare strictly applicable to two only, they have been or a very lon" time 7sed in relation to more than two by many "ood writersJ and, as it is o ten convenient so to 7se them, it seems probable that the c7stom will prevail. When more than two thin"s are re erred to, any and none sho7ld be 7sed instead o either and neitherJ as, Bany o the three,B not, Beither o the threeBJ Bnone o the o7r,B not, Bneithero the o7r.B Ei$4!r A&$!rna$i)!. %he word alternative means a choice o ered between two thin"s. An alternative writ, or e!ample, o ers the alternative o choosin" between the doin" o a speci ied act or o showin" ca7se why it is not done. S7ch propositions, there ore, as, B'o7 are at liberty to choose either alternative,B B)wo alternatives are presented to me,B B.everal alternatives presented themselves,B and the like, are not correct &n"lish. %he word is correctly 7sed th7s* B# am con ronted with a hard alternative* # m7st either deno7nce a riend or betray my tr7st.B We rarely hear the word alternate or any o its derivatives correctly prono7nced. E&*!r. See O-+&(. E&!0an$. ,ro essor ,roctor says* B# yo7 say to an American, '%his is a ine mornin",' he is likely to reply, '#t is an elegant mornin",' or perhaps o tener by 7sin" simply the word elegant. %his is not a pleasin" 7se o the word.B %his is not American &n"lish, ,ro essor, b7t popinAay &n"lish. E&&i(sis. %he omission o a word or o words necessary to complete the "rammatical constr7ction, b7t not?," 24@necessary to make the meanin" clear, is called an ellipsis. We almost always, whether in speakin" or in writin", leave o7t some o the words necessary to the full e!pression o o7r meanin". $or e!ample, in datin" a letter to8day, we sho7ld write, BNew 'ork, A7"7st O2, 0440,B which wo7ld be, i 7lly written o7t, B# am now writin" in the city o New 'orkJ this is the twenty8 i th day o A7"7st, and this month is in the one tho7sand ei"ht h7ndred and ei"hty8 irst year o the .hristian era.B B# am "oin" to Wallack'sB means, B# am "oin" to Wallack's theatre.B B# shall spend the s7mmer at my a7nt'sBJ i. e., at my a7nt's house. 3y s7pplyin" the ellipses we can o ten discover the errors in a sentence, i there are any.

En/#' a* H!a&$4. As no one has ever been known to en#oy bad health, it is better to employ some other orm o e!pression than this. Say, or e!ample, he is in feeble, or delicate, health. En$4+s!. %his is a word that is occasionally heard in conversation, and is sometimes met with in printJ b7t it has not as yet made its appearance in the dictionaries. What its 7ltimate ate will be, o co7rse, no one can tellJ or the present, however, it is st7dio7sly sh7nned by those who are at all care 7l in the selection o their lan"7a"e. #t is said to be most 7sed in the So7th. %he writer has never seen it anywhere in the North b7t in the col7mns o the B3oston .on"re"ationalist.B E(i0ra-. B%he word epigram si"ni ied ori"inally an inscription on a mon7ment. #t ne!t came to mean a short poem containin" some sin"le tho7"ht pointedly e!pressed, the s7bAects bein" very vario7samatory, convivial, moral, e7lo"istic, satirical, h7moro7s, etc. O the vario7s devices or brevity and point employed in s7ch compositions, especially in modern times, the most reC7ent is a play 7pon?," 2K@words.... #n the epigram the mind is ro7sed by a con lict or contradiction between the orm o the lan"7a"e and the meanin" really conveyed.B3ain. Some e!amples are* BWhen yo7 have nothin" to say, say it.B BWe can not see the wood or the treesBJ that is, we can not "et a "eneral view beca7se we are so en"rossed with the details. BHerbosity is c7red by a lar"e vocab7laryBJ that is, he who commands a lar"e vocab7lary is able to select words that will "ive his meanin" tersely. B3y indi"nities men come to di"nities.B BSome people are too oolish to commit ollies.B BHe went to his ima"ination or his acts, and to his memory or his tropes.B E(i$4!$. /any persons 7se this word who are in error with re"ard to its meanin"J they think that to Bapply epithetsB to a person is to vili y and ins7lt him. Not at all. An epithet is a word that e!presses a C7ality, "ood or badJ a term that e!presses an attrib7te. BAll ad#ectives are epithets, b7t all epithets are not ad#ectives,B says .rabbJ Bth7s, in Hir"il's ,ater Xneas, the pater is an epithet, b7t not anad#ective.B 2pithet is the technical term o the rhetoricianJad#ective, that o the "rammarian. E,+a&&' as 2!&&. A red7ndant orm o e!pression, as any one will see who or a moment considers it. As well, or equally well, e!presses C7ite as m7ch as equally as well. E,+ani-i$' #3 -in*. %his phrase is ta7tolo"ical, and e!presses no more than does equanimity Mliterally, BeC7almindednessBN aloneJ hence, of mind is s7per l7o7s, and conseC7ently inele"ant. Anxiety of mind is a scarcely less red7ndant orm o e!pression. A capricious mind is in the same cate"ory.?," QL@ Erra$+-. ,l7ral, errata. Es,+ir!. An esC7ire was ori"inally the shield8bearer o a kni"ht. #t is m7ch, and, in the opinion o some, rather abs7rdly, 7sed in this co7ntry. /r. (ichard 6rant White says on the s7bAect o its 7se* B# have yet to discover what a man means when he addresses a letter to John +ash, 2sqr1B He means no more nor less than when he writes &r1 MmasterN. %he 7se o 2sq1 is C7ite as prevalent in &n"land as in America, and has little more meanin" there than here. #t simply belon"s to o7r stock o co7rteo7s epithets.

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E+(4!-is-. A description which describes in ino ensive lan"7a"e that which is o itsel o ensive, or a i"7re which 7ses a"reeable phraseolo"y when the literal wo7ld be o ensive, is called a euphemism. E)!n$+a$!. See &$$&.%EA%&. E)!r&as$in0&'. %his adverb is mis7sed in the So7th in a manner that is very apt to e!cite the risibility o one to whom the pec7liar mis7se is new. %he writer recently visited the 7pper part o New 'ork with a distin"7ished So7thern poet and Ao7rnalist. #t was the "entleman's irst ride over an elevated road. When we were airly 7nder way, in admiration o the rate o speed at which the cars were movin", he e!claimed, BWell, they do A7st everlastinglyshoot alon", don't theyTB E)!r'. %his word, which means simply each or all taken separately, is o late years reC7ently made, by slipshod speakers, to do d7ty or per ect, entire, "reat, or all possible. %h7s we have s7ch e!pressions as every pains,every con idence, every praise, every charity, and so on. We also have s7ch diction as, B2very one has this in commonBJ meanin", BAll of us have this in common.B E)!r'7*a' La$in. A fortiori* with stron"er reason.?," Q0@A posteriori* rom the e ect to the ca7se. A priori* rom the ca7se to the e ect. %ona fide* in "ood aithJ in reality. Certiorari* to be made more certain. Ceteris paribus* other circ7mstances bein" eC7al. ,e facto* in actJ in reality. ,e #ure* in ri"htJ in law. 2cce homo* behold the man. 2rgo* there ore. 2t cetera* and the restJ and so on. 2xcerpta* e!tracts. 2xempli gratia* by way o e!ampleJ abbreviated, e1 g1, and ex1 gr1 2x officio* by virt7e o his o ice. 2x parte* on one sideJ an ex partestatement is a statement on one side only. (bidem* in the same placeJ abbreviated, ibid1 (dem* the same. (d est* that isJ abbreviated, i1 e1 (mprimis* in the irst place.(n statu quo* in the ormer stateJ A7st as it was. (n statu quo ante bellum* in the same state as be ore the war. (n transitu* in passin". (ndex expurgatorius* a p7ri yin" inde!. (n extremis* at the point o death. (n memoriam* in memory. (pse dixit* on his sole assertion. (tem* also.0abor omnia vincit* labor overcomes every di ic7lty. 0ocus sigilli* the place o the seal. &ultum in parvo* m7ch in little. &utatis mutandis* a ter makin" the necessary chan"es. 3e plus ultra* nothin" beyondJ the 7tmost point. 3olens volens* willin" or 7nwillin". 3ota bene* mark wellJ take partic7lar notice. Omnes* all. O tempora$ O mores4 O the times and the mannersT Otium cum dignitate* ease with di"nity. Otium sine dignitate* ease witho7t di"nity. articeps criminis* an accomplice. eccavi* # have sinned. er se* by itsel . rima facie* on the irst view or appearanceJ at irst si"ht. ro bono publico* or the p7blic "ood. 5uid nunc* what nowR 5uid pro quo* one thin" or anotherJ an eC7ivalent. 5uondam* ormerly. "ara avis* a rare birdJ a prodi"y. "esurgam* # shall rise a"ain. .eriatim* in order. .ine die* witho7t speci yin" any partic7lar dayJ to an inde inite?," QO@time. .ine qua non* an indispensable condition. .ui generis* o its own kind. -ade mecum* "o with me.-erbatim* word by word. -ersus* a"ainst. -ale* are8well.-ia* by the way o . -ice* in the place o . -ide* see. -i et armis* by main orce. -iva voce* orallyJ by word o mo7th. -ox populi$ vox ,ei* the voice o the people is the voice o 6od. E)i*!nc!%T!s$i-#n'. %hese words, tho7"h di erin" widely in meanin", are o ten 7sed indiscriminately by careless speakers. 2vidence is that which tends to convinceJtestimony is that which is intended to convince. #n a A7dicial investi"ation, or e!ample, there mi"ht be a "reat deal o testimonya "reat deal o testifyingand very little evidenceJ and the evidence mi"ht be C7ite the reverse o thetestimony. See ,(OO$. E5a00!ra$i#n. BWeak minds, eeble writers and speakers deli"ht in superlatives.B See &$$O(% W#%HOE% &$$&.%.

3<

E5c!($. BNo one need apply except he is thoro7"hly amiliar with the b7siness,B sho7ld be, BNo one need apply unless,B etc. E5c!ssi)!&'. %hat class o persons who are never content with any orm o e!pression that alls short o the s7perlative, reC7ently 7se excessively when exceedingly or even the little word very wo7ld serve their t7rn better. %hey say, or e!ample, that the weather is excessively hot, when they sho7ld content themselves with sayin" simply that the weather is very warm, or, i the word s7its them better, hot. #ntemperance in the 7se o lan"7a"e is as m7ch to be cens7red as intemperance in anythin" elseJ like intemperance in other thin"s, its e ect is v7l"ariDin". E5!c+$!. %his word means to ollow o7t to the end, to carry into e ect, to accomplish, to 7l ill, to per ormJ?," Q1@as, to e!ec7te an order, to e!ec7te a p7rpose. And the dictionaries and almost 7niversal 7sa"e say that it also means to p7t to death in con ormity with a A7dicial sentenceJ as, to e!ec7te a criminal. Some o o7r care 7l speakers, however, maintain that the 7se o the word in this sense is inde ensible. %hey say that laws and sentencesare e!ec7ted, b7t not criminals, and that their e!ec7tion only rarely res7lts in the death o the persons 7pon whom they are e!ec7ted. #n the han"in" o a criminal, it is, then, not the criminal who is e!ec7ted, b7t the law and the sentence. %he criminal is hanged. E5(!c$. %his verb always has re erence to what is to come, never to what is past. We can not expect backward. #nstead, there ore, o sayin", B# expect, yo7 tho7"ht # wo7ld come to see yo7 yesterday,B we sho7ld say, B#suppose,B etc. E5(!ri!nc!. BWe experience "reat di ic7lty in "ettin" him to take his medicine.B %he word have o7"ht to be bi" eno7"h, in a sentence like this, or anybody. BWeexperienced "reat hardships.B 3etter, BWe suffered.B E5$!n*. %his verb, the primary meanin" o which is to stretch o7t, is 7sed, especially by lovers o bi" words, in connections where to "ive, to show, or to o er wo7ld be pre erable. $or e!ample, it is certainly better to say, B%hey showed me every co7rtesy,B than B%hey extendedevery co7rtesy to me.B See &H&('. Fa&s! Gra--ar. Some e!amples o alse "rammar will show what every one is the better or knowin"* that in literat7re nothin" sho7ld be taken on tr7stJ that errors o "rammar even are o7nd where we sho7ld least e!pect them. B# do not know whether the imp7tation were A7st or not.B&merson. B# proceeded to inC7ire i the 'e!tract' ... were a veritable C7otation.B&merson. Sho7ld?," QF@be was in both cases. BHow sweet the moonli"ht sleepsTB%ownsend, BArt o Speech,B vol. i, p. 00F. Sho7ld besweetly. B%here is no C7estion but these arts ... will "reatly aid him,B etc.#bid., p. 01L. Sho7ld be that. BNearly all who have been distin"7ished in literat7re or oratory have made ... the "enero7s con ession that their attainmentshave been reached thro7"h patient and laborio7s ind7stry. %hey have declared that speakin" and writin", tho7"h once di ic7lt or them, have become well8ni"h recreations.B#bid., p. 0F1. %he have been sho7ld be were, and the have become sho7ld be became. B/any pronominal adverbs are correlatives o each other.BHarkness's BNew -atin 6rammar,B p. 0F5. Sho7ld be one another. BHot and cold sprin"s, boilin" sprin"s, and C7iet sprin"s lie within a ew eet o each other, b7t none of them are properly geysers.BAppletons' B.ondensed .yclopWdia,B vol. ii, p. F0F. Sho7ld be one another, and not one of them is properly a geyser. BHow m7ch better or yo7 as seller and the nation as b7yer ... than to sink ... in c7ttin" one another'sthroats.B Sho7ld be each other's. BA minister, noted or proli!ity o style, was once preachin" be ore the inmates o a l7natic asyl7m. #n one o his ill7strations he painted a scene o a man condemned to be h7n", b7t reprieved 7nder the "allows.B %hese two sentences are so a7lty that the only way to mend them is to rewrite

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them. %hey are rom a work that pro esses to teach the Bart o speech.B /ended* BA minister, noted or his proli!ity, once preached be ore the inmates o a l7natic asyl7m. 3y way o ill7stration he painted a scene in which a man, who had beencondemned to be hanged, was reprieved 7nder the "allows.B F!-a&!. %he terms male and female are not 7n reC7ently 7sed where "ood taste wo7ld s7""est some other word. $or e!ample, we see over the doors o school8ho7ses,?," Q2@B&ntrance or males,B B&ntrance or emales.B Now b7cks and b7lls are males as well as boys and men, and cows and sows are emales as well as "irls and women. F!$c4. See 3(#N6. F!2!r. See -&SS. Fina& C#-(&!$i#n. # there were s7ch a thin" as a pl7rality or a series o completions, there wo7ld, o co7rse, be s7ch a thin" as the final completionJ b7t, as every completion is inal, to talk abo7t a final completion is as abs7rd as it wo7ld be to talk abo7t a final finality. Firs$ ra$!. %here are people who obAect to this phrase, and yet it is well eno7"h when properly placed, as it is, or e!ample, in s7ch a sentence as this* BHe's a ' irst class' ellow, and # like him first rateJ i # didn't, 'yo7 bet' #'d A7st "ive him 'hail .ol7mbia' or 'blowin"' the thin" all ro7nd town like the bi" ool that he is.B Firs$&'. 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon says in de ense o firstly* B# do not obAect to the occasional 7se o first as an adverbJ b7t, in sentences where it wo7ld be ollowed by secondly, thirdly, etc., # think that the adverbial orm is pre erable.B %o this, one o /r. /oon's critics replies* BHowever desirable it may be to employ the word firstlyon certain occasions, the act remains that the employment o it on any occasion is not the best 7sa"e.B Webster insertsfirstly, b7t remarks, B#mproperly 7sed or first.B F&!!%F&'. %hese verbs, tho7"h near o kin, are not interchan"eable. $or e!ample, we can not say, BHe flewthe city,B BHe flew rom his enemies,B BHe flew at the approach o dan"er,B flew bein" the imper ect tense o to fly, which is properly 7sed to e!press the action o birds on the win", o kites, arrows, etc. %he imper ect tense o to flee is fledJ hence, BHe fled the city,B etc. F#rci &!73!! &!. %his is a BnovicyB kind o diction?," QQ@in which the wo7ld8be orcible writer de eats his obAect by the over7se o e!pletives. &!amples* BAnd yet the greatcentraliDation o wealth is one o the ?"reat@ evils o the day. All that /r. utters ?says@ 7pon this point isforcible and A7st. %his centraliDation is d7e to the enormousreprod7ctive power o capital, to the immense advanta"e that costly and complicated machinery "ives to great?lar"e@ establishments, and to the mar!ed di erence o personal orce amon" men.B %he irst great is misplacedJ the word utters is mis7sedJ the second great is ill8chosen. %he other words in italics only en eeble the sentence. A"ain* B#n co7ntries where immense ?lar"e@ estates e!ist, a breakin" 7p o these vast demesnes into many minor reeholds wo7ld no do7bt be a ?o @ very "reat advanta"e.B S7bstit7te large or immense, and take o7t vast, many, and very, and the lan"7a"e becomes m7ch more orcible. A"ain* B%he very irst e ect o the ta!ation plan wo7ld be destr7ctive to the interests o this great multitude ?class@J it wo7ld impoverish o7r innumerable armers, it would con iscate the earnin"s o ?o7r@ industrious tradesmen and artisans, it would ?and@ paralyDe the hopes o struggling millions.B What a waste o portly e!pletives is hereT With them the sentence is hi"h8 lown and weakJ take them o7t, and introd7ce the words inclosed in brackets, and it becomes simple and orcible. Fri!n*%Ac,+ain$anc!. Some philosopher has said that he who has hal a doDen riends in the co7rse o his li e may esteem himsel ort7nateJ and yet, to A7d"e rom many people's talk,

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one wo7ld s7ppose they had riends by the score. No man knows whether he has any riends or not 7ntil he has Btheir adoption triedBJ hence, he who is desiro7s to call thin"s by their ri"ht names will, as a r7le, 7se the word acquaintance instead o friend. B'o7r riendB?," Q5@is a avorite and very obAectionable way many people, especially yo7n" people, have o writin" themselves at the bottom o their letters. #n this way the obsc7re striplin" protests himsel the $(#&N+ o the irst man in the land, and that, too, when he is, perhaps, a comparative stran"er and askin" a avor. Ga&s#-!. Here is a "ood, sonoro7s An"lo8Sa!on wordmeanin" mali"nant, venomo7s, ch7rlishthat has allen into dis7se. G!n$&!-an. $ew thin"s are in worse taste than to 7se the term gentleman, whether in the sin"7lar or pl7ral, to desi"nate the se!. B# # was a gentleman,B says /iss Snooks. B6entlemen have A7st as m7ch c7riosity as ladies,B says /rs. Jenkins. B6entlemen have so m7ch more liberty than we ladies have,B says /rs. ,arven7e. Now, i these ladies were ladies, they wo7ld in each o these cases 7se the word man instead o gentleman, and woman instead o ladyJ 7rther, /iss Snooks wo7ld say, B# # were.B Well8bred men, men o c7lt7re and re inement"entlemen, in short7se the terms lady and gentleman comparatively little, and they are especially care 7l not to call themselves gentlemenwhen they can avoid it. A "entleman, or e!ample, does not say, B#, with some other "entlemen, went,B etc.J he is care 7l to leave o7t the word other. %he men who 7se these terms most, and especially those who lose no opport7nity to proclaim themselves gentlemen, belon" to that class o men who cock their hats on one side o their heads, and o ten wear them when and where "entlemen wo7ld remove themJ who pride themselves on their amiliarity with the latest slan"J who proclaim their independence by showin" the least possible consideration or othersJ who la7"h lon" and lo7d at their own witJ who wear a pro 7sion o cheap inery, s7ch as o7tlandish watch8chains hooked in the lowest?," Q4@b7tton8hole o their vests, 3raDilian diamonds in their shirt8bosoms, and bi" seal8rin"s on their little in"ersJ who 7se bad "rammar and interlard their conversation with bi" oaths. #n b7siness correspondence Smith is addressed as.ir, while Smith Y 3rown are o ten addressed as 6entlemenor, v7l"arly, as 6ents. 3etter, m7ch, is it to address them as .irs. Since writin" the ore"oin", # have met with the ollowin" para"raph in the -ondon p7blication, BAll the 'ear (o7ndB* BSocially, the term '"entleman' has become almost v7l"ar. #t is certainly less employed by "entlemen than by in erior persons. %he one speaks o 'a man # know,' the other o 'a "entleman # know.' #n the one case the "entleman is taken or "ranted, in the other it seems to need speci ication. A"ain, as re"ards the term 'lady.' #t is C7ite in accordance with the 7sa"es o society to speak o yo7r acC7aintance the d7chess as 'a very nice person.' ,eople who wo7ld say 'very nice lady' are not "enerally o a social class which has m7ch to do with d7chessesJ and i yo7 speak o one o these as a 'person,' yo7 will soon be made to eel yo7r mistake.B G!n$s. O all v7l"arisms, this is, perhaps, the most o ensive. # we say gents, why not say ladesR G!r+n*. B'# have work to do,' 'there is no more to say,' are phrases where the verb is not in the common in initive, b7t in the orm o the gerund. 'He is the man to do it, or for doing it.' 'A ho7se to let,' 'the co7rse to steerby,' 'a place to lie in,' 'a thin" to be done,' 'a city to ta!ere 7"e in,' 'the means to do ill deeds,' are adAective "er7ndsJ they may be e!panded into cla7ses* 'a ho7se that the owner lets or will let'J 'the co7rse that we sho7ld steer by'J 'a thin" that sho7ld be done'J 'a city wherein one may take re 7"e'J 'the means whereby ill deeds may be?," QK@done.' When the to

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ceased in the twel th cent7ry to be a distinctive mark o the dative in initive or "er7nd, forwas introd7ced to make the writer's intention clear. Hence the amiliar orm in 'what went ye o7t for to seeR' 'they came for to show him the temple.'B3ain. G!$. #n sentences e!pressin" simple possessionas, B# have got a book,B BWhat has he got thereRB BHave yo7got any newsRB B%hey have got a new ho7se,B etc.gotis entirely s7per l7o7s, i not, as some writers contend, absol7tely incorrect. ,ossession is completely e!pressed byhave. B$o!es have holesJ the birds o the air have nestsBJ not, B$o!es have got holesJ the birds o the air have got nests.B $ormerly the imper ect tense o this verb was gat, which is now obsolete, and the per ect participle was gotten, which, some "rammarians say, is "rowin" obsolete. # this be tr7e, there is no "ood reason or it. # we say eaten, written, striven, forgotten, why not say gotten, where this orm o the participle is more e7phonio7sas it o ten isthan gotR G##*s. %his term, like other terms 7sed in trade, sho7ld be restricted to the vocab7lary o commerce. /essrs. ArnoldY .onstable, in common with the Washin"ton /arket h7ckster, very properly speak o their wares as their goodsJ b7t /rs. Arnold and /rs. .onstable sho7ld, and # do7bt not do, speak o their "owns as bein" made o ine or coarse sil!, cashmere, muslin, or whatever the material may be. G#+&* a0ains$ A&3#r*. /r. &dward S. 6o7ld, in his review o +ean Al ord's BG7een's &n"lish,B remarks, on pa"e 010 o his B6ood &n"lishB* BAnd now, as to the style?F@ o the +ean's book, taken as a whole. He m7st be held responsible or every error in itJ beca7se, as has been?," 5L@shown, he has had 7ll leis7re or its revision.?2@ %he errors are, nevertheless, n7mero7sJ and the shortest way to e!hibit them is?Q@ in tab7lar orm.B #n several instances /r. 6o7ld wo7ld not have taken the +ean to task had he known &n"lish better. %he ollowin" are a ew o /r. 6o7ld's corrections in which he is clearly in the ri"ht* ,ara"raph F. B#nto another land thanBJ sho7ld be, Binto a landother than.B 0Q. BWe do not ollow r7le in spellin" other words, b7t c7stomBJ sho7ld be, Bwe do not ollow rule$ but custom, in spellin",B etc. 04. B%he distinction is observed in $rench, b7t never appears to have been made,B etc.J read, Bappears never to have been made.B Q0. B"ather to aspirate more than lessBJ sho7ld be, Bto aspirate more rather than less.B K. B#t is said also only to occ7r three times,B etc.J read, Boccur only three times.B FF. B%his do7blin" only ta!es place in a syllable,B etc.J read, Bta!es place only.B 0FO. BWhich can only be decided when those circ7mstances are knownBJ read, Bcan be decided only when,B etc. 0QQ. B# will only say that it prod7ces,B etc.J read, B# will say only,B etc. 05L. B#t is said that this can only be illed in th7sBJ read, Bcan be filled in only th7s.B 1Q4. B# can only deal with the complaint in a "eneral wayBJ read, Bdeal with the complaint only,B etc. 4Q. B(n so ar as they are idiomatic,B etc. What is the 7se o inR 050. B%ry the e!perimentBJ Btried the e!periment.B (ead, ma!e and made. 1F2. B#t is most "enerally 7sed o that very sect,B etc. Why mostR?," 50@ 1QO. B%he Aoinin" to"ether two cla7ses with a third,B etc.J read, Bof two cla7ses,B etc.

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G#2n. See +(&SS. Gra*+a$!*. St7dents do not graduateJ they are "rad7ated. Hence most writers nowadays say, B# was, hewas, or they were "rad7atedBJ and ask, BWhen were yo7, or was he, "rad7atedRB Gra--a$ica& Err#rs. B%he correctness o the e!pressiongrammatical errors has been disp7ted. 'How,' it has been asked, 'can an error be "rammaticalR' How, it may be replied, can we with propriety say, grammatically incorrectR 'et we can do so. BNo one will C7estion the propriety o sayin" grammatically correct. 'et the e!pression is the acknowled"ment o thin"s grammatically (3correct. -ikewise the phrasegrammatical correctness implies the e!istence o grammatical(3correctness. # , then, a sentence is grammatically incorrect, or, what is the same thin", has grammatical incorrectness, it incl7des a 6(A//A%#.A- &((O(. 6rammatically incorrectsi"ni ies #N.O((&.% W#%H (&-A%#ON %O %H& (E-&S O$ 6(A//A(. 6rammatical errors si"ni ies &((O(S W#%H (&-A%#ON %O %H& (E-&S O$ 6(A//A(. B%hey who ridic7le the phrase grammatical errors, and s7bstit7te the phrase errors in grammar, make an e"re"io7s mistake. .an there, it may be asked with some show o reason, be an error in "rammarR Why, "rammar is a science o7nded in o7r nat7re, re erable to o7r ideas o time, relation, methodJ imper ect, do7btless, as to the system by which it is representedJ b7t s7rely we can speak o error in that which is error's criterionT All this is hypercritical, b7t hypercriticism m7st be met with its own weapons. BO the two e!pressionsa grammatical error, and an?," 5O@error in grammarthe ormer is pre erable. # one's A7d"ment can accept neither, one m7st relinC7ish the belie in the possibility o tersely e!pressin" the idea o an o ense a"ainst "rammatical r7les. #ndeed, it wo7ld be di ic7lt to e!press the idea even by circ7mloc7tion. Sho7ld some one say, '%his sentence is, accordin" to the r7les o "rammar, incorrect.' 'WhatT' the hypercritic may e!claim, 'incorrectT and accordin" to the r7les o "rammarT' '%his sentence, then,' the corrected person wo7ld reply, 'contains an error in "rammar.' 'NonsenseT' the hypercritic may sho7t, '"rammar is a scienceJ yo7 may be wron" in its interpretation, b7t principles are imm7tableT' BA ter this, it need scarcely be added that, "rammatically, no one can make a mistake, that there can be no "rammatical mistake, that there can be no bad "rammar, and, conseC7ently, no bad &n"lishJ a very pleasant concl7sion, which wo7ld save 7s a "reat amo7nt o tro7ble i it did not lack the insi"ni icant C7ality o bein" tr7e.BBH7l"arisms and Other &rrors o Speech.B Gra$+i$#+s. %here are those who obAect to the 7se o this word in the sense o 7n o7nded, 7nwarranted, 7nreasonable, 7ntr7e. #ts 7se in this sense, however, has the sanction o ab7ndant a7thority. BWeak and gratuitous conAect7res.B,orson. BA gratuitous ass7mption.B6odwin. B%he gratuitous theory.BSo7they. BA gratuitous invention.B+e G7incey. B37t it is needless to dwell on the improbability o a hypothesis which has been shown to be alto"ether gratuitous.B+r. Newman. Gr#2. %his verb ori"inally meant to increase in siDe, b7t has normally come to be also 7sed to e!press a chan"e rom one state or condition to anotherJ as, to grow dark, togrow weak or stron", to grow aint, etc. 37t it is do7bt 7l whether what is lar"e can properly be said to grow?," 51@small. #n this sense, become wo7ld seem to be the better word. G+-s. See (E33&(S. Ha* 4a)!. Nothin" co7ld be more incorrect than the brin"in" to"ether o these two a7!iliary verbs in this mannerJ and yet we occasionally ind it in writers o rep7te. #nstead o BHad #

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known it,B BHad yo7 seen it,B BHad we been there,B we hear, BHad # have known it,B BHad yo7 have seen it,B BHad we have been there.B Ha* #+04$. %his is a v7l"arism o the worst description, yet we hear people, who wo7ld be hi"hly indi"nant i any one sho7ld intimate that they were not ladies and "entlemen, say, BHe had o7"ht to "o.B A ittin" reply wo7ld be, B'es, # think he better had.B Ought says all that had ought says. Ha* ra$4!r. %his e!pression and had better are m7ch 7sed, b7t, in the opinion o many, are inde ensible. We hear them in s7ch sentences as, B# had rather not do it,B B'o7 had better "o home.B BNow, what tense,B it is asked, Bis had do and had goRB # we transpose the words th7s, B'o7 had do better MtoN "o home,B it becomes at once apparent, it is asserted, that the proper word to 7se in connection with rather and better is not had, b7t wouldJ th7s, B# wouldrather not do it,B B'o7 would better "o home.B &!amples o this 7se o had can be o7nd in the writin"s o o7r best a7thors. $or what ,ro essor 3ain has to say on this s7bAect in his B.omposition 6rammar,B see SE3JEN.%#H& /OO+. Ha&3. B#t mi"ht have been e!pressed in one hal the space.B We see at a "lance that one here is s7per l7o7s. Han0!*%H+n0. %he irre"7lar orm, hung, o the past participle o the verb to hang is most 7sedJ b7t, when the word denotes s7spension by the neck or the p7rpose o ?," 5F@destroyin" li e, the re"7lar orm, hanged, is always 7sed by care 7l writers and speakers. Has$!. See HE(('. H!a*in0. See .A,%#ON. H!a&$4'%W4#&!s#-!. %he irst o these two words is o ten improperly 7sed or the secondJ as, BOnions are ahealthy ve"etable.B A man, i he is in "ood health, is healthyJ the ood he eats, i it is not deleterio7s, is wholesome. A healthy o! makes wholesome ood. We speak o healthys7rro7ndin"s, a healthy climate, sit7ation, employment, and o wholesome ood, advice, e!amples. /ealthful is "enerally 7sed in the sense o cond7cive to health, virt7e, moralityJ as, healthful e!ercise, the healthful spirit o the comm7nitymeanin" that the spirit that prevails in the comm7nity is cond7cive to virt7e and "ood morals. H!&(-a$!. %he dictionaries s7""est that this word is a corr7ption o help and meet, as we ind these words 7sed in 6en. ii, 04, B# will make him a help meet or him,B and that the proper word is helpmeet. # , as is possible, the words in 6enesis mean, B# will make him a help, meet ?s7itable@ or him,B then neither helpmate nor helpmeet has any raison d'7tre. Hi043a&+$in. %his is a style o writin" o ten called the reshman style. #t is m7ch ind7l"ed in by very yo7n" men, and by a class o older men who instinctively try to make 7p in clatter or what they lack in matter. &!amples o this kind o writin" are ab7ndant in ,ro essor -. %. %ownsend's BArt o Speech,B which, as e!amples, are all the better or not bein" o that e!a""erated description sometimes met within the newspapers. Hol. i, p. 010* BHery o ten adverbs, prepositions, and relatives dri t so ar rom their moorin"s as to lose themselves, or make attachments where they do not belon".B A"ain, p. 012* B&very law o speech en orces?," 52@the statement that there is no e!c7se or s7ch in lated and de ective style. ?S7ch styleT@ %o speak th7s is treason in the realms and 7nder the laws o lan"7a"e.B A"ain, p. 052* B.7ltivate i"7re8makin" habit7des. %his is done by askin" the spirit7al import o every physical obAect seenJ also by ormin" the habit o constantly metaphoriDin". )nock at the door o anythin" met which interests, and ask, 'Who lives hereR' %he process is to look, then close the eyes, then look within.B %he bl7nderin" inanity o this kind o writin" is eC7aled only by its b7mptio7s

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"randiloC7ence. On p. 015 +r. %ownsend C7otes this wholesome admonition rom .olerid"e* B# men wo7ld only say what they have to say in plain terms, how m7ch more eloC7ent they wo7ld beTB As an e!ample o reportorial hi"h al7tin, # s7bmit the ollowin"* B%he spirit o departed day had Aoined comm7nion with the myriad "hosts o cent7ries, and o7r 7ll ho7rs led into eternity be ore the citiDens o many parts o the town o7nd o7t there was a reshet here at all.B Hin$s. BNever write abo7t any matter that yo7 do not well 7nderstand. # yo7 clearly 7nderstand all abo7t yo7r matter, yo7 will never want tho7"hts, and tho7"hts instantly become words. BOne o the "reatest o all a7lts in writin" and in speakin" is this* the 7sin" o many words to say little. #n order to "7ard yo7rsel a"ainst this a7lt, inC7ire what is the substance, or amount, o what yo7 have said. %ake a lon" speech o some talkin" -ord and p7t down 7pon paper what the amo7nt o it is. 'o7 will most likely ind that the amount is very smallJ b7t at any rate, when yo7 "et it, yo7 will then be able to e!amine it and to tell what it is worth. A very ew e!aminations o the sort will so ri"hten yo7 that yo7 will be or ever a ter 7pon?," 5Q@yo7r "7ard a"ainst tal!ing a great deal and saying little.B.obbett. B3e simple, be 7na ected, be honest in yo7r speakin" and writin". Never 7se a lon" word where a short one will do. .all a spade a spade, not a well-!nown oblong instrument of manual husbandryJ let home be home, not a residenceJ a place a place, not a localityJ and so o the rest. Where a short word will do, yo7 always lose by 7sin" a lon" one. 'o7 lose in clearnessJ yo7 lose in honest e!pression o yo7r meanin"J and, in the estimation o all men who are C7ali ied to A7d"e, yo7 lose in rep7tation or ability. %he only tr7e way to shine, even in this alse world, is to be modest and 7nass7min". $alsehood may be a very thick cr7st, b7t, in the co7rse o time, tr7th will ind a place to break thro7"h. &le"ance o lan"7a"e may not be in the power o all o 7sJ b7t simplicity and strai"ht orwardness are. Write m7ch as yo7 wo7ld speakJ speak as yo7 think. # with yo7r in eriors, speak no coarser than 7s7alJ i with yo7r s7periors, no iner. 3e what yo7 sayJ and, within the r7les o pr7dence, say what yo7 are.B+ean Al ord. B6o critically over what yo7 have written, and strike o7t every word, phrase, and cla7se which it is o7nd will leave the sentence neither less clear nor less orcible than it is witho7t them.B Swinton. BWith all watch 7lness, it is astonishin" what slips are made, even by "ood writers, in the employment o an inappropriate word. #n 6ibbon's '(ise and $all,' the ollowin" instance occ7rs* 'O nineteen tyrants who started 7p a ter the rei"n o 6allien7s, there was not one who en#oyeda li e o peace or a nat7ral death.' Alison, in his 'History o &7rope,' writes* '%wo "reat sinsone o omissionand one o commissionhave been committed by the states o &7rope in modern times.' And not lon" since a worthy?," 55@Scotch minister, at the close o the services, intimated his intention o visitin" some o his people as ollows* '# intend, d7rin" this week, to visit in /r. /'s district, and will on this occasion take the opport7nity o embracingall the servants in the district.' When worthies s7ch as these o end, who shall call the bellman in C7estion as he cries, '-ost, a silver8handled silk lady's parasol'R B%he proper arran"ement o words into sentences and para"raphs "ives clearness and stren"th. %o attain a clear and pithy style, it may be necessary to c7t down, to rearran"e, and to rewrite whole passa"es o an essay. 6ibbon wrote his '/emoirs' si! times, and the irst chapter o his 'History' three times. 3e"inners are always slow to pr7ne or cast away any tho7"ht or e!pression which may have cost labor. %hey or"et that brevity is no si"n o tho7"htlessness. /7ch consideration is needed to compress the details o any s7bAect into small compass. &ssences are

37

more di ic7lt to prepare, and there ore more val7able, than weak sol7tions. ,liny wrote to one o his riends, '# have not time to write yo7 a short letter, there ore # have written yo7 a lon" one.' Apparent elaborateness is always distaste 7l and weak. Hividness and stren"th are the prod7ct o an easy command o those small trenchant Sa!on monosyllables which abo7nd in the &n"lish lan"7a"e.BB-eis7re Ho7r.B BAs a r7le, the st7dent will do well to banish or the present all tho7"ht o ornament or ele"ance, and to aim only at e!pressin" himsel plainly and clearly. %he best ornament is always that which comes 7nso7"ht. -et him not beat abo7t the b7sh, b7t "o strai"ht to the point. -et him remember that what is written is meant to be readJ that time is shortJ and thatother thin"s bein" eC7althe ewer words the better.... (epetition is a ar?," 54@less serio7s a7lt than obsc7rity. 'o7n" writers are o ten 7nd7ly a raid o repeatin" the same word, and reC7ire to be reminded that it is always better to 7se the ri"ht word over a"ain than to replace it by a wron" oneand a word which is liable to be mis7nderstood is a wron" one. A rank repetition o a word has even sometimes a kind o charmas bearin" the stamp o truth, the o7ndation o all e!cellence o style.BHall. BA yo7n" writer is a raid to be simpleJ he has no aith in bea7ty 7nadorned, hence he crowds his sentences with s7perlatives. #n his estimation, t7r"idity passes or eloC7ence, and simplicity is b7t another name or that which is weak and 7nmeanin".B6eor"e Washin"ton /oon. H#n#ra &!. See (&H&(&N+. H#2. B# have heard how in #taly one is beset on all sides by be""arsB* read, Bheard that.B B# have heardhow some critics have been paci ied with claret and a s7pper, and others laid asleep with so t notes o lattery.B+r. Johnson. %he how in this sentence also sho7ld be that./ow means the manner in which. We may, there ore, say, B# have heard how he went abo7t it to circ7mvent yo7.B BAnd it is "ood A7d"ment alone can dictate how farto proceed in it and when to stop.B .obbett comments on this sentence in this wise* B+r. Watts is speakin" here o writin". #n s7ch a case, an adverb, like how far, e!pressive o lon"it7dinal space, introd7ces a rhetorical figureJ or the plain meanin" is, that A7d"ment will dictate how much to write on it and not how far to proceed in it. %he i"7re, however, is very proper and m7ch better than the literal words. 37t when a i"7re is begun it sho7ld be carried on thro7"ho7t, which is not the case hereJ or the?," 5K@+octor be"ins with a i"7re o lon"it7dinal space and ends with a i"7re o time. #t sho7ld have been, where to stop. Or, how long to proceed in it and when to stop. %o tell a man how far he is to "o into the Western co7ntries o America, and when he is to stop, is a very di erent thin" rom tellin" him how far he is to "o and where he is to stop. # have dwelt th7s on this distinction or the p7rpose o p7ttin" yo7 on the watch and "7ardin" yo7 a"ainst con o7ndin" i"7res. %he less yo7 7se them the better, till yo7 7nderstand more abo7t them.B H+-ani$arianis-. %his word, in its ori"inal, theolo"ical sense, means the doctrine that denies the "odhead o Jes7s .hrist, and avers that he was possessed o a h7man nat7re onlyJ a humanitarian, there ore, in the theolo"ical sense, is one who believes this doctrine. %he word and its derivatives are, however, nowadays, both in this co7ntry and in &n"land, most 7sed in a h7mane, philanthropic senseJ th7s, B%he a7dience enth7siastically endorsed the humanitarianism o his eloC7ent disco7rse.BHatton. H+n0. See HAN6&+. H+rr'. %ho7"h widely di erent in meanin", both the verb and the no7n hurry are contin7ally 7sed or haste andhasten. /urry implies not only haste, b7t haste with con 7sion, l7rryJ while

haste implies only rapidity o action, an ea"er desire to make pro"ress, and, 7nlike hurry, is not incompatible with deliberation and di"nity. #t is o ten wise to hasten in the a airs o li eJ b7t, as it is never wise to proceed witho7t oretho7"ht and method, it is never wise to hurry. Sensible people, then, may be o ten inhaste, b7t are never in a hurryJ and we tell others to ma!e haste, and not to hurry up. H'(!r #&!. %he ma"ni yin" o thin"s beyond their?," 4L@nat7ral limits is called hyperbole. -an"7a"e that si"ni ies, literally, more than the e!act tr7th, more than is really intended to be represented, by which a thin" is represented "reater or less, better or worse than it really is, is said to be hyperbolical. Hyperbole is e!a""eration. BO7r common orms o compliment are almost all o them e!trava"ant hyperboles.B3lair. Some e!amples are the ollowin"* B(ivers o blood and hills o slain.B B%hey were swi ter than ea"lesJ they were stron"er than lions.B
"The sky shr$nk $pward with $n$s$al dread,#nd trem.lin& Ti.er div+d .eneath his .ed." "*o frowned the mi&hty "om.atants, that hell0rew darker at their frown."

B# saw their chie tall as a rock o iceJ his spear the blasted irJ his shield the risin" moonJ he sat on the shore like a clo7d o mist on a hill.B Ic!7cr!a-%Ic!72a$!r. As or ice8cream, there is no s7ch thin", as ice8cream wo7ld be the prod7ct o roDen cream, i. e., cream made rom ice by meltin". What is called ice8cream is cream icedJ hence, properly, iced cream and not ice8cream. %he prod7ct o melted ice is ice8 water, whether it be cold or warmJ b7t water made cold with ice is iced water, and not ice8water. I3. B# do7bt if this will ever reach yo7B* say, B# do7bt whether this will ever reach yo7.B I&&. See S#.). I&&'. #t will astonish not a ew to learn that there is no s7ch word as illy. %he orm o the adverb, as well as o the adAective and the no7n, is ill. A thin" is ill ormed, or ill done, or ill made, or ill constr7cted, or ill p7t to"ether.?," 40@
"Ill fares the land, to hastenin& ills a prey,>here wealth a""$m$lates and men de"ay." 0oldsmith.

I--#*!s$. %his adAective and its synonyms, indecentand indelicate, are o ten 7sed witho7t proper discrimination bein" made in their respective meanin"s. (ndecency andimmodesty are opposed to morality* the ormer in e!ternals, as dress, words, and looksJ the latter in cond7ct and disposition. B(ndecency,B says .rabb, Bmay be a partial,immodesty is a positive and entire breach o the moral law.(ndecency is less than immodesty, b7t more than indelicacy.B #t is indecent or a man to marry a"ain very soon a ter the death o his wi e. #t is indelicate or any one to obtr7de himsel 7pon another's retirement. #t is indecent or women to e!pose their persons as do some whom we can not call immodest.
"!mmodest words admit of no defense,?or want of de"en"y is want of sense."@arl of Aos"ommon.

I-(r#(ri!$'. As a rhetorical term, de ined as an error in 7sin" words in a sense di erent rom their reco"niDed si"ni ication. I-(+$!. Non8painstakin" writers not 7n reC7ently 7seimpute instead o ascribe. B%he n7mbers ?o bl7nders@ that have been imputed to him are endless.BBAppletons' Jo7rnal.B %he

33

7se o impute in this connection is by no means inde ensibleJ still it wo7ld have been better to 7seascribe. In #+r -i*s$. %he phrases in our midst and in their midst are "enerally s7pposed to be o recent introd7ctionJ and, tho7"h they have been 7sed by some respectable writers, they nevertheless ind no avor with those who st7dy propriety in the 7se o lan"7a"e. %o the phrasein the midst no one obAects. BJes7s came and stood?," 4O@in the midst.B B%here was a h7t in the midst o the orest.B In r!s(!c$ #3. B%he deliberate introd7ction o incorrect orms, whether by the coina"e o new or the revival o obsolete and ine!pressive syntactical combinations, o7"ht to be resisted even in tri les, especially where it leads to the con 7sion o distinct ideas. An e!ample o this is the recent 7se o the adverbial phrases in respect of, in regard of, or in or with respect to, or re"ard to. %his innovation is witho7t any syntactical "ro7nd, and o7"ht to be condemned and avoided as a mere "rammatical crotchet.B6eor"e ,. /arsh, B-ect7res on the &n"lish -an"7a"e,B p. QQL. In s# 3ar as. A phrase o ten met with, and in which the in is s7per l7o7s. BA want o proper opport7nity wo7ld s7 ice, in so ar as the want co7ld be shown.B BWe are to act 7p to the e!tent o o7r knowled"eJ b7t, in so ar as o7r knowled"e alls short,B etc. Ina+0+ra$!. %his word, which means to install in o ice with certain ceremonies, is made, by many lovers o bi" words, to do service or beginJ b7t the sooner these rhetorical hi"h8 liers stop inaugurating and content themselves with simply beginning the thin"s they are called 7pon to do in the ordinary ro7tine o daily li e, the sooner they will cease to set a very bad e!ample. In*!c!n$. See #//O+&S%. In*!5 !5(+r0a$#ri+s. William .7llen 3ryant, who was a care 7l st7dent o &n"lish, while he was editor o the BNew 'ork &venin" ,ost,B so7"ht to prevent the writers or that paper rom 7sin" Bover and above M or 'more than'NJ artiste M or 'artist'NJ aspirantJ a7thoressJ beat M or 'de eat'NJ ba""in" M or 'capt7rin"'NJ balance M or 'remainder'NJ banC7et M or 'dinner' or 's7pper'NJ bo"7sJ casket?," 41@M or 'co in'NJ claimed M or 'asserted'NJ collidedJ commence M or 'be"in'NJ competeJ cortZ"e M or 'procession'NJ cotemporary M or 'contemporary'NJ co7ple M or 'two'NJ darky M or 'ne"ro'NJ day be ore yesterday M or 'the day be ore yesterday'NJ dZb7tJ decrease Mas a verbNJ democracy Mapplied to a political partyNJ develop M or 'e!pose'NJ devo7rin" element M or ' ire'NJ donateJ employZJ enacted M or 'acted'NJ indorse M or 'approve'NJ en ro7teJ esC.J "rad7ate M or 'is "rad7ated'NJ "ents M or '"entlemen'NJ 'Hon.'J Ho7se M or 'Ho7se o (epresentatives'NJ h7mb7"J ina7"7rate M or 'be"in'NJ in o7r midstJ item M or 'particle, e!tract, or para"raph'NJ is bein" done, and all passives o this ormJ AeopardiDeJ A7bilant M or 'reAoicin"'NJ A7venile M or 'boy'NJ lady M or 'wi e'NJ last M or 'latest'NJ len"thy M or 'lon"'NJ leniency M or 'lenity'NJ loa erJ loan or loaned M or 'lend' or 'lent'NJ locatedJ maAority Mrelatin" to places or circ7mstances, or 'most'NJ /rs. ,resident, /rs. 6overnor, /rs. 6eneral, and all similar titlesJ m7t7al M or 'common'NJ o icial M or 'o icer'NJ ovationJ on yesterdayJ over his si"nat7reJ pants M or 'pantaloons'NJ parties M or 'persons'NJ partially M or 'partly'NJ past two weeks M or 'last two weeks,' and all similar e!pressions relatin" to a de inite timeNJ poetessJ portion M or 'part'NJ posted M or 'in ormed'NJ pro"ress M or 'advance'NJ reliable M or 'tr7stworthy'NJ rendition M or 'per ormance'NJ rep7diate M or 'reAect' or 'disown'NJ retire Mas an active verbNJ (ev. M or 'the (ev.'NJ r[le M or 'part'NJ ro7"hsJ rowdiesJ seceshJ sensation M or 'noteworthy event'NJ standpoint M or 'point o view'NJ start, in the sense o settin" o7tJ state M or 'say'NJ tabooJ talent M or 'talents' or 'ability'NJ talentedJ tapisJ the deceasedJ war M or 'disp7te' or 'disa"reement'N.B

4<

%his inde! is o ered here as a c7riosity rather than as a "7ide, tho7"h in the main it mi"ht sa ely be 7sed as?," 4F@s7ch. No valid reason, however, can be 7r"ed or disco7ra"in" the 7se o several words in the listJ the words aspirant, banC7et, casket, compete, decrease, pro"ress, start, talented, and deceased, or e!ample. In*ica$i)! an* S+ /+nc$i)!. B'# see the si"nal,' is 7nconditionalJ 'if # see the si"nal,' is the same act e!pressed in the orm o a condition. %he one orm is said to be in the indicative mood, the mood that simply states or indicates the actionJ the other orm is in the sub#unctive, conditional, or conA7nctive mood. %here is sometimes a sli"ht variation made in &n"lish, to show that an a irmation is made as a condition. %he mood is called 's7bA7nctive,' beca7se the a irmation is sub#oined to another a irmation* '(f ( see the signal, # will call o7t.' BS7ch orms as '# may see,' '# can see,' have sometimes been considered as a variety o mood, to which the name ',otential' is "iven. 37t this can not properly be maintained. %here is no trace o any in lection correspondin" to this meanin", as we ind with the s7bA7nctive. /oreover, s7ch a mood wo7ld have itsel to be s7bdivided into indicative and s7bA7nctive orms* '# may "o,' 'i # may "o.' And 7rther, we mi"ht proceed to constit7te other moods on the same analo"y, as, or e!ample, an obli"atory mood'# m7st "o,' or '# o7"ht to "o'J a mood o resol7tion'# will "o, yo7 shall "o'J a mood o "rati ication'# am deli"hted to "o'J o deprecation'# am "rieved to "o.' %he only di erence in the two last instances is the 7se o the si"n o the in initive 'to,' which does not occ7r a ter 'may,' 'can,' 'm7st,' 'o7"ht,' etc.J b7t that is not an essential di erence. Some "rammarians consider the orm '# do "o' a separate mood, and term it the emphatic mood. 37t all the above obAections apply to it likewise, as well as many others.B3ain. See SE3JEN.%#H& /OO+.?," 42@ In*i)i*+a&. %his word is o ten most improperly 7sed or personJ as, B%he individual # saw was not over ortyBJ B%here were several individuals on board that # had never seen be ore.B (ndividual means, etymolo"ically, that which can not be divided, and is 7sed, in speakin" o thin"s as well as o persons, to e!press 7nity. #t is opposed to the whole, or that which is divisible into parts. In*#rs!. .are 7l writers "enerally disco7ntenance the 7se o indorse in the sense o sanction, approve, applaud. #n this si"ni ication it is on the list o prohibited words in some o o7r newspaper o ices. B%he ollowin" r7les areindorsed by nearly all writers 7pon this s7bAect.B +r. %ownsend. #t is plain that the ri"ht word to 7se here isapproved. B%he p7blic will heartily indorse the sentiments 7ttered by the co7rt.BNew 'ork B&venin" %ele"ram.B B%he p7blic will heartily approve the sentiments expressedby the co7rt,B is what the sentence sho7ld be. In3ini$i)! M##*. When we can choose, it is "enerally better to 7se the verb in the in initive than in the participial orm. BAbility bein" in "eneral the power of doing,B etc. Say, to do. B# desire to reply ... to the proposal of substitutinga ta! 7pon land val7es ... and ma!ing this ta!, as near ?nearly@ as may be, eC7al to rent,B etc. Say, to substituteand to ma!e. B%his C7ality is o prime importance when the chie obAect is the imparting of knowled"e.B Say,to impart. Ini$ia$!. %his is a pretentio7s word, which, with its derivatives, many personsespecially those who like to be "randiloC7ent7se, when homely &n"lish wo7ld serve their t7rn m7ch better. Inn+-!ra &! N+- !r. A repetitional e!pression to be avoided. We may say innumerable times, or numberless times, b7t we sho7ld not say an innumerable number o times.?," 4Q@

4'

In$!rr#0a$i#n. %he rhetorical i"7re that asks a C7estion in order to emphasiDe the reverse o what is asked is called interrogationJ as, B+o we mean to s7bmit to this meas7reR +o we mean to s7bmit, and consent that we o7rselves, o7r co7ntry and its ri"hts, shall be trampled onRB B+oth 6od pervert A7d"mentR or doth the Almi"hty pervert A7sticeRB In$r#*+c!. See ,(&S&N%. Ir#n'. %hat mode o speech in which what is meant is contrary to the literal meanin" o the wordsin which praise is bestowed when cens7re is intendedis called irony. #rony is a kind o delicate sarcasm or satireraillery, mockery. B#n writin"s o h7mor, i"7res are sometimes 7sed o so delicate a nat7re that it shall o ten happen that some people will see thin"s in a direct contrary sense to what the a7thor and the maAority o the readers 7nderstand them* to s7ch the most innocent irony may appear irreli"ion.B.ambrid"e. Irri$a$!. See A66(AHA%&. Is !in0 +i&$. A tolerable idea o the state o the disc7ssion re"ardin" the propriety o 7sin" the loc7tion is being built, and all like e!pressions, will, it is hoped, be obtained rom the ollowin" e!tracts. %he (ev. ,eter 37llions, in his B6rammar o the &n"lish -an"7a"e,B says* B%here is properly no passive orm, in &n"lish, corresponding to the progressive orm in the active voice, e!cept where it is made by the participle ing, in a passive senseJ th7s, '%he ho7se is b7ildin"'J '%he "arments are makin"'J 'Wheat is sellin",' etc. An attempt has been made by some "rammarians, o late, to banish s7ch e!pressions rom the lan"7a"e, tho7"h they have been 7sed in all time past by the best writers, and to A7sti y and de end a cl7msy solecism,?," 45@which has been recently introd7ced chie ly thro7"h the newspaper press, b7t which has "ained s7ch c7rrency, and is becomin" so amiliar to the ear, that it seems likely to prevail, with all its 7nco7thness and de ormity. # re er to s7ch e!pressions as '%he ho7se is bein" b7ilt'J '%he letter is bein" written'J '%he mine is bein" worked'J '%he news is bein" tele"raphed,' etc., etc. B%his mode o e!pression had no existence in the lan"7a"e till within the last fifty years.?5@ %his, indeed, wo7ld not make the e!pression wron", were it otherwise 7ne!ceptionableJ b7t its recent ori"in shows that it is not, as is pretended, a necessary orm. B%his orm o e!pression, when analyDed, is o7nd not to e!press what it is intended to e!press, and wo7ld be 7sed only by s7ch as are either i"norant o its import or are careless and loose in their 7se o lan"7a"e. %o make this mani est, let it be considered, irst, that there is no progressive form o the verb to be, and no need o itJ hence, there is no s7ch e!pression in &n"lish as is being. O co7rse the e!pression 'is being b7ilt,' or e!ample, is not a compo7nd o is being and built, b7t o is and being builtJ that is, o the verb to be and the present participle passive. Now, let it be observed that the only verbs in which the present participle passive e!presses a contin7ed action are those mentioned above as the irst class, in which the re"7lar passive orm e!presses a continuance o the actionJ as, is loved, is desired, etc., and in which, o co7rse, the orm in C7estion Mis being builtN is not reC7ired. Nobody wo7ld think o sayin", 'He is bein" loved'J '%his res7lt is bein" desired.' B%he 7se o this orm is A7sti ied only by condemning an established usage o the lan"7a"eJ namely, the passive?," 44@sense in some verbs o the participle in ing. #n re erence to this it is lippantly asked, 'What does the ho7se b7ildR' 'What does the letter writeR' etc.takin" or "ranted, witho7t attemptin" to prove, that the participle ining can not have a passive sense in any verb. %he ollowin" are a ew e!amples rom writers o the best rep7tation, which this novelty

42

wo7ld condemn* 'While the ceremony was per ormin".'%om. 3rown. '%he co7rt was then holdin".'Sir 6. /c)enDie. 'And still be doin", never done.'37tler. '%he books are sellin".' Allen's '6rammar.' '%o know nothin" o what is transactin" in the re"ions above 7s.'+r. 3lair. '%he spot where this new and stran"e tra"edy was actin".'&. &verett. '%he ortress was b7ildin".'#rvin". 'An attempt is makin" in the &n"lish parliament.'+. Webster. '%he ch7rch now erectin" in the city o New 'ork.''N. A. (eview.' '%hese thin"s were transactin" in &n"land.'3ancro t. B%his new doctrine is in opposition to the almost unanimous #udgment o the most distinguished grammariansand critics, who have considered the s7bAect, and e!pressed their views concernin" it. %he ollowin" are a specimen* '&!pressions o this kind are condemned by some criticsJ b7t the 7sa"e is 7nC7estionably o ar better a7thority, and Maccordin" to my apprehensionN in ar better taste, than the more comple! phraseolo"y which some late writers adopt in its steadJ as, B%he books are now bein" sold.B'6oold 3rown. 'As to the notion o introd7cin" a new and more comple! passive orm o conA7"ation, as, B%he brid"e is being built,B B%he brid"e was being built,B and so orth, it is one o the most abs7rd and monstro7s innovations ever tho7"ht o . B%he work is now being published,B is certainly no better &n"lish than, B%he work was being published,has been being published, had been being published,?," 4K@shall or will be being published, shall or will have been being published,B and so on thro7"h all the moods and tenses. What a lan"7a"e shall we have when o7r verbs are th7s conA7"atedT' 3rown's '6r. o &n". 6r.,' p. 1Q0. +e War observes* '%he participle in ing is also passive in many instancesJ as, B%he ho7se is b7ildin",B B# heard o a plan ormin",B' etc.G7oted in '$raDee's 6rammar,' p. FK. '#t wo7ld be an abs7rdity, indeed, to "ive 7p the only way we have o denotin" the incomplete state o action by a passive orm MviD., by the participle in ing in the passive senseN.'Arnold's '&n"lish 6rammar,' p. FQ. '%he present participle is o ten 7sed passivelyJ as, B%he ship is b7ildin".B %he orm o e!pression, is being built, is being committed, etc., is almost 7niversally condemned by "rammarians, b7t it is sometimes met with in respectable writersJ it occ7rs most reC7ently in newspaper para"raphs and in hasty compositions. See Worcester's BEniversal and .ritical +ictionary.B'Weld's '6rammar,' pp. 004 and 04L. 'When we say, B%he ho7se is b7ildin",B the advocates o the new theory ask, B37ildin" whatRB We mi"ht ask, in t7rn, when yo7 say, B%he ield plo7"hs well,BB,lo7"hs whatRB BWheat sells well,BBSells whatRB # 7sa"e allows 7s to say, BWheat sells at a dollar,B in a sense that is not active, why may we not say, BWheat is sellin" at a dollar,B in a sense that is not activeR'Hart's '6rammar,' p. 5Q. '%he prevailin" practice o the best a7thors is in avor o the simple ormJ as, B%he ho7se is b7ildin".B'Wells' 'School 6rammar,' p. 0F4. 'Several other e!pressions o this sort now and then occ7r, s7ch as the new an"led and most 7nco7th solecism Bis being done,B or the "ood old &n"lish idiom Bis doingBan abs7rd periphrasis drivin" o7t a pointed and pithy t7rn o the &n"lish lan"7a"e.''N. A. (eview,' C7oted by /r. Wells, p. 0F4.?," KL@'%he phrase, Bis bein" b7ilt,B and others o a similar kind, have been or a ew years insin7atin" themselves into o7r lan"7a"eJ still they are not &n"lish.'Harrison's '(ise, ,ro"ress, and ,resent Str7ct7re o the &n"lish -an"7a"e.' '%his mode o e!pression ?the ho7se is bein" b7ilt@ is becomin" C7ite common. #t is liable, however, to several important obAections. #t appears ormal and pedantic. #t has not, as ar as # know, the s7pport o any respectable "rammarian. %he easy and nat7ral e!pression is, B%he ho7se is b7ildin".B',ro . J. W. 6ibbs.B /r. (ichard 6rant White, in his BWords and %heir Eses,B e!presses his opinion o the loc7tion is being in this wise* B#n bad eminence, at the head o those intr7ders in lan"7a"e which to many persons seem to be o established respectability, b7t the ri"ht o which to be at all is not 7lly

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admitted, stands o7t the orm o speech is being done, or rather, is being, which, abo7t seventy or ei"hty years a"o, be"an to a ront the eye, torment the ear, and assa7lt the common sense o the speaker o plain and idiomatic &n"lish.B /r. White devotes thirty pa"es o his book to the disc7ssion o the s7bAect, and add7ces evidence that is more than s7 icient to convince those who are content with an ex parte e!amination that Bit can hardly be that s7ch an incon"r7o7s and ridic7lo7s orm o speech as is being done was contrived by a man who, by any stretch o the name, sho7ld be incl7ded amon" "rammarians.B /r. 6eor"e ,. /arsh, in his B-ect7res on the &n"lish -an"7a"e,B says that the deviser o the loc7tion in C7estion was Bsome "rammatical pretender,B and that it is Ban awkward neolo"ism, which neither convenience, intelli"ibility, nor syntactical con"r7ity demands.B %o these "entlemen, and to those who are o their way o thinkin" with re"ard to is being, +r. $itDedward Hall?," K0@replies at some len"th, in an article p7blished in BScribner's /onthlyB or April, 045O. +r. Hall writes* B'All really well ed7cated in the &n"lish ton"7e lament the many innovations introd7ced into o7r lan"7a"e rom AmericaJ and # do7bt i more than one o these novelties deserve acceptation. %hat one is, s7bstit7tin" a compo7nd participle or an active verb 7sed in a ne7ter si"ni ication* or instance, B%he ho7se is being built,B instead o , B%he ho7se is building.B' S7ch is the assertion and s7ch is the opinion o some anonymo7s l7minary, ?4@who, or his liberality in welcomin" a s7pposed Americanism, is somewhat in advance o the herd o his co7ntrymen. Almost any pop7lar e!pression which is considered as a novelty, a 3riton is pretty certain to ass7me, o 8 hand, to have ori"inated on o7r side o the Atlantic. O the assertion # have C7oted, no proo is o eredJ and there is little probability that its a7thor had any to o er. 'Are bein",' in the phrase 'are bein" thrown 7p,'?K@ is spoken o in '%he North American (eview'?0L@ as 'an o7tra"e 7pon &n"lish idiom, Bto be detested, abhorred, e!ecrated, and "iven over to si! tho7sandB penny8paper editors'J and the act is, that phrases o the orm here pointed at have hitherto enAoyed very m7ch less avor with 7s than with the &n"lish. BAs lately as 04QL, +r. Worcester, re errin" to is being built, etc., while acknowled"in" that 'this new orm has?," KO@been 7sed by some respectable writers,' speaks o it as havin" 'been introd7ced' 'within a ew years.' /r. (ichard 6rant White, by a most pec7liar process o ratiocination, endeavors to prove that what +r. Worcester calls 'this new orm' came into e!istence A7st i ty8si! years a"o. He premises that in Jarvis's translation o '+on G7i!ote,' p7blished in 05FO, there occ7rs 'were carryin",' and that this, in the edition o 0404, is sophisticated into 'were bein" carried.' '%his chan"e,' contin7es o7r lo"ician, 'and the appearance o is being with a per ect participle in a very ew books p7blished between A. +. 0402 and 04OL, indicate the ormer period as that o the ori"in o this phraseolo"y, which, altho7"h more than hal a cent7ry old, is still prono7nced a novelty as well as a n7isance.' BWho, in the ne!t place, devised o7r modern imper ects passiveR %he C7estion is not, ori"inally, o my askin"J b7t, as the learned are at open e7d on the s7bAect, it sho7ld not be passed by in silence. #ts deviser is, more than likely, as 7ndiscoverable as the name o the valiant antedil7vian who irst tasted an oyster. 37t the ded7ctive character o the miscreant is another thin"J and hereon there is a war between the philosophers. /r. 6. ,. /arsh, as i he had act7ally spotted the wretched creat7re, passionately and cate"orically deno7nces him as 'some "rammatical pretender.' '37t,' replies /r. White, 'that it is the work o any "rammarian is more than do7bt 7l. 6rammarians, with all their a7lts, do not de orm lan"7a"e with antastic solecisms, or even seek to enrich it with new and startlin" verbal combinations. %hey rather

44

resist novelty, and devote themselves to orm7latin" that which 7se has already established.' #n the same pa"e with this, /r. White compliments the "reat 7nknown as 'some precise?," K1@and eeble8minded so7l,' and elsewhere calls him 'some pedantic writer o the last "eneration.' %o add even one word toward a sol7tion o the knotty point here indicated transcends, # con ess, my 7tmost competence. #t is pain 7l to pict7re to one's sel the a"oniDin" emotions with which certain philolo"ists wo7ld contemplate an a7thentic e i"y o the Attila o speech who, by his is being built oris being done, irst o ered violence to the whole circle o the proprieties. So ar as # have observed, the irst "rammar that e!hibits them is that o /r. (. S. Skillern, /. A., the irst edition o which was p7blished at 6lo7cester in 04LO. (obert So7they had not, on the Kth o October, 05K2, been o7t o his minority C7ite two months when, evidently deliverin" himsel in a way that had already become amiliar eno7"h, he wrote o 'a ellow whose 7ttermost 7pper "rinder is being torn out by the roots by a m7tton8 isted barber.'?00@ %his is in a letter. 37t repeated instances o the same kind o e!pression are seen in So7they's "raver writin"s. %h7s, in his '.olloC7ies,' etc.,?0O@ we read o 's7ch ?n7nneries@ as at this time are being re8stablished.' B'While my hand was being drest by /r. 'o7n", # spoke or the irst time,' wrote .olerid"e, in /arch, 05K5. B.harles -amb speaks o realities which 'are being acted be ore 7s,' and o 'a man who is being strangled.' BWalter Sava"e -andor, in an ima"inary conversation, represents ,itt as sayin"* '%he man who possesses them may read Swedenbor" and )ant while he is being tossed in a blanket.' A"ain* '# have seen nobles, men and women,?," KF@kneelin" in the street be ore these bishops, when no ceremony o the .atholic .h7rch was being performed.' Also, in a translation rom .at7ll7s* 'Some criminal is being tried or m7rder.' BNor does /r. +e G7incey scr7ple at s7ch &n"lish as 'made and being made,' 'the bride that was being marriedto him,' and 'the sha ts o Heaven were even now being forged.' On one occasion he writes, 'Not done, not even Maccordin" to modern p7rismN being done'J as i 'p7rism' meant e!actness, rather than the avoidance o neoterism. B# need, s7rely, name no more, amon" the dead, who o7nd is being built, or the like, acceptable. 'Simple8minded common people and those o c7lt7re were alike protected a"ainst it by their attachment to the idiom o their mother ton"7e, with which they elt it to be directly at variance.' So /r. White in orms 7s. 37t the writers whom # have C7oted are ormidable e!ceptions. &ven /r. White will scarcely deny to them the title o 'people o c7lt7re.' BSo m7ch or o enders past repentanceJ and we all know that the sort o phraseolo"y 7nder consideration is daily becomin" more and more common. %he best written o the &n"lish reviews, ma"aDines, and Ao7rnals are perpet7ally marked by itJ and some o the choicest o livin" &n"lish writers employ it reely. Amon" these, it is eno7"h i # speci y 3ishop Wilber orce and /r. .harles (eade.?01@ B&!tracts rom 3ishop Jewel downward bein" also "iven, -ord /aca7lay, /r. +ickens, '%he Atlantic /onthly,' and '%he 3rooklyn &a"le' are alle"ed by /r. White in proo ?," K2@that people still 7se s7ch phrases as '.helsea Hospital was building,' and 'the train was preparing.' 'Hence we see,' he adds,?0F@ 'that the orm is being done, is being made, is being built, lacks the s7pport o a7thoritative 7sa"e rom the period o the earliest classical &n"lish to the present day.' # 7lly conc7r with /r. White in re"ardin" 'neither B%he 3rooklyn &a"leB nor /r. +ickens as a very hi"h a7thority in the 7se o lan"7a"e'J yet, when he has reno7nced the aid o these contemned straws, what has he to rest his in erence on, as to the present day, b7t the practice o -ord

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/aca7lay and '%he Atlantic /onthly'R %hose who think it will bow to the dictatorship here prescribed to themJ b7t there may be those with whom the classic sanction o So7they, .olerid"e, and -andor will not be wholly void o wei"ht. All scholars are aware that, to convey the sense o the imper ects passive, o7r ancestors, cent7ries a"o, pre i!ed, with is, etc., in, a terward corr7pted into a, to a verbal s7bstantive. '%he ho7se is in building' co7ld be taken to mean nothin" b7t des dificanturJ and, when the in "ave place to a,?02@ it was still mani est eno7"h, rom the conte!t, that building was "overned by a preposition. %he second sta"e o chan"e, however, namely, when the a was omitted, entailed, in many cases, "reat dan"er o con 7sion. #n the early part o the last cent7ry, when &n"lish was 7nder"oin" what was then tho7"ht to be p7ri ication, the polite world s7bstantially resi"ned is a-building to the v7l"ar. %oward the close o the same cent7ry, when, 7nder the in l7ence o ree tho7"ht, it be"an to be elt that even ideas had a ri"ht to aith 7l and 7neC7ivocal?," KQ@representation, a A7st resentment o ambi"7ity was evidenced in the creation o is being built. %he lament is too late that the instinct o re ormation did not restore the old orm. #t has "one oreverJ and we are now to make the best o its s7ccessors. 'B%he brass is forging,B' in the opinion o +r. Johnson, is 'a vicio7s e!pression, probably corr7pted rom a phrase more p7re, b7t now somewhat obsolete, ... Bthe brass is a-forging.B' 'et, with a tr7e %ory's timidity and aversion to chan"e, it is not s7rprisin" that he went on pre errin" what he o7nd established, vicio7s as it con essedly was, to the end. 37t was the e!pression 'vicio7s' solely beca7se it was a corr7ptionR #n 0545 William 3eck ord wrote as ollows o the ort7ne8tellers o -isbon* '( saw one dragging into light, as # passed by the r7ins o a palace thrown down by the earthC7ake. Whether a amiliar o the #nC7isition was "ripin" her in his cl7tches, or whether she was ta!ing to account by some disappointed votary, # will not pretend to answer.' Are the e!pressions here italiciDed either perspic7o7s or "race 7lR Whatever we are to have in their place, we sho7ld be thank 7l to "et C7it o them. B#nasm7ch as, conc7rrently with building or the active participle, and being built or the correspondin" passive participle, we possessed the ormer, with is pre i!ed, as the active present imper ect, it is in ri"id accordance with the symmetry o o7r verb that, to constr7ct the passive present8imper ect, we pre i! is to the latter, prod7cin" the orm is being built. S7ch, in its "reatest simplicity, is the proced7re which, as will be seen, has provoked a very levanter o ire and vili ication. 37t anythin" that is new will be e!cepted to by minds o a certain order. %heir trem7lo7s and impatient dread o removin" ancient landmarks even disC7ali ies them or thoro7"hly investi"atin" its character?," K5@and pretensions. #n has built and will build, we ind the active participle per ect and the active in initive s7bAoined to a7!iliariesJ and so, in has been built and will be built, the passive participle per ect and the passive in initive are s7bAoined to a7!iliaries. #n is building and is being built, we have, in strict harmony with the constit7tion o the per ect and 7t7re tenses, an a7!iliary ollowed by the active participle present and the passive participle present. %uiltis determined as active or passive by the verbs which C7ali y it, have and beJ and the "rammarians are ri"ht in considerin" it, when embodied in has built, as active, since its analo"7e, embodied in has been built, is the e!cl7sively passive been built. 3esides this, has been \ built wo7ld si"ni y somethin" like has existed$ built,?0Q@ which is plainly ne7ter. We are debarred, there ore, rom s7ch an analysisJ and, by parity o reasonin", we may not resolve is being built into is being \ built. #t m7st have been an inspiration o analo"y, elt or 7n elt, that s7""ested the orm # am disc7ssin". (s being \ built, as it can mean, pretty nearly, only exists$ built, wo7ld never have been proposed as adeC7ate to convey any b7t a ne7ter senseJ whereas it was per ectly nat7ral or a person aimin" to e!press a passive sense to pre i! is to the passive concretion being built.?05@

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B%he analo"ical A7sti ication o is being built which # have bro7"ht orward is so obvio7s that, as it occ7rred to?," K4@mysel more than twenty years a"o, so it m7st have occ7rred spontaneo7sly to h7ndreds besides. #t is very sin"7lar that those who, like /r. /arsh and /r. White, have pondered lon" and pain 7lly over loc7tions typi ied by is being built, sho7ld have missed the real "ro7nd o their "rammatical de ensibleness, and sho7ld have warmed themselves, in their opposition to them, into 7tterin" opinions which no calm A7d"ment can accept. B'One who is being beaten' is, to Archbishop Whately, '7nco7th &n"lish.' 'B%he brid"e is being built,B and other phrases o the like kind, have pained the eye' o /r. +avid 3ooth. S7ch phrases, accordin" to /r. /. Harrison, 'are not &n"lish.' %o ,ro essor J. W. 6ibbs 'this mode o e!pression ... appears ormal and pedantic'J and 'the easy and nat7ral e!pression is, B%he ho7se is building.B'?04@ #n all this, little or nothin" is discernible beyond sheer preA7dice, the preA7dice o those who resolve to take their stand a"ainst an innovation, re"ardless o its 7tility, and who are ready to ind an ar"7ment a"ainst it in any random epithet o dispara"ement provoked by 7nreasonin" aversion. And the more recent deno7ncers in the same line have no more reason on their side than their elder brethren. B#n /r. /arsh's estimation, is being built ill7strates 'corr7ption o lan"7a"e'J it is 'cl7msy and 7nidiomatic'J it is 'at best b7t a philolo"ical co!combry'J it 'is an awkward neolo"ism, which neither convenience, intelli"ibility, nor syntactical con"r7ity demands, and the 7se o which o7"ht, there ore, to be disco7ntenanced, as an attempt at the arti icial improvement o the lan"7a"e in a point which needed no amendment.' A"ain, '%o reAect' is building in avor o the modern phrase 'is to violate the laws o lan"7a"e?," KK@by an arbitrary chan"eJ and, in this partic7lar case, the proposed s7bstit7te is at war with the "eni7s o the &n"lish ton"7e.' /r. /arsh seems to have ancied that, wherever he points o7t a bea7ty in is building, he points o7t, incl7sively, a blemish in is being built. B%he ervor and eelin" with which /r. White advances to the char"e are alto"ether tropical. '%he 7ll abs7rdity o this phrase, the essence o its nonsense, seems not to have been hitherto pointed o7t.' #t is not 'consistent with reason'J and it is not 'con ormed to the normal development o the lan"7a"e.' #t is 'a monstrosity, the illo"ical, con 7sin", inacc7rate, 7nidiomatic character o which # have at some len"th, b7t yet imper ectly, set orth.' $inally, '#n act, it means nothin", and is the most incon"r7o7s combination o words and ideas that ever attained respectable 7sa"e in any civiliDed lan"7a"e.' %hese be 'prave 'ords'J and it seems a pity that so m7ch sterlin" vit7perative amm7nition sho7ld be e!pended in vain. And that it is so e!pended thinks /r. White himsel J or, tho7"h passin" sentence in the spirit o a Je reys, he is not really on the A7d"ment8seat, b7t on the lowest hassock o despair. As concerns the mode o e!pression e!empli ied by is being built, he owns that 'to check its di 7sion wo7ld be a hopeless 7ndertakin".' # so, why not reserve himsel or service a"ainst some evil not avowedly beyond remedyR BA"ain we read, 'Some precise and eeble8minded so7l, havin" been ta7"ht that there is a passive voice in &n"lish, and that, or instance, building is an active participle, and builded or built a passive, elt conscientio7s scr7ples at sayin" Bthe ho7se is building.B $or what co7ld the ho7se b7ildR' As children say at play, /r. White b7rns here. # it had occ7rred to him that the 'conscientio7s scr7ples' o his hypothetical, 'precise, and eeble8minded?," 0LL@so7l' were ro7sed by been built, not by built, # s7spect his chapter on is being built wo7ld have been m7ch shorter than it is at present, and very di erent. '%he atal abs7rdity in this phrase consists,' he tells 7s, 'in the combination o is with beingJ in the makin" o the verb to be a s7pplement, or, in "rammarians' phrase, an a7!iliary to itsel an abs7rdity so palpable, so monstro7s, so

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ridic7lo7s, that it sho7ld need only to be pointed o7t to be sco7ted.'?0K@ -astly, '%he C7estion is th7s narrowed simply to this, +oes to be being Messe ensN mean anythin" more or other than to beR' BHavin" convicted /r. White o a mistaken analysis, # am not concerned with the observations which he o7nds on his mistake. However, even i his analysis had been correct, some o his ar"7ments wo7ld avail him nothin". $or instance, is being built, on his 7nderstandin" o it, that is to say, is being \ built, he represents by ens dificatus est, as 'the s7pposed correspondin" -atin phrase.'?OL@ %he -atin is ille"itimateJ and he in ers that, there ore, the &n"lish is the same. 37t dificans est, a translation, on the model which he o ers, o the active is building, is C7ite as ille"itimate as ens edificatus est. 3y parity o non-sequitur, we are, there ore, to s7rrender the active is building. Ass7me that a phrase in a "iven lan"7a"e is inde ensible 7nless it?," 0L0@has its co7nterpart in some other lan"7a"eJ rom the very conception and de inition o an idiom every idiom is ille"itimate. B# now pass to another point. ')o be and to exist are,' to /r. White's apprehension, 'per ect synonyms, or more nearly per ect, perhaps, than any two verbs in the lan"7a"e. #n some o their meanin"s there is a shade o di erence, b7t in others there is none whateverJ and the latter are those which serve o7r present p7rpose. When we say, BHe,being orewarned o dan"er, led,B we say, BHe, existing orewarned o dan"er, led.B When we say that a thin" isdone, we say that it exists done.... (s being done is simplyexists existing done.' 37t, since is and exists are eC7ipollent, and so being and existing$ is being is the same as the 7nimpeachable is existing. G. non &. +. (s existingo7"ht, o co7rse, to be no less obAectionable to /r. White than is being. J7st as abs7rd, too, sho7ld he reckon the #talian sono stato, era stato, sia stato, fossi stato, saro stato,sarei stato, essere stato, and essendo stato. $or in #talian both essere and stare are reC7ired to make 7p the verb s7bstantive, as in -atin both esse and the o sprin" o fuere are reC7iredJ and stare, primarily 'to stand,' is modi ied into a tr7e a7!iliary. %he alle"ed ' 7ll abs7rdity o this phrase,' to wit, is being built, 'the essence o its nonsense,' vanishes th7s into thin air. So # was abo7t to comment bl7ntly, not or"ettin" to re"ret that any "entleman's c7ltivation o lo"ic sho7ld r7cti y in the shape o irrepressible tendencies to s7icide. 37t this wo7ld be precipitate. A"reeably to one o /r. White's A7dicial placita, which # make no apolo"y or citin" twice, 'no man who has preserved all his senses will do7bt or a moment that Bto e!ist a masti or a m7leB is absol7tely the same as Bto be a masti or a m7le.B' +eclinin" to admit their identity, # have not preserved all?," 0LO@my sensesJ and, accordin"lytho7"h it may be in me the very s7per etation o l7nacy # wo7ld ca7tion the reader to keep a sharp eye on my ar"7ments, hereabo7ts partic7larly. %he .retan, who, in declarin" all .retans to be liars, le t the C7estion o his veracity do7bt 7l to all eternity, ell into a pit o his own di""in". Not 7nlike the 7n ort7nate .retan, /r. White has t7mbled headlon" into his own snare. #t was, or the rest, entirely 7navailin" that he insisted on the insanity o those who sho7ld "ainsay his 7ndamental post7late. Sanity, o a cr7de sort, may accept itJ and sanity may p7t it to a 7se other than its propo7nder's. B/r. /arsh, a ter settin" orth the all8s7 iciency o is building, in the passive sense, "oes on to say* '%he re ormers who obAect to the phrase # am de endin" m7st, in consistency, employ the proposed s7bstit7te with all passive participles, and in other tenses as well as the present. %hey m7st say, there ore, B%he s7bscription8paper is being missed, b7t # know that a considerable s7m is being wanted to make 7p the amo7ntBJ Bthe "reat Hictoria 3rid"e has been being built more than two yearsBJ Bwhen # reach -ondon, the ship -eviathan will be being builtBJ Bi my orders had been ollowed, the coat would have been being made yesterdayBJ Bi the ho7se had then been being built, the mortarwould have been being mixed.B' We may reply that, while awkward

instances o the old orm are most ab7ndant in o7r literat7re, there is no ear that the rep7lsive elaborations which have been worked o7t in ridic7le o the new orms will prove to have been anticipations o 7t7re 7sa"e. %here was a time when, as to their adverbs, people compared them, to a lar"e e!tent, with -er and -est, or withmore and most, A7st as their ear or pleas7re dictated. %hey wrote plainlier and plainliest, or more plainly and most plainlyJ and some adverbs, as early, late, often, seldom, and?," 0L1@soon, we still compare in a way now become anomalo7s. And as o7r ore athers treated their adverbs we still treat many adAectives. 'urthermore, obligingness, preparedness, and designedly seem C7ite nat7ralJ yet we do not eel that they a7thoriDe 7s to talk o 'the seeingness o the eye,' 'theunderstoodness o a sentence,' or o 'a statement ac!nowledgedlycorrect.' '%he now too notorio7s act' is tolerableJ b7t 'the never to be s7 iciently e!ecrated monster 3onaparte' is intolerable. %he s7n may be shorn o his splendorJ b7t we do not allow clo7dy weather to shear him o it. How, then, can any one claim that a man who pre ers to say is being built sho7ld say has been being builtR Are not awkward instances o the old orm, typi ied by is building, as easily to be picked o7t o e!tant literat7re as s7ch instances o the new orm, likely ever to be 7sed, are to be inventedR And 'the re ormers' have not orsworn their ears. /r. /arsh, at p. 012 o his admirable '-ect7res,' lays down that 'the adAective reliable, in the sense o worthy of confidence, is alto"ether 7nidiomatic'J and yet, at p. 00O, he writes 'reliable evidence.' A"ain, at p. 1KQ o the same work, he r7les that whose, in '# passed a ho7sewhose windows were open,' is 'by no means yet 7lly established'J and at p. 0F2 o his very learned '/an and Nat7re' he writes 'a C7adran"7lar pyramid, the perpendic7lar o whose sides,' etc. (eally, i his own A7d"ments sit so very loose on his practical conscience, we may, witho7t bein" char"eable with e!action, ask o him to rela! a little the ri"or o his reC7irements at the hands o his nei"hbors. B3eck ord's -isbon ort7ne8teller, be ore had into co7rt, was 'dragging into li"ht,' and, perchance, 'was ta!ing to acco7nt.' /any moderns wo7ld say and write 'being draggedinto li"ht,' and 'was being ta!en to acco7nt.' 37t, i we?," 0LF@are to tr7st the conservative critics, in comparison with e!pressions o the ormer pattern, those o the latter are '7nco7th,' 'cl7msy,' 'awkward neolo"isms,' 'philolo"ical co!combries,' ' ormal and pedantic,' 'incon"r7o7s and ridic7lo7s orms o speech,' 'illo"ical, con 7sin", inacc7rate monstrosities.' /oreover, they are neither 'consistent with reason' nor 'con ormed to the normal development o the lan"7a"e'J they are 'at war with the "eni7s o the &n"lish ton"7e'J they are '7nidiomatic'J they are 'not &n"lish.' #n passin", i /r. /arsh will so de ine the term unidiomaticas to evince that it has any applicability to the case in hand, or i he will arrest and photo"raph 'the "eni7s o the &n"lish ton"7e,' so that we may know the ori"inal when we meet with it, he will con er a p7blic avor. And now # s7bmit or consideration whether the sole stren"th o those who decry is being built and its con"eners does not consist in their talent or callin" hard names. # they have not an 7neasy s7bconscio7sness that their ca7se is weak, they wo7ld, at least, do well in eschewin" the violence to which, or want o somethin" better, the advocates o weak ca7ses proverbially resort. B# once had a riend who, or some microscopic pen7mbra o heresy, was char"ed, in the words o his acc7ser, with 'as near an approach to the sin a"ainst the Holy 6host as is practicable to h7man in irmity.' Similarly, on one view, the eeble potencies o philolo"ical t7rpit7de seem to have e!hibited their most cons7mmate realiDation in en"enderin" is being built. %he s7pposed enormity perpetrated in its prod7ction, provided it had allen within the sphere o ethics, wo7ld, at the least, have ranked, with its den7nciators, as a brand8new e!empli ication o total depravity. 37t, a ter all, what incontestable de ect in it has any one s7cceeded in demonstratin"R /r. White, in opposin"?," 0L2@to the e!pression obAections based on an erroneo7s analysis, simply lays a

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phantom o his own evokin"J and, so ar as # am in ormed, other imp7"ners o is being builthave, absol7tely, no ar"7ment whatever a"ainst it over and beyond their rep7"nance to novelty. S7bAected to a little 7ntro7bled contemplation, it wo7ld, # am con ident, have ceased lon" a"o to be matter o controversyJ b7t the d7st o preA7dice and passion, which so distempers the intellect7al vision o theolo"ians and politicians, is seen to make, with r7thless impartiality, no e!ception o the perspicacity o philolo"ists. B,rior to the evol7tion o is being built and was being built, we possessed no discriminate eC7ivalents to dificaturand dificabaturJ is built and was built, by which they were rendered, correspondin" e!actly to dificatus est anddificatus erat. Cum dificaretur was to 7s the same asdificabatur. On the wealth o the 6reek in e!pressions o imper ect passive # need not dwell. With rare e!ceptions, the (omans were satis ied with the present8imper ect and the past8 imper ectJ and we, on the comparatively ew occasions which present themselves or e!pressin" other imper ects, shall be s7re to have reco7rse to the old orms rather than to the new, or else to 7se periphrases.?O0@ %he p7rists may, accordin"ly, dismiss their apprehensions, especially as the neoterists have, clearly, a keener horror o phraseolo"ical 7n"ainliness than themselves. One may?," 0LQ@have no hesitation abo7t sayin" 'the ho7se is being built,' and may yet recoil rom sayin" that 'it should have been being built last .hristmas'J and the same personA7st as, provided he did not eel a harshness, inadeC7acy, and ambi"7ity in the passive 'the ho7se is building,' he wo7ld 7se the e!pressionwill, more likely than not, elect is in preparationpre erentially to is being prepared. # there are any who, in their Dealotry or the con"r7o7s, choose to adhere to the new orm in its entire ran"e o e!chan"eability or the old, let it be hoped that they will ind, in /r. /arsh's spec7lative approbation o consistency, 7ll amends or the discom ort o enco7nterin" smiles or rowns. At the same time, let them be mind 7l o the career o /r. White, with his black la" and no C7arter. %he dead ,oloni7s was, in Hamlet's phrase, at s7pper, 'not where he eats, b7t where he is eaten.' Shakespeare, to /r. White's thinkin", in this wise e!pressed himsel at the best, and deserves not only admiration there or, b7t to be imitated. 'While the arkwas built,' 'while the ark was prepared,' writes /r. White himsel .?OO@ Shakespeare is commended or his ambi"7o7sis eaten, tho7"h in eating or an eating wo7ld have been not only correct in his day, b7t, where they wo7ld have come in his sentence, 7nivocal. With eC7al reason a man wo7ld be entitled to commendation or tearin" his m7tton8chops with his in"ers, when he mi"ht c7t them 7p with a kni e and ork. '(s eaten,' says /r. White, 'does not mean has been eaten.' Hery tr7eJ b7t a contin7o7s 7n inished passion ,oloni7s's still 7nder"oin" mand7cation, to speak Johnsonesewas in Shakespeare's mindJ and his words describe a passion no lon"er in "eneration. %he )in" o +enmark's lord chamberlain had no precedent in Herod, when 'he was eaten o worms'J the ori"inal, 9:;<:;=> ]^_`a^bc_d=>?," 0L5@, yieldin", b7t or its participle, 'he became worm8eaten.' BHavin" now done with /r. White, # am an!io7s, be ore takin" leave o him, to record, with all emphasis, that it wo7ld be the "rossest inA7stice to write o his ele"ant '-i e and 6eni7s o Shakespeare,' a book which does credit to American literat7re, in the tone which # have o7nd 7navoidable in dealin" with his 'Words and their Eses.'B %he st7dent o &n"lish who has honestly wei"hed the ar"7ments on both sides o the C7estion, m7st, # believe, be o opinion that o7r lan"7a"e is the richer or havin" two orms or e!pressin" the ,ro"ressive ,assive. $7rther, he m7st, # believe, be o opinion that in very many cases he con orms to the most approved 7sa"e o o7r time by employin" the old ormJ that, however, i he were to employ the old orm in all cases, his meanin" wo7ld sometimes be 7ncertain.

5<

I$. .obbett disco7rses o this little ne7ter prono7n in this wise* B%he word it is the "reatest tro7bler that # know o in lan"7a"e. #t is so small and so convenient that ew are care 7l eno7"h in 7sin" it. Writers seldom spare this word. Whenever they are at a loss or either a nominative or an obAective to their sentence, they, witho7t any kind o ceremony, clap in an it. A very remarkable instance o this pressin" o poor it into act7al service, contrary to the laws o "rammar and o sense, occ7rs in a piece o composition, where we mi"ht, with A7stice, insist on correctness. %his piece is on the s7bAect o "rammarJ it is a piece written by a ,octor of ,ivinity and read by him to st7dents in "rammar and lan"7a"e in an academyJ and the very sentence that # am now abo7t to C7ote is selected by the a7thor o a "rammar as testimony o hi"h?," 0L4@a7thority in avor o the e!cellence o his work. S7rely, i correctness be ever to be e!pected, it m7st be in a case like this. # all7de to two sentences in the '.har"e o the (everend +octor Abercrombie to the Senior .lass o the ,hiladelphia Academy,' p7blished in 04LQJ which sentences have been selected and p7blished by /r. -indley /7rray as a testimonial o the merits o his "rammarJ and which sentences are by /r. /7rray "iven to 7s in the ollowin" words* '%he 7nwearied e!ertions o this "entlemanhave done more toward el7cidatin" the obsc7rities and embellishin" the str7ct7re o o7r lan"7a"e than anyother writer on the s7bAect. .uch a wor! has lon" been wanted, and rom the s7ccess with which it is e!ec7ted, can not be too hi"hly appreciated.' BAs in the learned +octor's opinion obsc7rities can be el7cidated, and as in the same opinion /r. /7rray is an able hand at this kind o work, it wo7ld not be amiss were the "rammarian to try his skill 7pon this article rom the hand o his di"ni ied e7lo"istJ or here is, i one may 7se the e!pression, a constellation o obsc7rities. O7r poor oppressed it, which we ind orced into the +octor's service in the second sentence, relates to 'such a wor!,' tho7"h this work is nothin" that has an e!istence, notwithstandin" it is said to be 'executed.' #n the irst sentence, the 'e!ertions' become, all o a s7dden, a 'writer'* the exertionshave done more than 'any other writer'J or, mind yo7, it is not the gentleman that has done anythin"J it is 'theexertions' that have done what is said to be done. %he word gentleman is in the possessive case, and has nothin" to do with the action o the sentence. -et 7s "ive the sentence a t7rn, and the +octor and the "rammarian will hear how it will so7nd. '%his "entleman's exertions have done more than any other writer.' %his is on a level with '%his?," 0LK@"entleman's dog has killed more hares than any other sportsman.' No do7bt +octor Abercrombie meant to say, '%he e!ertions o this "entleman have done more than those o any other writer. S7ch a work as this "entleman's has lon" been wantedJ his work, seein" the s7ccess 7l manner o its e!ec7tion, can not be too hi"hly commended.'&eant4 No do7bt at all o thatT And when we hear a Hampshire plo7"hboy say, ',oll .herrycheek have "iv'd a thick handkecher,' we know very well that he means to say, ',oll .herrycheek has "iven me this handkerchie 'J and yet we are too apt to laugh at him and to call himignorantJ which is wron", beca7se he has no pretensions to a knowled"e o "rammar, and he may be very skill 7l as a plo7"hboy. However, we will not la7"h at +octor Abercrombie, whom # knew, many years a"o, or a very kind and worthy man. 37t, i we may, in any case, be allowed to la7"h at the i"norance o o7r ellow8creat7res, that case certainly does arise when we see a pro essed "rammarian, the a7thor o vol7mino7s precepts and e!amples on the s7bAect o "rammar, prod7cin", in imitation o the possessors o val7able medical secrets, testimonials vo7chin" or the e icacy o his literary panacea, and when, in those testimonials, we ind most la"rant instances o bad "rammar.

5'

BHowever, my dear James, let this stron" and strikin" instance o the mis7se o the word it serve yo7 in the way o ca7tion. Never p7t an it 7pon paper witho7t thinkin" well o what yo7 are abo7t. When # see many its in a pa"e, # always tremble or the writer.B 8!#(ar*i.!. %his is a modern word which we co7ld easily do witho7t, as it means neither more nor less than its venerable pro"enitor to #eopard, which is "reatly pre erred by all care 7l writers.?," 00L@ 8+s$ 0#in0 $#. #nstead o B# am #ust going to "o,B it is better to say, B# am A7st about to "o.B Ki*s. B%his is another vile contraction. Habit blinds people to the 7nseemliness o a term like this. How wo7ld it so7nd i one sho7ld speak o silk "loves as sil!sRB Kin*. See ,O-#%&. Kni04$s T!-(&ars. %he name o this ancient body has been adopted by a branch o the /asonic raternity, b7t in a perverted orm9nights )emplarJ and this orm is commonly seen in print, whether re errin" to the old kni"hts or to their modern imitators. %his do7btless is d7e to the erroneo7s impression that )emplar is an adAective, and so can not take the pl7ral ormJ while in act it is a case o two no7ns in appositiona do7ble desi"nationmeanin" )ni"hts o the order o %emplars. Hence the pl7ral sho7ld be 9nights )emplars, and not 9nights )emplar. /embers o the contemporaneo7s order o St. John o Jer7salem were commonly called )ni"hts Hospitallers. La*'. %o 7se the term lady, whether in the sin"7lar or in the pl7ral, simply to desi"nate the se!, is in the worst possible taste. %here is a kind o pin8 eather "entility which seems to have a settled aversion to 7sin" the termsman and woman. 6entlemen and ladies establish their claims to bein" called s7ch by their bearin", and not by arro"atin" to themselves, even indirectly, the titles. #n &n"land, the title lady is properly correlative to lordJ b7t there, as in this co7ntry, it is 7sed as a term o complaisance, and is appropriately applied to women whose lives are e!emplary, and who have received that school and home ed7cation which enables them to appear to advanta"e in the better circles o society. S7ch e!pressions as BShe is a ine lady, a clever lady, a well8dressed lady, a "ood lady, a?," 000@modest lady, a charitable lady, an amiable lady, a handsomelady, a ascinatin" lady,B and the like, are st7dio7sly avoided by persons o re inement. 0adies say, Bwe women, thewomen o America, women's apparel,B and so onJ vulgarwomen talk abo7t B7s ladies, the ladies o America,ladies' apparel,B and so on. # a woman o c7lt7re and re inementin short, a ladyis compelled rom any ca7se soever to work in a store, she is C7ite content to be called a sales8womanJ not so, however, with yo7r yo7n" woman who, bein" in a store, is in a better position than ever be ore. She, Heaven bless herT boils with indi"nation i she is not denominated a sales8lady. -ady is o ten the proper term to 7se, and then it wo7ld be very improper to 7se any otherJ b7t it is very certain that the terms ladyand gentleman are least 7sed by those persons who are most worthy o bein" desi"nated by them. With a nice discrimination worthy o special notice, one o o7r daily papers recently said* B/iss Jennie Halstead, da7"hter o the proprietor o the '.incinnati .ommercial,' is one o the most brilliant yo7n" women in Ohio.B #n a late n7mber o the B-ondon G7eenB was the ollowin"* B%he terms ladies and gentlemen become in themselves v7l"arisms when misapplied, and the improper application o the wron" term at the wron" time makes all the di erence in the world to ears polite. %h7s, callin" a man a gentleman when he sho7ld be called a man, or speakin" o a man as a man when he sho7ld be spoken o as agentlemanJ or all7din" to a lady as a woman when she sho7ld be all7ded to as a lady, or speakin" o a woman as a lady when she sho7ld properly be termed a woman. %act and a

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sense o the itness o thin"s decide these points, there bein" no i!ed r7le to "o 7pon to determine when a man is a man or when he is a gentlemanJ and, altho7"h he?," 00O@is ar o tener termed the one than the other, he does not thereby lose his attrib7tes o a "entleman. #n common parlance, a man is always a man to a man, and never agentlemanJ to a woman, he is occasionally a man and occasionally a gentlemanJ b7t a man wo7ld ar o tener term a woman a woman than he wo7ld term her a lady. When a man makes 7se o an adAective in speakin" o a lady, he almost invariably calls her a woman. %h7s, he wo7ld say, '# met a rather a"reeable woman at dinner last ni"ht'J b7t he wo7ld not say, '# met an a"reeable lady'J b7t he mi"ht say, 'A lady, a riend o mine, told me,' etc., when he wo7ld not say, 'A woman, a riend o mine, told me,' etc. A"ain, a man wo7ld say, 'Which o the ladies did yo7 take in to dinnerR' He wo7ld certainly not say, 'Which o the women,' etc. BSpeakin" o people en masse, it wo7ld be to belon" to a very advanced school to re er to them in conversation as 'men and women,' while it wo7ld be all b7t v7l"ar to style them 'ladies and "entlemen,' the compromise between the two bein" to speak o them as 'ladies and men.' %h7s a lady wo7ld say, '# have asked two or three ladies and several men'J she wo7ld not say, '# have asked several men and women'J neither wo7ld she say, '# have asked several ladies and "entlemen.' And, speakin" o n7mbers, it wo7ld be very 7s7al to say, '%here were a "reat many ladies, and b7t very ew men present,' or, '%he ladies were in the maAority, so ew men bein" present.' A"ain, a lady wo7ld not say, '# e!pect two or three men,' b7t she wo7ld say, '# e!pect two or three "entlemen.' When people are on ceremony with each other ?one another@, they mi"ht, perhaps, in speakin" o a man, call him a gentlemanJ b7t, otherwise, it wo7ld be more 7s7al to speak o him as a man. -adies, when speakin" o each other ?one another@, 7s7ally?," 001@employ the term woman in pre erence to that o lady. %h7s they wo7ld say, 'She is a very "ood8nat7red woman,' 'What sort o a woman is sheR' the term lady bein" entirely o7t o place 7nder s7ch circ7mstances. A"ain, the term yo7n"lady "ives place as ar as possible to the term girl, altho7"h it "reatly depends 7pon the amo7nt o intimacy e!istin" as to which term is employed.B Lan0+a0!. A note in Worcester's +ictionary says* B0anguage is a very "eneral term, and is not strictly con ined to 7tterance by words, as it is also e!pressed by the co7ntenance, by the eyes, and by si"ns. )ongue re ers especially to an ori"inal lan"7a"eJ as, 'the Hebrewtongue.' %he modern lan"7a"es are derived rom the ori"inal tongues.B # this be correct, then he who speaks $rench, 6erman, &n"lish, Spanish, and #talian, may properly say that he speaks ive languages, b7t only onetongue. La'%Li!. &rrors are reC7ent in the 7se o these two irre"7lar verbs. 0ay is o ten 7sed or lie, and lie is sometimes 7sed or lay. %his con 7sion in their 7se is d7e in some meas7re, do7btless, to the circ7mstance that lay appears in both verbs, it bein" the imper ect tense o to lie. We say, BA mason lays bricks,B BA ship lies at anchor,B etc. B# m7st lie downBJ B# m7st lay mysel downBJ B# m7st lay this book on the tableBJ BHe lies on the "rassBJ BHe lays his plans wellBJ BHe lay on the "rassBJ BHe laid it awayBJ BHe has lain in bed lon" eno7"hBJ BHe has laid up some money,B Bin a stock,B Bdown the lawBJ BHe is laying o7t the "ro7ndsBJ BShips lie at the whar BJ BHens lay e""sBJ B%he ship lay at anchorBJ B%he hen laid an e"".B #t will be seen that lay always e!presses transitive action, and that lie e!presses rest.?," 00F@
"9ere lies o$r soverei&n lord, the kin&,>hose word no man relies on)9e never says a foolish thin&,5or ever does a wise one."

Written on the bedchamber door o .harles ##, by the &arl o (ochester.

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L!arn. %his verb was lon" a"o 7sed as a synonym o teach, b7t in this sense it is now obsolete. %o teach is to "ive instr7ctionJ to learn is to take instr7ction. B# willlearn, i yo7 will teach me.B See %&A.H. L!a)!. %here are "rammarians who insist that this verb sho7ld not be 7sed witho7t an obAect, as, or e!ample, it is 7sed in s7ch sentences as, BWhen do yo7 leaveRB B# leave to8morrow.B %he obAect o the verbhome, town, or whatever it may beis, o co7rse, 7nderstoodJ b7t this, say these "entlemen, is not permissible. On this point opinions will, # think, di erJ they will, however, not di er with re"ard to the v7l"arity o 7sin" leave in the sense o letJ th7s, B0eave me beBJ B0eave it aloneBJ B0eave her bedon't bother herBJ B0eave me see it.B L!n*. See -OAN. L!n0$4'. %his word is o comparatively recent ori"in, and, tho7"h it is said to be an Americanism, it is a "ood deal 7sed in &n"land. %he most care 7l writers, however, both here and elsewhere, m7ch pre er the word long* Balong disc7ssion,B Ba long disco7rse,B etc. L!ni!nc'. /r. 6o7ld calls this word and lenienceBtwo philolo"ical abortions.B 0enity is 7ndo7btedly the proper word to 7se, tho7"h both Webster and Worcester do reco"niDe leniency and lenience. L!ss. %his word is m7ch 7sed instead o fewer. 0essrelates to C7antityJ fewer to n7mber. #nstead o , B%here were not less than twenty persons present,B we sho7ld?," 002@say, B%here were not fewer than twenty persons present.B L!ss!r. %his orm o the comparative o little is acco7nted a corr7ption o less. #t may, however, be 7sed instead o less with propriety in verse, and also, in some cases, in prose. We may say, or e!ample, BO two evils choose the less,B or Bthe lesser.B %he latter orm, in sentences like this, is the more e7phonio7s. Lia &!. (ichard 6rant White, in invei"hin" a"ainst the mis7se o this word, cites the e!ample o a member rom a r7ral district, who called o7t to a man whom he met in the villa"e, where he was in the habit o makin" little p7rchases* B# say, mister, kin yer tell me whar #'d be li'bleto ind some beansRB See, also, A,%. Li!. See -A'. Li1!%As. 3oth these words e!press similarityJ li!eMadAectiveN comparin" thin"s, as MadverbN comparin" action, e!istence, or C7ality. -ike is ollowed by an obAect only, and does not admit o a verb in the same constr7ction.As m7st be ollowed by a verb e!pressed or 7nderstood. We say, BHe looks li!e his brother,B or BHe looks ashis brother loo!s.B B+o as # do,B not Bli!e # do.B B'o7 m7st speak as James does,B not Bli!e James does.B BHe died as he had lived, li!e a do".B B#t is as bl7e as indi"oBJ i. e., Bas indi"o is.B Li1!9 T#. See -OH&. Li1!&'. See A,%. Li$. %his orm o the past participle o the verb to light is now obsolete. BHave yo7 lighted the ireRB B%he "as is lighted.B /et or heated is a similar, b7t m7ch "reater, v7l"arism. L#an%L!n*. %here are those who contend that there is no s7ch verb as to loan, altho7"h it has been o7nd in?," 00Q@o7r literat7re or more than three h7ndred years. Whether there is properly s7ch a verb or not, it is C7ite certain that it is only those havin" a v7l"ar penchant or bi" words who will pre er it to its synonym lend. 3etter ar to say B0endme yo7r 7mbrellaB than B0oan me yo7r 7mbrella.B

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L#ca$!%S!$$&!. %he 7se o the verb to locate in the sense o to settle is said to be an Americanism. Altho7"h the dictionaries reco"niDe to locate as a ne7ter verb, as s7ch it is marked Brarely 7sed,B and, in the sense o to settle, it is amon" the v7l"arisms that care 7l speakers and writers are st7dio7s to avoid. A man settles, not locates, in Nebraska. BWhere do yo7 intend to settleRB not locate. See, also,S&%%-&. L#00!r4!a*s. B#n the mean time $rance is at loggerheads internally.BBNew 'ork Herald,B April OK, 0440. -o""erheads internallyRT L##1s !a+$i3+&&'. #t is sometimes interestin" to note the di erence between vulgar bad "rammar and genteel bad "rammar, or, more properly, between non8painstakin" and painstakin" bad "rammar. %he ormer 7ses, or e!ample, adAectives instead o adverbsJ the latter 7ses adverbs instead o adAectives. %he ormer says, B%his bonnet is trimmed shoc!ingBJ the latter says, B%his bonnet looksshoc!ingly.B #n the irst sentence the epithet C7ali ies the verb is trimmed, and conseC7ently sho7ld have its adverbial ormshoc!inglyJ in the second sentence the epithet C7ali ies the appearancea no7no the bonnet, and conseC7ently sho7ld have its adAectival ormshoc!ing. %he second sentence means to say, B%his bonnet presents a shockin" appearance.B %he bonnet certainly does not reallyloo!J it is loo!ed at, and to the loo!er its appearance isshoc!ing. So we say, in like manner, o a person, that he or she looks sweet, or charming, or beautiful, or handsome,?," 005@or horrid, or graceful, or timid, and so on, always 7sin" an adAective. B/iss .o"hlan, as -ady %eaDle, looked charmingly.B %he "rammar o the BNew 'ork HeraldB wo7ld not have been any more incorrect i it had said that /iss .o"hlan looked gladly, or sadly, or madly, or delightedly, orpleasedly. A person may look sic! or sic!ly, b7t in both cases the C7ali yin" word is an adAective. %he verbs tosmell, to feel, to sound, and to appear are also o7nd in sentences in which the C7ali yin" word m7st be an adAective and not an adverb. We say, or e!ample, B%he rose smellssweetBJ B%he b7tter smells good, or bad, or freshBJ B# eel glad, or sad, or bad, or despondent, or annoyed, or nervousBJ B%his constr7ction so7nds harshBJ BHow delightfulthe co7ntry appearsTB On the other hand, to loo!, to feel, to smell, to sound, and to appear are o7nd in sentences where the C7ali yin" word m7st be an adverbJ th7s, BHe eels his loss !eenlyBJ B%he kin" looked graciously on herBJ B# smell it faintly.B We mi"ht also say, BHe eels sad ?adAective@, beca7se he eels his loss !eenlyB MadverbNJ BHe appears wellB MadverbN. %he e!pression, B.he seemed confusedly, or timidly,B is not a whit more incorrect than B.he loo!ed beautifully, orcharmingly.B See A+J&.%#H&S. L#)!%Li1!. /en who are at all care 7l in the selection o lan"7a"e to e!press their tho7"hts, and have not an 7nd7e leanin" toward the s7perlative, love ew thin"s* their wives, their sweethearts, their kinsmen, tr7th, A7stice, and their co7ntry. Women, on the contrary, as a r7le, love a m7ltit7de o thin"s, and, amon" their loves, the thin" they perhaps love most ista y. L+00a0!%Ba00a0!. %he ormer o these words is "enerally 7sed in &n"land, the latter in America.?," 004@ L+nc4. %his word, when 7sed as a s7bstantive, may at the best be acco7nted an inele"ant abbreviation o luncheon. %he dictionaries barely reco"niDe it. %he proper phraseolo"y to 7se is, BHave yo7 lunchedRB or, BHave yo7 had yo7r luncheonRB or, better, BHave yo7 had luncheonRB as we may in most cases pres7ppose that the person addressed wo7ld hardly take anybody's else l7ncheon. L+5+ri#+s%L+5+rian$. %he line is drawn m7ch more sharply between these two words now than it was ormerly. -7!7rio7s was once 7sed, to some e!tent at least, in the sense o ran!

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growth, b7t now all care 7l writers and speakers 7se it in the sense o indulging or delighting in luxury. We talk o a luxurious table, a luxurious liver, luxuriousease, luxurious reedom. -7!7riant, on the other hand, is restricted to the sense o ran!, or excessive, "rowth or prod7ctionJ th7s, luxuriant weeds, luxuriant olia"e or branches, luxuriant "rowth.
"Pr$ne the luxuriant, the $n"o$th refine,:$t show no mer"y to an empty line."Pope.

Ma*. ,ro essor (ichard A. ,roctor, in a recent n7mber o B%he 6entleman's /a"aDine,B says* B%he wordmad in America seems nearly always to mean angry. $ormad, as we 7se the word, Americans say crazy. Herein they have mani estly impaired the lan"7a"e.B Have theyR
"5ow, in faith, 0ratiano,Bo$ &ive yo$r wife too $nkind a "a$se of &rief)#n +twere, to me, ! wo$ld .e mad at it.""=er"hant of Ceni"e."

BAnd bein" e!ceedin"ly mad a"ainst them, # persec7ted them even 7nto stran"e cities.BActs !!vi, ##. Ma1! a )isi$. %he phrase Bma!e a visit,B accordin" to +r. Hall, whatever it once was, is no lon"er &n"lish. Ma&!. See $&/A-&.?," 00K@ Marr'. %here has been some disc7ssion, at one time and another, with re"ard to the 7se o this word. #s John Jones married to Sally 3rown or with Sally 3rown, or are they married to each otherR #nasm7ch as the woman loses her name in that o the man to whom she is wedded, and becomes a member o his amily, not he o hersinasm7ch as, with ew e!ceptions, it is her li e that is mer"ed in hisit wo7ld seem that, properly, Sally 3rown is married to John Jones, and that this wo7ld be the proper way to make the anno7ncement o their havin" been wedded, and not John Jones to Sally 3rown. %here is also a di erence o opinion as to whether the active or the passive orm is pre erable in re errin" to a person's wedded state. #n speakin" de initely o the act o marria"e, the passive orm is necessarily 7sed with re erence to either spo7se. BJohn Jones was married to Sally 3rown on +ec. 0, 0440BJ not, BJohn Jones married Sally 3rownB on s7ch a date, or M7nless they were G7akersN some third person married him to her and her to him. 37t, in speakin" inde initely o the fact o marria"e, the active orm is a matter o co7rse. BWhom did John Jones marryRB BHe married Sally 3rown.B BJohn Jones, when he had sown his wild oats, married ?married himsel , as the $rench say@ and settled down.B 6ot married is a v7l"arism. Ma'. #n the sense o can, may, in a ne"ative cla7se, has become obsolete. B%ho7"h we may say a horse, wemay not say a o!.B %he irst may here is permissibleJ not so, however, the second, which sho7ld be can. M!a$. At table, we ask or and o er bee , m7tton, veal, steak, t7rkey, d7ck, etc., and do not ask or nor o ermeat, which, to say the least, is inele"ant. BWill yo7 have ?not, take@ another piece o beef ?not, o the bee @RB not, BWill yo7 have another piece o meatRB?," 0OL@ M!-#ran*+-. %he pl7ral is memoranda, e!cept when the sin"7lar means a bookJ then the pl7ral is memorandums. M!r!. %his word is not 7n reC7ently misplaced, and sometimes, as in the ollowin" sentence, in conseC7ence o bein" misplaced, it is chan"ed to an adverb* B#t is tr7e o men as o 6od, that words merely meet with no response.B What the writer evidently intended to say is, that merewords meet with no response.

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M!$a(4#r. An implied comparison is called a metaphorJ it is a more terse orm o e!pression than the simile. %ake, or e!ample, this sentence rom Spenser's B,hilosophy o StyleB* BAs, in passin" thro7"h the crystal, beams o white li"ht are decomposed into the colors o the rainbowJ so, in traversin" the so7l o the poet, the colorless rays o tr7th are trans ormed into bri"htly8 tinted poetry.B &!pressed in metaphors, this becomes* B%he white li"ht o tr7th, in traversin" the many8sided, transparent so7l o the poet, is re racted into iris8h7ed poetry.B Worcester's de inition o a metaphor is* BA i"7re o speech o7nded on the resemblance which one obAect is s7pposed to bear, in some respect, to another, or a i"7re by which a word is trans erred rom a s7bAect to which it properly belon"s to another, in s7ch a manner that a comparison is implied$ though not formally expressedJ a comparison or simile comprised in a wordJ as, '%hy word is alamp to my eet.'B A metaphor di ers rom a simile in bein" e!pressed witho7t any si"n o comparisonJ th7s, Bthesilver moonB is a metaphorJ Bthe moon is bri"ht as silverB is a simile. &!amples*
":$t look, the morn, in r$sset mantle "lad,>alks o+er the dew of yon hi&h eastern hill." ",anst tho$ not minister to a mind diseasedPl$"k from the memory a rooted sorrow6"%P& '2'( "#t len&th @rasm$s*temmed the wild torrent of a .ar.aro$s a&e,#nd drove those holy Candals off the sta&e."

B.ens7re is the ta! a man pays to the p7blic or bein" eminent.B M!$#n'-'. %he rhetorical i"7re that p7ts the e ect or the ca7se, the ca7se or the e ect, the container or the thin" contained, the si"n, or symbol, or the thin" si"ni ied, or the instr7ment or the a"ent, is called metonymy. BOne very common species o metonymy is, when the bad"e is p7t or the o ice. %h7s we say the miter or the priesthoodJ the crown or royaltyJ or military occ7pation we say the swordJ and or the literary pro essions, those especially o theolo"y, law, and physic, the common e!pression is the gown.B.ampbell. +r. G7ackenbos, in his B.o7rse o .omposition and (hetoric,B says* B&etonymy is the e!chan"e o names between thin"s related. #t is o7nded, not on resemblance, b7t on the relation o , 0. .a7se and e ectJ as,'%hey have&oses and the prophets,' i. e., their writin"sJ '6ray hairssho7ld be respected,' i. e., old age. O. ,ro"enitor and posterityJ as, 'Hear, O #sraelT' i. e., descendants of (srael. 1. S7bAect and attrib7teJ as, ':outh and beauty shall be laid in d7st,' i. e., the young and beautiful. F. ,lace and inhabitantJ as, 'What land is so barbaro7s as to allow this inA7sticeR' i. e., what people. 2. .ontainer and thin" containedJ as, 'O7r ships ne!t opened ire,' i. e., o7r sailors. Q. Si"n and thin" si"ni iedJ as, '%he scepter shall not depart rom J7dah,' i. e., !ingly power. 5. /aterial and thin" made o itJ as, 'His steel "leamed on hi"h,' i. e., hissword.B B,etitions havin" proved 7ns7ccess 7l, it was determined to approach the throne more boldly.B?," 0OO@ Mi*s$9 T4!. See #N OE( /#+S%. Min*%Ca(rici#+s. B-ord Salisb7ry's mind is capricious.BB%rib7ne,B April 1, 0440. See &GEAN#/#%' O$ /#N+. Mis(&ac!* C&a+s!s. #n writin" and speakin", it is as important to "ive each cla7se its proper place as it is to place the words properly. %he ollowin" are a ew instances o misplaced cla7ses and adA7ncts* BAll these circ7mstances bro7"ht close to 7s a state o thin"s which we never tho7"ht to have witnessed ?to witness@ in peace 7l &n"land. (n the sister island$ indeed$ we had

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read of such horrors, b7t now they were bro7"ht home to o7r very ho7sehold hearth.BSwi t. 3etter* BWe had read, indeed, o s7ch horrors occ7rrin" in the sister island,B etc. B%he sava"e people in many places in America, e!cept the "overnment o amilies, have no "overnment at all, and live at this day in that sava"e manner as # have said be ore.BHobbes. 3etter* B%he sava"e people ... in America have no "overnment at all, e!cept the "overnment o amilies,B etc. B# shall have a comedy or yo7, in a season or two at arthest, that # believe will be worth yo7r acceptance.B6oldsmith. 3ettered* B#n a season or two at arthest, # shall have a comedy or yo7 that # believe will be worth yo7r acceptance.B Amon" the ollowin" e!amples o the wron" placin" o words and cla7ses, there are some that are as am7sin" as they are instr7ctive* B%his ortho"raphy is re"arded as normalin 2ngland.B What the writer intended was, Bin &n"landas normalBa very di erent tho7"ht. B%he Normal School is a commodio7s b7ildin" capable o accommodatin" three h7ndred st7dents o7r stories hi"h.B BHOES&)&&,&(.A hi"hly respectable middle8a"ed ,erson who has been?," 0O1@ illin" the above Sit7ation with a "entleman or 7pwards o eleven years and who is now deceased is an!io7s to meet a similar one.B B%O ,#ANO8$O(%& /A)&(S.A lady keepin" a irst8class school reC7irin" a "ood piano, is desiro7s o receivin" a da7"hter o the above in e!chan"e or the same.B B%he /oor, seiDin" a bolster boilin" over with ra"e and Aealo7sy, smothers her.B B%he +yin" Uo7ave the most wonder 7l mechanical representation ever seen o the last breath o li e bein" shot in the breast and li e's blood leavin" the wo7nd.B B/r. % presents his compliments to /r. H, and # have "ot a hat that is not his, and, i he have a hat that is not yo7rs, no do7bt they are the e!pectant ones.B See ON-'. Mis(&ac!* W#r*s. BO all the a7lts to be o7nd in writin",B says .obbett, Bthis is one o the most common, and perhaps it leads to the "reatest n7mber o misconceptions. All the words may be the proper words to be 7sed 7pon the occasion, and yet, by a misplacing o a part o them, the meanin" may be wholly destroyedJ and even made to be the contrary o what it o7"ht to be.B B# asked the C7estion with no other intention than to set the "entleman ree rom the necessity o silence, and to "ive him an opport7nity o min"lin" on eC7al terms with a polite assembly rom which, however uneasy, he co7ld not then escape, by a !ind introduction o the only s7bAect on which # believed him to be able to speak with propriety.B+r. Johnson. B%his,B says .obbett, Bis a very bad sentence alto"ether. '/owever uneasy' applies to assembly and not togentleman. Only observe how easily this mi"ht have been avoided. '$rom which he, however uneasy, co7ld not then escape.' A ter this we have, 'he co7ld not then escape, by a !ind introduction.' We know what is meantJ b7t the?," 0OF@+octor, with all his commas, leaves the sentence con 7sed. -et 7s see whether we can not make it clear. '# asked the C7estion with no other intention than, by a kind introd7ction o the only s7bAect on which # believed him to be able to speak with propriety, to set the "entleman ree rom the necessity o silence, and to "ive him an opport7nity o min"lin" on eC7al terms with a polite assembly rom which he, however 7neasy, co7ld not then escape.'B B(eason is the "lory o h7man nat7re, and one o the chie eminences whereby we are raised above o7r ellow8creat7res, the br7tes, in this lower world.B+octor Watts' B-o"ic.B B# have be ore showed an error,B .obbett remarks, Bin the first sentence o +octor Watts' work. %his is thesecond sentence. %he words in this lower world are not words misplaced onlyJ they are wholly unnecessary, and they do "reat harmJ or they do these two thin"s* irst, they

imply that there are brutes in the higher worldJ and, second, they e!cite a do7bt whether we are raised above those brutes. B# mi"ht "reatly e!tend the n7mber o my e!tracts rom these a7thorsJ b7t here, # tr7st, are eno7"h. # had noted down abo7t two hundred errors in +r. Johnson's '-ives o the ,oets'J b7t, a terward perceivin" that he had revised and corrected '%he (ambler' with extraordinary care, # chose to make my e!tracts rom that work rather than rom the '-ives o the ,oets.'B %he position o the adverb sho7ld be as near as possible to the word it C7ali ies. Sometimes we place it be ore the a7!iliary and sometimes a ter it, accordin" to the tho7"ht we wish to e!press. %he di erence between B%he ish sho7ld properly be broiledB and B%he ish sho7ld be properlybroiledB is apparent at a "lance. B%he colon may be?," 0O2@properly 7sed in the ollowin" casesB* sho7ld be, Bmayproperly be 7sed.B B%his mode o e!pression rather suitsa amiliar than a "rave styleB* sho7ld be, Bs7its a amiliarrather than a "rave style.B B#t is a reC7ent error in the writings even o some "ood a7thorsB* sho7ld be, Bin the writin"s o even some good a7thors.B B%oth the circ7mstances o contin"ency and 7t7rity are necessaryB* sho7ld be, B%he circ7mstances o contin"ency and 7t7rity are bothnecessary.B BHe has made char"es ... which he has ailed utterly to s7stain.BBNew 'ork %rib7ne.B Here it is 7ncertain at irst si"ht which verb the adverb is intended to C7ali yJ b7t the nat7re o the case makes it probable that the writer meant Bhas 7tterly ailed to s7stain.B Mis$a1!n. B# # am not mista!en, yo7 are in the wron"B* say, B# # mista!e not.B B# tell yo7, yo7 aremista!en.B Here mista!en means, B'o7 are wron"J yo7 do not 7nderstandBJ b7t it mi"ht be taken to mean, B#mista!e you.B $or Byo7 are mista!en,B say, Byo7 mista!e.B # , as Horace and ,ro essor +avidson aver, 7sa"e in lan"7a"e makes ri"ht, then the "rammarians o7"ht lon" a"o to have invented some theory 7pon which the loc7tionyou are mista!en co7ld be de ended. Entil they do invent s7ch a theory, it will be better to say you mista!e, he mista!es, and so onJ or you are, or he isas the case may bein error. M#r! (!r3!c$. S7ch e!pressions as, Bthe more per ect o the two,B Bthe most per ect thin" o the kind # have ever seen,B Bthe most complete cookin"8stove ever invented,B and the like, can not be de ended lo"ically, as nothin" can be more per ect than per ection, or more complete than completeness. Still s7ch phrases are, and probably will contin7e to be, 7sed by "ood writers.?,"
0OQ@

M#s$. B&verybody ab7ses this word,B says /r. 6o7ld in his B6ood &n"lishBJ and then, in another para"raph, he adds* B# a man wo7ld cross o7t most wherever he can ind it in any book in the &n"lish lan"7a"e, he wo7ld inalmost every instance improve the style o the book.B %hat this statement may appear within bo7nds, he "ives many e!amples rom "ood a7thors, some o which are the ollowin"* Ba most pro o7nd silenceBJ Ba most A7st ideaBJ Ba most complete oratorBJ Bthis was most e!traordinaryBJ Ban obAect o most per ect esteemBJ Ba most e!tensive er7ditionBJ Bhe "ave it most liberally awayBJ Bit is, mostass7redly, not beca7se # val7e his services leastBJ Bwo7ldmost serio7sly a ect 7sBJ Bthat s7ch a system m7st mostwidely and most power 7lly,B etc.J Bit is most e ect7ally nailed to the co7nterBJ Bit is most 7ndeniable that,B etc. %his word is m7ch, and very erroneo7sly, 7sed or almost. BHe comes here most every day.B %he 7ser o s7ch a sentence as this means to say that he comes nearlyevery day, b7t he really says, i he says anythin", that he comes more every day than he does every ni"ht. #n s7ch sentences almost, and not most, is the word to 7se. M+$+a&. %his word is m7ch mis7sed in the phrase Bo7r mutual riend.B /aca7lay says* B&utual riend is a low v7l"arism or common riend.B &utual properly relates to two persons,

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and implies reciprocity o sentimentsentiment, be it what it may, received and ret7rned. %h7s, we say properly, BJohn and James have a mutual a ection, or a mutual aversion,B i. e., they like or dislike each otherJ or, BJohn and James are mutually dependent,B i. e., they are dependent on each other. #n 7sin" the word mutual, care sho7ld be taken not to add the words for each other or on each other, the tho7"ht conveyed by these words bein" already e!pressed in the word mutual. B+ependent?," 0O5@on each otherB is the e!act eC7ivalent o Bm7t7ally dependentBJ hence, sayin" that John and James are mutuallydependent on each other is as red7ndant in orm as it wo7ld be to say that the editors o B%he 6reat Hili ierB are the bi""est, "reatest m7d8slin"ers in America. M's!&3. %his orm o the personal prono7n is properly 7sed in the nominative case only where increased emphasisis aimed at.
"! had as lief not .e as live to .e!n awe of s$"h a thin& as ! myself."

B# will do it myself,B B# saw it myself.B #t is, there ore, incorrect to say, B/rs. 3rown and mysel were both very m7ch pleased.B Na-!. %his word is sometimes improperly 7sed ormentionJ th7s, B# never named the matter to any oneB* sho7ld be, B# never mentioned the matter to any one.B N!i04 #r4##*. See H#.#N#%'. N!i$4!r. See &#%H&(. N!i$4!r%N#r. BHe wo7ld neither "ive wine, nor oil,nor money.B%hackeray. %he conA7nction sho7ld be placed be ore the e!cl7ded obAectJ Bneither giveB implies neither some other verb, a meanin" not intended. (earran"e th7s, takin" all the common parts o the contracted sentences to"ether* BHe wo7ld "ive neither wine, nor oil,nor money.B So, BShe can neither help her bea7ty, norher co7ra"e, nor her cr7eltyB M%hackerayN, sho7ld be, BShe can help neither,B etc. BHe had neither time to interceptnor to stop herB MScottN, sho7ld be, BHe had time neitherto intercept,B etc. BSome neither can or wits nor critics passB M,opeN, sho7ld be, BSome can neither or wits norcritics pass.B N!)!r. 6rammarians di er with re"ard to the correctness o 7sin" never in s7ch sentences as, BHe is in error,?," 0O4@tho7"h never so wise,B B.harm he never so wisely.B #n sentences like these, to say the least, it is better, in common with the "reat maAority o writers, to 7se ever. N!2. %his adAective is o ten misplaced. BHe has anew s7it o clothes and a new pair o "loves.B #t is not the suit and the pair that are new, b7t the clothes and thegloves. Nic!. Archdeacon Hare remarks o the 7se, or rather mis7se, o this word* B%hat st7pid v7l"arism by which we 7se the word nice to denote almost every mode o approbation, or almost every variety o C7ality, and, rom sheer poverty o tho7"ht, or ear o sayin" anythin" de inite, wrap 7p everythin" indiscriminately in this characterless domino, speakin" at the same breath o a nice cheese8cake, a nice tra"edy, a nice sermon, a nice day, a nice co7ntry, as i a 7niversal del7"e o niaiserie or nice seems ori"inally to have been only niaishad whelmed the whole island.B Nice is as "ood a word as any other in its place, b7t its place is not everywhere. We talk very properly abo7t a nice distinction, a nice discrimination, a nice calc7lation, a nice point, and abo7t a person's bein" nice, and over8nice, and the likeJ b7t we certainly o7"ht not to talk abo7t BOthello'sB bein" a nice tra"edy, abo7t Salvini's bein" a nice actor, or New 'ork bay's bein" a nice harbor.?O1@ Nic!&'. %he very C7intessence o popinAay v7l"arity is reached when nicely is made to do service or well, in this wise* BHow do yo7 doRB B3icely.B BHow are yo7RB B3icely.B

6<

N#. %his word o ne"ation is responded to by nor in?," 0OK@sentences like this* B-et yo7r meanin" be obsc7re, andno "race o diction nor any m7sic o well8t7rned sentences will make amends.B BWhether he is there or no.B S7pply the ellipsis, and we have, BWhether he is there or no there.B .learly, the word to 7se in sentences like this is not no, b7t not. And yet o7r best writers sometimes inadvertently 7se nowith whether. &!ample* B37t perhaps some people are C7ite indi erent whether or no it is said,B etc.(ichard 6rant White, in BWords and %heir Eses,B p. 4F. S7pply the ellipsis, and we have, Bsaid or no said.B #n a little book entitled B-ive and -earn,B # ind, BNo less than i ty persons were thereJ No fewer,B etc. #n correctin" one mistake, the writer himsel makes one. #t sho7ld be, B3ot ewer,B etc. # we ask, B%here were i ty persons there, were there or were there notRB the reply clearly wo7ld be, B%here were not ewer than i ty.B B%here was no one o them who wo7ld not have been pro7d,B etc., sho7ld be, B%here was not one o them.B N#$. %he correlative o not, when it stands in the irst member o a sentence, is nor or neither. B3ot or thy ivory nor thy "old will # 7nbind thy chain.B B# will notdo it, neither shall yo7.B %he wron" placin" o not o ten "ives rise to an imper ect ne"ationJ th7s, BJohn and James were not there,B means that John and James were not there in company. #t does not e!cl7de the presence o one o them. %he ne"ative sho7ld precede in this case* BNeither John nor James was there.B BO7r company was not presentB Mas a company, b7t some o 7s mi"ht have beenN, sho7ld be, BNo member o o7r company was present.B N#$% +$ #n&'. B&rrors reC7ently arise in the 7se o notb7t only, to 7nderstand which we m7st attend to?," 01L@the orce o the whole e!pression. 'He did not pretend to e!tirpate $rench m7sic, but only to c7ltivate and civiliDe it.' Here the not is obvio7sly misplaced. 'He pretended, or pro essed, not to e!tirpate.'B3ain. N#$#ri#+s. %ho7"h this word can not be properly 7sed in any b7t a bad sense, we sometimes see it 7sed instead o noted, which may be 7sed in either a "ood or a bad sense. 3otorious characters are always persons to be sh7nned, whereas noted characters may or may not be persons to be sh7nned. B%his is the ta! a man m7st pay or his virt7esthey hold 7p a torch to his vices and render those railties notoriousin him which wo7ld pass witho7t observation in another.B-acon. N#)ic!. See A/A%&E(. N+- !r. #t is not an 7ncommon thin" or a prono7n in the pl7ral n7mber to be 7sed in connection with an antecedent in the sin"7lar. At present, the ollowin" notice may be seen in some o o7r 3roadway omnib7ses* B$i ty dollars reward or the conviction o any person ca7"ht collectin" or keepin" ares "iven to them to deposit in the bo!.B Sho7ld be, to him. BA person may be very near8si"hted i they can not reco"niDe an acC7aintance ten eet o .B Sho7ld be, i he. %he verb to be is o ten 7sed in the sin"7lar instead o in the pl7ralJ th7s, B%here is several reasons why it wo7ld be betterB* say, are. BHow many is thereRB say, are. B%here is o7rB* say, are. B*as there manyRB say, were. BNo matter how many there wasB* say, were. A verb sho7ld a"ree in n7mber with its s7bAect, and not with its predicate. We say, or e!ample, B+eath is the wa"es o sin,B and B%he wa"es o sin are death.B

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BWhen sin"7lar no7ns connected by and are preceded?," 010@by each, every, or no, the verb m7st be sin"7lar.B We say, or e!ample, B2ach boy and each "irl studies.B B2very lea , and every twi", and every drop o water teems with li e.B B3o book and no paper was arran"ed.B 2ach bein" sin"7lar, a prono7n or verb to a"ree with it m7st also be sin"7larJ th7s, B-et them depend each onhis own e!ertionsBJ B&ach city has its pec7liar privile"esBJ B&verybody has a ri"ht to look a ter his own interest.B &rrors are o ten the res7lt o not repeatin" the verbJ th7s, B#ts si"ni icance is as varied as the passionsB* correctly, Bas are the passions.B B%he words are as incapable o analysis as the thin" si"ni iedB* correctly, Bas isthe thin" si"ni ied.B O s!r)!. %he dictionaries a7thoriDe the 7se o this word as a synonym o say and remar!J as, or e!ample, BWhat did yo7 observeRB or BWhat did yo7 say, or remar!RB #n this sense, however, it is better to leave observeto the e!cl7sive 7se o those who deli"ht in bein" ine. O"c&#c1. B#t is a C7arter to ten o'clock.B What does this statement mean, literallyR We understand by it that it lacks a C7arter o ten, i. e., o bein" tenJ b7t it does not really mean that. #nasm7ch as to means toward, it reallymeans a C7arter a ter nine. We sho7ld say, then, a C7arterof, which means, literally, a C7arter out of ten. O3 a&& #$4!rs. B%he vice o coveto7sness, of all others, enters deepest into the so7l.B %his sentence says that coveto7sness is one o the other vices. A thin" can not beanother thin", nor can it be one o a n7mber o other thin"s. %he sentence sho7ld be, BO all the vices, coveto7sness enters deepest into the so7lBJ or, B%he vice o coveto7sness, o all the vices, enters,B etc.J or, B%he vice o coveto7sness,above all others, enters,B etc.?," 01O@ O3 an'. %his phrase is o ten 7sed when of all is meantJ th7s, B%his is the lar"est of any # have seen.B Sho7ld be, Bthe lar"est of all,B etc. O33 #3. #n s7ch sentences as, B6ive me a yard off ofthis piece o calico,B either the off or the of is v7l"arly s7per l7o7s. %he sentence wo7ld be correct with either one, b7t not with both o them. B%he apples ell off of the treeB* read, B ell off the tree.B O3$!n. %his adverb is properly compared by chan"in" its termination* o ten, o tener, o tenest. Why some writers 7se more and most to compare it, it is not easy to seeJ this mode o comparin" it is certainly not e7phonio7s. O4%O. #t is only the most care 7l writers who 7se these two interAections with proper discrimination. %he distinction between them is said to be modern. Oh is simply an e!clamation, and sho7ld always be ollowed by some mark o p7nct7ation, 7s7ally by an e!clamation point. BOhT yo7 are come at last.B BOh, help him, yo7 sweet heavensTB BOh, woe is meTB BOhT # die, Horatio.BO, in addition to bein" an e!clamation, denotes a callin" to or adA7rationJ th7s, BHear, O heavens, and "ive ear, O earthTB BO "rave, where is thy victoryRB BO heavenly powers, restore himTB BO shameT where is thy bl7shRB O&*!r%E&*!r. BHe is the older man o the two, and the oldest in the nei"hborhood.B BHe is the elder o the two sons, and the eldest o the amily.B B%he elder son is heir to the estateJ he is older than his brother by ten years.B On $#. We "et on a chair, on an omnib7s, on a st7mp, and on a spree, and not on to. On!. .ertain prono7ns o demonstrative si"ni ication are called inde inite beca7se they re er to no partic7lar s7bAect. %his is one o them. # we were p7ttin" a s7pposition by way o ar"7ment or ill7stration, we mi"ht say,?," 011@BS7ppose ( were to lose my way in a woodBJ or, BS7pposeyou were to lose yo7r way in a woodBJ or, BS7ppose onewere to lose one's way in a

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wood.B All these orms are 7sed, b7t, as a r7le, the last is to be pre erred. %he irst ver"es on e"otism, and the second makes ree with another's person, whereas the third is indi erent. B# one's honesty were impeached, what sho7ld one doRB is more co7rtly than to take either one's sel or the person addressed or the e!ample. One sho7ld be ollowed by one, and not by he. B%he better acC7ainted one is with any kind o rhetorical trick, the less liable he is to be misled by it.B Sho7ld be, Bthe less liable one is to be misled by it.B #n the phrase, Bany o the little ones,B one is the n7meral employed in the manner o a prono7n, by indicatin" somethin" that has "one be ore, or, perhaps, has to come a ter. B# like peaches, b7t # m7st have a ripe one, or ripe ones.B ,ro essor 3ain says, in his B.omposition 6rammarB* B%his prono7n contin7ally lands writers in di ic7lties. &n"lish idiom reC7ires that, when the prono7n has to be a"ain re erred to, it sho7ld be 7sed itsel a second time. %he correct 7sa"e is shown by ,ope* 'One may be ashamed to cons7me hal one's days in brin"in" sense and rhyme to"ether.' #t wo7ld be a"ainst idiom to say 'hal his days.' BStill, the repetition o the prono7n is o ten elt to be heavy, and writers have reco7rse to vario7s s7bstit7tions. &ven an ear acc7stomed to the idiom can scarcely accept with 7nmi!ed pleas7re this instance rom 3rownin"*
"+#la"k8 one lies oneself @ven in the statin& that one's end was tr$th,Tr$th only, if one states so m$"h in words.+

B%he representative '#' or 'we' occasionally acts the part o 'one.' %he ollowin" sentence presents a c7rio7s?," 01F@alternation o 'we' with 'one'possibly not accidental M6eor"e &liotN* '#t's a desperately ve!atio7s thin" that, a ter all one's re lections and C7iet determinations, we sho7ld be r7led by moods that one can't calc7late on be orehand.' 3y the 7se o 'we' here, a more pointed re erence is s7""ested, while the va"7eness act7ally remains. B$enimore .ooper, like Scott, is not very partic7larJ an e!ample may be C7oted* '/odesty is a poor man's wealthJ b7t, as we "row s7bstantial in the world, patroon, one can a ord to be"in to speak tr7th o himself as well as o hisnei"hbor.' Were .ooper a care 7l writer, we mi"ht pers7ade o7rselves that he chose 'we' and 'one' with a p7rpose* 'we' mi"ht indicate that the speaker had himsel and the patroon directly in his eye, altho7"h at the same time he wanted to p7t it "enerallyJ and 'one' mi"ht hint that modesty s7cceeded in "ettin" the better o him. 37t 'himsel ' and 'his' wo7ld alone show that s7ch spec7lations are too re ined or the occasion. B%he orm 'a man,' which was at one time common, seems to be revivin". #n 'Adam 3ede' we have, 'A mancan never do anythin" at variance with his own nat7re.' We mi"ht s7bstit7te 'one.' B'/en' was more reC7ent in "ood writin" ormerly than now. 'Neither do men li"ht a candle, and p7t it 7nder a b7shel.' '+o men "ather "rapes o thornsR' H7me is ond o e!pressin" a "eneral s7bAect by 'men.' B'Small birds are m7ch more e!posed to the cold than lar"e ones.' %his 7sa"e is hardly 'inde inite'J and it needs no 7rther e!empli ication.B On&'. %his word, when 7sed as an adAective, is more reC7ently misplaced than any other word in the lan"7a"e. #ndeed, # am con ident that it is not correctly placed hal the time, either in conversation or in writin". %h7s, B#n?," 012@its pa"es, papers o sterlin" merit ?only@ will only appearB M/iss 3raddonNJ B%hin"s are "ettin" d7ll down in %e!asJ they only shot ?only@ three men down there last weekBJ B# have only "ot ?only@ three.B Only is sometimes improperly 7sed or

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except or unlessJ th7s, B%he trains will not stop only when the bell rin"s.B %he meanin" here is clearly Bexcept when the bell rin"s.B +r. 3ain, in his BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar,B speakin" o the order o words, says* B%he word reC7irin" most attention is only. BAccordin" to the position o only, the same words may be made to e!press very di erent meanin"s. B'He only lived or their sakes.' Here only m7st be held as C7ali yin" 'lived or their sakes,' the emphasis bein" on lived, the word immediately adAoinin". %he meanin" then is 'he lived,' b7t did not wor!, did not die, did not do any other thin" or their sakes. B'He lived only or their sakes.' Only now C7ali ies ' or their sakes,' and the sentence means he lived or this one reason, namely, or their sakes, and not or any other reason. B'He lived or their sakes only.' %he orce o the word when placed at the end is pec7liar. %hen it o ten has a dimin7tive or dispara"in" si"ni ication. 'He lived or their sakes,' and not or any more worthy reason. 'He "ave si!pence only,' is an insin7ation that more was e!pected. B3y the 7se o alone, instead o only, other meanin"s are e!pressed. 'He alone lived or their sakes'J that is,he$ and nobody else, did so. 'He lived or their sakes alone,' or, ' or the sake o them alone'J that is, not or the sake o any other persons. '#t was alone by the help o the .on ederates that any s7ch desi"n co7ld be carried o7t.' 3etteronly.?," 01Q@ B'When men "row virt7o7s in their old a"e, they onlymake a sacri ice to 6od o the devil's leavin"s.',ope. Here only is ri"htly placed. '%hink only o the past as its remembrance "ives yo7 pleas7re,' sho7ld be, 'think o the past, only as its remembrance,' etc. 'As he did not leave his name, it was only known that a "entleman had called on b7siness'* it was known only. '# can only re 7te the acc7sation by layin" be ore yo7 the whole'* this wo7ld mean, 'the only thin" # am able to do is to re 7teJ # may not retaliate, or let it drop, # m7st refute it.' '%he ne"roes are to appear at ch7rch only in boots'J that is, when the ne"roes "o to ch7rch they are to have no clothin" b7t boots. '%he ne"roes are to appear only at ch7rch in boots' mi"ht mean that they are not to appear anywhere b7t at ch7rch, whether in boots or o7t o them. %he proper arran"ement wo7ld be to connect the adverbial adA7nct, in boots, with its verb, appear, and to make only C7ali y at church and no more* 'the ne"roes are to appear in boots only at ch7rch.'B #t th7s appears very plain that we sho7ld look well to o7r onlys. O+04$%S4#+&*. %hese two words, tho7"h they both imply obli"ation, sho7ld not be 7sed indiscriminately. Oughtis the stron"er termJ what we ought to do, we are morally bo7nd to do. We ought to be tr7th 7l and honest, andshould be respect 7l to o7r elders and kind to o7r in eriors. O)!r3&#2n. 'lown is the past participle o to fly, andflowed o to flow. As, there ore, a river does not fly over its banks, b7t flows over them, we sho7ld say o it that it has overflowed, and not that it has overflown. O)!r&'. %his word is now 7sed only by the 7nschooled.?," 015@ O2in0. See +E&. Pan$s. %his abbreviation is not 7sed by those who are care 7l in the choice o words. %he p7rist does not 7se the word pantaloons even, b7t trousers. ants are worn by gents who eat lunches and open wine, and trousers are worn by gentlemen who eat luncheons and order wine.

64

Para(4!rna&ia. %his is a law term. #n (oman law, it meant the "oods which a woman bro7"ht to her h7sband besides her dowry. #n &n"lish law, it means the "oods which a woman is allowed to have a ter the death o her h7sband, besides her dower, consistin" o her apparel and ornaments s7itable to her rank. When 7sed in speakin" o the a airs o every8day li e, it is "enerally mis7sed. Par&#r. %his word, in the sense o drawing-room, accordin" to +r. Hall, e!cept in the Enited States and some o the &n"lish colonies, is obsolete. Par$a1!. %his is a very ine word to 7se or eatJ A7st the word or yo7n" women who hobble on $rench heels. Par$ia&&'%Par$&'. B#t is only partially done.B %his 7se o the adverb partially is sanctioned by hi"h a7thority, b7t that does not make it correct. A thin" done in part is partly, not partially, done. Par$ici(&!s. When the present participle is 7sed s7bstantively, in sentences like the ollowin", it is preceded by the de inite article and ollowed by the preposition of. %he omittin" o the preposition is a common error. %h7s, BOr, it is the drawing a concl7sion which was be ore either 7nknown or dark,B sho7ld be, Bthe drawin" of a concl7sion.B B,rompted by the most e!treme vanity, he persisted in the writin" bad verses,B sho7ld be, Bin writin" bad verses,B or Bin the writin" of bad verses.B B%here is a mis7se o the article a which is very common. #t is?," 014@the 7sin" it be ore the word most.B/oon. /ost writers wo7ld have said Bthe 7sin" of it.B /r. /oon ar"7es or his constr7ction. Par$ic&!s. BNothin" b7t st7dy o the best writers and practice in composition will enable 7s to decide what are the prepositions and conA7nctions that o7"ht to "o with certain verbs. %he ollowin" e!amples ill7strate some common bl7nders* B'#t was characteriDed with eloC7ence'* read, 'by.' B'A testimonial of the merits o his "rammar'* read, 'to.' B'#t was an e!ample o the love to form comparisons'* read, 'o ormin".' B'(epetition is always to be pre erred before obsc7rity'* read, 'to.' B'He made an e ort for meeting them'* read, 'to meet.' B'%hey have no other obAect but to come'* read, 'other obAect than,' or omit 'other.' B%wo verbs are not 7n reC7ently ollowed by a sin"le preposition, which accords with one onlyJ e. "., '%his d7ty is repeated and inc7lcated upon the reader.' '(epeatupon' is nonsenseJ we m7st read 'is repeated to and inc7lcated 7pon.'BNichol's B&n"lish .omposition,B p. 1K. We o ten see for 7sed with the s7bstantive sympathyJ the best practice, however, 7ses withJ th7s, BWords can not e!press the deep sympathy # eel with yo7.BG7een Hictoria. Par$'. %his is a very "ood word in its place, b7t it is very m7ch o7t o its place when 7sedas it o ten is by the v7l"arwhere "ood taste wo7ld 7se the wordperson. Pa$r#ni.!. %his word and its derivatives wo7ld be?," 01K@m7ch less 7sed by the American tradesman than they are, i he were better acC7ainted with their tr7e meanin". %hen he wo7ld solicit his nei"hbors' custom, not their patronage. A man can have no patrons witho7t inc7rrin" obli"ationswitho7t becomin" a prot;g;J while a man may have c7stomers inn7merable, and, instead o placin" himsel 7nder obli"ations to them, he may place them 7nder obli"ations to him. ,rinces are the patrons o those tradesmen whom they allow to call themselves their

65

p7rveyorsJ as, BJohn Smith, Haberdasher to H. (. H. the ,rince o Wales.B Here the ,rince patronizes John Smith. P!&&7-!&&. %his adverb means mi!ed or min"led to"etherJ as, B/en, horses, chariots, crowded pell-mell.B #t can not properly be applied to an individ7al. %o say, or e!ample, BHe r7shed pell8 mell down the stairs,B is as incorrect as it wo7ld be to say, BHe r7shed down the stairsmixed together.B P!r. %his -atin preposition is a "ood deal 7sed in &n"lish, as, or e!ample, in s7ch phrases as per day, perman, per po7nd, per ton, and so on. #n all s7ch cases it is better to 7se plain &n"lish, and say, a day, a man, apo7nd, a ton, etc. er is correct be ore -atin no7ns onlyJ as, per ann7m, per diem, per cent., etc. P!r3#r-. BShe performs on the piano bea7ti 7lly.B #n how m7ch better taste it is to say simply, BShe playsthe piano well,B or, more s7perlatively, Be!ceedin"ly well,B or BadmirablyBT # we talk abo7t performing on m7sical instr7ments, to be consistent, we sho7ld call those whoperform, piano8per ormers, cornet8per ormers, violin8per ormers, and so on. P!r(!$+a&&'. %his word is sometimes mis7sed orcontinually. +r. William /athews, in his BWords, their Ese and Ab7se,B says* B%he #rish are perpetually 7sin"?," 0FL@shall or will.B erpetual means never ceasin", contin7in" witho7t intermission, 7ninterr7ptedJ while continualmeans that which is constantly renewed and rec7rrin" with perhaps reC7ent stops and interr7ptions. As the #rish do somethin" besides mis7se shall, the +octor sho7ld have said that they continually 7se shall or will. # mi"ht perhaps vent7re to intimate that perpetually is likewise mis7sed in the ollowin" sentence, which # copy rom the B-ondon G7een,B i # were not conscio7s that the monster who can write and print s7ch a sentence wo7ld not hesitate to cable a th7nderbolt at an o ender on the sli"htest provocation. J7d"e, i my ears are "ro7ndless* B37t some ew people contract the 7"ly habit o makin" 7se o these e!pressions 7nconscio7sly and contin7o7sly, perpetually interlardin" their conversation with them.B P!rs#n. See ,A(%'J also, #N+#H#+EA-. P!rs#na&$'. %his word does not, as some persons think, mean the articles worn on one's person. #t is properly a law term, and means personal property. B%here is b7t one case on record o a peer o &n"land leavin" over e5,2LL,LLL personalty.B P!rs#ni3ica$i#n. %hat rhetorical i"7re which attrib7tes se!, li e, or action to inanimate obAects, or ascribes to obAects and br7tes the acts and C7alities o rational bein"s, is called personification or prosopop<ia. B%he mo7ntains sing together, the hills reAoice and clap their hands.B B%he worm, aware o his intent, haranguedhim th7s.B
"*ee, Winter "omes to rule the varied year,Sullen and sad with all his risin& train."Thomson. "*o sayin&, her rash hand, in evil ho$r,?orth rea"hin& to the fr$it, she pl$"ked, she ate8Earth felt the wound; and Nature from her seat, %P& '4'(Sighing through all her wor s, ga!e signs of woe, "hat all was lost#"=ilton. ">ar and Dove are stran&e "ompeers.>ar sheds .lood, and Dove sheds tears)>ar has swords, and Dove has darts)>ar .reaks heads, and Dove .reaks hearts."

B-evity is o ten less oolish and "ravity less wise than each o them appears.B B%he &n"lish lan"7a"e, by reservin" the distinction o "ender or livin" bein"s that have se!, "ives especial scope or personi ication. %he hi"hest orm o personi ication sho7ld be 7sed seldom, and only when A7sti ied by the presence o stron" eelin".B3ain.

66 "Enowled&e and wisdom, far from .ein& one,9ave ofttimes no "onne"tion. Enowled&e dwells!n heads replete with tho$&hts of other men)>isdom in minds attentive to their own.Enowled&e is pro$d that he has learned so m$"h)>isdom is h$m.le that he knows no more.",owper.

P4!n#-!n#n. ,l7ral, phenomena. P&!a*. %he imper ect tense and the per ect participle o the verb to plead are both pleaded and not plead. BHepleaded not "7ilty.B B'o7 sho7ld have pleaded yo7r ca7se with more ervor.B P&!n$'. #n Worcester's +ictionary we ind the ollowin" note* B lenty is m7ch 7sed colloC7ially as an adAective, in the sense o plentiful, both in this co7ntry and in &n"landJ and this 7se is s7pported by respectable a7thorities, tho7"h it is condemned by vario7s critics. Johnson says* '#t is 7sed barbaro7sly, # think, or plentiful'J and +r. .ampbell, in his ',hilosophy o (hetoric,' says* ' lenty or plentiful appears to me so "ross a v7l"arism that # sho7ld not have tho7"ht it worthy o a place here i # had?," 0FO@not sometimes o7nd it in works o considerable merit.'B We sho7ld say, then, that money is plentiful, and not that it is plenty. P&!#nas-. (ed7ndancy or pleonasm is the 7se o more words than are necessary to e!press the tho7"ht clearly. B%hey ret7rned bac! again to the same city from whence they came forthB* the ive words in italics are redundantor pleonastic. B%he di erent departments o science and o art mutually re lect li"ht on each otherB* either o the e!pressions in italics embodies the whole idea. B%he universalopinion o all menB is a pleonastic e!pression o ten heard. B# wrote yo7 a letter yesterdayB* here a letter is red7ndant. (ed7ndancy is sometimes permissible or the s7rer conveyance o meanin", or emphasis, and in the lan"7a"e o poetic embellishment. P#&i$!. %his word is m7ch 7sed by persons o do7bt 7l c7lt7re, where those o the better sort 7se the word!ind. We accept !ind, not polite invitationsJ and, when any one has been obli"in", we tell him that he has been!indJ and, when an interviewin" reporter tells 7s o his havin" met with a polite reception, we may be s7re that the person by whom he has been received deserves well or his considerate kindness. B# thank yo7 and /rs. ,ope or my !ind reception.B Atterb7ry. P#r$i#n. %his word is o ten incorrectly 7sed or part. A portion is properly a part assi"ned, allotted, set aside or a special p7rposeJ a share, a division. %he verb to portionmeans to divide, to parcel, to endow. We ask, there ore, B#n what part ?not, in what portion@ o the co7ntry, state, co7nty, town, or street do yo7 liveRBor, i we pre er "randiloC7ence to correctness, reside. #n the sentence, BA lar"e portion o the land is 7n illed,B the ri"ht word?," 0F1@wo7ld be either part or proportion, accordin" to the intention o the writer. P#s$!*. A word very m7ch and very inele"antly 7sed or informed. S7ch e!pressions as, B# will post yo7,B B# m7st post mysel 7p,B B# # had been better posted,B and the like, are, at the best, b7t one remove rom slan". Pr!*ica$!. %his word is o ten very incorrectly 7sed in the sense o to baseJ as, BHe predicates his opinion on ins7 icient data.B %hen we sometimes hear people talk abo7t predicatin" an action 7pon certain in ormation or 7pon somebody's statement. %o predicate means primarilyto spea! before, and has come to be properly 7sed in the sense o assumed or believed to be the conseC7ence o . &!amples* B.ontentment is predicated o virt7eBJ B6ood health may be predicated o a "ood constit7tion.B He who is not very s7re that he 7ses the word correctly wo7ld do better not to 7se it at all.

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Pr!/+*ic!%Pr!(#ss!ss. 3oth these words mean, to incline in one direction or the other or some reason not o7nded in A7sticeJ b7t by common consent pre#udicehas come to be 7sed in an 7n avorable sense, and prepossessin a avorable one. %h7s, we say, BHe is pre#udiceda"ainst him,B and BHe is prepossessed in his avor.B We sometimes hear the e!pression, BHe is pre#udiced in his avor,B b7t this can not be acco7nted a "ood 7se o the word. Pr!(#si$i#ns. %he errors made in the 7se o the prepositions are very n7mero7s. B%he indolent child is one who ?thatR@ has a stron" aversion from action o any sort.B6raham's B&n"lish Synonymes,B p. O1Q. %he prevailin" and best modern 7sa"e is in avor o to instead o froma ter averse and aversion, and be ore the obAect. B.learness ... enables the reader to see tho7"hts witho7t noticin"?," 0FF@the lan"7a"e with which they are clothed.B%ownsend's BArt o Speech.B We clothe tho7"hts in lan"7a"e. BShakespeare ... and the 3ible are ... models for the &n"lish8speakin" ton"7e.B#bid. # this means models o &n"lish, then it sho7ld be ofJ b7t i it means models or &n"lish or"ans o speech to practice on, then it sho7ld beforJ or i it means models to model &n"lish ton"7es a ter, then also it sho7ld be for. B# the resemblance is too aint, the mind is ati"7ed while attemptin" to trace the analo"ies.B BAristotle is in error while th7s describin" "overnments.B#bid. Here we have two e!amples, not o the mis7se o the preposition, b7t o the erroneo7s 7se o the adverb while instead o the preposition in. B$or my part # can not think that Shelley's poetry, e!cept bysnatches and ra"ments, has the val7e o the "ood work o Wordsworth or 3yron.B/atthew Arnold. Sho7ld be, Be!cept in snatches.B B%a!es with 7s are collected nearly ?almost@ solely from real and personal estate.BBAppletons' Jo7rnal.B %a!es are levied on estates and collectedfrom the owners. B# # am not commended for the bea7ty o my works, # may hope to be pardoned or their brevity.B .obbett comments on this sentence as ollows* BWe may commend him for the bea7ty o his works, and we may pardonhim for their brevity, i we deem the brevity a faultJ b7t this is not what he means. He means that, at any rate, he shall have the merit o brevity. '# # am not commended or the bea7ty o my works, # may hope to be pardoned on account of their brevity.' %his is what the +octor meantJ b7t this wo7ld have marred a little the antithesis* it wo7ld have 7nsettled a little o the balance o that seesaw in which +r. Johnson so m7ch deli"hted, and which, allin" into the hands o novel8writers and o members o ,arliament,?," 0F2@has, by movin" 7nenc7mbered with any o the +octor's reason or sense, l7lled so many tho7sands asleepT +r. Johnson created a race o writers and speakers. '/r. Speaker, that the state o the nation is very critical, all men will allowJ b7t that it is wholly desperate, ew will believe.' When yo7 hear or see a sentence like this, be s7re that the person who speaks or writes it has been readin" +r. Johnson, or some o his imitators. 37t, observe, these imitators "o no 7rther than the rame o the sentences. %hey, in "eneral, take care not to imitate the +octor in knowled"e and reasonin".B %he rhetoricians wo7ld have 7s avoid s7ch orms o e!pression as, B%he boy went to and asked the advice of his teacherBJ B# called on and had a conversation with my brother.B Hery o ten the preposition is not repeated in a sentence, when it sho7ld be. We say properly, BHe comes rom Ohio or from #ndianaBJ or, BHe comes either rom Ohio or #ndiana.B Pr!(#ss!ss. See ,(&JE+#.&. Pr!s!n$%In$r#*+c!. $ew errors are more common, especially amon" those who are always strainin" to be ine, than that o 7sin" present, in the social world, instead o introduce. resent means to place in the presence o a s7periorJ introduce, to brin" to be acC7ainted. A person is presented at co7rt, and on an o icial occasion to o7r ,residentJ b7t persons who are 7nknown to

each other areintroduced by a common acC7aintance. And in these introd7ctions, it is the yo7n"er who is introd7ced to the olderJ the lower to the hi"her in place or social positionJ the "entleman to the lady. A lady sho7ld say, as a r7le, that /r. 3lank was introd7ced to her, not that she was introd7ced to /r. 3lank.?," 0FQ@ Pr!s+-($i)!. %his word is sometimes mis7sed by the careless or presumptuous. Pr!)!n$i)!. A 7seless and 7nwarranted syllable is sometimes added to this word preventative. Pr!)i#+s. %his adAective is m7ch 7sed in an adverbial senseJ th7s, B revious to my ret7rn,B etc. Entil previousis reco"niDed as an adverb, i we wo7ld speak "rammatically, we m7st say, B reviously to my ret7rn.B B reviouslyto my leavin" &n"land, # called on his lordship.B Pr#c+r!. %his is a word m7ch 7sed by people who strive to be ine. BWhere did yo7 get itRB with them is, BWhere did yo7 procure itRB Pr#3ani$'. %he e!tent to which some men habit7ally interlard their talk with oaths is dis"7stin" even to many who, on occasion, do not themselves hesitate to "ive e!pression to their eelin"s in oaths portly and 7nct7o7s. # these ellows co7ld be made to know how o ensive to decency they make themselves, they wo7ld, perhaps, be less pro ane. Pr#-is!. %his word is sometimes very improperly 7sed or assureJ th7s, B# promise yo7 # was very m7ch astonished.B Pr#n#+ns #3 $4! Firs$ P!rs#n. B%he ordinary 7ses o '#' and 'we,' as the sin"7lar and pl7ral prono7ns o the irst person, wo7ld appear to be above all ambi"7ity, 7ncertainty, or disp7te. 'et when we consider the orce o the pl7ral 'we,' we are met with a contradictionJ or, as a r7le, only one person can speak at the same time to the same a7dience. #t is only by some e!ceptional arran"ement, or some latit7de or license o e!pression, that several persons can be conAoint speakers. $or e!ample, a pl7rality may sin" to"ether in chor7s, and may Aoin in the responses at ch7rch, or in the sim7ltaneo7s repetition o the -ord's?," 0F5@,rayer or the .reed. A"ain, one person may be the a7thoriDed spokesman in deliverin" a A7d"ment or opinion held by a n7mber o persons in common. $inally, in written compositions, the 'we' is not 7ns7itable, beca7se a pl7rality o persons may append their names to a doc7ment. BA speaker 7sin" 'we' may speak or himsel and one or more othersJ commonly he stands orward as the representative o a class, more or less comprehensive. 'As soon as my companion and # had entered the ield, we saw a man comin" toward us'J 'we like our new c7rate'J 'yo7 do us poets the "reatest inA7stice'J 'we m7st see to the e iciency o our orces.' %he widest 7se o the prono7n will be mentioned presently. B'We' is 7sed or '#' in the decrees o persons in a7thorityJ as when )in" -ear says*
+Enow that we have divided!n three our kin&dom.+

3y the iction o pl7rality a veil o modesty is thrown over the ass7mption o vast s7periority over h7man bein"s "enerally. Or, 'we' may be re"arded as an o icial orm whereby the speaker personally is ma"ni ied or enabled to rise to the di"nity o the occasion. B%he editorial 'we' is to be 7nderstood on the same principle. An a7thor 7sin" 'we' appears as i he were not alone, b7t sharin" with other persons the responsibility o his views. B%his representative position is at its 7tmost stretch in the practice o 7sin" 'we' or h7man bein"s "enerallyJ as in disco7rsin" on the laws o h7man nat7re. %he preacher, the novelist, or the philosopher, in dwellin" 7pon the pec7liarity o o7r common constit7tion, bein" himsel an e!ample o what he is speakin" o , associates the rest o mankind with him, and speaks

63

collectively by means o ?," 0F4@'we.' '*e are weak and allible'J 'we are o yesterday'J 'we are doomed to dissol7tion.' 'Here have we no contin7in" city, b7t we seek one to come.' B#t is not 7n reC7ent to have in one sentence, or in close pro!imity, both the editorial and the representative meanin", the e ect bein" ambi"7ity and con 7sion. '-etus ?the a7thor@ now consider why we ?h7manity "enerally@ overrate distant "ood.' #n s7ch a case the a7thor sho7ld all back 7pon the sin"7lar or himsel '( will now consider.' '*e ?speaker@ think we ?himsel and hearers to"ether@ sho7ld come to the concl7sion.' Say, either '(think,' or 'you wo7ld.' B%he ollowin" e!tract rom 37tler e!empli ies a similar con 7sion* 'S7ppose we ?representative@ are capable o happiness and o misery in de"rees eC7ally intense and e!treme, yet we ?rep.@ are capable o the latter or a m7ch lon"er time, beyond all comparison. *e ?chan"e o s7bAect to a limited class@ see men in the tort7res o pain.S7ch is our ?back to representative@ make that anythin" may become the instr7ment o pain and sorrow to us.' %he 'we' at the commencement o the second sentence'*esee men in the tort7res'co7ld be advanta"eo7sly chan"ed to 'yo7,' or the passive constr7ction co7ld be s7bstit7tedJ the remainin" we's wo7ld then be consistently representative. B$rom the "reater emphasis o sin"7larity, ener"etic speakers and writers sometimes 7se '#' as representative o mankind at lar"e. %h7s* '%he c7rrent impressions received thro7"h the senses are not vol7ntary in ori"in. What( see in walkin" is seen beca7se ( have an or"an o vision.' %he C7estion o "eneral moral obli"ation is orcibly stated by ,aley in the individ7al orm, 'Why am ( obli"ed to keep my wordR' #t is sometimes well to con ine the attention?," 0FK@o the hearer or reader to his own relation to the matter 7nder consideration, more especially in di ic7lt or non8 pop7lar ar"7ment or e!position. %he speaker, by 7sin" '#,' does the action himsel , or makes himsel the e!ample, the hearer bein" e!pected to p7t himsel in the same position.B3ain's B.omposition 6rammar.B Pr#n#+ns #3 $4! S!c#n* P!rs#n. BAnomalo7s 7sa"es have spr7n" 7p in connection with these prono7ns. %he pl7ral orm has almost wholly s7perseded the sin"7larJ a 7sa"e more than ive cent7ries old.?OF@ B%he motive is co7rtesy. %he sin"lin" o7t o one person or address is s7pposed to be a liberty or an e!cess o amiliarityJ and the e ect is so tened or dil7ted by the iction o takin" in others. # o7r address is 7ncomplimentary, the stin" is lessened by the pl7ral ormJ and i the reverse, the shock to modesty is not so "reat. %his is a re inement that was 7nknown to the ancient lan"7a"es. %he orators o 6reece deli"hted in the stron", pointed, personal appeal implied in the sin"7lar 'tho7.' #n modern 6erman, 'tho7' MduN is the address o amiliarity and intimacyJ while the ordinary prono7n is the c7rio7sly indirect 'they' M.ieN. On solemn occasions, we may revert to 'tho7.' .ato, in his meditative soliloC7y on readin" ,lato's views on the immortality o the so7l be ore killin" himsel , says* ',lato, thou reasonest well.' So in the .ommandments, 'tho7' addresses to each individ7al an 7navoidable appeal* ')hou shall not.' 37t o7r ordinary means o makin" the personal appeal is, 'yo7, sir,' 'yo7, madam,' 'my 0ord, yo7,' etc.J we reserve 'tho7' or the special case o addressin" the +eity. %he application o the motive o co7rtesy is here reversedJ it wo7ld be?," 02L@irreverent to mer"e this vast personality in a promisc7o7s assembla"e. B''o7' is not 7n reC7ently employed, like 'we,' as a representative prono7n. %he action is represented with "reat vividness, when the person or persons addressed may be p7t orward as the per ormers* '%here is s7ch an echo amon" the old r7ins, and va7lts, that i you stamp a little

7<

lo7der than ordinary, you hear the so7nd repeated'J 'Some practice is reC7ired to see these animals in the thick orest, even when you hear them close by you.' B%here sho7ld not be a mi!t7re o 'tho7' and 'yo7' in the same passa"e. %h7s, %hackeray MAdvent7res o ,hilipN* 'So, as thy s7n rises, riend, over the h7mble ho7se8tops ro7nd abo7t your home, shall you wake many and many a day to d7ty and labor.' So, .ooper MWater8WitchN* ')hou hast both master and mistressR :ou have told 7s o the latter, b7t we wo7ld know somethin" o the ormer. Who is thy masterR' Shakespeare, Scott, and others mi"ht also be C7oted. B''e' and 'yo7' were at one time strictly distin"7ished as di erent casesJ 'ye' was nominative, 'yo7' obAective Mdative or acc7sativeN. 37t the &liDabethan dramatists con o7nded the orms irredeemablyJ and 'yo7' has "rad7ally o7sted 'ye' rom ordinary 7se. ''e' is restricted to the e!pression o stron" eelin", and in this employment occ7rs chie ly in the poets.B3ain's B.omposition 6rammar.B Pr##3. %his word is m7ch and very improperly 7sed or evidence, which is only the medi7m o proof, proof bein" the e ect o evidence. BWhat evidence have yo7 to o er inproof o the tr7th o yo7r statementRB See also &H#+&N.&. Pr#(#s!%P+r(#s!. Writers and speakers o ten ail to discriminate properly between the respective meanin"s o these two verbs. ropose, correctly 7sed, means, to p7t?," 020@ orward or to o er or the consideration of othersJ hence, a proposal is a scheme or desi"n o ered or acceptance or consideration, a proposition. urpose means, to intend, to desi"n, to resolveJ hence, a purpose is an intention, an aim, that which one sets before one's self. &!amples* BWhat do yo7 purpose doin" in the matterRB BWhat do yo7propose that we shall do in the matterRB B# will doB means B# purpose doin", or to do.B B# purpose to write a history o &n"land rom the accession o )in" James the Second down to a time which is within the memory o men still livin".B/aca7lay. #t will be observed that /aca7lay says, B# p7rpose to writeB and not, B# p7rpose writing,B 7sin" the verb in the in initive rather than in the participial orm. BOn which he purposed to mo7nt one o his little "7ns.B See #N$#N#%#H&. Pr#(#si$i#n. %his word is o ten 7sed when proposalwo7ld be better, or the reason that proposal has b7t one meanin", and is shorter by one syllable. BHe demonstrated the proposition o &7clid, and reAected the proposalo his riend.B Pr#sais$. +r. Hall is o opinion that this is a word we shall do well to enco7ra"e. #t is 7sed by "ood writers. Pr#)!n. %his orm or the past participle o the verbto prove is said to be a Scotticism. #t is not 7sed by care 7l writers and speakers. %he correct orm is proved. Pr#)i*in0. %he present participle o the verb to provideis sometimes v7l"arly 7sed or the conA7nction provided, as in this sentence rom the B-ondon G7eenB* BSociety may be con"rat7lated, ... providing that,B etc. Pr#)#1!. See A66(AHA%&. P+nc$+a$i#n. %he importance o p7nct7ation can not be overestimatedJ it not only helps to make plain the meanin" o what one writes, b7t it may prevent one's bein" misconstr7ed.?," 02O@%ho7"h no two writers co7ld be o7nd who p7nct7ate A7st alike, still in the main those who pay attention to the art p7t in their stops in essentially the same manner. %he di erence that p7nct7ation may make in the meanin" o lan"7a"e is well ill7strated by the ollowin" anecdote* At (amessa there lived a benevolent and hospitable prior, who ca7sed these lines to be painted over his door*

7' ":e open evermore,4 tho$ my door8To none .e sh$tto honest or to poor8"

#n time the "ood prior was s7cceeded by a man as sel ish as his predecessor was "enero7s. %he lines over the door o the priory were allowed to remainJ one stop, however, was altered, which made them read th7s*
":e open evermore,4 tho$ my door8To none.e sh$t to honest or to poor8"

He p7nct7ates best who makes his p7nct7ation contrib7te most to the clear e!pression o his tho7"htJ and that constr7ction is best that has least need o bein" p7nct7ated. %H& .O//A.%he chie di erence in the p7nct7ation o di erent writers is 7s7ally in their 7se o the comma, in re"ard to which there is a "ood deal o latit7deJ m7ch is le t to individ7al taste. Nowadays the best practice 7ses it sparin"ly. An idea o the e!tent to which opinions di er with re"ard to the 7se o the comma may be ormed rom the ollowin" e!cerpt rom a paper prepared or private 7se* B#n the ollowin" e!amples, "athered rom vario7s so7rceschie ly rom standard booksthe s7per l7o7s commas are inclosed in parentheses*?," 021@ B0. '#t remainsM,N perhapsM,N to be saidM,N that, i any lesson at allM,N as to these delicate mattersM,N is neededM,N in this period, it is not so m7ch a lesson,' etc. O. '%he obedience is not d7e to the power o a ri"ht a7thority, b7t to the spirit o ear, andM,N there oreM,N isM,N in realityM,N no obedience at all.' 1. '%he patriot dist7rbances in .anada ... awakened deep interest amon" the people o the Enited StatesM,N who lived adAacent to the rontier.' F. 'ObserversM,N who have recently investi"ated this pointM,N do not all a"ree,' etc. 2. '%he wind didM,N in an instantM,N what man and steam to"ether had ailed to do in ho7rs.' Q. 'All the cabin passen"ersM,N sit7ated beyond the center o the boatM,N were saved.' 5. 'No other writer has depictedM,N with so m7ch art or so m7ch acc7racyM,N the habits, the manners,' etc. 4. '# it shall "ive satis action to those who haveM,N in any wayM,N be riended it, the a7thor will eel,' etc. K. '$ormedM,N or consistin" o M,N clay.' 0L. '%he s7bAect ?witchcra t@ "rew interestin"J andM,N to e!amine Sarah .loyce and &liDabeth ,roctor, the dep7ty8"overnorM,N and ive other ma"istratesM,N went to Salem.' 00. '%he -7sitaniansM,N who had not le t their homeM,N rose as a man,' etc. 0O. 'Ha"7e reports ... had preceded him to Washin"ton, and his /ississippi riendsM,N who chanced to be at the capitalM,N were not backward to make their boast o him.' 01. 'O7r aith has acC7ired a new vi"orM,N and a clearer vision.' 0F. '#n 040KM,N he removed to .ambrid"e.' 02. '+orZ was born at Strasb7r"M,N in 041O, and labors,' etc. 0Q. 'We sho7ld never apply dry compresses, charpie, or waddin"M,N to the wo7nd.' 05. 'to stand idle, to look, act, or thinkM,N in a leis7rely way.' 04. 'portraits taken rom the armers, schoolmasters, and peasantryM,N o the nei"hborhood.' 0K. '"ladly welcomed painters o $landers, Holland, and SpainM,N to their shores.'?," 02F@ B#n all these cases, the cla7ses between or ollowin" the inclosed commas are so closely connected "rammatically with the immediately precedin" words or phrases, that they sho7ld be read witho7t a perceptible pa7se, or with only a sli"ht one or breath, witho7t chan"e o voice. Some o the commas wo7ld "rossly pervert the meanin" i strictly constr7ed. %h7s, rom No. 1 it wo7ld appear that the people o the Enited States in "eneral lived adAacent to the rontierJ rom No. F, that all observers have recently investi"ated the point in C7estionJ rom No. Q, that all the cabin passen"ers were so sit7ated that they were saved, whereas it is meant that only a certain small proportion o them were savedJ rom No. 0L M3ancro tN, that somebody whose name is accidentally omitted went to Salem 'to e!amine Sarah .loyce and &liDabeth ,roctor, the dep7ty8 "overnor, and ive other ma"istrates'J rom No. 00, that none o the -7sitanians had le t their

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home, whereas it was the sla7"hter by the (omans o a "reat n7mber o them whohad le t their home that ca7sed the risin". B.ommas are reC7ently omitted, and in certain positions very "enerally, where the sense and correct readin" reC7ire a pa7se. #n the ollowin" e!amples, s7ch commas, omitted in the works rom which they were taken, are inclosed in brackets* B0. '%he modes o tho7"ht?,@ and the types o character which those modes prod7ce?,@ are essentially and 7niversally trans ormed.' O. '%aken by itsel ?,@ this doctrine co7ld have no e ect whateverJ indeed?,@ it wo7ld amo7nt to nothin" b7t a verbal proposition.' 1. '$ar below?,@ the little stream o the Oder oamed over the rocks.' F. 'When the day ret7rned?,@ the pro essor, the artist?,@ and # rowed to within a h7ndred yards o the shore.' 2. ',roceedin" into the interior o #ndia?,@ they passed thro7"h 3el"a7m.'?," 022@Q. '# -orin" is de eated in the Si!th +istrict?,@ it can be borne.' B#n No. 1, the reader nat7rally en7nciates 'the little stream o the Oder' as in the obAective case a ter 'below'J b7t there he comes to a predicate which compels him to "o back and read di erently. #n No. F, it appears that 'the day ret7rned the pro essor,' and then 'the artist and # rowed,' etc.B All cla7ses sho7ld "enerally be isolated by commasJ where, however, the connection is very close or the cla7se is very short, no point may be necessary. B37t his pride is "reater than his i"norance, and what he wants in knowled"e he s7pplies by s7 iciency.B BA man o polite ima"ination can converse with a pict7re, and ind an a"reeable companion in a stat7e.B B%ho7"h he slay me, yet will # tr7st him.B B%he prince, his ather bein" dead, s7cceeded.B B%o con ess the tr7th, # was m7ch at a7lt.B BAs the heart panteth a ter the water8brooks, so panteth my so7l a ter thee.B BWhere the bee s7cks, there s7ck #.B BHis ather dyin", he s7cceeded to the estate.B B%he little that is known, and the circ7mstance that little is known, m7st be considered as honorable to him.B %he comma is 7sed be ore and a ter a phrase when coPrdinatin" and not restrictive. B%he A7ry, havin" retired or hal an ho7r, bro7"ht in a verdict.B B%he stran"er, 7nwillin" to obtr7de himsel on o7r notice, le t in the mornin".B B(ome, the city o the &mperors, became the city o the ,opes.B BHis stories, which made everybody la7"h, were o ten made to order.B BHe did not come, which # "reatly re"ret.B B%he yo7n"er, who was yet a boy, had nothin" strikin" in his appearance.B B%hey passed the c7p to the stran"er, who drank heartily.B B,eace at any price, which these orators seem to advocate,?," 02Q@means war at any cost.B BSailors, who are "enerally s7perstitio7s, say it is 7nl7cky to embark on $riday.B Adverbs and short phrases, when they brea! the connection, sho7ld be between commas. Some o the most common words and phrases so 7sed are the ollowin"* Also, too, there, indeed, perhaps, s7rely, moreover, likewise, however, inally, namely, there ore, apparently, meanwhile, conseC7ently, 7nC7estionably, accordin"ly, notwithstandin", in tr7th, in act, in short, in "eneral, in reality, no do7bt, o co7rse, as it were, at all events, to be brie , to be s7re, now and then, on the contrary, in a word, by chance, in that case, in the mean time, or the most part. BHistory, in a word, is replete with moral lessons.B BAs an orator, however, he was not "reat.B B%here is, remember, a limit at which orbearance ceases to be a virt7e.B BO7r civiliDation, there ore, is not an 7nmi!ed "ood.B B%his, # "rant yo7, is not o "reat importance.B # , however, the adverb does not break the connection, b7t readily coalesces with the rest o the sentence, the commas are omitted. B/ornin" will come at last, however dark the ni"ht may

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be.B BWe then proceeded on o7r way.B BO7r civiliDation is there ore not an 7nmi!ed "ood.B B,atience, # sayJ yo7r mind perhaps may chan"e.B Adverbial phrases and cla7ses be"innin" a sentence are set o by commas. B#n tr7th, # co7ld not tell.B B%o s7m 7p, the matter is this.B B&verythin" bein" ready, they set o7t.B B3y lookin" a little deeper, the reason will be o7nd.B B$inally, let me s7m 7p the ar"7ment.B B# the premises were admitted, # sho7ld deny the concl7sion.B BWhere yo7r treas7re is, there will yo7r heart be also.B Words 7sed in apposition sho7ld be isolated by commas.?," 025@BNewton, the "reat mathematician, was very modest.B BAnd he, their prince, shall rank amon" my peers.B #n s7ch sentences, however, as, B%he mathematician Newton was very modest,B and B%he &mperor Napoleon was a "reat soldier,B commas are not 7sed. %he name or desi"nation o a person addressed is isolated by commas. B#t to7ches yo7, my lord, as well as me.B BJohn, come here.B B/r. ,resident, my obAect is peace.B B%ell me, boy, where do yo7 liveRB B'es, sir, # will do as yo7 say.B B/r. 3rown, what is yo7r n7mberRB ,airs o words.BOld and yo7n", rich and poor, wise and oolish, were involved.B BSink or swim, live or die, s7rvive or perish, # "ive my hand and heart to this vote.B B#nterest and ambition, honor and shame, riendship and enmity, "ratit7de and reven"e, are the prime movers in p7blic transactions.B A restrictive cla7se is not separated by a comma rom the no7n. B&very one m7st love a boy who ?that@ is attentive and docile.B BHe preaches s7blimely who ?that@ lives a holy li e.B B%he thin"s which ?that@ are seen are temporal.B BA kin" dependin" on the s7pport o his s7bAects can not rashly "o to war.B B%he sailor who ?that@ is not s7perstitio7s will embark any day.B %he comma is 7sed a ter adAectives, no7ns, and verbs in sentences like the ollowin"*
"#re all thy "on7$ests, &lories, tri$mphs, spoils*hr$nk to this little meas$re6" "9e fills, he .o$nds, "onne"ts and e7$als all." ">ho to the enrapt$red heart, and ear, and eyeTea"h .ea$ty, virt$e, tr$th, and love, and melody."%25(
?," 024@

BHe rewarded his riends, chastised his oes, set J7stice on her seat, and made his conC7est sec7re.B %he comma is 7sed to separate adAectives in opposition, b7t closely connected. B%ho7"h deep, yet clearJ tho7"h "entle, yet not d7ll.B B-iberal, not lavish, is kind Nat7re's hand.B B%ho7"h black, yet comelyJ and tho7"h rash, beni"n.B A ter a nominative, where the verb is 7nderstood. B%o err is h7manJ to or"ive, divine.B BA wise man seeks to shine in himsel J a ool, in others.B B.onversation makes a ready manJ writin", an e!act manJ readin", a 7ll man.B A lon" s7bAect is o ten separated rom the predicate by a comma. BAny one that re 7ses to earn an honest livelihood, is not an obAect o charity.B B%he circ7mstance o his bein" 7nprepared to adopt immediate and decisive meas7res, was represented to the 6overnment.B B%hat he had persistently disre"arded every warnin" and persevered in his reckless co7rse, had not yet 7ndermined his credit with his d7pes.B B%hat the work o ormin" and per ectin" the character is di ic7lt, is "enerally allowed.B

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#n a series o adAectives that precede their no7n, a comma is placed a ter each e!cept the lastJ there 7sa"e omits the point. BA bea7ti 7l, tall, willowy, spri"htly "irl.B BA C7ick, brilliant, st7dio7s, learned man.B?OQ@ A comma is placed between short members o compo7nd?," 02K@sentences, connected by and, but, for, nor, or, because,whereas, that e!pressin" p7rpose Mso that, in order thatN, and other conA7nctions. B3e virt7o7s, that yo7 may be respected.B B-ove not sleep, lest yo7 come to poverty.B B/an proposes, b7t 6od disposes.B A comma m7st not be placed be ore that e!cept when it is eC7ivalent to in order that. BHe says that he will be here.B A comma m7st not be placed be ore and when it connects two words only. B%ime and tide wait or no man.B BA rich and prospero7s people.B B,lain and honest tr7th wants no arti icial coverin".B A comma is sometimes necessary to prevent ambi"7ity. BHe who p7rs7es pleas7re only de eats the obAect o his creation.B Witho7t a comma be ore or a ter only, the meanin" o this sentence is do7bt 7l. %he ollowin" sentences present some miscellaneo7s e!amples o the 7se o the comma by writers on p7nct7ation* B#nd7stry, as well as "eni7s, is essential to the prod7ction o "reat works.B B,rosperity is sec7red to a state, not by the acC7isition o territory or riches, b7t by the enco7ra"ement o ind7stry.B B'o7r manners are a able, and, or the most part, pleasin".B?O5@ BHowever airly a bad man may appear to act, we distr7st him.B BWhy, this is rank inA7stice.B BWell, ollow the dictates o yo7r inclination.B B%he comma may be omitted in the case o too, also, therefore, and perhaps, when introd7ced so as not to inter ere with the harmonio7s low o the periodJ and, partic7larly, when the sentence is short.B?O4@ B(obert Horton, /. +., $. (. S.B B%o those who labor, sleep is do7bly pleasantBJ BSleep?," 0QL@is do7bly pleasant to those who labor.B B%hose who persevere, s7cceed.B B%o be overlooked, sli"hted, and ne"lectedJ to be mis7nderstood, misrepresented, and slanderedJ to be trampled 7nder oot by the envio7s, the i"norant, and the vileJ to be cr7shed by oes, and to be distr7sted and betrayed even by riends s7ch is too o ten the ate o "eni7s.B BShe is tall, tho7"h not so handsome as her sister.B BHerily, verily, # say 7nto yo7.B BWhatever is, is ri"ht.B BWhat is oreordained to be, will be.B B%he &mperor A7"7st7s was a patron o the ine arts.B BA7"7st7s, the &mperor, was a patron o the ine arts.B BEnited, we standJ divided, we all.B B6od said, -et there be li"ht.B BJ7ly O0, 0440.B B,resident 6ar ield was shot, Sat7rday mornin", J7ly O, 0440J he died, /onday ni"ht, Sept. 0K, 0440.B B# am, sir, very respect 7lly, yo7r obedient servant, John Jones.B BNew 'ork, A7"7st, 0440.B B(oom OL, &C7itable 37ildin", 3roadway, New 'ork.B B*hen you are in doubt as to the propriety of inserting commas$ omit themJ #% #S 3&%%&( %O HAH& %OO $&W %HAN %OO /AN'.BG7ackenbos. %H& S&/#.O-ON.(easons are preceded by semicolonsJ B&conomy is no dis"raceJ or it is better to live on a little than to o7tlive a "reat deal.B .la7ses in opposition are separated by a semicolon when the second is introd7ced by an adversative* BStraws swim at the s7r aceJ b7t pearls lie at the bottomBJ B-yin" lips are an abomination to the -ordJ b7t they that deal tr7ly are his deli"ht.B Witho7t the adversative, the colon is to be pre erred* B,rosperity showeth vice* adversity, virt7e.B %he "reat divisions o a sentence m7st be pointed with a semicolon when the minor divisions are pointed with commas* B/irth sho7ld be the embroidery o conversation, not the webJ and wit the ornament?," 0Q0@o the mind, not the 7rnit7re.B %he thin"s en7merated m7st be separated by semicolons, when the en7nciation o partic7lars is preceded by a colon* B%he

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val7e o a ma!im depends on o7r thin"s* the correctness o the principle it embodiesJ the s7bAect to which it relatesJ the e!tent o its applicationJ and the ease with which it may be practically carried o7t.B When as introd7ces an e!ample, it is preceded by a semicolon. When several s7ccessive cla7ses have a common connection with a precedin" or ollowin" cla7se, they are separated by semicolonsJ as, B.hildren, as they "amboled on the beachJ reapers, as they "athered the harvestJ mowers, as they rested rom 7sin" the scytheJ mothers, as they b7sied themselves abo7t the ho7seholdwere victims to an enemy, who disappeared the moment a blow was str7ck.B B(eason as we may, it is impossible not to read in s7ch a ate m7ch that we know not how to interpretJ m7ch o provocation to cr7el deeds and deep resentmentJ m7ch o apolo"y or wron" and per idyJ m7ch o do7bt and mis"ivin" as to the pastJ m7ch o pain 7l recollectionsJ m7ch o dark orebodin".B B,hilosophers assert that Nat7re is 7nlimitedJ that her treas7res are endlessJ that the increase o knowled"e will never cease.B %H& .O-ON.%his point is less 7sed now than ormerly* its place is s7pplied by the period, the semicolon, or the dashJ and sometimes, even by the comma. %he colon is 7sed very di erently by di erent writers. BHe was heard to say, '# have done with this world.'B Some writers wo7ld p7t a colon, some a comma, a ter say. BWhen the C7oted passa"e is bro7"ht in witho7t any introd7ctory word, i short,B says G7ackenbos, Bit is "enerally preceded by a commaJ i lon", by a colonJ as, 'A simpleton, meetin" a philosopher, asked him, BWhat a ords wise men the?," 0QO@"reatest pleas7reRB %7rnin" on his heel, the sa"e replied, B%o "et rid o ools.B'B $ormal en7merations o partic7lars, and direct C7otations, when introd7ced by s7ch phrases as in these words,as follows, the following, namely, this, these, thus, etc., are properly preceded by a colon. BWe hold these tr7ths to be sel 8evident* that all men are created eC7alJ that they are endowed by their .reator with certain inalienable ri"htsJ that amon" these are li e, liberty, and the p7rs7it o happiness.B B-ord 3acon has s7mmed 7p the whole matter in the ollowin" words* 'A little philosophy inclineth men's minds to atheismJ b7t depth in philosophy brin"eth men's minds to reli"ion.'B B%he h7man amily is composed o ive races* irst, the .a7casianJ second, the /on"olianJ third, the,B etc.
"#ll were attentive to the &odlike man>hen from his lofty "o$"h he th$s .e&an1+0reat 7$een,+" et".Fryden.

When the C7otation, or other matter, be"ins a new para"raph, the colon is, by many writers, ollowed with a dashJ as, B%he cloth bein" removed, the ,resident rose and said*
"+Dadies and &entlemen, we are,+" et".

%he colon is 7sed to mark the "reater breaks in sentences, when the lesser breaks are marked by semicolons. B'o7 have called yo7rsel an atom in the 7niverseJ yo7 have said that yo7 are b7t an insect in the solar blaDe* is yo7r present pride consistent with these pro essionsRB BA cla7se is either independent or dependent* independent, i it orms an assertion by itsel J dependent, i it enters into some other cla7se with the val7e o a part o speech.B A colon is sometimes 7sed instead o a period to separate two short sentences, which are closely connected. BNever?," 0Q1@ latter people* leave that to s7ch as mean to betray them.B BSome thin"s we can, and others we can not do* we can walk, b7t we can not ly.B %H& ,&(#O+..omplete sentences are always ollowed either by a period, or by an e!clamation or an interro"ation point.?OK@

76

%he period is also 7sed a ter abbreviationsJ as, (. +. Han Nostrand, St. -o7is, /o.J Jno. 3. /orris, /. +., $. (. S., -ondon, &n".J Jas. W. Wallack, Jr., New 'ork .ity, N. '.J Jas. 3. (oberts, &loc7tionist, ,hila., ,a. #N%&((O6A%#ON8,O#N%.%his point is 7sed a ter C7estions p7t by the writer, and a ter C7estions reported directly. BWhat can # do or yo7RB BWhere are yo7 "oin"RB BWhat do yo7 sayRB cried the 6eneral. B%he child still livesRB #t sho7ld not be 7sed when the C7estion is reported indirectly. BHe asked me where # was "oin".B B%he J7d"e asked the witness i he believed the man to be "7ilty.B &S.-A/A%#ON8,O#N%.%his mark is placed a ter interAections, a ter sentences and cla7ses o sentences o passionate import, and a ter solemn invocations and addresses. BUo7ndsT the man's in earnest.B B,shawT what can we doRB B3ahT what's that to meRB B#ndeedT then # m7st look to it.B B-ook, my lord, it comesTB B(est, rest, pert7rbed spiritTB BO heat, dry 7p my brainsTB B+ear maid, kind sister, sweet OpheliaTB BWhile in this part o the co7ntry, # once more revisitedand, alas, with what melancholy presentimentsTthe home o my yo7th.B BO rose o /ayTB BOh, rom this time orth, my tho7"hts be bloody or be nothin" worthTB BO heavensT die two months a"o, and not or"otten yetRB?," 0QF@
"5i&ht, sa.le &oddess8 from her e.on throne,!n rayless ma2esty now stret"hes forth9er leaden s"epter o+er a sl$m.erin& world.*ilen"e, how dead8 and darkness, how profo$nd8"Bo$n&. "9ail, holy li&ht8 offsprin& of heaven 2$st .orn8"=ilton. ":$t tho$, 4 9ope8 with eyes so fair,>hat was thy deli&hted meas$re6",ollins.

#t will be observed that the interAection O is an e!ception to the r7le* it is o ten ollowed by a comma, b7t never by an e!clamation8point. An e!clamation8point sometimes "ives the same words C7ite another meanin". %he di erence between BWhat's thatRB and BWhat's thatTB is obvio7s. %H& +ASH..obbett did not avor the 7se o this mark, as we see rom the ollowin"* B-et me ca7tion yo7 a"ainst the 7se o what, by some, is called the dash. %he dash is a stroke alon" the lineJ th7s, '# am rich# was poor# shall be poor a"ain.' %his is wild work indeedT Who is to know what is intended by these dashesR %hose who have tho7"ht proper, like /r. -indley /7rray, to place thedash amon"st the grammatical points, o7"ht to "ive 7s some r7le relative to its di erent lon"it7dinal dimensions in di erent cases. %he inch, the three-quarter-inch, the halfinch, the quarter-inch* these wo7ld be somethin" determinateJ b7t 'the dash,' witho7t meas7re, m7st be a perilo7s thin" or the yo7n" "rammarian to handle. #n short, 'the dash' is a cover or i"norance as to the 7se o points, and it can answer no other p7rpose.B %his is one o the ew instances in which .obbett was wron". %he dash is the proper point with which to mark an 7ne!pected or emphatic pa7se, or a s7dden break or transition. #t is very o ten preceded by another point. BAnd?," 0Q2@H7itDilopochtlia sweet name to roll 7nder one's ton"7e or how many years has this venerable war8"od blinked in the noonday s7nTB B.rowds "athered abo7t the newspaper b7lletins, recallin" the everish scenes that occ7rred when the ,resident's li e was tho7"ht to be han"in" by a thread. 'Wo7ldn't it be too bad,' said one, 'i , a ter allno, # won't allow mysel to think o it.'B BWas there everb7t # scorn to boast.B B'o7 are no, #'ll not tell yo7 what yo7 are.B
"9e s$ffered.$t his pan&s are o+er)@n2oyed.$t his deli&hts are fled)9ad friendshis friends are now no more)#nd foeshis foes are dead."=ont&omery.

B6reece, .artha"e, (ome,where are theyRB BHe chastensJb7t he chastens to save.B

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+ashes are m7ch 7sed where parentheses were ormerly employed. B#n the days o %weed the e!pression to divide air orcible, i not "rammaticalacC7ired m7ch c7rrency.B B#n tr7th, the character o the "reat chie was depicted two tho7sand ive h7ndred years be ore his birth, and depicteds7ch is the power o "eni7sin colors which will be resh as many years a ter his death.B B%o render the .onstit7tion perpet7alwhich 6od "rant it may beTit is necessary that its bene its sho7ld be practically elt by all parts o the co7ntry.B ,A(&N%H&S#S.%his mark is comparatively little 7sed nowadays. %he dash is pre erred, probably beca7se it dis i"7res the pa"e less. %he o ice o the parenthesis is to isolate a phrase which is merely incidental, and which mi"ht be omitted witho7t detriment to the "rammatical constr7ction.
"Enow then this tr$th Geno$&h for man to knowH,Cirt$e alone is happiness .elow."Pope.%P&
'66(

"The .liss of man G"o$ld pride that .lessin& findH!s not to a"t or think .eyond mankind."

3(A.)&%S.%his mark is 7sed principally to inclose words improperly omitted by the writer, or words introd7ced or the p7rpose o e!planation or to correct an error. %he bracket is o ten 7sed in this book. %H& A,OS%(O,H&.%his point is 7sed to denote the omission o letters and sometimes o i"7resJ as, Jan'y, '40J('ve or ( haveJ you'll or you willJ 'tis or it isJ don't ordo notJ can't or can notJ #t was in the year 'K1J the spirit o '5QJ #t was in the years 040O, '01, and '0F. Also to denote the possessive caseJ as, 3rown's ho7seJ the kin"'s commandJ /oses' sta J or conscience' sakeJ the boys' "arden. Also with s to denote the pl7ral o letters, i"7res, and si"nsJ as, .ross yo7r t's, dot yo7r i's, and mind yo7r p's andq'sJ make yo7r 2's better, and take o7t the x's. .A,#%A-S.A capital letter sho7ld be"in every sentence, every line o verse, and every direct C7otation. All names o the +eity, o Jes7s .hrist, o the %rinity, and o the Hir"in /ary m7st be"in with a capital. ,rono7ns are 7s7ally capitaliDed when they re er to the +eity. ,roper names, and no7ns and adAectives ormed rom proper names, names o streets, o the months, o the days o the week, and o the holidays, are capitaliDed. %itles o nobility and o hi"h o ice, when 7sed to desi"nate partic7lar persons, are capitaliDedJ as, the &arl o +7nraven, the /ayor o 3oston, the 3aron replied, the .ardinal presided. %H& ,A(A6(A,H.#n writin" or the press, the division o matter into para"raphs is o ten C7ite arbitraryJ in letter8writin", on the contrary, the several topics treated o sho7ld, as a r7le, be isolated by para"raphic divisions. %hese divisions?," 0Q5@"ive one's letters a shapely appearance that they otherwise never have. P+rc4as!. %his word is m7ch pre erred to its synonym buy, by that class o people who pre er the word reside tolive, procure to get, inaugurate to begin, and so on. %hey are "enerally o those who are "reat in pretense, and who wo7ld be "reater still i they were to pretend to all they have to pretend to. P+r(#s!. See ,(O,OS&. :+an$i$'. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed ornumber. 5uantity sho7ld be 7sed in speakin" o what is meas7red or wei"hedJ number, o what is co7nted. &!amples* BWhat quantity o

apples have yo7, and whatnumber o pineapplesRB B+elaware prod7ces a lar"equantity o peaches and a lar"e number o melons.B :+i$.%his word means, properly, to leave, to "o away rom, to orsakeJ as, BAva7ntT quit my si"ht.B %his is the only sense in which the &n"lish 7se it. #n America, it is "enerally 7sed in the sense o to leave o , to stopJ as, B5uit yo7r nonsenseBJ B5uit la7"hin"BJ B5uit yo7r noiseBJ BHe has quit smokin",B and so on. :+i$!. %his word ori"inally meant completely, per ectly, totally, entirely, 7llyJ and this is the sense in which it was 7sed by the early writers o &n"lish. #t is now o ten 7sed in the sense o ratherJ as, B#t is quitewarmBJ BShe is quite tallBJ BHe is quite pro icient.B Sometimes it is incorrectly 7sed in the sense o considerableJ as, quite an amo7nt, quite a n7mber, quite a ort7ne.5uite, accordin" to "ood modern 7sa"e, may C7ali y an adAective, b7t not a no7n. BShe is C7ite the lady,B is a vile phrase, meanin", BShe is very or quite ladylike.B Rai&r#a* D!(#$. $ew thin"s are more o ensive to astidio7s ears than to hear a railway station called a depot.?," 0Q4@A depot is properly a place where "oods or stores o any kind are keptJ and the places at which the trains o a railroador, better, railwaystop or passen"ers, or the points rom which they start and at which they arrive, are, properly, the stations. Rai&2a'. %he &n"lish pre er this word to railroad. Rais! $4! r!n$. An e!pression incorrectly 7sed orincrease the rent. Rar!&'. #t is no 7ncommon thin" to see this adverb improperly 7sed in s7ch sentences as, B#t is very rarelythat the p7ppets o the romancer ass7me,B etc.BAppletons' Jo7rnal,B $ebr7ary, 0440, p. 055. B37t,B says the de ender o this phraseolo"y, Brarely C7ali ies a verbthe verb to be.B Not at all. %he sentence, i written o7t in 7ll, wo7ld be, B#t is a very rare thin" that,B etc., or B%he circ7mstance is a very rare one that,B etc., or B#t is a very rare occ7rrence that,B etc. %o those who contend or B#t is very rarely that,B etc., # wo7ld say, #t is very sadlythat persons o c7lt7re will write and then de endor rather try to de ends7ch "rammar. Ra$i#cina$!. See &$$&.%EA%&. R!a&.%his adAective is o ten v7l"arly 7sed in the sense o the adverb veryJ th7s, real nice, real pretty, realan"ry, real c7te, and so on. R!c#--!n*. %his word, which means to commend or praise to another, to declare worthy o esteem, tr7st, or avor, is sometimes p7t to stran"e 7ses. &!ample* B(esolved, that the ta!8payers o the co7nty be recommended to meet,B etc. What the resolvin" "entlemen meant was, that the ta!8payers sho7ld be counseled to meet. R!*+n*anc'. See ,-&ONAS/. R!&ia &!. %his is a modern word which is o ten met?," 0QK@withJ b7t it is not 7sed by o7r care 7l writers. %hey pre er its synonym trustworthy, and ar"7e that, in conseC7ence o bein" ill8 ormed, reliable can not possibly have the si"ni ication in which it is 7sed. R!-ain*!r. See 3A-AN.&. R!n*i$i#n. %his word is m7ch mis7sed or rendering. &!ample* B%he e!cellence o /r. 6ilbert's rendition o certain characters, Sir ,eter and Sir Antony, or instance, is not eC7aled,B etc. "endition means the act o yieldin" possession, s7rrender, as the rendition o a town or ortress. %he sentence above sho7ld read, B%he e!cellence o /r. 6ilbert's rendering,B etc. "endition is also sometimes improperly 7sed or performance. R!(&'. See ANSW&(.

73

R!(+$a$i#n. See .HA(A.%&(. R!si*!. A bi" word that /r. Wo7ldbe 7ses where /r. #s 7ses the little word live. R!si*!nc!. #n speakin" o a man's domicile, it is not only in better taste b7t more correct to 7se the term housethan residence. A man has a residence in New 'ork, when he has lived here lon" eno7"h to have the ri"ht to e!ercise the ranchise hereJ and he may have a house in $i th Aven7e where he lives. ,eople who are live in ho7sesJ people who would be reside in residences. %he ormerbuy thin"sJ the latter purchase them. R!s$. See 3A-AN.&. R!s$i)!. Some o the dictionaries, (ichard 6rant White, and some other writers, contend that this word, when properly 7sed, means 7nwillin" to "o, standin" still st7bbornly, obstinate, st7bborn, and nothin" else. #n combatin" this opinion, $itDedward Hall says* BHery ew instances, # apprehend, can be prod7ced, rom o7r literat7re, o this 7se o restive.B Webster "ives impatient, 7neasy,?," 05L@as a second meanin"J and this is the sense in which the word is nearly always 7sed. R!$ir!. #t is only the over8nice who 7se retire in the sense o go to bed. R!)!r!n*%H#n#ra &!. /any persons are in do7bt whether they sho7ld or sho7ld not p7t the be ore these adAectives. &mphatically, yes, they sho7ld. See BWords and %heir Eses,B by (ichard 6rant White, or a 7ll disc7ssion o the C7estionJ also B6ood &n"lish,B by &dward S. 6o7ld. R4!$#ric. %he art which has or its obAect the renderin" o lan"7a"e e ective is called rhetoric. Witho7t some st7dy o the art o composition, no one can e!pect to write well, or to A7d"e the literary work o others.
"Tr$e ease in writin& "omes from art, not "han"e,#s those move easiest who have learned to dan"e."

Ri*!%Dri)!. $ashion, both in &n"land and in this co7ntry, says that we m7st always 7se the second o these words when we speak o "oin" o7t in a carria"e, altho7"hride means, accordin" to all the le!ico"raphers, Bto be carried on a horse or other animal, or in any kind o vehicle or carria"e.B Ri04$. Sin"7larly eno7"h, this word is made, by some people, to do service or ought, in duty bound, 7nderobligation toJ th7s, B'o7 had a right to tell me,B meanin", B'o7 sho7ld have told me.B B%he .olonists contended that they had no right to pay ta!es,B meanin", B%hey wereunder no obligation to pay ta!es,B i. e., that it was 7nA7st to ta! them. Ri04$ 4!r!. %he e!pressions Bri"ht hereB and Bri"ht thereB are Americanisms. .orrectly, BA7st hereB and BA7st there.B R#&&in0. %he 7se o this participial adAective in the?," 050@sense o 7nd7latin" is said to be an Americanism. Whether an Americanism or not, it wo7ld seem to be C7ite 7nobAectionable. R+ !rs. %his word, in common with gums andarctics, is o ten, in de iance o "ood taste, 7sed or overshoes. Sa a$4. %his term was irst 7sed in &n"lish or S7nday, or -ord's day, by the ,7ritans. Nowadays it is little 7sed in this sense. %he word to 7se is .unday. Sarcas-. 3ain says that sarcasm is vit7peration so tened in the o7tward e!pression by the arts and i"7res o dis"7iseepi"ram, inn7endo, ironyand embellished with the i"7res o ill7stration. .rabb says that sarcasm is the ind7l"ence only o personal resentment, and is never A7sti iable.

<

Sa$ir!. %he holdin" 7p to ridic7le o the ollies and weaknesses o mankind, by way o reb7ke, is called satire. Satire is "eneral rather than individ7al, its obAect bein" the re ormation o ab7ses. A lampoon, which has been de ined as a personal satire, attacks the individ7al rather than his a7lt, and is intended to inA7re rather than to re orm. Said Sheridan* BSatires and lampoons on partic7lar people circ7late more by "ivin" copies in con idence to the riends o the parties than by printin" them.B Sa2. %he imper ect tense o the verb to see is carelessly 7sed by "ood writers and speakers when they sho7ld 7se the per ectJ th7s, B# never saw anythin" like it be ore,B when the meanin" intended is, B# have never ?in all my li e@ seen anythin" like it be ore ?7ntil now@.B We say properly, B# never saw anythin" like it when ( was in arisBJ b7t, when the period o time re erred to e!tends to the time when the statement is made, it m7st be have seen.?," 05O@-ike mistakes are made in the 7se o other verbs, b7t they are hardly as commonJ yet we o ten hear s7ch e!pressions as, B# was never in ,hiladelphia,B B# never went to the theatre in my li e,B instead o have been in ,hiladelphia, and have gone to the theatre. S!c$i#n. %he 7se o this word or re"ion, nei"hborhood, vicinity, part Mo the town or co7ntryN, is said to be a Westernism. A section is a division o the p7blic lands containin" si! h7ndred and orty acres. S!!-%A((!ar. 6raham, in his B&n"lish Synonymes,B says o these two words* BWhat seems is in the mindJ what appears is e!ternal. %hin"s appear as they present themselves to the eyeJ they seem as they are represented to the mind. %hin"s appear "ood or bad, as ar as we can A7d"e by o7r senses. %hin"s seem ri"ht or wron" as we determine by re lection. ,erception and sensation have to do with appearin"J re lection and comparison, with seemin". When thin"s are not what they appear, o7r senses are deceivedJ when thin"s are not what they seem, o7r A7d"ment is at a7lt.B BNo man had ever a "reater power over himsel , or was less the man he seemed to be, which shortly a ter appearedto everybody, when he cared less to keep on the mask.B.larendon. S!&*#- #r !)!r. %his phrase sho7ld be Bseldom ifever,B or Bseldom or never.B S!ra(4i-. %his is the pl7ral o seraph. BOne o theseraphim.B B%o %hee cher7bim and seraphim contin7ally do cry.B See .H&(E3#/. S!$%Si$. %he ormer o these two verbs is o ten incorrectly 7sed or the latter. %o setJ imper ect tense, setJ participles, setting, set. %o sitJ imper ect tense, satJ participles,sitting, sat. %o set means to p7t, to place, to plantJ?," 051@to p7t in any place, condition, state, or post7re. We say, to set abo7t, to set a"ainst, to set o7t, to set "oin", toset apart, to set aside, to set down Mto p7t in writin"N. %osit means to rest on the lower part o the body, to repose on a seat, to perch, as a bird, etc. We say, B.it 7p,B i. e., rise rom lyin" to sittin"J BWe will sit 7p,B i. e., will not "o to bedJ B.it down,B i. e., place yo7rsel on a seat. We sit a horse and we sit or a portrait. 6arments sit well or otherwise. .on"ress sits, so does a co7rt. B# have sat 7p lon" eno7"h.B B# have set it on the table.B We set down i"7res, b7t we sit down on the "ro7nd. We set a hen, and a hensits on e""s. We sho7ld say, there ore, Bas cross as a sitting?not, as a setting@ hen.B S!$$&!. %his word is o ten inele"antly, i not incorrectly, 7sed or pay. We pay o7r way, pay o7r are, payo7r hotel8bills, and the like. See, also, -O.A%&. S4a&& an* Wi&&. %he nice distinctions that sho7ld be made between these two a7!iliaries are, in some parts o the &n"lish8speakin" world, o ten disre"arded, and that, too, by persons o hi"h c7lt7re. %he proper 7se o shalland will can m7ch better be learned rom e!ample than rom

'

precept. /any persons who 7se them, and also shouldand would, with well8ni"h 7nerrin" correctness, do so 7nconscio7slyJ it is simply habit with them, and they, tho7"h their c7lt7re may be limited, will receive a sort o verbal shock rom 3iddy's inC7iry, B*ill # p7t the kettle on, ma'amRB when yo7r #rish or Scotch co7ntess wo7ld not be in the least dist7rbed by it. SHA--, in an affirmative sentence$ in the first person$ and W#-- in the second and third persons$ merely announce future action. %h7s, B# shall "o to town to8morrow.B B# shall notJ # shall wait or better weather.B BWe shallbe "lad to see yo7.B B# shall soon be twenty.B BWe shall?," 05F@set o7t early, and shall try to arrive by noon.B B'o7 willbe pleased.B B'o7 will soon be twenty.B B'o7 will ind him honest.B BHe will "o with 7s.B SHA--, in an affirmative sentence$ in the second and third persons$ announces the spea!er's intention to control. %h7s, B'o7 shall hear me o7t.B B'o7 shall "o, sick or well.B BHe shall be my heir.B B%hey shall "o, whether they want to "o or not.B W#--, in the first person$ expresses a promise$ announces the spea!er's intention to control$ proclaims a determination. %h7s, B# will ?# promise to@ assist yo7.B B# will ?# am determined to@ have my ri"ht.B BWe will ?we promise to@ come to yo7 in the mornin".B SHA--, in an interrogative sentence$ in the first and third persons$ consults the will or #udgment of another= in the second person$ it inquires concerning the intention or future action of another. %h7s, B.hall # "o with yo7RB BWhenshall we see yo7 a"ainRB BWhen shall # receive itRB BWhen shall # "et wellRB BWhen shall we "et thereRB B.hall he come with 7sRB B.hall yo7 demand indemnityRB B.hall yo7 "o to town to8morrowRB BWhatshall yo7 do abo7t itRB W#--, in an interrogative sentence$ in the second person$ as!s concerning the wish$ and$ in the third person$ concerning the purpose or future action of others. %h7s, B*ill yo7 have an appleRB B*ill yo7 "o with me to my 7ncle'sRB B*ill he be o the partyRB B*ill they be willin" to receive 7sRB BWhen will he be hereRB *ill can not be 7sed interro"atively in the irst person sin"7lar or pl7ral. We can not say, B*ill # "oRB B*ill# help yo7RB B*ill # be lateRB B*ill we "et there in timeRB B*ill we see yo7 a"ain soonRB O icial co7rtesy, in order to avoid the semblance o ?," 052@comp7lsion, conveys its commands in the you-will orm instead o the strictly "rammatical you-shall orm. #t says, or e!ample, B'o7 will proceed to )ey West, where yo7 will ind 7rther instr7ctions awaitin" yo7.B A clever writer on the 7se o shall and will says that whatever concerns one's belie s, hopes, ears, likes, or dislikes, can not be e!pressed in conA7nction with ( will. Are there no e!ceptions to this r7leR # # say, B# think # shall"o to ,hiladelphia to8morrow,B # convey the impression that my "oin" depends 7pon circ7mstances beyond my controlJ b7t i # say, B# think # will "o to ,hiladelphia to8morrow,B # convey the impression that my "oin" depends 7pon circ7mstances within my controlthat my "oin" or not depends on mere inclination. We certainly m7st say, B# ear that # shalllose itBJ B# hope that # shall be wellBJ B# believe that #shall have the a"7eBJ B# hope that # shall not be le t aloneBJ B# ear that we shall have bad weatherBJ B#shall dislike the co7ntryBJ B# shall like the per ormance.B %he writer re erred to asks, BHow can one say, '# willhave the headache'RB # answer, Hery easily, as every yo7n" woman knows. -et 7s see* B/ary, yo7 know yo7 promised John to drive o7t with him to8morrowJ how shallyo7 "et o7t o itRB BOh, # will have the headacheTB We reC7est that people will do th7s or so, and not that they shall. %h7s, B#t is reC7ested that no one will leave the room.B .hall is rarely, i ever, 7sed or willJ it is will that is 7sed or shall. &!pressions like the ollowin" are common* BWhere will yo7 be ne!t weekRB B# will be at home.B BWe will have

dinner at si! o'clock.B BHow will yo7 "o abo7t itRB BWhen will yo7 be"inRB BWhen will yo7 set o7tRB BWhat will yo7 do with itRB #n all s7ch e!pressions, when it is a C7estion o mere 7t7re action on?," 05Q@the part o the person speakin" or spoken to, the a7!iliary m7st be shall, and not will. .hould and would ollow the re"imen o shall and will.*ould is o ten 7sed or shouldJ should rarely or would. .orrect speakers say, B# should "o to town to8morrow i # had a horse.B B# should notJ # should wait or better weather.B BWe should be "lad to see yo7.B BWe shouldhave started earlier, i the weather had been clear.B B#should like to "o to town, and would "o i # co7ld.B B#would assist yo7 i # co7ld.B B# should have been ill i # had "one.B B# would # were home a"ainTB B# should"o ishin" to8day i # were home.B B# should so like to "o to &7ropeTB B# should pre er to see it irst.B B# shouldbe deli"hted.B B# should be "lad to have yo7 s7p with me.B B# knew that # should be ill.B B# eared that #should lose it.B B# hoped that # should see him.B B# tho7"ht # should have the a"7e.B B# hoped that # shouldnot be le t alone.B B# was a raid that we should have bad weather.B B# knew # should dislike the co7ntry.B B#should not like to do it, and will not ?determination@ 7nless compelled to.B S4i--'. BWe derive rom the $rench lan"7a"e o7r word chemiseprono7nced shemmeeze. #n $rench, the word denotes a man's shirt, as well as the 7nder "arment worn by women. #n this co7ntry, it is o ten prono7nced by people who sho7ld know bettershimmy. (ather than call it shimmy, res7me the 7se o the old &n"lish wordsshift and smoc!. 6ood 7sa"e 7nC7ali iedly condemnsgents, pants, !ids, gums, and shimmy.BBH7l"arisms and Other &rrors o Speech.B S4#+&*. See OE6H%. Sic1%I&&. %hese words are o ten 7sed indiscriminately. .ic!, however, is the stron"er word, and "enerally the better?," 055@word to 7se. (ll is 7sed in &n"land more than with 7s* there sic! is "enerally limited to the e!pressin" o na7seaJ as, Bsick at the stomach.B Si0na$+r!9 #)!r #r +n*!r; A man writes under, notover, a si"nat7re. .harles +ickens wrote under the si"nat7re o B3oDBJ /r. Sam7el -. .lemens writes under the si"nat7re o B/ark %wain.B %he reason "iven in Webster's +ictionary or pre errin" the 7se o under is abs7rdJ viD., that the paper is under the hand in writin". %he e!pression is elliptical, and has no re erence to the position either o the si"nat7re or o the paper. B6iven 7nder my hand and sealB means B7nder the "7arantee o my si"nat7re and my seal.B BEnder his own si"nat7reB or BnameB means B7nder his own character, witho7t dis"7ise.B BEnder the si"nat7re o 3oDB means B7nder the dis"7ise o the ass7med name 3oD.B We always write under a certain date, tho7"h the date be placed, as it o ten is, at the bottom o the pa"e. Si0ns. #n one o the principal b7siness streets o New 'ork there is a si"n which reads, B6erman -ace Store.B Now, whether this is a store that makes a specialty o 6erman laces, or whether it is a store where all kinds o lace are sold, kept by a 6erman or a ter the 6erman ashion, is somethin" that the si"n do7btless means to tell 7s, b7t, owin" to the absence o a hyphen MB6erman8-ace Store,B or B6erman -ace8StoreBN, does not tell 7s. Nothin" is more common than erroneo7s p7nct7ation in si"ns, and "ross mistakes by the 7nlettered in the wordin" o the simplest printed matter. %he bad taste, incorrect p7nct7ation, alse "rammar, and ridic7lo7s nonsense met with on si"ns and placards, and in advertisements, are really s7rprisin". An advertisement tells 7s that Ba pillow which assists in proc7rin"?," 054@sleep is a benedictionBJ a placard, that they have B.harlottede (7sseB or sale within, which means, i it means anythin", that they have or sale

somebody or somethin" called .harlotte o (7ssianJ and, then, on how many si"ns do we see the possessive case when the pl7ral n7mber is intendedT Si-i&!. #n rhetoric, a direct and ormal comparison is called a simile. #t is "enerally denoted by li!e, as, orsoJ as,
"! have vent$red,$i e little wanton .oys that swim on .ladders,These many s$mmers in a sea of &lory." "Thy smile is as the dawn of vernal day."*hakespeare. "As, down in the s$nless retreats of the o"ean,*weet flow+rets are sprin&in& no mortal "an see) So, deep in my .osom, the prayer of devotion,Inheard .y the world, rises silent to thee." =oore. "+Tis with o$r 2$d&ments as with o$r wat"hes) none0o 2$st alike, yet ea"h .elieves his own." Pope. "0ra"e a.$sed .rin&s forth the fo$lest deeds,As ri"hest soil the most l$-$riant weeds." ,owper.

BAs no roads are so ro7"h as those that have A7st been mended, so no sinners are so intolerant as those who have A7st t7rned saints.BB-acon.B Sin. See .(#/&. Sinc!%A0#. +r. Johnson says o these two adverbs* B(eckonin" time toward the present, we 7se sinceJ as, '#t is a year since it happened'* reckonin" rom the present, we 7se agoJ as, '#t is a year ago.' %his is not, perhaps, always observed.B +r. Johnson's r7le will hardly s7 ice as a s7re "7ide..ince is o ten 7sed or ago, b7t ago never or since. Ago is derived rom the participle agone, while since comes rom a?," 05K@preposition. We say properly, Bnot lon"B or Bsome timeago ?a"one@.B .ince reC7ires a verbal cla7se a ter itJ as, B.ince # saw yo7BJ B.ince he was here.B Sin0. O the two ormssang and sung or the imper ect tense o the verb to sing, the ormersangis to be pre erred. Si$. See S&%. S&an0. %he slan" that is heard amon" respectable people is made 7p o "en7ine words, to which an arbitrary meanin" is "iven. #t is always low, "enerally coarse, and not 7n reC7ently oolish. With the e!ception o cant, there is nothin" that is more to be sh7nned. We sometimes meet with persons o considerable c7lt7re who interlard their talk with slan" e!pressions, b7t it is sa e to assert that they are always persons o coarse nat7res. S-ar$. See .-&H&(. S-!&& #3. See %AS%& O$. S#. See ASJ SE.HJ %HA%. S# -+c4 s#. B%he shipments by the coast steamers are very lar"e, so much so ?lar"eR@ as to ta! the capacity o the di erent lines.BB%ele"ram,B September 0K, 0440. %he sentence sho7ld be, B%he shipments by the coast steamers are very lar"e, so large as to ta!,B etc. S#&!cis-. #n rhetoric, a solecism is de ined as an o ense a"ainst the r7les o "rammar by the 7se o words in a wron" constr7ctionJ alse synta!. B/odern "rammarians desi"nate by solecism any word or e!pression which does not a"ree with the established 7sa"e o writin" or speakin". 37t, as c7stoms chan"e, that which at one time is considered a solecism may at another be re"arded as correct lan"7a"e. A solecism, there ore,

di ers rom a barbarism, inasm7ch as the latter consists in the 7se o a word or e!pression which is alto"ether contrary?," 04L@to the spirit o the lan"7a"e, and can, properly speakin", never become established as correct lan"7a"e.BB,enny .yclopWdia.B See, also, 3A(3A(#S/. S#-!. %his word is not 7n reC7ently mis7sed or somewhatJ th7s, BShe is some better to8day.B #t is likewise o ten mis7sed or aboutJ th7s, B# think it is some ten miles rom hereB* read, Babout ten miles rom here.B S(!cia&$'. %his orm has within a recent period been "enerally s7bstit7ted or speciality. %here is no apparent reason, however, why the i sho7ld be dropped, since it is reC7ired by the etymolo"y o the word, and is retained in nearly all other words o the same ormation. S(!ci#+s Fa&&ac'. A fallacy is a sophism, a lo"ical arti ice, a deceit 7l or alse appearanceJ while speciousmeans havin" the appearance o tr7th, pla7sible. Hence we see that the very essence o a fallacy is its speciousness. We may very properly say that a fallacy is more or lessspecious, b7t we can not properly say that a allacy is specio7s, since witho7t specio7sness we can have no allacies. S(&!n*i*. %his poor word is 7sed by the "entler se! to C7ali y well8ni"h everythin" that has their approval, rom a s7"ar8pl7m to the national capitol. #n act, splendid andawful seem to be abo7t the only adAectives some o o7r s7perlative yo7n" women have in their vocab7laries. S$an*(#in$. %his is a word to which many st7dents o &n"lish serio7sly obAect, and amon" them are the editors o some o o7r daily papers, who do not allow it to appear in their col7mns. %he phrase to which no one obAects is, point of view. S$a$!. %his word, which properly means to make known speci ically, to e!plain partic7larly, is o ten mis7sed or say. When say says all one wants to say, why 7se a more pretentio7s wordR?,"
040@

S$#(. BWhere are yo7 stoppingRB BAt the /etropolitan.B %he proper word to 7se here is staying. )o stopmeans to cease to "o orward, to leave o J and to staymeans to abide, to tarry, to dwell, to soAo7rn. We stay, not stop, at home, at a hotel, or with a riend, as the case may be. S$#r-. /any persons ind7l"e in a careless 7se o this word, 7sin" it when they mean to say simply that it rains or snows. %o a storm a violent commotion o the atmosphere is indispensable. A very hi"h wind constit7tes a storm, tho7"h it be dry. S$rai04$2a'. Here is a "ood An"lo8Sa!on word o two syllables whose place, witho7t any "ood reason, is bein" 7s7rped by the -atin word immediately, o five syllables. S$r!!$. We live in, not onmeet o7r acC7aintances in, not onthin"s occ7r in, not on ho7ses are b7ilt in, noton, the street, and so orth. S$'&!. %his is a term that is 7sed to characteriDe the pec7liarities that distin"7ish a writer or a composition. .orrectness and clearness properly belon" to the domain o dictionJ simplicity, conciseness, "ravity, ele"ance, di 7seness, loridity, orce, eebleness, coarseness, etc., belon" to the domain o style. S+ /+nc$i)! M##*. %his mood is 7npop7lar with not a ew now8a8day "rammarians. One says that it is rapidly allin" into dis7seJ that, in act, there is "ood reason to s7ppose it will soon become obsolete. Another says that it wo7ld, perhaps, be better to abolish it entirely, as its 7se is a contin7al so7rce o disp7te amon" "rammarians and o perple!ity to schools. Another says that it is a 7niversal st7mblin"8blockJ that nobody seems to 7nderstand it, altho7"h almost everybody attempts to 7se it.?," 04O@

%hat the s7bA7nctive mood is m7ch less 7sed now than it was a h7ndred years a"o is certain, b7t that it is obsolescent is very ar rom certain. #t wo7ld not be easy, # think, to ind a sin"le contemporary writer who does not 7se it. %hat it is not always easy to determine what orm o it we sho7ld employ is very tr7eJ b7t i we are A7sti ied in abolishin" it alto"ether, as /r. .handler s7""ests, beca7se its correct 7se is not always easy, then we are also A7sti ied in abolishin" the 7se o shall and will, and o the prepositions, or s7rely their ri"ht 7se is likewise at times most p7DDlin". /eanwhile, most persons will think it well to learn to 7se the s7bA7nctive mood properly. With that obAect in view, one can not, perhaps, do better than to attend to what +r. Ale!ander 3ain, ,ro essor o -o"ic in the Eniversity o Aberdeen, says 7pon the s7bAect. #n ,ro essor 3ain's BHi"her &n"lish 6rammarB we ind* B#n s7bordinate cla7ses.#n a cla7se e!pressin" a condition, and introd7ced by a conA7nction o condition, the verb is sometimes, b7t not always, in the s7bA7nctive mood* '# # be able,' 'i # were stron" eno7"h,' 'i tho7 shouldcome.' B%he s7bA7nctive in le!ions have been wholly lost. %he sense that somethin" is wantin" appears to have led many writers to 7se indicative orms where the s7bA7nctive mi"ht be e!pected. %he tendency appears stron"est in the case o 'wert,' which is now 7sed as indicative M or 'wast'N only in poetical or elevated lan"7a"e. B%he ollowin" is the r7le "iven or the 7se o the s7bA7nctive mood* BWhen in a conditional cla7se it is intended to e!press do7bt or denial, 7se the s7bA7nctive mood.?1L@ '# # weres7re o what yo7 tell me, # wo7ld "o.'
?," 041@

BWhen the conditional cla7se is affirmative and certain, the verb is indicative* '# that is the case' Mas yo7 now tell me, and as # believeN, '# can 7nderstand yo7.' %his is eC7ivalent to a cla7se o ass7mption, or s7pposition* '%hat bein" the case,' 'inasm7ch as that is the case,' etc. BAs futurity is by its nat7re 7ncertain, the s7bA7nctive is e!tensively 7sed or 7t7re conditionality* '# it rain, we shall not be able to "o'J 'i # be well'J 'i he come shortly'J 'i tho7 return at all in peace'J 'tho7"h he slay me, yet will # tr7st in him.' %hese events are all in the 7ncertain 7t7re, and are p7t in the s7bA7nctive.?10@ BA 7t7re res7lt or conseC7ence is e!pressed by the s7bA7nctive in s7ch instances as these* '# will wait till hereturn'J 'no ear lest dinner cool'J 'tho7 shalt stone him with stones, that he die'J 'take heed lest at any time yo7r hearts be overchar"ed with s7r eitin".' BEncertainty as to a past event may arise rom o7r own i"norance, in which case the s7bA7nctive is properly employed, and serves the 7se 7l p7rpose o distin"7ishin"?," 04F@o7r i"norance rom o7r knowled"e. '# any o my readershas looked with so little attention 7pon the world aro7nd him'J this wo7ld mean'as # know that they have.' %he meanin" intended is probably'as # do not know whether they have or not,' and there ore the s7bA7nctive 'have' is pre erable. '# i"norance is bliss,' which # MironicallyN admit. Had 6ray been speakin" serio7sly, he wo7ld have said, 'i i"norance be bliss,' he himsel dissentin" rom the proposition. BA wish contrary to the act takes the s7bA7nctive* '# wish he were here' Mwhich he is notN. BAn intention not yet carried o7t is also s7bA7nctive* '%he sentence is that yo7 be imprisoned.' B%he only correct orm o the 7t7re s7bA7nctive is'i # sho7ld.' We may say, '# do not know whether or not # shall come'J b7t 'i # shall come,' e!pressin" a condition, is not an &n"lish constr7ction. '# he will' has a real meanin", as bein" the present s7bA7nctive o the verb 'will'* 'i he be willin",' 'i he have the will.' #t is in accordance with "ood 7sa"e to e!press a 7t7re

s7bA7nctive meanin" by a present tenseJ b7t in that case the orm m7st be strictly s7bA7nctive, and not indicative. '# any memberabsents himsel , he shall or eit a penny or the 7se o the cl7b'J this o7"ht to be either 'absent,' or 'sho7ld absent.' '# tho7 neglectest or doest 7nwillin"ly what # command thee, # will rack thee with old cramps'J better, 'i tho7 neglect or do 7nwillin"ly,' or 'i tho7 sho7ld ne"lect.' %he indicative wo7ld be A7sti ied by the speaker's belie that the s7pposition is s7re to t7rn o7t to be the act. B%he past s7bA7nctive may imply denialJ as, 'i the book were in the library Mas it is notN, it sho7ld be at yo7r service.' B'# the book be in the library,' means, '# do not know?," 042@whether it be or not.' We have th7s the power o discriminatin"three di erent s7ppositions. '# the book is in the library' Mas # know it isNJ 'i it be' M# am 7ncertainNJ 'i itwere' Mas # know it is notN. So, 'i it rains,' 'i it rain,' 'i it rained.' 'Nay, and the villains march wide between the le"s, as i they had "yves on,' implyin" that they had not. B%he same power o the past tense is e!empli ied in 'i # could, # wo7ld,' which means, '# can not'J whereas, 'i # can, # will,' means '# do not know.' B%he past s7bA7nctive may be e!pressed by an inversion* '/ad # the power,' 'were # as # have been.' B#n ,rincipal .la7ses.%he principal cla7se in a conditional statement also takes the s7bA7nctive orm when it re ers to what is 7t7re and contin"ent, and when it re ers to what is past and 7ncertain, or denied. '# he sho7ld try, he would s7cceed'J 'i # had seen him, # should have asked him.' B%he 7s7al orms o the s7bA7nctive in the principal cla7se are 'wo7ld,' 'sho7ld,' 'wo7ld have,' 'sho7ld have'J and it is to be noted that in this application the second persons take the in le!ional endin" o the indicative* 'sho7ldst,' 'wo7ldst.'
"+!f +twere done when +tis done, then +twere Gwo$ld .eH well!t were Gsho$ld .eH done 7$i"kly.+

B%he &n"lish idiom appears sometimes to permit the 7se o an indicative where we sho7ld e!pect a s7bA7nctive orm. '/any acts, that had been otherwise blamable, were employed'J '# had ainted, 7nless # had believed,' etc.
"+>hi"h else lie f$rled and shro$ded in the so$l.+

B#n 'else' there is implied a conditional cla7se that wo7ld s7it 'lie'J or the present may be re"arded as a more vivid orm o e!pression. 'Had' may be indicativeJ A7st as we sometimes ind pl7per ect indicative or pl7per ect?," 04Q@s7bA7nctive in the same circ7mstances in -atin. We may re er it to the "eneral tendency, as already seen in the 7ses o 'co7ld,' 'wo7ld,' 'sho7ld,' etc., to e!press conditionality by a past tenseJ or the indicative may be 7sed as a more direct and vivid mode. 'Had' may be s7bA7nctiveJ '# had ainted' is, in constr7ction, analo"o7s to '#should have ainted'J the word or 7t7rity, 'shall,' not bein" necessary to the sense, is withdrawn, and its past in le!ion trans erred to 'have.' .ompare 6erm. w>rde haben and h?tte.B #n addition to the ore"oin", we ind in ,ro essor 3ain's B.omposition 6rammarB the ollowin"* B%he case most s7ited to the s7bA7nctive is contingent futurity, or the e!pression o an event 7nknown absol7tely, as bein" still in the 7t7re* '# to8morrow be ine, # will walk with yo7.' B'Enless # were prepared,' insin7ates pretty stron"ly that # am or am not prepared, accordin" to the manner o the principal cla7se.

7 "+>hat+s a tall man $nless he fight6+ "+The sword hath ended him1 so shall it thee,Inless tho$ yield thee as my prisoner.+ "+>ho .$t m$st la$&h, if s$"h a man there be6>ho wo$ld not weep, if #tti"$s were he6+

B'# am to second #on i he fail'J the ailin" is le t C7ite do7bt 7l. '# sho7ld very imper ectly e!ec7te the task which # have 7ndertaken i # were merely to treat o battles and sie"es.' /aca7lay th7s implies that the scope o his work is to be wider than mere battles and sie"es. B%he s7bA7nctive appears in some other constr7ctions. '# hope to see the e!hibition be ore it close'J 'wait till hereturn'J 'tho7 shall stand by the river's brink a"ainst he?," 045@come'J 'take heed lest passion sway thy A7d"ment'J 'speak to me, tho7"h it be in wrath'J 'i he smite him with an instr7ment o iron so that he die, he is a m7rderer'J 'beware this ni"ht that tho7 cross not my ootsteps' MShelleyN. BA"ain. 'Whatever this be'J 'whoever he be'J 'howe'er it be' M%ennysonNJ and s7ch like.
"+#nd as long, 4 0od, as she%a!e a &rain of love for me,*o lon&, no do$.t, no do$.t,*hall ! n$rse in my dark heart,9owever weary, a spark of will5ot to .e trampled o$t.+

B%he $7t7re S7bA7nctive is "iven in o7r scheme o the verb as 'sho7ld' in all persons* '# # sho7ld, i tho7 sho7ld, i he sho7ld.' #n old &n"lish, we have 'tho7shouldst'* 'i tho7, -ord, shouldst mark iniC7ities.' BAn inverted conditional orm has taken deep root in o7r lan"7a"e, and may be re"arded as an ele"ant and orcible variety. While dispensin" with the conA7nction, it does not ca7se ambi"7ityJ nevertheless, conditionality is well marked. B'(f yo7 should abandon yo7r ,enelope and yo7r home or .alypso, '* 'should yo7 abandon .'
"+&o not my horse the .etter,! m$st .e"ome a .orrower of the ni&ht?or a dark ho$r or twain.+ "+9ere had we now o$r "o$ntry+s honor roof+dWere the &ra"ed person of o$r :an7$o present.+ "+'e tho$ a spirit of health or &o.lin damn+d,'ring with thee airs from heaven or .lasts from hell, 'e thy intents wi"ked or "harita.le,Tho$ "om+st in s$"h a 7$estiona.le shapeThat ! will speak to thee.+%P& ' ( "+(ome one, come all, this ro"k shall fly?rom its firm .ase as soon as !.+*"ott.

B%he ollowin" e!amples are "iven by /ftDner* B'Harney's comm7nications, be they what they mi"ht, were operatin" in his avor.'Scott. B'6overnin" persons, were they never so insi"ni icant intrinsically, have or most part plenty o /emoir8writers.'.arlyle. B'&ven were # disposed, # co7ld not "rati y the reader.'Warren. B'3rin" them back to me, cost what it may.'.olerid"e, 'Wallenstein.' B'And will yo7, nill yo7, # will marry yo7.''%amin" o the Shrew.' B*ere is 7sed in the principal cla7se or 'sho7ld be' or 'wo7ld be.'?1O@
"+! were GJsho$ld .eH a fool, not less than if a panther>ere pani";stri"ken .y the antelope+s eye, !f she es"ape me.+*helley. "+>ere yo$ .$t ridin& forth to air yo$rself,*$"h partin& were too petty.+

B'He were Mgwo7ld beN no lion, were not (omans hinds.'


"+*ho$ld he .e ro$sed o$t of his sleep to;ni&ht, ...!t were not well) indeed it were not well.+ *helley.

B/ad is sometimes 7sed in the principal cla7se or 'sho7ld have' or 'wo7ld have.'?11@
?," 04K@

B'Had # known this be ore we set o7t, # think # hadMg wo7ld haveN remained at home.'Scott.
"+9adst tho$ .een kill+d when first tho$ didst pres$me,Tho$ hadst not lived to kill a son of mine.+ "+!f he9ad killed me, he had done a kinder deed.+ "+?or on"e he had .een ta+en or slain,#n it had not .een his ministry.+*"ott. "+!f tho$ hadst said him nay, it had .een sin.+%34(

B'/ad better, rather, best, as lie , as well, etc.,' is a orm that is e!plained 7nder this headin". 'Had' stands or 'wo7ld have.' %he e!ploded notion that 'had' is a corr7pted 'wo7ld' m7st be "7arded a"ainst. B'# had as lie not be.' %hat is'# would as lie havenot MtoN be' g '# wo7ld as willin"ly Mor as soonN have non8e!istence.' B'/ad yo7 rather .Wsar were livin"R' '*ouldyo7 rather have Mwould yo7 prefer thatN .Wsar were livin"R' B'He had better reconsider the matter' is 'he wouldbetter have MtoN reconsider the matter.'
"+! had rather .e a kitten and "ry mewThan one of these same metre .allad;mon&ers)! had rather hear a .ra/en "ansti"k t$rned.+

B-et 7s compare this orm with another that appears side by side with it in early writers. M.p. -at. 'habeo' and 'mihi est.'N B%he constr7ction o 'had' is th7s ill7strated in .ha7cer, as inNonne ,restes %ale, 1LL*?,"
0KL@

"+:y 0od, ! hadde levere than my s"herte,That ye hadde rad his le&end, as ! have.+

B.ompare now*
"+#h me were le!ere with lawe loose my lyfThen so to fote hem falle.+>ri&ht, +Polit. *.+

BHere 'were' is 7nC7estionably or 'wo7ld be'J and the whole e!pression mi"ht be "iven by 'had,' th7s* 'Ah,( hadde levere ,' 'MtoN loose' and 'MtoN falle,' chan"in" rom s7bAects o 'were' to obAects o 'hadde.' BSo, in the .ha7cer e!ample above, i we s7bstit7te 'be' or 'have,' we shall "et the same meanin", th7s* '3y 6od, me were levere .' %he interchan"e helps 7s to see more clearly that 'hadde' is to be e!plained as s7bA7nctive or 'wo7ld have.'B See #N+#.A%#H& AN+ SE3JEN.%#H&. S+c4. B# have never be ore seen such a lar"e o!.B 3y a little transposin" o the words o this sentence, we have, B# have never be ore seen an o! such lar"e,B which makes it C7ite clear that we sho7ld say so large an ox and not such a large ox. As proo that this error in the 7se o such is common, we ind in /r. 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon's B+ean's &n"lish and 3ad &n"lish,B the sentence, BWith all d7e de erence to such a hi"h a7thority on such a very important matter.B With a little transposin", this sentence is made to read, BWith all d7e de erence to an a7thoritysuch hi"h on a matter such very important.B #t is clear that the sentence sho7ld read, BWith all d7e de erence to so hi"h an a7thority on so very important a matter.B %he phrases,such a handsome, such a lovely, such a lon", such narrow, etc., are incorrect, and sho7ld be so handsome, so lovely, solon", and so on. S+--#n. %his verb comes in or its 7ll share o ma7lin". We o ten hear s7ch e!pressions as B# will summons?," 0K0@him,B instead o summon himJ and BHe was summonsed,B instead o summoned.

S+(!r3&+#+s W#r*s. BWhenever # try to write well, #always ind # can do it.B B# shall have inished by the latterend o the week.B B#ron sinks down in water.B BHe combinedtogether all the acts.B B/y brother called on me, and we both took a walk.B B# can do it equally as well as he.B BWe co7ld not orbear from doin" it.B B3e ore # "o, # m7st first be paid.B BWe were compelled to ret7rnbac!.B BWe orced them to retreat bac! 7lly a mile.B BHis cond7ct was approved of by everybody.B B%hey conversed together or a lon" time.B B%he balloon rose upvery rapidly.B B6ive me another one.B B.ome home as soon as ever yo7 can.B BWho inds him in moneyRB BHe came in last of all.B BHe has got all he can carry.B BWhat have yo7 gotRB BNo matter what # have got.B B# havegot the headache.B BHave yo7 got any brothersRB BNo, b7t # have got a sister.B All the words in italics are s7per l7o7s. S+(!ri#r. %his word is not 7n reC7ently 7sed or able, e!cellent, "i tedJ as, BShe is a superior woman,B meanin" an excellent womanJ BHe is a superior man,B meanin" anable man. %he e!pression an inferior man is not less obAectionable. S+((#si$i$i#+s. %his word is properly 7sed in the sense o p7t by a trick into the place or character belon"in" to another, sp7rio7s, co7nter eit, not "en7ineJ and improperlyin the sense o conAect7ral, hypothetical, ima"inary, pres7mptiveJ as, B%his is a supposititious case,B meanin" an imaginary or presumptive case. B%he &n"lish critic derived his materials rom a stray copy o some supposititiousinde!es devised by one o the ',ost' reporters.BBNation.B Here is a correct 7se o the word.?," 0KO@ S2#s4. %here is a kind o ill8balanced brain in which the re lective and the ima"inative very m7ch o7twei"ht the perceptive. /en to whom this kind o an or"aniDation has been "iven "enerally have active minds, b7t their minds never present anythin" clearly. %o their mental vision all is ill8de ined, chaotic. %hey see everythin" in a haDe. Whether s7ch men talk or write, they are verbose, illo"ical, intan"ible, will8o'8the8wispish. %heir tho7"hts are phantomlikeJ like shadows, they contin7ally escape their "rasp. #n their talk they will, a ter lon" dissertations, tell yo7 that they have not said A7st what they wo7ld like to sayJ there is always a s7btle, l7rkin" somethin" still 7ne!pressed, which somethin" is the real essence o the matter, and which yo7r penetration is e!pected to divine. #n their writin"s they are eccentric, va"7e, labyrinthine, pretentio7s, transcendental,?12@and reC7ently 7n"rammatical. %hese men, i write they m7st, sho7ld con ine themselves to the descriptiveJ or when they enter the essayist's domain, which they are very prone to do, they write what # will vent7re to callswosh. We ind e!amples in plenty o this kind o writin" in the essays o /r. (alph Waldo &merson. #ndeed, the impartial critic who will take the tro7ble to e!amine any o /r. &merson's essays at all care 7lly, is C7ite s7re to come to the concl7sion that /r. &merson has seen everythin" he has ever made the s7bAect o his essays very m7ch as -ondon is seen rom the top o Saint ,a7l's in a o".?," 0K1@ /r. &merson's de inition o Nat7re r7ns th7s* B,hilosophically considered, the 7niverse is composed o Nat7re and the So7l. Strictly speakin", there ore, all that is separate rom 7s, all which philosophy distin"7ishes rom the3ot &ethat is, both Nat7re and Art, and all other men, and my own bodym7st be ranked 7nder this name 'NA%E(&.' #n en7meratin" the val7es o Nat7re and castin" 7p their s7m, # shall 7se the word in both sensesin its common and in its philosophical import. #n inC7iries so "eneral as o7r present one, the inacc7racy is not materialJ no con 7sion o tho7"ht will occ7r. 3ature, in the common sense, re ers to essences 7nchan"ed by man* space, the air, the river, the lea . Art is applied to the mi!t7re o his will with the same thin"s, as in a ho7se, a canal, a pict7re, a stat7e. 37t his operations, taken to"ether, are so

3<

insi"ni icanta little chippin", bakin", patchin", and washin"that in an impression so "rand as that o the world on the h7man mind they do not vary the res7lt.B #n B-etters and Social AimsB /r. &merson writes* B&loC7ence is the power to translate a tr7th into lan"7a"e per ectly intelli"ible to the person to whom yo7 speak. He who wo7ld convince the worthy /r. +7nderhead o any tr7th which +7nderhead does not see, m7st be a master o his art. +eclamation is commonJ b7t s7ch possession o tho7"ht as is here reC7ired, s7ch practical chemistry as the conversion o a tr7th written in 6od's lan"7a"e into a tr7th in +7nderhead's lan"7a"e, is one o the most bea7ti 7l and co"ent weapons that is or"ed in the shop o the +ivine Arti icer.B %he irst para"raph o /r. &merson's B&ssay on ArtB reads* BAll departments o li e at the present day%rade, ,olitics, -etters, Science, or (eli"ionseem to eel, and to labor to e!press, the identity o their law. %hey are?," 0KF@rays o one s7nJ they translate each into a new lan"7a"e the sense o the other. %hey are s7blime when seen as emanations o a Necessity contradistin"7ished rom the v7l"ar $ate by bein" instant and alive, and dissolvin" man, as well as his works, in its lowin" bene icence. %his in l7ence is conspic7o7sly visible in the principles and history o Art.B Another para"raph rom /r. &merson's B&ssay on &loC7enceB* B%he orator, as we have seen, m7st be a s7bstantial personality. %hen, irst, he m7st have power o statementm7st have the act, and know how to tell it. #n a knot o men conversin" on any s7bAect, the person who knows most abo7t it will have the ear o the company, i he wishes it, and lead the conversation, no matter what "eni7s or distinction other men there present may haveJ and, in any p7blic assembly, him who has the acts, and can and will state them, people will listen to, tho7"h he is otherwise i"norant, tho7"h he is hoarse and 7n"rate 7l, tho7"h he st7tters and screams.B /r. &merson, in his B&ssay on ,r7dence,B writes* B%here are all de"rees o pro iciency in knowled"e o the world. #t is s7 icient to o7r present p7rpose to indicate three. One class live to the 7tility o the symbol, esteemin" health and wealth a inal "ood. Another class live above this mark to the bea7ty o the symbol, as the poet and artist, and the nat7ralist and man o science. A third class live above the bea7ty o the symbol to the bea7ty o the thin" si"ni iedJ these are wise men. %he irst class have common senseJ the second, tasteJ and the third, spirit7al perception. Once in a lon" time a man traverses the whole scale, and sees and enAoys the symbol solidlyJ then, also, has a clear eye or its bea7tyJ and, lastly, whilst he pitches his tent on this sacred volcanic isle?," 0K2@o nat7re, does not o er to b7ild ho7ses and barns thereon, reverencin" the splendor o 6od which he sees b7rstin" thro7"h each chink and cranny.B %hose who are wont to accept others at their sel 8assessment and to see thin"s thro7"h other people's eyesand there are many s7chare in dan"er o thinkin" this kind o writin" very ine, when in act it is not only the veriest swosh, b7t that kind o swosh that e!cites at least an occasional do7bt with re"ard to the writer's sanity. We can make no "reater mistake than to s7ppose that the reason we do not 7nderstand these rhetorical contortionists is beca7se they are so s7btle and pro o7nd. We 7nderstand them C7ite as well as they 7nderstand themselves. At their very best, they are b7t incoherent dil7ters o other men's ideas. %hey have b7t one thin" to recommend themhonesty. %hey believe in themselves. BWhatever is dark is deep. Stir a p7ddle, and it is deeper than a well.BSwi t. S'n!c*#c4!. %he 7sin" o the name o a part or that o the whole, the name o the whole or that o a part, or the 7sin" o a de inite n7mber or an inde inite, is called, in rhetoric, synecdoche. B%he bay was covered with sailsBJ i. e., with ships. B%he man was old, careworn,

3'

and "rayBJ i. e., literally, his hair, not the man, was "ray. B3ine tenths o every man's happiness depends on the reception he meets with in the world.B BHe had seen seventy winters.B B%h7s spoke the tempterB* here the part o the character is named that s7its the occasion. BHis roo was at the service o the o7tcastJ the 7n ort7nate ever o7nd a welcome at his threshold.B Ta1!. # copy rom the B-ondon G7eenB* B%he verb to ta!e is open to bein" considered a v7l"ar verb when 7sed in re erence to dinner, tea, or to re reshments o any?," 0KQ@kind. 'Will yo7 ta!e' is not considered comme il fautJ the verb in avor or the o erin" o civilities bein" to have.B Accordin" to B%he G7een,B then, we m7st say, BWill yo7have some dinner, tea, co ee, wine, ish, bee , salad,B etc. Tas$! #3. %he red7ndant of, o ten 7sed, in this co7ntry, in connection with the transitive verbs to taste and to smell, is a 'ankeeism. We taste or smell a thin", not tasteof nor smell of a thin". %he ne7ter verbs to taste and to smell are o ten ollowed by of. B# b7tter tastes of brass.B B$or a"e b7t tastes of pleas7res.B
"Bo$ shall stifle in yo$r own report,and smell of "al$mny."*hakespeare.

Ta+$#&#0'. Amon" the thin"s to be avoided in writin" is tautology, which is the repeating of the same thought, whether in the same or in di erent words. Ta+$#(4#n'. BA re"ard or harmony reC7ires 7s, in the pro"ress o a sentence, to avoid repeatin" a so7nd by employin" the same word more than once, or 7sin", in conti"7o7s words, similar combinations o letters. %his a7lt is known as tautology.B+r. 6. ,. G7ackenbos, BAdvanced .o7rse o .omposition and (hetoric,B p. 1LL. +r. G7ackenbos is in error. %he repetition o the same senseis ta7tolo"y, and the repetition o the same sound, or, as +r. G7ackenbos has it, Bthe repeatin" o a so7nd by employin" the same word more than once, or by 7sin" in conti"7o7s words similar combinations o letters,B is tautophony. T!ac4. %o impart knowled"e, to in orm, to instr7ctJ as, B)each me how to do itBJ B)each me to swimBJ BHetaught me to write.B %he 7nc7lt7red o ten mis7se learn or teach. See -&A(N. T!ns!. %he errors made in the 7se o the tenses are mani old. %he one most reC7ently made by persons o ?," 0K5@c7lt7rethe one that everybody makes wo7ld, perhaps, be nearer the act is that o 7sin" the imperfect instead o the perfect tenseJ th7s, B# never saw it played b7t onceB* say, have seen. BHe was the lar"est man # ever sawB* say,have seen. B# never in my li e had s7ch tro7bleB* say,have had. Another reC7ent error, the makin" o which is not con ined to the 7nschooled, is that o 7sin" two verbs in a past tense when only one sho7ld be in that timeJ th7s, B# intended to have goneB* say, to go. B#t was my intention to have comeB* say, to come. B# e!pected tohave found yo7 hereB* say, to find. B# was very desiro7s to have goneB* say, to go. BHe was better than # e!pected to have found himB* say, to find. Amon" other common errors are the ollowin"* B# seenhim when he done itB* say, B# saw him when he did it.B B# sho7ld have went homeB* say, gone. B# he had wentB* say, gone. B# wish yo7 had wentB* say, gone. BHe haswent o7tB* say, gone. B# come to town this mornin"B* say, came. BHe come to me or adviceB* say, came. B#tbegun very lateB* say, began. B#t had already beganB* say, begun. B%he ollowin" toasts were dran!B* say, drun!. BHis te!t was that 6od was loveB* say, is love. Another error is made in s7ch sentences as these* B# # had haveknownB* say, had !nown. B# he had have come as he promisedB* say, had come. B# yo7 had have told meB* say, had told. T!s$i-#n'. See &H#+&N.&.

32

T4an. )han and as implyin" comparison have the same case a ter as be ore them. BHe owes more thanmeB* read, than (i. e., more than ( owe. BJohn is not so old as herB* read, as shei. e., as she is. We sho7ld say, then, BHe is stron"er than she,B BShe is older thanhe,B B'o7 are richer than (,B etc. 37t it does not always?," 0K4@happen that the nominative case comes a ter than or as. B# love yo7 more than him,B B# "ive yo7 more thanhim,B B# love yo7 as well as himBJ that is to say, B# love yo7 more than ( love him,B B# "ive yo7 more than ( give him,B B# love yo7 as well as ( love him.B %ake away himand p7t he in all these cases, and the "rammar is A7st as "ood, b7t the meanin" is C7ite di erent. B# love yo7 as well as him,B means that # love yo7 as well as ( love himJ b7t, B# love yo7 as well as he,B means that # love yo7 as well as he loves you. T4an 24#-. .obbett, in his B6rammar o the &n"lish -an"7a"e,B says* B%here is an erroneo7s way o employin"whom, which # m7st point o7t to yo7r partic7lar attention, beca7se it is so o ten seen in very "ood writers, and beca7se it is very deceivin". '%he +7ke o Ar"yll,than whom no man was more hearty in the ca7se.' '.romwell,than whom no man was better skilled in arti ice.' A h7ndred s7ch phrases mi"ht be collected rom H7me, 3lackstone, and even rom +rs. 3lair and Johnson. 'et they are bad "rammar. #n all s7ch cases, who sho7ld be made 7se o * or it is nominative and not obAective. 'No man was more hearty in the ca7se than he was'J 'No man was better skilled in arti ice than he was.'?1Q@ #t is a very common ,arliament8ho7se phrase, and there ore pres7mablycorruptJ b7t it is a +r. Johnson phrase, too* ',ope, than whom ew men had more vanity.' %he +octor did not say, '/ysel , than whom ew men have been o7nd more base, havin", in my dictionary, described a pensioner as a slave o state, and havin" a terward mysel become a pensioner.' B# di er in this matter rom 3ishop -owth, who says?," 0KK@that '%he relative who, havin" re erence to no verb or preposition 7nderstood, b7t only to its antecedent, when it ollows than, is always in the ob#ective caseJ even tho7"h the prono7n, i s7bstit7ted in its place, wo7ld be in the nominative.' And then he "ives an instance rom /ilton. '3eelDeb7b, than whom, Satan e!cept, none hi"her sat.' #t is c7rio7s eno7"h that this sentence o the 3ishop is, itsel , 7n"rammaticalT O7r poor 7n ort7nate it is so placed as to make it a matter o do7bt whether the 3ishop meant it to relate to who or to its antecedent. However, we know its meanin"J b7t, tho7"h he says that who, when it ollowsthan, is always in the obAective case, he "ives 7s no reason or this depart7re rom a clear "eneral principleJ 7nless we are to re"ard as a reason the e!ample o /ilton, who has committed many h7ndreds, i not tho7sands, o "rammatical errors, many o which the 3ishop himsel has pointed o7t. %here is a sort o side8wind attempt at reason in the words, 'havin" re erence to no verb or preposition7nderstood.' # do not see the reason, even i this co7ld beJ b7t it appears to me impossible that a no7n or prono7n can e!ist in a "rammatical state witho7t havin" re erence to some verb or preposition, either e!pressed or 7nderstood. What is meant by /iltonR '%han 3eelDeb7b, none sat hi"her, e!cept Satan.' And when, in order to avoid the repetition o the word 3eelDeb7b, the relative becomes necessary, the 7ll constr7ction m7st be, 'no devil sat hi"her than who sat, e!cept Satan'J and not, 'no devil sat hi"her than whom sat.'?15@ %he s7pposition that there can be a no7n or prono7n which has re erence to no verband no preposition, is certainly a mistake.B O this, +r. $itDedward Hall remarks, in his B(ecent &!empli ications o $alse ,hilolo"yB* B%hat any one?," OLL@b7t .obbett wo7ld abide this as &n"lish is hi"hly improbableJ and how the e!pressiona C7ite classical onewhich he discards can be A7sti ied "rammatically, e!cept by callin" its than a preposition, others may resolve at their leis7re and pleas7re.B T4an1s. %here are many persons who think it in C7estionable taste to 7se than!s or than! you.

33

T4a$. %he best writers o ten appear to "rope a ter a separate employment or the several relatives. B'%HA%' is the proper restrictive$ explicative$ limiting$ or defining relative. B')hat,' the ne7ter o the de inite article, was early in 7se as a ne7ter relative. All the other oldest relatives "rad7ally dropt away, and 'that' came to be applied also to pl7ral antecedents, and to masc7lines and eminines. When 'as,' 'which,' and 'who' came orward to share the work o 'that,' there seems to have arisen not a little 7ncertainty abo7t the relatives, and we ind c7rio7s do7ble orms* 'whom that,' 'which that,' 'which as,' etc. 6ower has, 'Hen7s whose priest that # am'J .ha7cer writes'%his Abbot which that was an holy man,' 'his love the which thathe oweth.' 3y the &liDabethan period, these do7ble orms have disappeared, and all the relatives are 7sed sin"ly witho7t hesitation. $rom then till now, 'that' has been str7""lin" with 'who' and 'which' to re"ain s7perior avor, with varyin" s7ccess. 'Who' is 7sed or persons, 'which' or thin"s, in both n7mbersJ so is 'that'J and the only opport7nity o a special application o 'that' lies in the important distinction between coPrdination and restriction. Now, as 'who' and 'which' are most commonly pre erred or coPrdination, it wo7ld be a clear "ain to con ine them to this sense, and to reserve 'that' or the restrictive application alone. %his arran"ement, then, wo7ld fall in with?," OL0@the most general use of 'that$' especially beyond the limits of formal composition. B%he 7se o 'that' solely as restrictive, with 'who' and 'which' solely as coPrdinatin", also avoids ambiguities that o ten attend the indiscriminate 7se o 'who' and 'which' or coPrdinate and or restrictive cla7ses. %h7s, when we say, 'his cond7ct s7rprised his &n"lish riends, who had not known him lon",' we may mean either that his &n"lish riends "enerally were s7rprised Mthe relative bein", in that case, co@rdinatingN, or that only a portion o themnamely, the partic7lar portion that had not known him lon"were s7rprised. #n this last case the relative is meant to de ine or e!plain the antecedent, and the do7bt wo7ld be removed by writin" th7s* 'his &n"lish riends that had not known him lon".' So in the ollowin" sentence there is a similar ambi"7ity in the 7se o 'which'* 'the ne!t winter whichyo7 will spend in town will "ive yo7 opport7nities o makin" a more pr7dent choice.' %his may mean, either 'yo7 will spend ne!t winter in town' M'which' bein" coPrdinatin"N, or 'the ne!t o the winters when yo7 are to live in town,' let that come when it may. #n the ormer case, 'which' is the proper relativeJ in the latter case, the meanin" is restrictive or de inin", and wo7ld be best bro7"ht o7t by 'that'* 'the ne!t winter that yo7 will spend in town.' BA 7rther consideration in avor o employin" 'that' or e!plicative cla7ses is the 7npleasant e ect arisin" rom the too frequent repetition of 'who' and 'which1' 6rammarians o ten recommend 'that' as a means o varyin" the styleJ b7t this end o7"ht to be so7"ht in s7bservience to the still "reater end o perspic7ity. B%he ollowin" e!amples will serve 7rther to ill7strate the distinction between that, on the one hand, and who andwhich, on the other*?," OLO@ B'#n "eneral, /r. 37rchell was ondest o the company o children, whom he 7sed to call harmless little men.' 'Whom' is here idiomatically 7sed, bein" the eC7ivalent o 'and them he 7sed to call,' etc.
"+:a"on at last, a mi&hty man, arose,Whom a wise kin& and nation "hoseDord ,han"ellor of .oth their laws.+

Here, also, 'whom' is eC7al to 'and him.'

34

B#n the ollowin" instance the relative is restrictive or de inin", and 'that' wo7ld be pre erable* 'the concl7sion o the B#liadB is like the e!it o a "reat man o7t o companywhom he has entertained ma"ni icently.' .ompare another o Addison's sentences* 'a man o polite ima"ination is let into a "reat many pleas7res that the v7l"ar are not capable o receivin".' B3oth relatives are introd7ced discriminatin"ly in this passa"e*'She had learned that rom /rs. Wood, who had heard it rom her h7sband, who had heard it at the p7blic8ho7se rom the landlord, who had been let into the secret by the boy that carried the beer to some o the prisoners.' B%he ollowin" sentences are ambi"7o7s 7nder the modern system o 7sin" 'who' or both p7rposes*'# met the boatman who took me across the erry.' # 'who' is the proper relative here, the meanin" is, '# met the boatman,and he took me across,' it bein" s7pposed that the boatman is known and de inite. 37t i there be several boatmen, and # wish to indicate one in partic7lar by the circ7mstance that he had taken me across the erry, # sho7ld 7se 'that.' '%he yo7n"est boy who has learned to dance is James.' %his means either 'the yo7n"est boy is James, and he has learned to dance,' or, 'o the boys, the yo7n"est that has learned to dance is James.' %his last sense is restrictive, and 'that' sho7ld be 7sed.?," OL1@ B%7rnin" now to 'which,' we may have a series o parallel e!amples. '%he co7rt, which "ives c7rrency to manners, sho7ld be e!emplary'* here the meanin" is 'the co7rt sho7ld be e!emplary, for the court "ives c7rrency to manners.' 'Which' is the idiomatic relative in this case. '%he cat, which yo7 despise so m7ch, is a very 7se 7l animal.' %he relative here also is coPrdinatin", and not restrictive. # it were intended to point o7t one individ7al cat specially despised by the person addressed, 'that' wo7ld convey the sense. 'A theory which does not tend to the improvement o practice is 7tterly 7nworthy o re"ard.' %he meanin" is restrictiveJ 'a theory that does not tend.' %he ollowin" sentence is one o many rom 6oldsmith that "ive 'that' instead o 'which'*'A"e, that lessens the enAoyment o li e, increases o7r desire o livin".' %hackeray also was ond o this 7sa"e. 37t it is not very common. B'%heir aith tended to make them improvidentJ b7t a wise instinct ta7"ht them that i there was one thin" whicho7"ht not to be le t to ate, or to the precepts o a deceased prophet, it was the artillery'J a case where 'that' is the proper relative. B'All words, which are si"ns o comple! ideas, 7rnish matter o mistake.' %his "ives an erroneo7s impression, and sho7ld be 'all words that are si"ns o comple! ideas.' B'#n all cases o prescription, the 7niversal practice o A7d"es is to direct A7ries by analo"y to the Stat7te o -imitations, to decide a"ainst incorporeal ri"hts which have or many years been relinC7ished'* say instead, 'incorporeal ri"hts that have or many years,' and the sense is clear. B#t is necessary or the proper 7nderstandin" o 'which' to advert to its pec7liar 7nction o re errin" to a whole cla7se as the antecedent* 'William ran alon" the top o the wall, which alarmed his mother very m7ch.' %he antecedent?," OLF@is obvio7sly not the no7n 'wall,' b7t the act e!pressed by the entire cla7se'William ran,' etc. 'He by no means wants sense, which only serves to a""ravate his ormer olly'J namely, Mnot 'sense,' b7tN the circ7mstance 'that he does not want sense.' 'He is neither over8e!alted by prosperity, nor too m7ch depressed by mis ort7neJ which yo7 m7st allow marks a "reat mind.' 'We have done many thin"swhich we o7"ht not to have done,' mi"ht mean 'we o7"ht not to have done many things'J that is, 'we o7"ht to have done ew thin"s.' '%hat' wo7ld "ive the e!act sense intended* 'we have done many thin"s that we o7"ht not to have done.' 'He be"an to look a ter his a airs himsel ,which was the way to make them prosper.'

35

BWe m7st ne!t all7de to the cases where the relative is "overned by a preposition. We can 7se a preposition be ore 'who' and 'which,' b7t when the relative is 'that,' the preposition m7st be thrown to the end o the cla7se. Owin" to an imper ect appreciation o the "eni7s o o7r lan"7a"e, o ense was taken at this 7sa"e by some o o7r leadin" writers at the be"innin" o last cent7ry, and to this circ7mstance we m7st re er the dis7se o 'that' as the relative o restriction.
?14@

?," OL2@

B'#t is c7rio7s that the only circ7mstance connected with Scott, and related by -ockhart, of which # was a witness, is incorrectly stated in the B-i e o Sir Walter.B'-eslie's '/emoirs.' %he relative sho7ld be restrictive* 'that # was a witness of.' B'%here are many words which are adAectives whichhave nothin" to do with the C7alities o the no7ns to whichthey are p7t.'.obbett. 3etter* 'there are many wordsthat are adAectives that have nothin" to do with the C7alities o the no7ns MthatN they are p7t to.' B'Other obAects, of which we have not occasion to speak so reC7ently, we do not desi"nate by a name o their own.' %his, i amended, wo7ld be* 'other obAects that we have not occasion to speak of so reC7ently, we do not,' etc. B'Sorrow or the dead is the only sorrow from whichwe re 7se to be divorced'* 'the only sorrow MthatN we re 7se to be divorced from.' B'Why, there is not a sin"le sentence in this play that# do not know the meanin" of.'Addison.
?," OLQ@

B'Ori"inality is a thin" we constantly clamor for, and constantly C7arrel with.'.arlyle. B'A spirit more amiable, b7t less vi"oro7s, than -7ther's wo7ld have shr7nk back rom the dan"ers which he braved and s7rmo7nted'* 'that he braved'J 'the dan"ers bravedand surmounted by him.' B'Nor is it at all improbable that the emi"rants had been "7ilty o those a7lts from which civiliDed men whosettle amon" an 7nciviliDed people are rarely ree.'/aca7lay. 'Nor is it at all improbable that the emi"rants had been "7ilty o the a7lts that Msuch a7lts asN civiliDed men that settle Msettling, or settledN amon" an 7nciviliDed people are rarely ree from.' B',reA7dices are notions or opinions which the mind entertains witho7t knowin" the "ro7nds and reasons o them, and which are assented to witho7t e!amination.'3erkeley. %he 'which' in both cases sho7ld be 'that,' b7t the relative may be entirely dispensed with by participial conversion* 'preA7dices are notions or opinions entertainedby the mind witho7t knowin" the "ro7nds and reasons o them, and assented to witho7t e!amination.' B%he too reC7ent repetition o 'who' and 'which' may be avoided by resolvin" them into the conA7nction and personal or other prono7n* '#n s7ch circ7mstances, the 7tmost that 3osC7et co7ld be e!pected to do was to hold his "ro7nd, MwhichN and this he did.'B3ain's BHi"her &n"lish 6rammar.B %his word is sometimes v7l"arly 7sed or soJ th7s, B# was that nervo7s # or"ot everythin"BJ B# was that ri"htened # co7ld hardly stand.B T4!. 37n"lin" writers sometimes write sheer nonsense, or say somethin" very di erent rom what they have in their minds, by the simple omission o the de inite articleJ?," OL5@th7s, B%he indebtedness o the &n"lish ton"7e to the $rench, -atin and 6reek is disclosed in almost every sentence ramed.B Accordin" to this, there is s7ch a thin" as a $rench, -atin and 6reek ton"7e.

36

,ro essor %ownsend meant to say* B%he indebtedness o the &n"lish ton"7e to the $rench, the -atin, and the 6reek,B etc. T4!n. %he 7se o this word as an adAective is condemned in very emphatic terms by some o o7r "rammarians, and yet this 7se o it has the sanction o s7ch eminent writers as Addison, Johnson, Whately, and Sir J. Hawkins. Johnson says, B#n his then sit7ation,B which, i brevity be really the so7l o wit, certainly has m7ch more so7l in it than B#n the sit7ation he then occ7pied.B However, it is do7bt 7l whether then, as an adAective, will ever a"ain ind avor with care 7l writers. T4!nc!. See WH&N.&. T4in1 3#r. We not 7n reC7ently hear a s7per l7o7sfor tacked to a sentenceJ th7s, B'o7 will ind that he knows more abo7t the a air than yo7 think for.B T4#s! 1in*. B)hose kind o apples are bestB* read, B)hat kind o apples is best.B #t is tr7ly remarkable that many persons who can A7stly lay claim to the possession o considerable c7lt7re 7se this barbaro7s combination. #t wo7ld be A7st as correct to say, B%hose lock o "eese,B or B%hose drove o cattle,B as to say, B%hose sort or !ind o people.B T4#s! 24#. %his phrase, applied in a restrictive sense, is the modern s7bstit7te or the ancient idiom they that, an idiom in accordance with the tr7e meanin" o that. B')hey that told me the story said'J '3lessed arethey that mo7rn'J 'and Simon and they that were with him'J '# love them that love me, and they that seek me early shall ind me'J 'they that are whole have no need o ?," OL4@a physician'J 'how sweet is the rest o them that laborT' '# can not tell who to compare them to so itly as to them that pick pockets in the presence o the A7d"e'J 'they thatenter into the state o marria"e cast a die o the "reatest contin"ency' MJ. %aylorN.
"+"hat man hath perfe"t .lessednessWho walketh not astray,+

i e!pressed accordin" to the old idiom wo7ld be, 'the man haththat walketh.' B'%hat' and 'those,' as demonstrative adAectives, re er backward, and are not there ore well s7ited or the orward re erence implied in makin" 7se o 'that which' and 'those who' as restrictive relatives. #t is also very c7mbro7s to say 'that case to which yo7 all7de' or 'the case MthatN yo7 all7de to.' B%ake now the ollowin"* '%he +7ke o Wellin"ton is not one o those who inter ere with matters over whichhe has no control'* 'the +7ke is not one o them that inter ere in matters that they have no control over Mmattersthat they can not control, beyond their control, out of their provinceN.' # 'them that' so7nds too antiC7ated, we may adopt as a convenient compromise, 'the +7ke is not one o those that'J or, 'the +7ke is not one to interfere in matters o7t o his province'J 'the d7ke is not one that interfereswith what he has no control over.'B3ain. T4r!a* ar! :+#$a$i#ns. Amon" the thin"s that are in bad taste in speakin" and writin", the 7se o threadbare C7otations and e!pressions is in the ront rank. Some o these us;s et cass;s old8timers are the ollowin"* B%heir name is le"ionBJ Bhosts o riendsBJ Bthe 7pper tenBJ BHariety is the spice o li eBJ B+istance lends enchantment to the viewBJ BA thin" o bea7ty is a Aoy or everBJ Bthe li"ht antastic toeBJ Bown the so t impeachmentBJ?," OLK@B air women and brave menBJ Brevelry by ni"htBJ BA rose by any other name wo7ld smell as sweet.B T#. #t is a well8established r7le o "rammar that to, the si"n o the in initive mood, sho7ld not be 7sed or the in initive itsel * th7s, BHe has not done it, nor is he likelyto.B #t sho7ld be, Bnor is he likely to do it.B

37

We o ten ind to, when the si"n o the in initive, separated by an adverb rom the verb to which it belon"s. ,ro essor A. ,. ,eabody says that no standard &n"lish writer makes this mistake, and that, so ar as he knows, it occ7rs reC7ently with b7t one respectable American writer. Hery o ten to is 7sed instead o atJ th7s, B# have beento the theatre, to ch7rch, to my 7ncle's, to a concert,B and so on. #n all these cases, the preposition to 7se is clearly at, and not to. See, also, AN+. T# $4! F#r!. An old idiomatic phrase, now reely 7sed a"ain. T#n0+!. B/7ch tongue and m7ch A7d"ment seldom "o to"ether.B-'&stran"e. See -AN6EA6&. T#2ar*. %hose who pro ess to know abo7t s7ch thin"s say that etymolo"y 7rnishes no prete!t or the addin" o s to ward in s7ch words as bac!ward, forward, toward,upward, onward, downward, afterward, heavenward,earthward, and the like. Trans3!rr!* E(i$4!$. %his is the shi tin" o a C7ali yin" word rom its proper s7bAect to some allied s7bAect. &!amples*
"The little fields made &reen:y h$s.andry of many thrifty years."

BHe plods his weary way.B BHence to yo7r idle bedTB 3y this i"7re the diction is rendered more terse and vi"oro7sJ it is m7ch 7sed in verse. $or the sake o conciseness, it is 7sed in prose in s7ch phrases as the lunatic asylum,?," O0L@the criminal court, the condemned cell, the blind asylum, the cholera hospital, the foundling asylum, and the like.
"*till in harmonio$s inter"o$rse they livedThe r$ral day, and talked the flowin& heart."

B%here be some who, with everythin" to make them happy, plod their discontented and melancholy way thro7"h li e, less "rate 7l than the do" that licks the hand that eeds it.B Trans(ir!. %his is one o the most reC7ently mis7sed words in the lan"7a"e. #ts primary meanin" is to evaporate insensibly thro7"h the pores, b7t in this sense it is not 7sedJ in this sense we 7se its twin sister perspire.)ranspire is now properly 7sed in the sense o to escape rom secrecy, to become known, to leak o7tJ and improperly 7sed in the sense o to occ7r, to happen, to come to pass, and to elapse. %he word is correctly 7sed th7s* B'o7 will not let a word concernin" the matter transpireBJ B#t transpires ?leaks o7t@ that S. Y 3. control the enterpriseBJ BSoon a ter the 7neral it transpired ?became known@ that the dead woman was aliveBJ B#t has transpired?leaked o7t@ that the movement ori"inated with John 3lankBJ BNo report o the proceedin"s was allowed totranspireBJ B#t has not yet transpired who the candidate is to be.B %he word is incorrectly 7sed th7s* B%he /e!ican war transpired in 04F5BJ B%he drill will transpire7nder shelterBJ B%he accident transpired one day last weekBJ B'ears will transpire be ore it will be inishedBJ B/ore than a cent7ry transpired be ore it was revisited by civiliDed man.B Tri3&in0 Min+$i<. %he meanin" o trifles and o minutiis so nearly the same that no one probably ever 7ses the phrase trifling minuti e!cept rom tho7"htlessness. Tr+s$2#r$4'. See (&-#A3-&.?," O00@ Tr'. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed or ma!e. We ma!e e!periments, not try them, which is as incorrect as it wo7ld be to say, try the attempt, or the trial. U0&'. #n &n"land, this word is restricted to meanin" ill8 avoredJ with 7s it is o ten 7sedand not witho7t a7thorityin the sense o ill8tempered, vicio7s, 7nmana"eable.

Un !1n#2n. %his word is no lon"er 7sed e!cept by the 7nschooled. Un*!r4an*!*. %his word, tho7"h o7nd in the dictionaries, is a v7l"arism, and as s7ch is to be avoided. %he proper word is underhand. An underhand, not anunderhanded, proceedin". Uni)!rsa&%A&&. BHe is universally esteemed by allwho know him.B # he is universally esteemed, he m7st be esteemed by all who know himJ and, i he is esteemed by all who know him, he m7st be universally esteemed. U(2ar* #3. %his phrase is o ten 7sed, i not improperly, at least inele"antly, or more thanJ th7s, B# have been here or upward of a yearBJ B$or upward of three C7arters o a cent7ry she has,B etc., meanin", or more thanthree C7arters o a cent7ry. U$$!r. %his verb is o ten mis7sed or say, express. %o utter means to spea!, to pronounceJ and its derivativeutterance means the act, manner, or power o 7tterin", vocal e!pressionJ as, Bthe 7tterance o artic7late so7nds.B We utter a cryJ express a tho7"ht or sentimentJspea! o7r mindJ and, tho7"h prayers are said, they may beuttered in a certain tone or manner. B/r. 3lank is ri"ht in all he uttersB* read, says. B%he co7rt uttered a sentiment that all will appla7dB* read, expressed a sentiment. %he primary meanin" o the adAective utter is o7ter, on the o7tsideJ b7t it is no lon"er 7sed in this sense. #t is now 7sed in the sense o complete, total, per ect, mere,?," O0O@entireJ b7t he who 7ses it indiscriminately as a synonym o these words will reC7ently 7tter utter nonsensei. e., he will 7tter that which is witho7t the pale o sense. $or e!ample, we can not say utter concord, b7t we can say utterdiscordi. e., witho7t the pale o concord. Va&+a &!. %he ollowin" sentence, which recently appeared in one o the more astidio7s o o7r mornin" papers, is o ered as an e!ample o e!treme slipshodness in the 7se o lan"7a"e* BSea captains are amon" the most valuablecontrib7tors to the ,ark aviary.B What the writer probably meant to say is, BSea captains are amon" those whose contrib7tions to the ,ark aviary are the most val7able.B Vas$. %his word is o ten met with in orcible8 eeble diction, where it is 7sed instead o great or large to C7ali y s7ch words as n7mber, maAority, m7ltit7de, and the like. 3i" words and e!pletives sho7ld be 7sed only where they are really neededJ where they are not really needed, they "o wide o the obAect aimed at. %he sportsman that h7nts small "ame with b7ck8shot comes home empty8handed. V!raci$'. %he loss wo7ld be a small one i we were to lose this word and its derivatives. %r7th and its derivatives wo7ld s7pply all o7r needs. #n the phrase so o ten heard, BA man o tr7th and veracity,B veracity is entirely s7per l7o7s, it havin" precisely the same meanin" as tr7th. %he phrase, BA bi", lar"e man,B is eC7ally "ood diction. V!r ia0!. An 7nnecessary pro 7sion o words is calledverbiage* verbosity, wordiness. B# tho7"ht what # read o it verbiage.BJohnson. Sometimes a better name than verbia"e or wordiness wo7ld be emptiness. Witness* B.learness may be developed and c7ltivated in three ways, MaN 3y constantly practicin" in heart and li e the tho7"hts and ways o honesty and rankness.B %he irst sentence evidently means, B.learness?," O01@may be attained in three waysBJ b7t what the second sentence meansi it means anythin"is more than # can tell. ,ro essor -. %. %ownsend, BArt o Speech,B vol. i, p. 01L, adds* B%his may be re"arded as the s7rest path to "reater transparency o style.B %he transparency o +r. %ownsend's style is pec7liar. Also, p. 0FF, we ind* B%he laws and r7les0 th7s ar laid downO 7rnish ample o7ndation or1 the "eneral statement that an easy and

33

nat7ralFe!pression, an e!act verbal incarnation o one's thinkin",2to"ether with the power o 7sin" appropriate i"7res, and o makin" nice discriminations between appro!imate synonyms,Qeach bein" an important actor in correct style, are attained in two ways.5 M0N %hro7"h moral4 and mental discipline. MON %hro7"h contin7o7s and intimateK acC7aintance with s7ch a7thors as best e!empli y those attainments.B0L 0. Wo7ld not laws cover the whole "ro7ndR O. 2n passant # wo7ld remark that +r. %ownsend did not make these laws, tho7"h he so intimates. 1. # s7""est the word#ustify in place o these o7r. F. What is nat7ral is easyJeasy, there ore, is s7per l7o7s. 2. # this means anythin", it does not mean more than the adAective clear wo7ld e!press, i properly 7sed in the sentence. Q. ApproximatesynonymsTT Who ever heard o any anta"onistic or even o dissimilar synonymsR 5. %he transparency o this sentence is not 7nlike the transparency o corr7"ated "lass. 4. What has morality to do with correctnessR K. An intimate acC7aintance wo7ld s7 ice or most people. 0L. %hose attainmentsT What are theyR +r. %ownsend's corr7"ated style makes it hard to tell. %his para"raph is so badly conceived thro7"ho7t that it is well8ni"h impossible to make head, middle, or tail o itJ still, i # am at all s7ccess 7l in "7essin" what ,ro essor?," O0F@%ownsend wanted to say in it, thenwhen shorn o its red7ndancy and hi"h8 lown emptinessit will read somewhat like this* B%he laws th7s ar presented A7sti y the "eneral statement that a clear and nat7ral mode o e!pressionto"ether with that art o 7sin" appropriate i"7res and that ability properly to discriminate between synonyms which are necessary to correctnessis attained in two ways. M0N 3y mental discipline. MON 3y the st7dy o o7r best a7thors.B %he ollowin" sentence is rom a leadin" ma"aDine* B# we be"in a system o inter erence, regulating men's gains, bolsterin" here, in order to strengthen this interest, ?and@ repressin"elsewhere ?there@, in order to eC7aliDe wealth, we shall do an ?a@ immense deal o mischie , and witho7t brin"in" abo7t a more a"reeable condition o thin"s than now?we@ shall simply disco7ra"e enterprise, repress ind7stry, and check material "rowth in all directions.B (ead witho7t the ei"hteen words in italics and with the o7r inclosed. BNothin" dis"7sts sooner than the empty pomp o lan"7a"e.B Vic!. See .(#/&. Vicini$'. %his word is sometimes incorrectly 7sed witho7t the possessive prono7nJ th7s, BWashin"ton and vicinity,B instead o BWashin"ton and its vicinity.B %he primary meanin" o vicinity is nearness, pro!imity. #n many o the cases in which vicinity is 7sed, neighborhoodwo7ld be the better word, tho7"h vicinity is perhaps pre erable where it is a C7estion o mere locality. V#ca$i#n%A)#ca$i#n. %hese words are reC7ently con o7nded. A man's vocation is his pro ession, his callin", his b7sinessJ and his avocations are the thin"s that occ7py him incidentally. /ademoiselle 3ernhardt's vocationis actin"J her avocations are paintin" and sc7lpt7re.?," O02@B%he tracin" o resemblances amon" the obAects and events o the world is a constant avocation o the h7man mind.B V+&0ar. 3y the many, this word is probably more reC7ently 7sed improperly than properly. As a no7n, it means the common people, the lower orders, the m7ltit7de, the manyJ as an adAective, it means coarse, low, 7nre ined, as Bthe vulgar people.B %he sense in which it is mis7sed is that o immodest, indecent. %he wearin", or e!ample, o a "own too short at the top may be indecent, b7t is not vulgar.

'<<

Was. BHe said he had come to the concl7sion that there was no 6od.B B%he "reatest o 3yron's works washis whole work taken to"ether.B/atthew Arnold. What is tr7e at all times sho7ld be e!pressed by 7sin" the verb in the present tense. %he sentences above sho7ld read is, not was. W4ar3. See +O.). W4a$. BHe wo7ld not believe b7t what # did itB* read, b7t that. B# do not do7bt but what # shall "o to 3oston to8morrowB* read, do7bt that. We say properly, B# have nothin" but what yo7 seeBJ B'o7 have bro7"ht everythin" but what # wanted.B W4!nc!. As this adverb means7naidedfrom what place, so7rce, or ca7se, it is, as +r. Johnson styled it, Ba vicio7s mode o speechB to say from whence, /ilton to the contrary notwithstandin". Nor is there any more propriety in the phrase from thence, as thence means 7naided rom that place. B*hence do yo7 comeRB not B'rom whence do yo7 comeRB -ikewise, BHe went hence,B not Bfrom hence.B W4!$4!r. %his conA7nction is o ten improperly repeated in a sentenceJ th7s, B# have not decided whether # shall "o to 3oston or whether ( shall go to ,hiladelphia.B?," O0Q@ W4ic4. %his prono7n as an interrogative applies topersons as well as to thingsJ as a relative, it is now made to re er to things only. B*hich is employed in coPrdinate sentences, where it, or they, and a conA7nction mi"ht answer the p7rposeJ th7s, 'At school # st7died "eometry, which Mand itN # o7nd 7se 7l a terward.' Here the new cla7se is somethin" independent added to the previo7s cla7se, and not limitin" that cla7se in any way. So in the adAectival cla7seJ as, 'He str7ck the poor do", which Mand it, or altho7"h itN had never done him harm.' S7ch instances represent the most acc7rate meanin" o which. *ho and which mi"ht be termed the .Oh(+#NA%#N6 (&-A%#H&S. B*hich is likewise 7sed in restrictive cla7ses that limit or e!plain the antecedentJ as, '%he ho7se which he b7ilt still remains.' Here the cla7se introd7ced by which speci ies, or points o7t, the ho7se that is the s7bAect o the statement, namely, by the circ7mstance that a certain person b7ilt it. As remarked with re"ard to who, o7r most idiomatic writers pre er that in this partic7lar application, and wo7ld say, '%he ho7se that he b7ilt still remains.'B B*hich sometimes has a special re erence attachin" to it, as the ne7ter relative* '.Wsar crossed the (7bicon,which was in e ect a declaration o war.' %he antecedent in this instance is not "ubicon, b7t the entire cla7se. B%here is a pec7liar 7sa"e where which may seem to be still re"7larly 7sed in re erence to persons, as in 'John is a soldier, which # sho7ld like to be,' that is, 'And # sho7ld like to be a soldier.'B See %HA%. W4#. %here are ew persons, even amon" the most c7ltivated, who do not make reC7ent mistakes in the 7se o this prono7n. %hey say, B*ho did yo7 seeRB B*hodid yo7 meetRB B*ho did he marryRB B*ho did yo7?," O05@hearRB B*ho did he knowRB B*ho are yo7 writin" toRB B*ho are yo7 lookin" atRB #n all these sentences the interro"ative prono7n is in the obAective case, and sho7ld be 7sed in the obAective orm, which is whom, and not who. %o show that these sentences are not correct, and are not de ensible by s7pposin" any ellipsis whatsoever, we have only to p7t the C7estions in another orm. %ake the irst one, and, instead o BWho did yo7 seeRB say, BWho saw yo7RB which, i correct, A7sti ies 7s in sayin", BWho knew he,B which is the eC7ivalent o BWho did he knowRB 37t BWho saw yo7RB in this instance, is clearly not correct, since it says directly the opposite o what is intended.

'<'

*ho was little 7sed as a relative till abo7t the si!teenth cent7ry. 3ain says* B#n modern 7se, more especially in books, who is reC7ently employed to introd7ce a cla7se intended to restrict, de ine, limit, or e!plain a no7n Mor its eC7ivalentNJ as, '%hat is the man who spoke to 7s yesterday.'B BHere the cla7se introd7ced by who is necessary to de ine or e!plain the antecedent the manJ witho7t it, we do not know who the man is. S7ch relative cla7ses are typical ad#ective cla7sesi. e., they have the same e ect as adAectives in limitin" no7ns. %his may be called the(&S%(#.%#H& 7se o the relative. BNow it will be o7nd that the practice o o7r most idiomatic writers and speakers is to pre er that to who in this application. B*ho is properly 7sed in s7ch coPrdinate sentences as, '# met the watchman, who told me there had been a ire.' Here the two cla7ses are distinct and independentJ in s7ch a case, and he mi"ht be s7bstit7ted or who. BAnother orm o the same 7se is when the second?," O04@cla7se is o the kind termed adverbial, where we may resolvewho into a personal or demonstrative prono7n and conA7nction. 'Why sho7ld we cons7lt .harles, who Mfor he, seeing that heN knows nothin" o the matterR' B*ho may be re"arded as a modern obAective orm, side by side with whom. $or many "ood writers and speakers say 'who are yo7 talkin" o R' 'who does the "arden belon" toR' 'who is this orR' 'who romR'B etc. # this be tr7ei who may be re"arded as a modern obAective orm, side by side with whom then, o co7rse, s7ch e!pressions as B*ho did yo7 seeRB B*ho did yo7 meetRB B*ho did he marryRB B*ho were yo7 withRB B*ho will yo7 "ive it toRB and the like, are correct. %hat they are 7sed colloC7ially by well8ni"h everybody, no one will disp7teJ b7t that they are correct, ew "rammarians will concede. See %HA%. W4#&!. %his word is sometimes most improperly 7sed or allJ th7s, B%he whole 6ermans seem to be sat7rated with the belie that they are really the "reatest people on earth, and that they wo7ld be 7niversally reco"niDed as bein" the "reatest, i they were not so e!ceedin" modest.B B%he whole (7ssians are inspired with the belie that their mission is to conC7er the world.B Alison. W4#&!s#-!. See H&A-%H'. W4#s!. /r. 6eor"e Washin"ton /oon disco7ntenances the 7se o whose as the possessive o which. He says, B%he best writers, when speakin" o inanimate obAects, 7se of which instead o whose.B %he correctness o this statement is do7bt 7l. %he tr7th is, # think, that "ood writers 7se that orm or the possessive case o which that in their A7d"ment is, in each partic7lar case, the more e7phonio7s, "ivin" the pre erence, perhaps, to of which. On this s7bAect +r. .ampbell says* B%he possessive o ?," O0K@who is properly whose. %he prono7n which, ori"inally indeclinable, had no possessive. %his was s7pplied, in the common periphrastic manner, by the help o the preposition and the article. 37t, as this co7ld not ail to en eeble the e!pression, when so m7ch time was "iven to mere conA7nctives, all o7r best a7thors, both in prose and verse, have now come re"7larly to adopt, in s7ch cases, the possessive o who, and th7s have s7bstit7ted one syllable in the room o three, as in the e!ample ollowin"* ',hilosophy, whose end is to instr7ct 7s in the knowled"e o nat7re,' or ',hilosophy, the end of which is to instr7ct 7s.' Some "rammarians remonstrateJ b7t it o7"ht to be remembered that 7se, well established, m7st "ive law to "rammar, and not "rammar to 7se.B

'<2

,ro essor 3ain says* B*hose, altho7"h the possessive o who, and practically o which, is yet reC7ently employed or the p7rpose o restriction* 'We are the more likely to "7ard watch 7lly a"ainst those a7lts whose de ormity we have seen 7lly displayed in others.' %his is better than 'the de ormity of which we have seen.' ',ropositions o whose tr7th we have no certain knowled"e.'-ocke.B +r. $itDedward Hall says that the 7se o whose or of which, where the antecedent is not only irrational b7t inanimate, has had the s7pport o hi"h a7thority or several h7ndred years. Wi*#2 W#-an. Since widows are always women, why say a widow womanR #t wo7ld be per ectly correct to say a widowed woman. Wi*#24##*. %here is "ood a7thority or 7sin" this word in speakin" o men as well as o women. Wi$4#+$. %his word is o ten improperly 7sed instead o unlessJ as, B'o7 will never live to my a"e without yo7 keep yo7rsel in breath and e!erciseBJ B# shall not "o?," OOL@without my ather consentsB* properly, unless my ather consents, or, without my ather's consent. W#rs$. We sho7ld say at the worst, not at worst. W#)!. %he past participle o the verb to weave iswoven. BWhere was this cloth wovenRB not wove. Y#+ ar! -is$a1!n. See /#S%A)&N. Y#+ 2as. 6ood 7sa"e does, and it is to be hoped always will, consider you was a "ross v7l"arism, certain "rammarians to the contrary notwithstandin". :ou is the orm o the prono7n in the second person pl7ral, and m7st, i we wo7ld speak correctly, be 7sed with the correspondin" orm o the verb. %he ar"7ment that we 7se you in the sin"7lar n7mber is so nonsensical that it does not merit a moment's consideration. #t is a c7stom we haveand have in common with other peoplesto speak to one another in the second person pl7ral, and that is all there is o it. %he 6ermans speak to one another in the third person pl7ral. %he e!act eC7ivalent in 6erman o o7r /ow are youA is, /ow are theyA %hose who wo7ld say you wassho7ld be consistent, and in like manner say you has andyou does. Y#+rs9 =c. %he i"norant and obt7se not 7n reC7ently pro ess themselves at the bottom o their letters B'o7rs,Y c.B And so orthT orth whatR $ew v7l"arisms are eC7ally o ensive, and none co7ld be more so. #n printin" correspondence, the newspapers o ten content themselves with this short8hand way o intimatin" that the writer's name was preceded by some one o the amiliar orms o endin" lettersJ this an occasional d7nderhead seems to think is s7 icient a7thority or writin" himsel , :ours$ Bc1

THE END.

FOOTNOTES:
?0@ # this is tr7e in &n"land, it is not tr7e in America. Nowhere in the Enited States is s7ch BC7estionable "rammarB as this reC7ently heard in c7ltivated circles. ?O@ B#t may be con idently a irmed that with "ood speakers, in the case o ne"ation, not me is the 7s7al practice.B3ain. %his, # con idently a irm, is not tr7e in America.A. A. ?1@ Sho7ld be, a text-boo! for his course, and not, for his course a text-boo!.

'<3 ?F@ /r. 6o7ld criticises the +ean's diction, not his style. ?2@ 3etter, Bto revise it.B ?Q@ B#s to put them in tab7lar orm.B ?5@ 37llions' B6rammarB was p7blished in 04Q5. ?4@ B-. W. )., .-)., --. +., &S. S.H., %. .., +. O this reverend "entleman's personality # know nothin". He does not say e!actly what he meansJ b7t what he means is, yet, 7nmistakable. %he e!tract "iven above is rom ',7blic Opinion,' Jan7ary OL, 04QQ.B ?K@ B%he analysis, taken or "ranted in this C7otation, o 'are bein" thrown 7p' into 'are bein"' and 'thrown 7p' will be dealt with in the seC7el, and shown to be 7ntenable.B ?0L@ BHol. !lv, p. 2LF M0415N.B ?00@ B'%he -i e and .orrespondence o the late (obert So7they,' vol. i, p. OFK.B ?0O@ BHol. i, p. 114. 'A st7dent who is being crammed'J 'that verb is eternally being declined.''%he +octor,' pp. 14 and FL Mmono8tome ed.N.B ?01@ B#n ',7t 'o7rsel in his ,lace,' chapter !, he writes* 'She basked in the present deli"ht, and looked as i she was being ta!en to heaven by an an"el.'B ?0F@ B'Words,' etc., p. 1FL.B ?02@ B%homas $7ller writes* 'At his arrival, the last stake o the .hristians was on losing.''%he Historie o the Holy Warre,' p. O04 Med. 0QF5N.B ?0Q@ B# e!press mysel in this manner beca7se # distin"7ish between beand exist.B ?05@ BSam7el (ichardson writes* 'Jenny, who attends me here, has more than once hinted to me that /iss Jervis loves to sit 7p late, either readin" or being read to by Anne, who, tho7"h she reads well, is not ond o the task.''Sir .harles 6randison,' vol. iii, p. FQ Med. 052FN. B%he transition is very sli"ht by which we pass rom 'sits bein" read to' to 'is bein" read to.'B ?04@ B# am here indebted to the last edition o +r. Worcester's '+ictionary,' pre ace, p. !!!i!.B ?0K@ B'Words and their Eses,' p. 121.B ?OL@ B'(t is being is simply eC7al to it is. And, in the s7pposed correspondin" -atin phrases, ens factus est, ens dificatus est Mthe obsoleteness o ens as a participle bein" "rantedN, the monstrosity is not in the 7se o ens with factus, b7t in that o ens with est. %he abs7rdity is, in -atin, A7st what it is in &n"lish, the 7se o is with being, the makin" o the verb to be a complement to itsel .'(bid1, pp. 12F, 122. BApparently, /r. White reco"niDes no more di erence between supplementand complement than he reco"niDes between be and exist. See the e!tract # have made above, rom p. 121.B ?O0@ B'37t those thin"s which, being not now doing, or havin" not yet been done, have a nat7ral aptit7de to e!ist herea ter, may be properly said to appertain to the 7t7re.'Harris's 'Hermes,' book #, chap. viii Mp. 022, oot8note, ed. 0550N. $or Harris's being not now doing, which is to translate < 9i;<:;j, the modern school, i they p7rs7ed 7ni ormity with more o idelity than o taste, wo7ld have to p7t being not now being done. %here is not m7ch to choose between the two.B ?OO@ B'Words and their Eses,' p. 1F1.B ?O1@ %he possessive constr7ction here is, in my A7d"ment, not imperatively demanded. %here is certainly no lack o a7thority or p7ttin" the three s7bstantives in the acc7sative. %he possessive constr7ction seems to me, however, to be pre erable. ?OF@ B%he 7se o the pl7ral or the sin"7lar was established as early the be"innin" o the o7rteenth cent7ry.B/orris, p. 004, k 021. ?O2@ BSome writers omit the comma in cases where the conA7nction is 7sed. 37t, as the conA7nction is "enerally employed in s7ch cases or emphasis, commas o7"ht to be 7sedJ altho7"h, where the words are

'<4 very closely connected, or where they constit7te a cla7se in the midst o a lon" sentence, they may be omitted.B3i"elow's BHandbook o ,7nct7ation.B ?OQ@ B%his 7sa"e violates one o the 7ndamental principles o p7nct7ationJ it indicates, very improperly, that the no7n man is more closely connected with learned than with the other adAectives. Analo"y and perspic7ity reC7ire a comma a ter learned.BG7ackenbos. ?O5@ /any writers wo7ld omit the last two commas in this sentence. ?O4@ %he commas be ore and a ter particularly are hardly necessary. ?OK@ %he only e!ception to this r7le is the occasional 7se o the colon to separate two short sentences that are closely connected. ?1L@ B+r. An"7s on the '&n"lish %on"7e,' art. 2O5.B ?10@ B#n the ollowin" passa"es, the indicative mood wo7ld be more s7itable than the s7bA7nctive* '# tho7 be the Son o 6od, command that these stones be made bread'J 'i tho7 be the Son o 6od, come down rom the cross.' $or, altho7"h the address was not sincere on the part o the speakers, they really meant to make the s7pposition or to "rant that he was the Son o 6odJ 'seein" that tho7 art the Son o 6od.' -ikewise in the ollowin"* 'Now i .hrist be preached, that He rose rom the dead, how say some amon" yo7 that there is no res7rrection rom the deadR' %he meanin" is, 'Seein" now that .hrist is preached.' #n the contin7ation, the conditional cla7ses are o a di erent character, and 'be' is appropriate* '37t i there be no res7rrection rom the dead, then is .hrist not risen. And i .hrist be not risen, then is o7r preachin" vain, and yo7r aith is also vain.' A"ain, '# tho7 bring thy "i t to the altar, and there rememberest,' etc. .onsistency and correctness reC7ire 'remember.'BHarrison on the B&n"lish -an"7a"e,B p. O45. ?1O@ BSo, in 6erman, w?re or w>rde sein. 'Hftt' ich Schwin"en, hftt' ich $ll"el, nach den Hl"eln z@g' ich hin,' or 'w>rde ichziehen.'B ?11@ BSo, in 6erman, h?tte occ7rs or w>rde haben. 'Wfre er da "ewesen, so h?tten wir ihn "esehen,' or 'so w>rden wir ihn "esehenhaben.' /?tten is still conditional, not indicative. #n -atin, the pl7per ect indicative is occasionally 7sedJ which is e!plained as a more vivid orm.B ?1F@ B#n principal cla7ses the in lection o the second person is always retained* 'tho7 had st,' 'tho7 wo7ldst, sho7ldst,' etc. #n the e!ample, the s7bordinate cla7se, altho7"h s7bA7nctive, shows, 'had st.' And this 7sa"e is e!ceedin"ly common.B ?12@ %o those who are not C7ite clear as to what transcendentalism is, the ollowin" l7cid de inition will be welcome* B#t is the spirit7al co"noscence o psycholo"ical irre ra"ability connected with conc7tient ademption o incol7mnient spirit7ality and etherealiDed contention o s7bs7ltory concretion.B %ranslated by a New 'ork lawyer, it stands th7s* B%ranscendentalism is two holes in a sand8bank* a storm washes away the sand8bank witho7t dist7rbin" the holes.B ?1Q@ B.romwellthan he no man was more skilled in arti iceJ or, .romwellno man was more skilled in arti ice than he MwasN.B ?15@ BNo devil sat hi"her than he sat, e!cept Satan.B ?14@ BSpeakin" o +ryden, Hallam says, 'His B&ssay on +ramatic ,oesy,B p7blished in 0QQ4, was reprinted si!teen years a terward, and it is c7rio7s to observe the chan"es which +ryden made in the e!pression. /alone has care 7lly noted all theseJ they show both the care the a7thor took with his own style, and the chan"e which was "rad7ally workin" in the &n"lish lan"7a"e. %he An"licism o terminatin" the sentence with a preposition is reAected. %h7s, B# can not think so contemptibly o the a"e # live in,B is e!chan"ed or Bthe a"e in which # live.B BA deeper e!pression o belie than all the actor can pers7ade 7s to,B is altered, Bcan insin7ate into 7s.B And, tho7"h the old orm contin7ed in 7se lon" a ter the time o +ryden, it has o late years been reckoned inele"ant, and proscribed in all cases, perhaps with an 7nnecessary astidio7sness, to which # have not 7ni ormly de erred, since o7r lan"7a"e is o %e7tonic str7ct7re, and the r7les o -atin and $rench "rammar are not always to bind 7s.'

'<5 B%he ollowin" e!amples, taken rom /assin"er's '6rand +7ke o $lorence,' will show what was the 7sa"e o the &liDabethan writers* "+?or ! m$st $se the freedom ! was born with.+ "+!n that d$m. rhetori" which yo$ ma e use of.+ "+ if ! had .een heir4f all the &lo.es and s"eptres mankind bows to.+ "+ the name of friendWhich yo$ are pleased to grace me with.+ "+ wilf$lly i&norant in my opinion4f what it did in!ite him to.+ "+! look to her as on a prin"essI dare not be ambitious of.+ "+ a d$ty"hat I was born with.+"

THE ORTHO>PIST:
A "O3OC3C(36 &A3CA0, C#n$ainin0 a #+$ T4r!! T4#+san* Fi)! H+n*r!* W#r*s9 inc&+*in0 a C#nsi*!ra &! N+- !r #3 $4! Na-!s #3 F#r!i0n A+$4#rs9 Ar$is$s9 !$c.9 $4a$ ar! #3$!n -is(r#n#+nc!*.

B' ALFRED AYRES.


SELECTIONS FROM THE WORK.

.;dKLmn, not M.Ld;mNn. ";"reL, not ;"rOL.


o

The orthoPpists a&ree that u, pre"eded .y r in the same sylla.le, &enerally .e"omes simply oo, as in rude, rumor, rural, rule,ruby.

l;lQpL;thy) l;lQpL;thRst. SrL;.R", not ;rTL.R". #siaTLsh;, not TL/h. ay, or aye Gmeanin& yesHU. aye Gmeanin& alwaysHT. :RsLmVr"k, not .R/L;.
o

#t the end of a sylla.le, s, in 0erman, has invaria.ly its sharp, hissin& so$nd.

,airoin @&ypt, kULrK) in the Inited *tates, kTLrK.

'<6

,o$r.etkorL.TL. dN"Lde, not d;kTdL. d;"KLroWs.


o

The a$thority is small, and is .e"omin& less, for sayin&d)c*o+ro,s, whi"h is really as in"orre"t as it wo$ld .e to says-n*o+ro,s.

dNfL;"Rt, not d;fRXLit. ds;dTinL, not dis;. ds;hQnLor, not dis;. N";;nQmL;"l, or Y;";nQmL;"l.
o

The first is the markin& of a lar&e ma2ority of the orthoPpists.

;nYrLvTte.
o

The only a$thority for sayin& )n*er+!.te is pop$lar $sa&e) all the orthoPpists say e+nr*!.te.

NpL"h, not YLpQ"h.


o

The latter is a >e.sterian pron$n"iation, whi"h is not even permitted in the late editions.

fRn;n;"iYrL.
o

This m$"h;$sed word is rarely prono$n"ed "orre"tly.

9eULn, not hine.


o

?inal e in 0erman is never silent.

honestQnLest, not ;Rst, nor ;Wst.


o

"9onest, honest !a&o," is prefera.le to "honust, honust !a&o," some of o$r a""idental 4thellos to the "ontrary notwithstandin&.

RsL ;lTte, or RsL;late, not ULs;lTt.


o

The first markin& is >alker+s, >or"ester+s, and *mart+s) the se"ond, >e.ster+s.

On! )#&.9 ?@-#9 c&#$4. Pric!9 A?.BB. New 'ork* +. A,,-&%ON Y .O., 0, 1, Y 2 3ond Street.

End of the Project Gutenberg E!oo" of The Verbalist, by Thomas Embly Osmun, (AKA Alfred Ayres

'<7

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