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OIL POLLUTION

Laws on Natural
Resources and Environment
This report is about oil spill pollution on water. This will provide the reader the history, issues, effects, clean-up, laws and agencies involved.
Submitted by: Rondez, Jerryl Britanico, Rona Leine Lavarias, Angelo Gonzalo University of the East College of Law 1-B-2 Submitted to: Atty. Jack Andrew Miranda

2/28/2014

The case: On August 9, 2006, M/T Solar I containing 2,203,629 cubic meters of bunker oil left from the Petron Bataan refinery for Zamboanga City. On August 11, 2006, M/T Solar I arrived at the anchorage area of Iloilo City where it went through a series of inspections before leaving for Zamboanga City. After passing through the Guimaras Strait, the tanker encountered very rough seas and started tilting from 15 to 25 degrees to the starboard side. When the condition became worse, the crew of M/T Solar I abandoned ship. The tanker eventually sank. On August 13, 2006, an undetermined large quantity of oil slick was found in the Guimaras Strait.
What is Oil Spill? Definition

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such asgasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. How do spills happen? Oil spills into rivers, bays, and the ocean are caused by accidents involving tankers, barges, pipelines, refineries, and storage facilities. Spills can be caused by:

people making mistakes or being careless. equipment breaking down. natural disasters such as hurricanes. deliberate acts by terrorists, countries at war, vandals, or illegal dumpers. Oil floats on saltwater (the ocean) and usually floats on freshwater (rivers and lakes). Very heavy oil can sometimes sink in freshwater, but this happens very rarely. Oil usually spreads out rapidly across the water surface to form a thin layer that we call an oil slick. As the oil continues spreading, the layer becomes thinner and thinner, finally becoming a very thin layer called a sheen, which often looks like a rainbow. (You may have seen sheens on roads or parking lots after a rain.) Depending on the circumstances, oil spills can be very harmful to marine birds and mammals and also can harm fish and shellfish. You may have seen dramatic pictures of oiled birds and sea otters that have been affected by oil spills. Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters, and the water-repelling abilities of a bird's feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh elements. Many birds and animals also ingest (swallow) oil when they try to clean themselves, which can poison them. Depending on just where and when a spill

happens, from a few up to hundreds or thousands of birds and mammals can be killed or injured. Then what happens? EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL SPILL CHARACTERISTICS The quantity and type of oil determine, to a great extent but not exclusively, the significance on the marine environment. A spill of several thousand tonnes will cause a lot more damage to the aquatic environment than a spill ten times smaller, although the type of oil will play a significant part in the nature and extent of any damage caused. A spill of heavy fuel oil is likely to cause much more damage than a crude oil spill of a corresponding size. A spill of a slightly evaporable substance will in the same way be more damaging for the sea and foreshore than a spill of a highly evaporable substance. The duration of spillage also plays an important role. A sudden violent release will concentrate the effects on a smaller area than a long, slow leak. Furthermore, if the effects are brutal, they may not be as likely to last as long. The spill location is a fundamental factor in its impact. A spill in the open sea will lead to limited impact spread over a very vast length of shoreline, over a long period, whereas a spill on the coast will have massive effect over a more limited distance. IMPACT Oil slicks particularly affect organisms which come to the breed, dive into the water or just near the water surface. Oiling can interfere physically with the organisms movement, feeding and other actions. Oil slicks also have repercussions for floating solid wastes, navigation buoys, vessels, fishing gears, shellfish farming, rafts, net pens and so on. Oil slicks affect birds and mammals. The oiling of bird feathers causes a loss of thermal insulation, buoyancy and lift. For mammals, it leads the risk of ingestion of oil which can impair their metabolism. Animals with affected filtering mechanisms can ingest enough oil to suffer a toxic effect while being incapable of feeding. Oiling in the open sea also affects the surface layers of plankton. Plankton is the first element in the food chain which large marine mammals feed on. When an oil spill reaches the shoreline, or occurs near the coast, the phenomena of soiling and coating in oil can have an impact on the

populations in the intertidal zone and the various human activities which takes place by the sea. Depending on the type of shoreline, the impact can range from being relatively limited to, at the other end of the spectrum, extremely dramatic. The sensitivity of different substrates to oil varies considerably, from rocky coasts to pebble beaches, gravel, coarse grain sands, fine grain sands, marshland, coral reefs and so on. Fine grain sand beach oil tend to retain oil, as the oil is too viscous to penetrate in to the depths through the fine spaces. Oil may accumulate along the high tide mark and be covered over with a layer of clean sand of varying thickness. Beach growth may cause layers of oil to be covered with sand, creating alternate layers. Buried oil is very problematic as the layers of oil may be uncovered by waves and swept away to pollute other areas. Repeated pollution incidents can have serious impact on living coral reefs caused by tides and swell. Some of the many species of fish, invertebrates and marine algae which live in coral habitats can be severely impaired even if the coral itself has only suffered mildly. The arrival of oil at the shoreline can be detrimental to may human activities. Leisure activities are absolutely affected. Going to the beach, swimming in the sea, recreational fishing, diving, surfing, sailing, all became impossible amongst oil slicks causing economic and social consequences which can be significant in popular tourist regions. Port activities may also be interrupted when booms must be deployed to protect the vessels in port. Aquaculture production at sea is inevitable affected. Coastal fishermen can no longer use their nets and other gears. The equipment that they cannot retrieve in time, or may have attempted to use, may be soiled. If the impact is mild and transient, it may generate only a slight inconvenience. If it is more serious, it can paralyse activities until clean up is complete, or impose the destruction of stocks destined for future production. RESPONSE AND CLEANUP EXPENSES Responses specialists, bird and mammal salvage teams, professionals and volunteers gather in the area affected by oil spill. Specialized equipment and operators are called upon for responses and clean-up. This major mobilisation of human and technical resources requires considerable, complex financing. The use of private means for slick surveillance and response at sea and on land, adds further expenditure which can rapidly reach immense sums.

Recovery at sea and onshore is always difficult and very partial. Lightering, which involves transferring the cargo of oil from a stricken vessel into another vessel or a barge, is the best way of preventing or reducing pollution. For this it may be necessary to call upon extra vessels or on extra equipment airlifted by helicopter onto the vessel in difficulty. Simple transfer pump units may be sufficient, however sometimes more complex systems incorporating safety devices, heating mechanisms and water injection, for viscous oils ambient temperatures, may be necessary. INITIAL CLEAN UP The first stage of shoreline clean-up aims to remove the maximum amount of pollutant from the shoreline to stop it being reclaimed by the sea, via waves and tides, and contaminating other sites. This first stage of clean-up requires different techniques depending on the pollutant and whether it is floating at waters edge or has washed up onto the beach. Skimming, pumping and suction are the most common response options in the event of a major oil spill by a fluid pollutant that has formed large accumulations. These operations can be carried out using agricultural pumps, slurry spreaders, sanitation trucks, as well as pumps and pump-tanks specifically designed for oil. This equipment can be complemented by surface scraping carried out by the public works machinery or specifically adapted scraper/skimmer mechanisms. The use of a technique known as flushing, involving washing using low pressure hoses remobilises fresh clusters of pollutant deposited on the surface or trapped in the crevices of rocks in order to channel them to a collection point. The technique of flooding, the saturation of a beach with water, involves creating a flow from the upper part of the foreshore to flood the area of sand that needs washing. This can be put in place using a perforated pipe, parallel to the waters edge that is supplied with seaweed by a high flow pump. The flow sweeps away the freed pollutant with additional aid from hoses. Lighter pollutants float on the water, where they can be contained by a boom and recovered. Surf washing involves moving polluted pebbles or sand down to the waters edge and depositing them in piles at low tide, to expose them to wave action. The waves free the pollutant trapped in the grains of sand or stuck to pebbles, ensuring natural washing by abrasion and collision. The waves disperse the piles and redistribute the sediments over the beach with the following tides. The freed pollutant is deposited on the surface, above the sediments. It can be recovered by hand or caught using nets.

MANUAL RECOVERY Manual recovery is systematically carried out whatever the pollutant, the site and the extent of the pollution. It is often the main, if not the only, means used in the event of small-scale or scattered pollution. It remains one of the most common options used to respond to a major spill. It is particularly well adapted to scattered bleaching in the form of freshly deposited tar balls or patties, before they are covered over or sink into the sediments. Manual recovery is the method used by default on sites where all other techniques are impossible, either through limited accessibility for equipment or because of the local environments high level of sensitivity. FINAL CLEAN-UP Once the main part of the pollution has been cleared away and all risks of new arrivals of pollutant eliminated, the final clean-up phase can begin. Even if the sea naturally completes the operation, final clean-up by man is necessary when: The estimated timeframe for self-cleaning is incompatible with the economic or aesthetic constraints of the site (e.g. a popular tourist site during the pre-summer or summer season) The pollution may have a major impact on living, natural or cultivated resources or may become a source of chronic contamination. The basic principle of final clean-up is to take advantage as far as possible of natural clean-up processes and only to recreate these processes where they prove to be of limited efficiency. The main mechanical, chemical and biological self-cleaning processes are: cleaning by wave action, the impact freeing fresh oil from surfaces as well as, on highly exposed sites, scouring the residues by abrasion of pebbles and rocks mixing polluted sediment by waves, separating the oil trapped in the sediment and placing it in suspension washing fluid oil through the sediment by forced percolation, with receding waves or the outgoing tide the effect of ultraviolet rays which destroy hydrocarbon films the activity of bacteria and micro-organisms which are capable of breaking down hydrocarbons. WHEN TO STOP CLEANING The level of clean-up required and the urgency of completing it are dictated by the ecological sensitivity of the site, its uses and the season. Some members of the general public will always demand that the site be cleaned of the last trace of pollutant. However, this spotless cleaning,

although satisfying, can cause more damage to the environment than the pollution itself. It is therefore necessary to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the available techniques and not to dismiss the option of natural completion. In practice, any pollutant which may be remobilised, and constitutes a potential source of recontamination, should first be removed wherever possible. Once this risk has been eliminated, we must then question the utility of further intervention. Except in particular cases, such as popular tourist beaches, the aim is not to remove all traces of oil, but rather to provide the environment with the most favourable conditions for rapid reinstatement of populations and restoration of socio economic activities, ensuring that the remaining pollutant is not harmful to the ecological niche or the sites use. Laws Involved: RA No. 9483 June 2, 2007 "Oil Pollution Compensation Act of 2007" RA No. 9275 March 22, 2004 Philippine Clear Water Act of 2004 PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 979 August 18, 1976 Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 which amended Presidential Decree No. 600 December 9, 1974 Marine Pollution Decree of 1974 Philippine Oil Contingency Plan headed by the Philippine coast guard to be responsible for preventing and controlling marine pollution in territorial sea. HOUSE BILL No. 4607 - An Act requiring oil companies to install oil spillage preventive and control mechanisms in their tankers and to undertake immediate response/cleaning operations in the event of oil spills within the countrys territorial waters. Agencies Involved: Government Agencies Concerned: Department of Environment and Natural Resources To ensure the safety of our natural environment and natural resources and to maximize its usage in time of widespread oil spill. Department of Health to ensure the safety and health concerns of the people living or surrounds the area of the oil spill Department of Science and Technology to suggest different kinds of technology on how to prevent a widespread oilspill and how to clean it up. Department of Tourism to ensure the safety of the tourist living around the affected area and to ensure our tourist will not be affected by the oil spill. Department of Education to educate the people on how to prevent a massive widespread of the oil spill.

BUREAUS: Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau to ensure that we have still a balance ecosystem despite of the effect of the oil spill and how to further more develop our ecosystem after the spill. Environment Management Bureau to ensure the correct management of our environment in times of disaster. Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau to ensure the safety and security of the inhabitants of the sea or ocean covering the spill and to further more protect the protected area in times of spill.

For more information, see annexes A, B and C. OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES: Philippine Coast Guard enforce law through Philippine waters, conducting maritime security operations, and protecting marine species and environment. See Annex E Philippine Coast Guard Law of 2009 Marine environmental protection command is a unit of Philippine coast guard , is the point of contact for oil spill response and operations and comprises the National Operations Center for Oil Pollution (NOCOP). The nocop serves as the national on-scene commander and able to request assistance from other government. History Philippines The Guimaras oil spill occurred in the Panay Gulf on August 11, 2006, when the oil tanker M/T Solar 1 sank off the coast of Guimaras and NegrosIslands in the Philippines, causing what is considered as the worst oil spill in the Philippines. Background: The oil tanker M/T Solar 1, carrying more than two million liters of bunker fuel, sank during a violent storm approximately 20.5 kilometres (12.7 mi) off the southern coast of Guimaras at around midnight on August 11, 2006,[4] causing some 500,000 litres (110,000 imp gal; 130,000 US gal) of oil to pour into the gulf, that traveled up through the Guimaras Strait and Iloilo Strait. Siphoning the remaining 1.5 million liters from the sunken tanker, at a depth of more than 600 metres (2,000 ft), was scheduled for March 2007. The oil spill adversely affected marine sanctuaries and mangrove reserves in three out of five municipalities in Guimaras Island and reached the shores of Iloilo and Negros Occidental. The oil spill occurred in the Guimaras Strait that connects the Visayan Sea with the Sulu Sea, and is considered a rich fishing ground that supplies most of the demand for the entire country. (NDCC, August 2006)

Haribon sent two biologists to Guimaras to assess the damage and talk to the affected communities regarding their immediate needs. Haribon provided assistance particularly for the long-term rehabilitation of the area. The government evacuated the affected families who had been exposed to the toxic elements of the crude oil. According to reports gathered in the field, people contracted skin diseases associated with these elements. Causes: Several causes have been cited, including bad weather and human error. Allegations have been made stating that the tanker only had a capacity of 1.2 million liters, implying the possibility of overloading.[5] Other investigations have claimed that the ship's Captain was not qualified to sail the vessel. Effects: The spill damaged Taklong Island National Marine Reserve, a marine sanctuary for feeding and breeding ground for fish and other species. The oil slick also posed a threat to the blue crab industry in the municipality of Enrique B. Magalona in Negros Occidental. Dr. Jose Ingles, eco-region coordinator of the World Wide Fund for Nature in the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, said that the damage may be felt by at least two generations. He warned that the disaster may have damaged the reefs and mangroves, scarring the ecosystem and causing seafood yields to significantly decrease. According to him, the worst hit would be the shorelines, the coasts and the swamplands with mangroves. This will greatly impact the livelihood of the fishermen, mostly living in poor conditions.[7] In the south-southeast of the spill site is located the Sulu Sea, a deep-water area frequented by commercially valued fish such as Blue marlin and the Yellowfin tuna, prized by the towns of southern Negros Occidental province as an important source of income for the communities. The oil slick may damage this thriving local industry. On August 22, 2006, the Philippine Coast Guard stated that the spill has affected 20 communities in 4 municipalities in Guimaras. It also threatened 27 communities in Iloilo province and 17 others in Negros Occidental.[8] Casualties A villager from Barangay Lapaz, Nueva Valencia, Guimaras, became the first casualty directly affected by the spill. He died after inhaling the fumes of the oil sludge caused him to contract cardio-respiratory disease.[8] Two sailors from the ship were also reported missing. Response Due to the extent of the disaster, the cleanup was expected to reach three years. Local response On August 19, the Philippine government has asked the governments of Indonesia, Japan and the United States to help assist with the cleanup.

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo created Task Force Guimaras on August 22 in order to oversee both the cleanup of the oil spill and the retrieval of the 1.5 million liters of fuel oil still remaining inside the tanker. The government also ordered the creation of the Special Board of Marine Inquiry to determine who and what caused the spill. Guimaras Governor JC Rahman Nava has objected to the proposal of disposing the oil wastes within the province. Clemente Cancio, President of Sunshine Maritime Development Corporation (SMDC), the company which owns M/T Solar I, said that their foreign insurer is willing to pay the cost of damage brought about by the oil spill. President Gloria Arroyo ordered a full investigation into the country's worst oil spill that devastated marine ecosystems in the central Philippines. Arroyo also ordered the Justice Department to join a special task force heading an investigation and clean-up on the island of Guimaras, where some 300 kilometers (190 mi) of coastline, including stretches of pristine beaches, had been affected by the oil slick from the sunken tanker. "We shall do everything in our power to right the wrongs caused by this unfortunate incident," Arroyo said after visiting the island, adding that she was deeply pained by the disaster that she declared a "national calamity". International response On August 17, British oil experts, sent by SMDC's foreign insurer, arrived in Guimaras to assess the situation. SMDC stated that the experts will check the extent of the oil pollution. The Britons conducted an aerial survey over Guimaras Island and made recommendations based on their findings. A four-man team from the U.S. Coast Guard arrived on August 23 to assist in determining the exact location of the tanker. CEBU CITY, Philippines, August 23, 2013 (ENS) Oil from the collision of two vessels off the coast of Cebu Province that killed dozens of people last Friday is still spreading to nearby shorelines as government workers and local residents struggle to contain it. The Sulpicio Express 7 shows the damage from its collision with the ferry St. Thomas Aquinas 1. (Photo by LeylanR) The Philippine Coast Guard says the 2Go Shipping Lines ferry, MV St. Thomas Aquinas 1, which sank August 16 after colliding with the freighter Sulpicio Express 7, was carrying 120,000 liters of bunker oil, 20,000 liters of lube oil and 20,000 liters of diesel oil. An unknown amount of these petroleum products has spilled into the sea. The ferry sank in waters off the coast of Talisay City, an environmentally sustainable city that celebrates Earth Day. The coast of

Cebu is known for its pristine waters and spectacular coral reefs that attract dive tourists from around the world. Chemical dispersants are being used to break up the spill, and containment and absorbent booms have been deployed, but the oil was spread by the torrential rains of a southwest monsoon worsened by Tropical Storm Maring. Navy spokesman Lt. Cmdr. Gregory Fabic said oil spill clearing operations off the coast started Thursday morning. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council says the oil spill has so far affected 26 villages, in the town of Cordova on Mactan island, where five-star resorts line the shore. Oily waves at Cordova, Cebu, Philippines, August 23, 2013 (Photo by LeylanR) The councils executive director, Eduardo del Rosario, said residents and local disaster personnel have been collecting local materials such as coconut husks, sawdust, chicken feathers and hair to help clean up the oil. The Cebu City DRRMC spearheaded mass haircut at Plaza Sugbu. The provincial government and Cebu City local government requested donations of indigenous materials for the containment of the oil spill, said Del Rosario. Even the world-famous Cebu Dancing Inmates are donating their hair to help absorb the oil. The 1,600 inmates of the Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Center are getting their hair cut to fill an oil spill boom. They hope it will absorb some of the oil and prevent it from spreading further in the waters of Cordova. Meanwhile, Cordova Mayor Adelino Sitoy is working with national authorities on toxic and hazardous wastes disposal. Treatment and storage disposal operator, Andrew Co, has provided Cordova with empty barrels for the collection of spilled oil. The oil also has blackened some aquaculture areas. There were fish cages and seaweed farms that have been affected by the oil spill as well as mangrove areas where shellfish are raised, said Asis Perez, director of Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources today after inspecting the spill area. The agency estimates that 1,750 fisherfolk in 13 coastal villages have been affected by the spill. The St. Thomas Aquinas ferry was carrying more than 800 passengers and crew when the collision occurred off the city of Talisay in Cebu Province. To date, the death toll stands at 76, with 44 others still missing. Technical divers from the Philippine Navy on their way to recover the bodies of passengers and crew of the ferry St. Thomas Aquinas 1 (Photo courtesy Philippine Navy)

Lieutenant Commander Noel Escalona, operations officer of Naval Forces-Central, said 35 of the bodies were recovered from the sunken ferry by specialized technical divers. Escalona said oil leaking from the sunken ferry, strong water currents, strong winds and wave on the sea surface and floating debris inside the ship have hampered their work. The Province of Cebu declared a state of calamity on Monday. Today, the Philippines Coast Guards Special Board of Marine Inquiry began investigating the incident at the headquarters of the Coast Guard District Central Visayas in Cebu City. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources, through its Environmental Management Bureau, also will conduct a field investigation to determine the extent of damage caused by the spill and collect water samples for further laboratory tests, according to DENR-7 Information Officer Dr. Eddie Llamedo. The DENR team will assist the investigation led by the Philippine Coast Guard. The captain of the St. Thomas of Aquinas submitted himself for an initial investigation by the Special Board of Marine Inquiry today at the Headquarters of the Coast Guard District Central Visayas in Cebu City. Capt. Reynan Bermejo told the investigators that many attempts to communicate with the Sulpicio Express 7 at Channel 16, the official radio public frequency used by ships to communicate, were unanswered. Bermejo said only radar contact was made with the approaching cargo vessel. Bermejo said he was inbound, while the Sulpicio Express 7 was outbound with a point of collision on the inbound lane of the traffic separation scheme. He said his vessel was trapped between shallow waters and the outbound cargo vessel, which had moved into the inbound lane. The 2Go company said the St. Thomas Aquinas was carrying mostly agricultural products from Mindanao since the vessel came from Surigao and Nasipit port. There were no cargoes marked as Dangerous Goods. The Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corp., formerly Sulpicio Lines, said it is conducting its own probe of the incident. But the company also said it will not be issuing more statements to the press until the official government investigation is concluded, and the findings are released to the public. This is the second major oil spill in Philippine waters in the past two weeks. A massive diesel spill August 9 from an underwater pipe owned by the Philippines largest oil company, Petron Corporation, fouled the waters of Manila Bay. Oil Spill in Estancia Iloilo Province, Western Visayas, Philippines Resulting from Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) A significant spill of heavy oil (bunker C type) occurred when Power Barge No. 103 ran aground at the shores of Estancia during the height of typhoon Haiyan. Between 21 and 23 November, environment experts from the Philippines Environmental Management Bureau visited the site of the oil spill together with a United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) environment expert, and a public health expert from the World Health Organization, in order to jointly undertake a

preliminary assessment of the threats the spill poses to human health, livelihoods and the environment. Current estimates by the management of the power barge amount to around 800,000 litres of oil having leaked. As the ruptured tanks continue to leak and up to 600,000 litres of oil remain in the tanks, the amount of spill is increasing steadily. Urgent action is required to pump out the remaining oil or seal the holes in the tanks. Most of the spilled oil has washed ashore, contaminating the coast and mangroves up to 10 kilometres downstream. The containment booms deployed are not sufficient to effectively contain all of the free phase oil in the water. The free phase oil has been blown ashore by southeastern winds so far. A change of wind direction or a tropical depression could further complicate the containment of the free phase oil. A faster, mechanical clean-up process with oil skimmers is urgently required. An urgent need for recovery and clean up equipment and expert advice has been identified. A request for technical assistance to the Environmental Management Bureau in Iloilo has been received by the United Nations on 22 November and an oil spill clean-up expert was deployed on 27 November. Temporary workers who have been hired for the clean-up operations continue to stay close to the site of the accident. The workers are currently exposed to significant occupational health risks due to the unsafe and ineffective practice of manual recovery of free phase oil in the open water and the insufficient and inappropriate provision of personal protective equipment. Immediate change in the management of the clean-up operation is required in order to protect the workers from unacceptable health risks. The contamination of the coast is putting the resident population at risk from accidental fires and other physical injuries. The chemical risk to the affected population is limited as long as direct contact with contaminated debris is avoided. The physical risk to the people sheltering in the immediate vicinity of the oil spill has been mitigated with the evacuation of most of the population to a temporary evacuation centre. With every day the clean-up process is delayed, the affected population does not get the opportunity to recover and will continue to depend on humanitarian relief. The oil spill is a threat to the livelihoods of the population who depend mainly on fishing and tourism, and having been heavily affected by the typhoon. This increases the vulnerability of the population who has been severely affected by the typhoon with many houses severely damaged. As of 27 November, electricity is still not available in Estancia. The sea, shore, rivers and mangroves south of Estancia have been affected by the oil spill. Appropriate mitigation measures are urgently required in order to limit the effects on human health, livelihoods, and the ecosystem. Some preliminary recommendations have been formulated in this report. For more information, see Annex D.

WORLD 1) Gulf War, 1991 Location: Kuwait Gallons: 240 to 336 million How It Happened: As Iraqi forces retreated from Kuwait during the first Gulf War, they opened the valves of oil wells and pipelines in a bid to slow the onslaught of American troops. The result was the largest oil spill history has seen. Some 240 million gallons of crude oil flowed into the Persian Gulf. The resulting oil slick spanned an area just larger than the size of the island of Hawaii. The Cleanup: Coalition forces managed to seal off some of the open pipelines using smart bombs, but most recovery efforts had to wait until after the war. At that point 25 miles of booms (orange ropelike products that contain the oil that is floating on top of the water) and 21 skimmers (machines that separate oil from water) were deployed in the gulf, mostly to protect the water intakes of desalinization, industry and power plants. Together with vacuum trucks, about 58.8 million gallons of oil was recovered from the gulf. The largest oil spill the world has seen exacted little permanent damage on coral ecosystems and local fisheries, according to a report by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission at Unesco. The study concluded that about half the oil evaporated, one-eighth of it was recovered and another quarter washed ashore, mostly in Saudi Arabia. 2) Ixtoc 1 Oil Well, 1979 Location: Bay of Campeche, Mexico Gallons: 140 million How It Happened: In June 1979, an oil well in the Bay of Campeche collapsed after a pressure buildup sparked an accidental explosion. Over the next 10 months about 140 million gallons of crude spouted into the Gulf of Mexico from the damaged oil well. The Cleanup: In order to slow down the flow of oil from the damaged well, mud and later steel, iron and lead balls were dropped down its shaft. According to PEMEX (Mexican Petroleum), half the oil burned when it reached the surface and a third evaporated. PEMEX also hired a company to spray dispersants over 1100 square miles of oil slick. Dispersants effectively act like dish soap, breaking up oil so that more of it can mix into the water. That way, they can reduce the effect of the oil slick on shorelines. On the

Texas side of the gulf, skimmers and boomers were placed in the water to protect the bays and lagoons of the Barrier Islands. 3) Atlantic Empress, 1979 Location: Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies Gallons: 88.3 million How It Happened: One stormy evening in July 1979, two full supertankers collided off the coast of Tobago in the Caribbean Sea, precipitating the largest ship-sourced oil spill in history. Crippled by the accident, both vessels began to leak their crude and caught fire. The fire on one of the vessels, the Aegean Captain, was soon controlled, and the damaged vessel was towed to Curacao, where its remaining cargo was recovered. The other tanker, the Atlantic Empress, stubbornly ablaze, was towed farther out to sea until it exploded 300 nautical miles offshore. All told, 26 crew were killed in the disaster and nearly 90 million gallons of crude was dumped into the sea. The Cleanup: The response to the incident included firefighting efforts and the use of dispersants to treat the oil that spilled over the course of the accident and then while the Atlantic Empress was towed away. Luckily, only minor shore pollution was reported on nearby islands. 4) Fergana Valley, 1992 Location: Uzbekistan Gallons: 87.7 million How It Happened: Nearly 88 million gallons of oil spilled from an oil well in Fergana Valley, one of Uzbekistanss most active energy- and oilrefining areas. While the spill didnt get much press at the time, it is the largest inland spill ever reported. The Cleanup: The ground absorbed this spill, leaving nothing for cleaning crews to tackle.

5) Nowruz Oil Field, 1983 Location: Persian Gulf Gallons: 80 million How It Happened: Smack in the middle of the Iran-Iraq War, an oil tanker crashed into the Nowruz Field Platform in the Persian Gulf and knocked it askew, damaging the well underneath. The oil well then leaked about 1500 barrels a day, but because it was in the center of a war zone, seven months went by before it was fixed. The Cleanup: Norpol, a Norwegian company, used booms and skimmers to stem the spread of oil. 6) ABT Summer, 1991 Location: Off the coast of Angola Gallons: 80 million How It Happened: While en route to Rotterdam, the fully loaded tanker ABT Summer experienced an explosion onboard and caught fire while it was 900 miles off the coast of Angola, leaking its payload into the ocean. Surrounded by a growing oil slick that spanned 80 square miles, the tanker burned for three days before sinking. The Cleanup: While no one can say how much of the oil sank or burned off, most of the oil is thought to have been broken up by high seas at little environmental cost, thanks to the incidents offshore location.

7) Castillo de Bellver, 1983 Location: Off Saldanha Bay, South Africa Gallons: 78.5 million How It Happened: Another torcher, the Castillo de Bellver caught fire about 70 miles northwest of Capetown, South Africa, on August 6, 1983. The blazing tanker was abandoned and drifted offshore until it eventually broke in half. The stern capsized and sank into the deep

ocean, with some 110,000 ton of oil remaining in its tanks. The bow section was towed away and sunk in a controlled explosion. The vessel was carrying nearly 79 million gallons of crude at the time of the accident. The Cleanup: Cleanup was minimal. There was some dispersant spraying, but by and large the environmental consequences were small. About 1500 gannets that happened to be gathered on a nearby island, gearing up for their breeding season, were oiled, but the impact on local fish stocks was minimal. 8) Amoco Cadiz, 1978 Location: Off Brittany, France Gallons: 68.7 million How It Happened: The tanker Amoco Cadiz ran aground off the coast of Brittany after its steering failed in a severe storm. Its entire cargo of 246,000 tons of light crude oil was dumped into the roiling waters of the English Channel, with the grim consequence of killing off more marine life than any other oil spill to date at the time. The Cleanup: Cleanup efforts were foiled by strong winds and heavy seas and less than 3300 tons of dispersants were used. Within a month of the spill, 200 miles of the French shoreline was contaminated with oil. Vacuum trucks and agricultural vacuum units were used to suck up some of the oil, although a lot of it was simply removed by hand.

9) Odyssey Oil Spill, 1988 Location: 700 nautical miles off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada Gallons: 43 million How It Happened: In November 1988 the Liberian tanker Odyssey, virtually full to the brim with North Sea crude oil, broke in two and sunk in the North Atlantic 700 miles off the coast of Nova Scotia. It also caught fire as it sunk.

The Cleanup: Because the incident took place so far from the coastline, the oil was expected to dissipate naturally, ergo no clean up at all.

10)M/T Haven Tanker, 1991 Location: Genoa, Italy Gallons: 42 million How It Happened: An apparently shoddily maintained tanker exploded and later sunk off the coast of Italy. The accident killed six people. Immediately after the incident, an effort by the Italians to tow the Haven to shore failed, and the 820-foot-long (250 meter) vessel sunk off the coast of Genoa. Today it is believed to be the largest shipwreck in the world and is a popular tourist destination for divers. The Cleanup: Immediately after the incident Italian authorities scrambled to fight the fire and control the spread of the spillage using six miles of inflatable barriers that were submerged below the water surface around the vessel. The rest of the surface oil was sucked up using vacuums.

References: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill Ports and Marine Organization http://bushehrport.pmo.ir/en/maritimeenvironment/coastalmarine Relief Web http://reliefweb.int/report/philippines/oil-spill-estancia-iloilo-provincewestern-visayas-philippines-resulting-typhoon WWF Global http://wwf.panda.org/?78300/Large-oil-spill-in-the-Philippines-threatensmarine-ecosystem Popular Mechanics www.papolarmechanics.com National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Office of Response and Restoration http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/training-and-education/educationstudents-and-teachers/how-do-spills-happen.html United States Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/oem/docs/oil/edu/oilspill_book/chap1.pdf