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Mitigating Long Duration Biomedical Constraints With Innovative Mission Architecture

A Design Reference Mission Suite

James S. Logan, M.D.

Group Manager, Human Test Support Clinical Services Branch/SD3 NASA Johnson Space Center

Mitigating Long Duration Biomedical Constraints With Innovative Mission Architecture

Special Acknowledgment

Dan Adamo
Independent Astrodynamics Consultant

> 270 Missions > 500 People > 100 Person-years

2011 Will Be Year 50 of human spaceflight!!

What are the implications of the EVIDENCE?

Potential Lunar Long Duration Showstoppers*

Element Sortie Outpost Settlement Frontier

Lunar Dust Radiation Hypogravity Synergistic Effects


Wild Card Wild Card

Hab Surface (EVA) Depth Surface (EVA) Depth

Nonstarter Nonstarter

* Assuming current technology and goal of civilization

From Apollo Experience Report Protection Against Radiation NASA TN D-7080 (1973)

Risk of Exposure Induced Death

REID is a statistical approach pegged to a single radiation effect: DEATH from cancer directly attributable to the exposure In 1989 NASA accepted National Committee on Radiation Protection (NCRP) recommendation of career dose limits corresponding to a lifetime increase of 3% in cancer mortality In 2000, NCRP kept that same 3% recommendation but also significantly reduced the dose expected to reach the 3% lifetime risk.
45 y.o. male astronauts 10 year 3% career limit went from 325 rem in 1989 to 150 rem in 2000 35 y.o. female astronauts 10 year 3% career limit went from 175 rem in 1989 to 60 rem in 2000

This is NOT being more conservative, this is a realization that radiation is more harmful than predicted

New Radiation Protection Scale

RP100 RP50 RP2 RP0.005
Same radiation protection as Earth at sea level
(1030 g/cm2 radiation shield equivalent or 100%)

Radiation shield equivalent to 18,000 ft altitude Best ISS locations ~ 2% Earth protection Radiation protection equivalent of space suit
(one-half of 1% Earth equivalent)


Moon/Mars may never more than sortie destinations* Habitats must be shielded or underground Repeat EVAs (same crew) will be severely constrained Robotic precursor missions must scout destinations and prepare sites for human presence Must determine Gravity Prescription for people, plants, animals and multiple generations
*At least not without significant new investments in research and enabling technology

We need to stop this obsessive preoccupation with spherical bodies at the bottom of gravity wells with basically no atmosphere and no magnetic field. These places just arent good for us - - at least not as settlement, frontier or civilization destinations.
James S. Logan, MD

The Perfect Place

Low Delta-V Lots of RESOURCES! Little or No GRAVITY WELL At or Near Earth Normal GRAVITY for People, Plants and Animals Natural RADIATION Protection Permit Large Redundant Ecosystem(s) Staging Area for Exploration and Expansion

Round-Trip v To Some Nearby Destinations

Daniel R. Adamo

23 May 2010


Accessible NEOs On 1 March 2010

Daniel R. Adamo

23 May 2010


33 by 13 Km; 2,900 Cubic Kilometers 3% metals (gold, aluminum, platinum, zinc., iridium, etc.)


Virtues of DEIMOS
Third Largest NEO (12.6 km mean diameter) Less Delta-V than Moon, Phobos, Eros
(escape velocity of 12.5 mph (5.6 m/s; 20 km/h)!!

Only 20,000 km from Martian surface Just above aerosynchronous orbit Launch window every 2.14 years Visualize all of Mars except extreme polar regions

Virtues of DEIMOS
Round trip light time of 0.13 seconds Locked orbit around Mars Could be captured carbonaceous chondrite Low average density (1.471 g/cm2) Could achieve all Mars surface exploration objectives via short range human telepresence
(ref. NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture [DRA] 5.0, Section 3: Goals and Objectives)

Duration of DEIMOS Mission

Outbound Leg : DEIMOS Stay Time: Return Leg: Total 5.1% Pad (consumables) 240 Days (24%) 469 Days (46.9%) 249 Days (24%) 949 Days 1000 Days (100%)

~1000 Days is unacceptable re: RADIATION! Therefore you must implement an RP100 environment at Deimos. This will reduce your exposed days by half

Mission Architecture Elements

Series of Robotic Precursor Missions (RPMs) for reconnaissance and habitat site preparation Pre-emplacement of stay time, return consumables as well as return entry vehicle at destination (i.e. must rendezvous with Deimos) Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) functions as fuel depot Incremental build up of Mars Transit Vehicle Abort To Destination (ATD) only option after TMI No aerobraking for Mars capture KISS principle Direct entry upon Earth return

Consumables Mass Estimate Calculations

Method Two (modified Logan method)
NASA Open Loop Life Support and modified ISS experience for 1000 days

Water: Oxygen: Food: Crew Supplies: Gasses Lost to Space: Systems Maintenance TOTAL

18,000 kg 2,170 5,700 2,071 2,071 2,071 32,084

Outbound + Pad (Crew Vehicle): Preemplacement at DEIMOS: TOTAL

9,336 kg 22,747 kg 32,084

Innovative Architecture Elements:

Radical redesign of Human Element (HE) vehicle to leverage all infrastructure mass (including propellant) for radiation protection At least RP5 required during transit (~50g/cm2) Minimize radiation exposure by reducing Exposed Days Habitat site at destination must provide RP100 Use of NTM for radiation protection on return leg

Destination Deimos Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV)

Propulsion stages made up of 15.7% structure (tankage, plumbing,...) A launch package is limited to 187.7 mT IMLEO (think Ares V i.e. real Heavy Lift not wimpy Heavy Lift) Pre-emplace all return consumables at Deimos, including a crew Earth-return vehicle required for direct atmospheric entry

First heavy-lift launch package: Cargo Element #1 (CE1)

First half of hypergolic propulsion stage required for Mars orbit insertion (MOI) and Deimos rendezvous Payload mass = 50.9 mT; IMLEO = 134.0 mT Additional payload mass = 21.6 mT available (likely for hypergolic propellant supporting Earth orbit loiter to await later launch packages)

CE2 is identical to CE1 and completes assembly of MOI stage

Destination Deimos Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV)

CE3 is unique
Inflatable TransHab module (28.1 mT) plus open-loop crew consumables for 8 months + 5.1% margin (9.4 mT) plus additional radiation shielding (23.0 mT) to achieve RP5 Payload mass = 60.4 mT; IMLEO = 157.6 mT

Fourth heavy-lift launch package: Human Element (HE)

Cryogenic trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage (46.9 mT) plus crew exploration vehicle (CEV, 18.6 mT) Payload mass = 65.5 mT; IMLEO = 170.3 mT Without nuclear propulsion, there are no Earth return options post-TMI. Therefore, the CEV nominally undocks from the MTV after the crew enters TransHab and is GO for TMI. Following successful TMI, the CEV is deorbited.

Total IMLEO = 595.8 mT (current ISS mass = 370.2 mT, but this is not the IMLEO associated with ISS assembly)

Mars Orbit Insertion and Deimos Rendezvous

Core Size: Core Volume: Mean Density: Core Mass:

0.460 km by 12 km 1.99 km3 1.471 gm/cm3 2,927,290,000,000 kg

1% H2O => 3% H2O => 5% H2O => 7% H2O =>

29 Billion Liters 88 Billion Liters 146 Billion Liters 205 Billion Liters

The Art & Science of BIONEERING: Turning this

Into this