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Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Task 1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Definition of Management .................................................................................................................. 3 Why study management theories? ...................................................................................................... 4 Management theories .......................................................................................................................... 4 Scientific school of management ........................................................................................................ 4 Classical organization theory schools ................................................................................................. 6 Newer Leadership Style - Self-Management Leadership Dimensions ............................................... 9 More Established Leadership Styles ................................................................................................... 9 Change management style: ................................................................................................................. 9 Transformational leadership ............................................................................................................. 10 Transactional leadership ................................................................................................................... 10 Management by Exception: .............................................................................................................. 10 Task 2 .................................................................................................................................................... 11 Role of manager in an organization .................................................................................................. 11 Planning ............................................................................................................................................ 11 Organizing......................................................................................................................................... 11 Directing ........................................................................................................................................... 11 Controlling ........................................................................................................................................ 12 What skills does a manager need? .................................................................................................... 12 The most important skill of a manager ............................................................................................. 12 What makes a good manager? .......................................................................................................... 12 But keep in mind the following points, well you need to do: ........................................................... 13 Effectiveness ..................................................................................................................................... 14 The progress ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Better management skills .................................................................................................................. 15 Self-confidence ................................................................................................................................. 15 Reduce Stress .................................................................................................................................... 15 Task 3 .................................................................................................................................................... 16 How can we measure the success of good governance? ................................................................... 16 Importance of management responsible for the organization of the potential .................................. 16 Importance of good governance and leadership................................................................................ 17

Inside Stakeholders ........................................................................................................................... 17 Shareholders...................................................................................................................................... 17 Managerial Employees...................................................................................................................... 18 Non managerial Employees .............................................................................................................. 18 Outside Stakeholders ........................................................................................................................ 18 Customers ..................................................................................................................................... 18 Suppliers ....................................................................................................................................... 19 Government................................................................................................................................... 19 References ............................................................................................................................................. 19

Introduction Management is one of the most important human activities. Since the time people started to form social organizations to achieve the objectives as individuals, they cannot be completed management is essential in order to ensure that to coordinate the efforts of the individual, although the company is supporting the group great efforts, has become a large number of organizations, the task manager Increase in size and complexity. Now, the management Managers manage complex organizational theory has become essential. Central thesis of this article is that some managers in different parts of The world has basic management been successful, if not Knowledge management theory, should be clearly stated Managers who co-management theory in their day to day It is easier to manage in the practice of their organization effectively achieve personal and organizational Objectives. Therefore, managers are contemporary organizations Due to the important role they play in their organizations, if they To achieve objectives. Secondly, it is necessary, in order to promote excellence People in the organization, especially the managers themselves.

Task 1 Definition of Management Management is an art or a science, the realization by people. Because Leaders also control management can be interpreted literally means Views" - that is to ensure that people do what they are supposed to do. The leaders are expected to increase productivity, or with the support of the current jargon, the "continuous improvement". More generally, the management is the process of designing and maintaining environment in which individuals, group work, effectively to achieve the chosen goals (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4). Expanded form, this basic definition means different things. First, as leaders, people perform Leadership positions in planning, organizing, staffing, and to manage. Second, the management of all types of organizations. Third Management leaders at all levels of the organization. Fourth, to all leaders is the same to create a surplus. Finally, the President is concerned about the productivity - which means efficiency and efficacy

Why study management theories? Theories are positions which people make sense of their world experiments (Stoner et al. 1995. p. 31-2). Theory is a systematic grouping Related concepts (images consists of a generalization of individual) and principles (are generalizations, or assumptions, which have been tested accuracy, and seem to think or explain the reality) that give allegiance to frame or tie together, an important area of expertise. Scattered data 10 do not know if the observer has knowledge of the theory of create is "the lowest classification, a set of pigeon holes in the workbook, which can really accumulate. Nothing has been lost in the However, the different approaches to management analysis, a tangle research and many divergent views have led to a lot of confusion In this direction, the control theory and science, and how Event management should be analyzed. This is the reason why some researchers mentioned this "management theory jungle" (Koontz, 1961, p 174-188, 1962 p. 24, 1980, p 175-187). Since then, the vegetation changed in this jungle Rather, new approaches have been developed and older approaches some new some of the meanings of new words for them, but the development of management theories still features jungle. Management theories Management theories tend to explain and interpret rapid changes in current operating environments. This paper some important theories classified as over 12 packs as follows: School of scientific management includes works by Frederick W. Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth motion study, among other things, Classic School organization includes works by Henri Fayol viewed administration and idealized bureaucracy of Max Weber, among others; Behavioural schools includes works by Elton Mayo and his staff; Scientific Management School which I discuss at the end of this period, and the last Management theory development includes works such systems Theory approach to the situation or contingency, chaos theory and Team Building approach. Due to lack of time and space, this discussion a general description of a few researchers in each of these theories and The success they have achieved. Scientific school of management The first management theory is what is popularly known as Frederick Taylor's scientific management. Frederick Taylor began the modern era of control. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, it was denouncing the "clumsy, ineffective or poorly targeted people move" as a national loss. Taylor has always sought to overthrow the "management rules thumb "and replace it with the actual timed observations lead to the" best " practice. He also

advocated the systematic training of workers, "one of the best practice "rather than the freedom of individual tasks. Moreover, it believes that the workload evenly distributed workers and management and management of the implementation of the teaching of science and employees who do the work, each group "work for which he was the best appropriate ". Taylor strong positive legacy was the concept of breaking a complex task the number of subtasks and optimize subtasks, so that his stopwatch measuring time trials. However, many critics, 13 historical and contemporary, emphasized that theories General Taylor "Inhuman" workers. Yet Taylor assumptions have been strongly influenced by Social period / historical (18561917) during the industrial revolution, it was period of autocratic rule, which saw Taylor moving to the "science" (ie are Principles of Scientific Management) solution to inefficiency and during the injustices. It should be noted that the scientific management met a great success, including: metals science, cutting coal spade design, he produced Bethlehem Steel Works (workers cutting needed to shovel 500-140), profit-sharing, track payment system store management and the impact of organizational development the field of production technology, and staff quality control. Admittedly, in economic terms, Taylors was ultimate success. The application methods are significant improvements productivity. For example, improvements, such as a shovel in his work in Bethlehem Work that employees need to kick the lower 500-140. As of now, Taylor has identified four principles of management. First, it is necessary to "scientific work" to develop to replace the old rule-of-thumb Methods: Salaries and other remuneration related to "best target" Work performance measures and production that would achieve the On the other hand leads to a loss of income. Secondly, there are the selected employees 'scientific' and developed to educate each "first class" and a job. In addition, Taylor postulates have Gilbreth motion study. The final result this study led to the centrality of organizational effectiveness. Gilbreth was particularly interested in how it could reduce unnecessary transport of construction of masonry; it has managed to reduce the movement of 18-4. He suggested that each employee should be involved in making them or their own work, to prepare for the next level, and train their successors.

Classical organization theory schools This type of management theory created by Max Weber (Max Weber) Bureaucratic management theory of Henri Fayol theory, Weber speculates The Western civilization (or

value-based steering) Thinking, emotional action (derived feelings equity) and traditional activities While the" before (derivative) function (or technology) Thinking. He believes that the development of civilization technically finding the optimal Results at the expense of emotional content or humanitarian. Weber then developed the "ideal" set of bureaucrats as follows: Ultra-fast and official powers strict and orderly hierarchy the excellent location management is based on a written document in depth and expert Education, public policy is a priority, as well as other activities managing a particular organization in stable rules may be known. Bureaucracy is seen as a great machine to achieve its objectives as efficiently as possible. But Weber's paperwork, he found that most care fully, more paperwork, "dehumanization" - it is more fully, he managed to reach the exclusion of love, hatred, and every purely personal, especially irrational, incalculable, feeling 15 Official. Therefore, Weber predicts a completely objective organization Minimal human intervention, its members. Henry Fayol management theory focuses primarily on individual tasks a more detailed level of control. In other words, his work more Treatment layer Fayol authorities Main functions: forecasting, planning, organization, control, coordination, and management. Forecasting and planning is a prescient And take appropriate action. Organizations to develop a body Resources, materials and manpower commander holding mechanism Operations and processes are running coordination and harmonization the group coordination. Finally, the control device, in the above the activities carried out in accordance with the rules and procedures. Fayol Management afternoon together to develop two methods Five major management role, These principles are: specialization / division The labor department, responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unified Direction, personal interests are

subordinate to the general interest Staff salaries, centralization, scalar / online private capital chain of authority, Stable task spirit, initiative and team spirit. Fayol apparently believes in the personal Efforts and group dynamics is a part of the "ideal" organization. Fayol (planning,

organization, management, coordination and five major role Control), the management is still actively practice. The concept of providing the competent authority, which is discussed Skilled. Unfortunately, the principle of "unified command" and "unity in this sense, the "systemic violations" matrix management structure Today's choice of many enterprises

Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in organisations. A very broad definition of the conclusion of the process, interact with followers (KWS), select the target groups or organizations (Yukl and 1981). During the last hundred years there have been a variety of management theory trait theory, behavioural theory, the theory of the situation, and the theory of self-government. Other effective methods for management (conversion operation, authorization, etc.) have also been reported in the literature. Model shown in Figure 1, there are two types of predictors. They were divided into a "new" leadership dimension (self-management and behaviour management) and mature style of transformational and transactional leadership dimensions of the structure and size of the original cost of in each category reflects the theoretical point of view, the test model, we can compare these theoretical perspectives.

Newer Leadership Style


Self-Management Leadership Behaviour (Manz and Sims, 1987)

Encourage self-Observation Encourage Self-Goal Setting Encourage SelfReinforcement Encourage Self-Criticism Encourage Self-Expectation Knowledge Management Attributes Encourage Rehearsal

Behavioural Skills and Traits for Knowledge Acquisition (Mykytyn, et al. 1994)

Established Dimensions of Leadership Style


Transformational Leadership Behaviour (Bass, 1985) Attributed Charisma Individual Consideration Intellectual Stimulation

Communication/ Problem Understanding Personal Traits

Control Organisation

Negotiation

Transactional Leadership Behaviour (Bass, 1985)

Contingent Reward Management-by-Exception

Initiating Structure (Stodgill, 1963)

Consideration (Stodgill, 1963)

Newer Leadership Style - Self-Management Leadership Dimensions From Manz and Sims (1986, 1987), self-management self-found Manz and Sims theory and research (1987) independent dimensions of leadership behaviour for successful selfmanagement tea,. Leadership behaviour is known as the leadership of the literature, the size of "self" (Manz and Sims 1987 political and Crawford, 1998). Manz and Sims (1987) developed the leadership and management of the self-assessment questionnaire (SMLQ) as a measure of such directors the operating SMLQ size: Self-observation, the team members will be able to gather information and knowledge is necessary, in order to monitor its operation. Volunteers, so that team members to set performance targets. Target Self-reinforcement, the team members to identify and confirm their performance Encourage self-criticism, the team is self-critical, in order to avoid poor performance. Self-expectations, so that the performance of the players who have high expectations. Encourage you exercise, your team members to practice in the face of the facts.

More Established Leadership Styles The second category includes the management of change and the size of the commercial management of subclasses. It also includes all of the original former Ohio State University, leaders and cost structure. Change management style: This style of leadership inspired his disciples on the organization of their own interests (Bass, 1990). Transformational disciples increased confidence and motivation, performance has exceeded expectations (Bass, 1985). Transactional leadership style, leadership style is based on "the exchange of a set of leaders and followers" (Bass, 1985:12). Entrepreneurs to clarify the role of followers you have to To achieve the specified. Influence on the behaviour and characteristics of the disciples a leader in providing incentives (reward) performance. Bass (1985) developed a multi-Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5) as a measure of the change in management and marketing aspects. MLQ typing five factors are: level of processing quality, personal attention and intellectual stimulation. Contingent reward and management of abnormal formation of the dimensions of business management, the following definitions are taken from the rancour and Low (1988:696).

Transformational leadership Charisma: "To the pride of leadership, faith and respect for, the ability to see what is really important, and transmits a sense of mission instil" Individual: "Director of delegates to a project that promote learning offers coaching and education, and treat each student as an individual." Intellectual stimulation, "the head increases the followers to think in new ways and emphasizes problem solving and the use of reasoning before taking action." Transactional leadership Contingent reward director of the award successors to perform under contracts or spending measures necessary price. Management by Exception: "Head to avoid giving instructions if the old ways of working and staying late disciples to do their job, as always, if performance targets are met." The results suggest that transformational leadership is more strongly related to satisfaction and performance of employees would be perceived as business management (Hater and Bass, 1988 Yammarino and Bass, 1990). In this sense, change management factors believed to be non-commercial predictors of dimensions of elements of information management better.

Task 2 Understand the functions of management and leadership Role of manager in an organization

There are basically four management concepts that allow organizations to manage the tactical, planned and the basic functions of management are just a controlled level of preventive measures Planning Planning is the first instrument has four treatment processes. The difference between the success and failure of the driver is in the design process. Planning is the logical thinking through goals and making the decision about what should be done to the objectives of the organizations. Managers use to prepare for the future, it plans to anticipate problems, to decide what action to evade difficult issues and to beat the competition. Process for Organizing Preparing the second task management, organizes. Management has organized its resources well before in hand with a concrete action plan to decide what was provided in the basic function. Through this process, the management now to the form in the head to fix, to create and maintain relationships, and also the necessary funds Directing It involves planning the implementation of the size of the individual and the group efforts by motivation, communication, leadership and control. Lead can be defined as the activation of the efforts of employees to achieve organizational goals.

Controlling This is the regulation of the process of the ongoing activities of the organization to ensure that they are in accordance with the plans and expected results. When the control function, can keep the management of the organization o the selected track,. These are: Set the performance requirements Measure current performance Comparing the actual results of the standards Detecting deviations from standards Take are important differences.

What skills does a manager need? There are three fundamental skills of a manager: 1. 2. 3. TECHNICAL HUMAN CONCEPTUAL

The most important skill of a manager For more specific skills, here is a list compiled by management experts in decreasing order of importance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. People skills Strategic thinking (planning ahead and predicting what was going to happen) Visionary Flexible/adaptable to change Self-management Team player Solve-complex problems and make decisions Ethical/high personal standards

What makes a good manager? Management expert named Charles Gibbon describes the main quality factors as follows: 1. It is a well-defined objective.

2. The ability to priorities resources. 3. The ability to make decisions. Actions and accepted responsibility 4. be prepared to compromise. 5. Can move, and, according to his subordinates. 6. Motivated and self-directed. 7. Organize, plan and ensure the efficient use of resources. 8. To maintain. Relationships with others 9. It is the emotional maturity and internal resources to deal with frustration, disappointment and stress. 10. being able to judge from the wrong end of the matter. Yourself and your performance objectively 11. Assume that they will continue to develop, improve performance, and continue to develop. "(Person 1983 p.334)

But keep in mind the following points, well you need to do: If there is a survival mode, the Director shall avoid organizational level, because it only creates the sense of inferiority and superiority after reducing its full potential. Everyone Consistency in behaviour is an important feature of a good leader. Leaders must do, it is because they preach to others their work. This is the consistency of all parts. CEO of Australia Library Locums, Nicholson, Marion said: "We Philosophy are very simple - we treat people respect and do what we say we will do." The leader must be friendly and approachable. Regular contact, and when it is necessary. Leaders must be commended and encouraged and improve the working environment support. Their staff Leaders need leaders. They must be creative, not just the practical skills to solve the problem.

Leaders must have the ability to take action; they have not been updated to achieve the confidence of the house. Adequacy and other direct

It is supposedly the internal customers will never be broken under pressure from others. This robot is the opinion of the management. The management of the human eye, people can express their feelings. Its location and the work of the director is looking for staff for these situations and talk as soon as possible to understand why and solve the level before the emotions can affect the external customers. In contrast to the real case, the customer can find the external pressures or frustrated, talking to customers, listen to their views and solve problems, control manager. Do you remember, when things go wrong, everyone is responsible, not only employees, but also to manage as we work together shooting people is no way to solve the problem. It should be considered as a last resort. In this case, everyone should be improved. We have to solve all our problems. The organizing committee to keep things in the right order is all about. Any business, organization an important role in helping you achieves your goals. In practice, effective organizational skills to help your personal and professional, good organizational ability to take into account making day to day responsibilities the organization also provides you with a sense of control and improves productivity. Effectiveness Efficiency is the main advantage of possible organizational skills. Professional and organized to spend less time to correct errors, information retrieval, and fix the confusion. Save more, the more time doing productive things. In addition, a positive effect on time management skills, organizational skills, to make it more convenient for employees to share information with each other to better teamwork. The progress In business, organizational skills will help you track your progress. If you put enough time to gather and store financial situation, I can tell you what your business progress. You might think that the money will be enough to see evidence of success, but if you spend a lot of money on advertising and promotion, without any folders, you may lose a lot of money, because there is no organization. Whenever there is a check-list shows the revenue and expenditure of all activities, the saved text file or a spreadsheet will help you instantly

removes all viable cost. This allows you to put your efforts of these elements will be profitable. Better management skills The ability to manage a business depended great organizational skills. In order to manage other people, you must know how to prioritize and share them with skills and abilities. A well-organized manager can make it easy, and exudes self-confidence and control of the organization to create a production environment for all employees. Head of the organization's ability to carry out specific tasks, such as setting a deadline for the project and the assessment of driving performance, all of which contribute to a more efficient system Self-confidence The organization's ability to create a sense of trust and a professional in the workplace well organized management of the projects the image reliability and control. That helped more likely to win the trust of customers and partners. Reduce Stress Organizational skills and reduce stress. A well organized to create a more relaxed environment, rather than a cluttered or messy office, which are constantly looking for projects or to avoid the piles of papers around the office.

Task 3 How can we measure the success of good governance? Success of good governance can be measured by the behaviour of the leadership program that focuses on the issue of accountability, governance, social enterprise business risk. Also be performed in the literature as data collection (interviews, focus groups and surveys) and data using appropriate quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques. Another way is to introduce the public to find and operational expertise of the members of the Council for businesses to gain by the authorities. Trust a company's research with the aid of the method of production, we can make the time in the production process is continuous time for quality assurance practices and, in cooperation with the communication section design and implementation of communication aircraft. The term refers to the responsible management of the activities related to the general operation of the planning, organization, resources, management, supervision and coordination. Long-term planning is the process of identifying the objectives, goals and methods that allow us to perform. Objectives of the organization and implementation of the various tasks If you organize the means to achieve this goal for these objectives in the best possible conditions, they organize new services such as human resources, office and system files. The term includes leadership sets the direction of the organization to achieve the best possible way, for example, they live in groups and individual tasks, and the impact of the guidelines the objectives. Revision or coordination of a structural system of the organization to achieve to achieve organizational goals Effective this includes ongoing collection of feedback and control system, such as the use of financial controls, policies and procedures, performance management processes and procedures to avoid risks. The term "leadership" is also used to indicate which approves the change and lead the transformation of stakeholder organizations. Leadership in the fulfilment of its top under the current levels of the organization Importance of management responsible for the organization of the potential In the global market today, it is important to understand, as they are now faced with the role and responsibilities as a world power, and your company, organization, society and the environment they are now treating, sufficiently complex, it is also important to the social acknowledge responsibility and sustainability is an integral part of business.

It is a complex and interdependent environment requires new approaches to the integration of management tools needed for the organization, which helps to cope with the social environment and governance issues in the daily operations and strategic thinking. Importance of good governance and leadership Governance is the act of directing and managing the investments to optimize performance. Individuals and organizational skills are of the key for administration and management factors. They meet the fiduciary and financial responsibilities of the parties, if their

expectations. We sometimes call people to high CV, and thus lose the board administration. Mr. Jones said that all companies are value for stakeholders, generates a profit, but if they do not they do not follow the rules fall into the ballgame. '' Bad decisions are not usually the result of bad people doing bad things, but good men to do nothing.'' Most of the plates is difficult to get government the purpose and objective of the three fundamental values of good, accountability, integrity and transparency to stakeholders. An important observation is that the government is a strategic objective of achieving the governance of the organization, which is a systematic approach to management, whereby the function of the objectives and the strategic and operational results. With the help of the leadership of the organization can improve and measure their productivity and can lead to organizational changes. Inside Stakeholders Inside the stakeholders are the people who are closest to the organization and are the strongest and most direct requirements of the organization's resources: shareholders, management non managerial workers and employees. Shareholders Shareholders own the organization, so they obtained is often considered superior to the other assets of the organization. In part of the organization is to invest in money is to invest in silver by purchasing organization is possible that they can earn dividends and the share price they bought the investment. Investment in stock is risky, but because there is no guarantee of return. Shareholders who do not believe that there are many (potential yield) is sufficient for (the money that they have invested) to sell their shares and withdraw its support for the organization's interest. As can be seen in the following example, an increasing number of

large institutional investors have confidence in the investment companies to protect their interests and increase their influence. Managerial Employees Managers are employees who are responsible for coordinating the resources of the organization and ensure that organizational goals can be successfully achieved. Leaders are responsible for the shareholder to invest in various money optimize resources. Future value of goods and service managers, In fact, agents or employees appointed by the shareholders and, indirectly, shareholders, the management structure of the organization, such as the Board of Directors administrators to manage the organization. Business Contributions for managers "are skills they use to run the organization the pressures inside and outside of the organization. For example, the directors of the opening of global markets expertise, identify new products, or solve the transaction costs and technological problems can be made easier objectives of the organization. Non managerial Employees Membership organization made up of non managerial employees. These workers are the duties and responsibilities (usually described in the job description) are responsible for implementation. It is the employee's share of carrying out its duties and responsibilities of the organization. How good is an employee, to some extent, under the supervision of employee to perform well rewards and punishments that the organization used to affect job performance? Outside Stakeholders External stakeholders are the people who do not have the organization (such as shareholders), unemployed, but any interest or activity. Customers suppliers, government, trade unions and other local communities, special interests groups and the public are all external stakeholders. Customers Customers are generally a large number of stakeholders outside the organization. Clients are encouraged to choose a product or service (and organization) from potentially a number of alternative products or services. They usually do this through an estimate of what they will get in relation to what they have to they pay that the product or service of their share of the organization and reflects the value they feel they receive the organization's.

Suppliers To promote trade and other key external stakeholders, organization providing a reliable supply of raw materials, parts and other services that allows an organization to uncertainty in the technical or production, reducing profitability, Suppliers therefore have a direct effect organizational effectiveness, and an indirect effect on its ability to attract customers. Government Historically, many governments have a major impact on both the market and the functioning of the Canadian business environment. Involvement two prohibitions and prescriptive in the summer since the company operates and contribute to society, governments need multiple exposures to the organization. While He wants businesses to compete on an equal and fair competition rules, he wants to obey the rules and agreed to the payment and the treatment of workers legislation, companies are also the health and safety of workers at the workplace, non-discriminatory hiring practices, and other social and economic issues. In addition to purely legal questions part of the business, governments often have the power to vote questions from the audience reflect broader social participated in the government and their treatment of these issues may be included in; Affect the business organizations and corporate behaviour in different ways.

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