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Outline: prologue Objective 1- Define psychology. Psychology is the study of how organisms behave and how they think.

Behavior- anything an organism does Objective 2- Trace psychologys pre scientific roots, from early understanding of mind and body to the beginnings of modern science. In ancient Greece, Socrates and Plato believed that the mind could separate from the body and survive after death. They also believed that knowledge was preexistent in the mind. Contrary to what they thought, a teenager named Aristotle announced that the soul could not separate from the body and that knowledge did not preexisting. In the 1600s, a Frenchman called Ren Descartes had the same beliefs as Socrates and Plato. Francis Bacon, one of the founders of modern science believed that humans noticed and remembered events that confirm superstitious beliefs. About fifty years after Bacons death, a British political philosopher John Lock concluded that the mind started as a blank state, or a white paper. Empiricism- the view that knowledge comes from experience from the senses and that science flourishes through observation and experiment. Objective 3- Explain how the early psychologists sought to understand the minds structure and functions and identify some of the leading psychologists who worked in these areas. The start of psychology was in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt. He tested when a sound was heard and when the person was consciously aware of perceiving the sound. Edward Bradford Titchener, Wundts student introduced the concept of structuralism. He searched for the minds structural elements by using introspection. William James, a philosopher-psychologist wondered about the evolved functions of thoughts and feelings. He believed that the senses adapted to the environment for survival. Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to get a psychology Ph. D. and wrote a book, Animal Mind. Structuralism- an early form of psychology that uses introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

Functionalism- a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish Objective 4- Describe the evolution of psychology as defined from the 1920s to through today. In 1920, psychology was defined as the science of mental life, until the 1960s, where it was now considered as the scientific study of observable behavior. Another type of psychology is humanistic psychology, based on the importance of environmental influences on our growth potential and the importance of meeting the needs for love and acceptance. Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience is the study of the interaction of thought processes and brain function. Humanistic psychology- historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth Objective 5- summarize the nature-nurture debate in psychology, and describe the principle of natural selection. Nature-nurture was debated as far as the ancient Greeks, starting with Plato, who assumed that character and intelligence was inherited and that certain ideas were innate. Aristotle contradicted it with the idea that the knowledge in the mind is from the outside world. In the 1600s, Locke rejected Plato and Aristotles theory about inborn ideas, instead offering the belief that the mind started out as a blank slate and is filled with experience. Descartes disagreed with Locke on the topic that some ideas are inborn. Charles Darwin, a voyager, discovered species that differed on separate islands. He invented a principle called natural selection, in which nature selected traits that enabled species to survive and reproduce. Nature-nurture issue- the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Natural selection- the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Objective 6- Identify the three main levels of analysis in the biopsychosocial approach and explain why psychologys varied perspectives are complementary.

The three main levels of analysis are biological, psychological and social-cultural influences. The biological influences are the genetics, such as mutations, traits that are influenced by the environment. Psychological influences are made up of learned fears, emotional responses, and learned expectations. Finally, the social-cultural influences are the reactions to others, models and peers. The perspectives all play a part in how people function. Neuroscience is mixed in with the social-cultural perspective, the evolutionary perspective helps explain the behavior genetics, and so on and so forth. Levels of analysis- the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach- an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological and social-cultural levels of analysis Perspective Neuroscience Evolutionary Behavior genetics Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Social-cultural Focus How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts How we learn observable responses How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

Objective 7- identify some of psychologys subfields, and explain the difference between clinical psychology and psychiatry. Psychology has five subfields, basic research, and applied research, counseling psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry. Some psychologists use basic research to build up the basic knowledge of psychology. Counseling psychologists deals with academic issues, emotions, and behavior. Applied research studies practical problems, such as the behavior in the workplace. Clinical psychology deals with mental, emotional and behavior disorders. Psychiatry is dealt with medicine that treats psychological disorders. The difference between clinical psychology and psychiatry is that clinical psychology is into the analysis of mental disorders and psychiatry is a branch of medicine that treats the disorders. Psychiatrists have the

power to actually prescribe drugs. They are usually Medical Doctors and can give psychological therapy. Basic research- pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied research- scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Counseling research- a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living(often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater wellbeing Clinical psychology- a branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatry- branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy Objective 8- state five effective study techniques. The five study techniques are distributing study time, which is prioritizing things. Listening in class means do not get distracted. Overlearn means read and review things learned. Focusing on the big ideas means to look at the bigger picture. Being a smart test taker is the last and means to concentrate on the harder topic first.