Sei sulla pagina 1di 33
I /-- cbdg Fast Construction = Segmental and Launched Bridges Prepared for the Concrete Bridge
I
/-- cbdg
Fast Construction =
Segmental and
Launched Bridges
Prepared for the
Concrete Bridge Development Group
by Simon Bourne, BSc MSc DIC
CEng FlCE FlStructE (Bena~m)
and Colin McKenna (Technical
Director, Scott W~lson)
Concrete Bridge Development Group
Technical Paper 9

CONTENTS

Speed Innovations in Segmental and Launched Bridges

Simon has worked almost exclusively in the Design and Construct market for over 25 years, designing award- winning major infrastructure projects for contractors worldwide. He has designed and managed the design of major road and railway bridges, footbridges, tunnels and underground railway stations in the UK and overseas, advising contractors on constructionmethods and temporary works. He has particular experience of designing urban steel and concrete bridges in difficult locations and major crossings over rivers and estuaries, where value, speed, safety and buildability are the key elements.

Case Study - Route 3, Hong Kong (Glued Segmental Bridges)

Colin McKenna is the Technical Director responsiblefor the bridges Resource Group in the Basingstoke Office with particular responsibilityfor overseas projects. He is Vice Chairman of the Concrete Bridge Development Group, a member of their Technical Committeeand part of the Task Group on bridge strengthening.

Author

Pages

Simon Bourne Director, Benaim

Colin McKenna Technical Director Scott Wilson

18-29

Current work includes the inspection, assessment and design of bridges both in the UK and overseas.

His earlier experience was in the design and assessment of bridges of all types both in the UK and overseas including the 160m span Tsing Tsuen Bridge in Hong Kong.

The Concrete Bridge Development Group acknowledges the contribution of both authors to this TechnicalPaper.

Speed Innovations in Segmental and Launched Bridges

Simon Bourne

BSc MSc DIC CEng FlCE FlStructE Director, Benaim

Summary

The methods of construction available to the designer depend on both his own ingenuity and lateral thinking, and the creative partnershipsthat exist with the contractors. Nothwithstanding the many options that may be considered, it is inevitably the programming of the works and the speed of constructionthat dictate the optimum solution. This is then the mechanismthat will be the key to generating best value and to reducing risks. Segmental and launched construction in its various forms has been used for many years and it might be thought of as a mature construction method, but this does not mean that there is no further room for innovation and development to suit particular contracts. This paper considers a number of developments in precast segmental and incrementally launched bridge construction methods and highlights particular developments in both methods, by looking at bridges recently constructed in the UK, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong.

1 Developments in Construction

Segmental and launched bridge designs have been developed over the years, by a large number of engineers, in responseto the demands of construction sites. Inthis paper, I explore a number of changes in the design and construction of precast segmental bridges and launched bridges in recent years. It is important to remember that although Benaim were the final designer of the bridges shown, the developmentswere all achieved by collaborativeworking with the contractors who we worked alongside, as our client and fellow team member. Innovative design is much more likely to occur where designers and contractors work closely together, particularlyfor large bridges where the methods of construction dictate so much of the design. In many cases,there are also other engineers involved in the projects- as the original designer, where we have prepared an alternative design, or as the client's engineer in the Design & Construct sector - and the whole team has to work together to get the best for each project.

Each project is different; it has its own demands related to its purpose,size, location, obstacles to be crossed, contractor's expertise, the political and contractual environment, and the like. Aesthetics, economy, buildability and safety are all crucial issues, but it is the programming, sequencing and planning issues that are always the most crucial It is the designer's duty to seek to optimise the design to suit these various demands, but because of the variety of these demands, it is rare that a designer can repeat a design. Indeed, depending on a database of previous designs when considering a new project can lead to lack of lateral thinking and innovation, conservatism and poor quality design.

For both precast segmental and incrementally launched construction, I describe a number of recent developments on projects for which we have designed some new methods. These particularly relate to the integration of temporary works and permanent works, to the proper assessment of buildability and detailing, and to techniques that improve the speed of construction (please note that Acer Consultantswere the designers of the permanent works on the Belfast Cross Harbour Links project).

Page 1 of 29

Precast Segmental Bridges Match-cast precast segmental construction grew out of the desire to prefabricate off
Precast Segmental Bridges
Match-cast precast segmental construction grew out of the desire to prefabricate off site as
much of the bridge deck as possible, mainly in order to speed the construction process. The
method has a number of advantages that include:
lmproved quality control of casting in regular factory conditions
lmproved control of casting programme by use of multiple moulds
Reduction of disruption to the existing users of the site
Ability to run the casting in parallel with the construction of the substructure
Overall reduction in construction programme and hence cost savings
Classic Erection Methods
There have been a number of developments in the erection methods for precast segmental
bridges. In the early days, it was common practiceto erect the segments in balancedcantilever,
with one segment either side of the pier stressed onto the previous segments using bars,
followed by the permanent prestress. The segments were erected either using land or water-
based cranes, or shear legs. Segment delivery mechanisms are also important in achieving
rapid construction methods.
In balanced cantilever construction, it is necessary to ensure the stability of the balanced
cantilevers during erection. Typically, this was done with a symmetric pair of falsework towers
either side of the pier. However, on a number of recent projects, we have developed a
combinationof a prop and vertical prestressties that has the advantage of reducingthe amount
of steelwork, and minimising the foundations and work at ground level required during
construction (see Fig. 1).
Fig. I Belfast Cross Harbour Links
Balanced cantilever - crane erection
Although these methods of erection are still appropriate for many bridges, gantry erection
methods are often usedfor larger projects. Gantries usually allow more rapid construction and
they can allow the segments to be delivered at deck level to minimise ground level working.
There are a number of different types of gantry, overhead and underslung, which can erect
segments either in balanced cantilever or in span by span formats (see Figs. 2-4).
Page 2 of 29
Fig. 2 STAR LRTS Viaducts Balanced cantilever - gantry erection Fig. 3 Stanstead Abbotts Viaducts
Fig. 2 STAR LRTS Viaducts
Balanced cantilever - gantry erection
Fig. 3 Stanstead Abbotts Viaducts
Span by span - underslung gantry
Fig. 4 Route 3 Country Park Viaducts
Span by span - overhead gantry
Whilst developing the design, it is necessary to consider in detail the interaction between the
permanentworks, the constructionmethodand the constructionprogramme. Forexample, there
is no point in detailing the design for rapid erection, if the supply of the segments is slow.
Overseas, the prestressing can be selected as being either internal or external, with mixed
systems often being used to suit the construction, i.e. smaller internalcables during construction
in combinationwith larger external cables that are installed on completion. In the UK however,
the requirements remain that all cables must be external -this suits span by span construction
more readily than balanced cantilever construction.
Page 3 of 29
Temporary Prestressing Bars The relationship between the permanent prestress design and the temporary prestress bars,
Temporary Prestressing Bars
The relationship between the permanent prestress design and the temporary prestress bars,
which are used to hold the segments together during construction, can be modified to suit
different constructioncycles. Whereas it used to be common to use barsto stress the segments
onto the previous segment followed by immediate permanent prestressing, installing the
permanent prestress is a relatively slow process and it is now more common to fix two or three
segments on temporary bars before applying the permanent prestress. For shorter spans, it is
even possible to erect all of the segments on bars and then to follow up with the permanent
prestress. This technique was used on the design & construct project at the Belfast Cross
Harbour Links (see Fig. 5) for spans up to 28m, using 4m segments. Here, the whole balanced
cantilever was stressed with only temporary bars, leaving the installation of the permanent
prestress entirely off the critical erection path (see Figs. 6-7). Usuallythough, we have limited
the length carried on temporary bars to 9-10m.
Fig. 5 Belfast Cross Harbour Links
Overview of the project
Fig. 6 Belfast Cross Harbour Links
Entire balanced cantilever erected on
temporary prestressing bars
Fig. 7 Belfast Cross Harbour
Links
Temporary prestressing bars
anchored on top of the segment
The prestressingsequence for the balanced cantileversof the STAR Light Rail Viaducts in Kuala
Lumpur utilised three shorter (2.7m long) segments, all held on bars prior to installing the
permanent prestress (see Figs. 8-9). This sequencewas also tailored to suit the gantry erection
method in the city centre, over live roads. Six segments could be erected at night over the
Page 4 of 29
closed roads, and then the permanentprestressinstalled and stressed duringthe day, when the roads were open
closed roads, and then the permanentprestressinstalled and stressed duringthe day, when the
roads were open to traffic again. This allowed up to three 35m spans to be erected each week.
Fig. 8 STAR LRTS Viaducts
Temporary prestressing bar layout showing
3+3 segments erected on bars
Fig. 9 STAR LRTS Viaducts
Segment details showing the banks of
three permanent prestressing
anchorages
Integration of Substructure
Whilst the majority of this paper is concernedwith the design of the bridge superstructure,for an
overall coherent and cost-effective design, one must also consider the co-ordination of the
superstructure and substructures designs. There are three techniques that can be utilised -
single piles, portal span arrangements and built-in crossheads.
Single Piles
The design & construct STAR Light RailViaducts in Kuala Lumpur (see Fig. 10) are an example
where we were able to use a single pile under each column for many of the piers, thus
eliminating the pilecaps, which resulted in time and cost savings as well as reductions in the
amount of disruption (see Fig. 11). Also, given that we were building the bridge in balanced
cantilever, and that the gantry rested on the pier, the single pile was loaded almost up to its
normalworking load during construction. This, in effect, gave us a working load piletest on each
of the large-diameterbored piles, at the same time as minimising the excavation for the pilecaps
and reducingthe disruptionto the traffic and to the undergroundutilities (see Fig. 12). The piles
needto be designedfor substantial bending usingsoil-structureinteractiontechniques,butonce
this is achieved, the net result is an overall reduction in the required pile area.
Page 5 of 29
Fig. 10 STAR LRTS Viaducts Overview of the project Fig. 11 STAR LRTS Viaducts Section
Fig. 10 STAR LRTS Viaducts
Overview of the project
Fig. 11 STAR LRTS Viaducts
Section at the piers showing
the single piles
Fig. 12 STAR LRTS Viaducts
Piers supported by single piles in the river
Some of the most successful projects are those where the two parts of the design are even more
fully integrated,with the superstructure being built into the substructure.
Portal Spans
The West RailViaducts in Hong Kong (see Fig. 13) include 10km length of twin-track viaducts,
which run through both rural and morewell developed areas. In order to meetthe stringent limits
on noise levels created by trains running on the viaducts, the engineer made use of a number of
mitigation measures. He chose to use an individual concrete box girder supporting each of the
tracks instead of the more conventional solution of a single large box girder supporting both
tracks. The box girders were generally simply supported, but continuous structures were used
for the longer spans. In order to use continuously welded rail without rail expansionjoints, the
joints in the deck were at less than 80m centres.
Page 6 of 29
Fig. 13 West Rail Viaducts Overview of the typical portal spans We prepared an alternative
Fig. 13 West Rail Viaducts
Overview of the typical portal spans
We prepared an alternative design, which was be cheaper and faster to build. From the noise
mitigation studies, it became clear that by reducing the width of the box girder such that the webs
were under the rails, the train-induced vibrations could be reduced and hence the concrete
sections could be optimised whilst maintaining the same level of noise emission. Using this
method, we were able to reduce the superstructure costs by 30% (see Fig. 14). However, the
narrower box would not have been stable under typhoon wind loads and it was therefore decided
to omit the bearings and build the box girder into the columns, forming portal spans. This had
the distinct benefit, from the point of view of the client's maintenancecosts, of removing all the
bearings. In order to allow for deck movements, the piers were split into two separate leaves,
each one built into the adjacent span (see Fig. 15).
Fig. 14 West Rail Viaducts
Comparison of the original and alternative
sections
Fig. 15 West Rail Viaducts
Typical portal span layout showing single
piles and twin-leaf piers
This arrangement respected the engineer's layout of typical 35m span lengths and movement
joint locations, and also used single piles (i.e. no pilecaps) under each pier. It was necessary to
Page 7 of 29
develop a new type of reinforced concretedetail for the monolithicconnectionbetweenthe deck and the leaf piers
develop a new type of reinforced concretedetail for the monolithicconnectionbetweenthe deck
and the leaf piers -this used shell segments that were subsequently infilled after erection (see
Figs. 16-17). For longer spans, the deck was made continuous and varied in depth. Similar
principles were adopted though to those for the simply supported spans - namely precast
segmental deck monolithic with the piers, internal prestress and pairs of flexible leaf piers (see
Fig. 18).
Fig. 16 West Rail Viaducts
3-D image of the monolithic pierlsegment connection
Fig. 17 West Rail Viaducts
Detail at the pier segment showing the
anchorages and the in-situ infill zone
Fig. 18 West Rail Viaducts
Overview of the continuous spans showing the
twin-leaf piers
Built-in Crossheads
Page 8 of 29
The upgradingof Pasir Panjang Road required a new dual three-lane road, with associated slip roads
The upgradingof Pasir Panjang Road required a new dual three-lane road, with associated slip
roads and ramps, to be constructed above the existing live road. The site is located in a busy
urban area in Singapore and the existing roads carry a high volume of traffic, especially during
peak hours. One of the main constraintswas that the existing carriageway had to be kept fully
operational at all times, expect during a short 6-hour period at night.
We were appointed by the contractor to prepare an alternative design that could be almost
entirely precast off site. The two elevated carriageways were separated by an air gap and we
proposed to construct the balanced cantilever viaduct using separate precast boxes for each
carriageway. The columns had to be in the central reservation of the road below and this
required a large concrete crossheadto supportthe deck. The deck was monolithicallyconnected
to the columns in order to improve the appearance of the bridge and to reduce the number of
bearings, thus reducing maintenance costs. The monolithic connection of the deck with the
columns also eliminated the need for temporary props during construction. On this project, we
developed a new technique that allowed the contractor to cast the piers in-situ but to construct
the deck and the crosshead using match-cast, precast segments.
The crosshead segments weighing up to 100t were erected using a mobile crane whilst the
standard deck segments of up to 50t were erected using an overhead launching gantry. The
crossheadsegmentswere cast as shell units, andwere subsequently infilledto stitch them to the
pier tops. During the 6-hour night shift, the traffic was diverted away from one carriageway to
allow erection of segments on one end of the crosshead, and then the traffic was diverted to the
other carriageway to allow segments to be erected on the other end of the crosshead (see Fig.
19).
Page 9 of29
Fig. 19 Pasir Panjang Road Viaducts Six-stageconstruction sequence showing the built-in crosshead details This method
Fig. 19 Pasir Panjang Road Viaducts
Six-stageconstruction sequence showing the built-in
crosshead details
This method of construction requires particular care in alignment control; the shape of the
crosshead and all four cantileverswhich are attached to it are predeterminedin the casting yard,
as errors are very difficult to put right on site. The crossheadswere cast using a long-line mould
system and were match-cast against the first box girder segments. The box girder segments
were cast in short-line, match-cast segmental moulds. The precast solutions were also
extended to the slip road ramps.
Precast Shells
The Taney Road Bridge (see Fig. 20) carries a new light railway (LUAS Line) over a busy road
intersection in Dublin.
Fig. 20 Taney Road Bridge
Overview of the project
The alternative design prepared by Benaim respectedthe aesthetic qualities of the conforming
design but utilised a constant depth precast segmentalshell infilledwith concretethroughoutthe
whole length of the structure (see Fig. 21). The tower, piers, foundations and anchorage
abutment were unchanged from the conforming design. The precast shell and in-situ infill
construction has advantages over more conventional forms of construction; it avoids the
extensiveshuttering neededfor in-situ construction, it reducesthe weight of the liftedsegments
(with smaller cranes needed for
less time) and allows the use of continuous prestress ducts that
are normallyvery difficult to achieve with fully precast segmental construction. The purpose of
the alternative was to develop a design that would simplify and speed up the construction
process (see Fig. 22).
Page 10 of 29
Fig. 21 Taney Road Bridge Four-stage construction sequence showing the precast shells The use of
Fig. 21 Taney Road Bridge
Four-stage construction sequence showing the
precast shells
The use of this form of construction for a major bridge was not documented and so the
development of the details required careful consideration,and, in particular,the detailing for the
longitudinalshear at the interface betweenthe precast concrete and the infill. The prestressfor
the bridge took three forms:
Temporary prestress bars placed on temporary blocks
Permanent prestress bars, anchored between segment diaphragms
Permanent strand prestress in ducts cast into the in-situ infill concrete
In the original design, there were up to 106 No. 40mm prestressing bars in the cross-section,
whilst in the alternative, this was reduced to 10 No. 40mm bars plus up to 17 No. 19l15mm
tendons.
Fig. 22 Taney Road Bridge
Two-stage construction sequence showing the precast shell details
Page 11 of 29
Taney Road Bridge is understood to be the first use of precast segmental shells in
Taney Road Bridge is understood to be the first use of precast segmental shells in the
construction of a cable-stayed bridge, and indeed on this scale and in this manner, at any bridge.
We have subsequently extended this precast shell and infill method to the alternativedesign of a
bridge over the River Shannon (see Fig. 23), in Ireland, using very similar techniques with the
exceptionthat temporary pierswere used during construction ratherthan cable stays- erecting
the bridge in span by span style as opposed to by balanced cantilever (see Figs. 24-25).
Fig. 23 River Shannon Bridge
Overview of the project
Fig. 24 River Shannon Bridge
Segments in the storage yard showing
the precast shell details
Fig. 25 River Shannon Bridge
Precast shells erected on temporaw Drops
Incrementally Launched Bridges
Incrementallaunched construction also grew out of the desire to prefabricate off site as much of
the bridge deck as possible, mainly in order to speed the construction process. The method has
a number of advantages that include:
Page 12 of 29
Improved quality control of casting in regular, quasi-factory conditions Reduction of disruption to the existing
Improved quality control of casting in regular, quasi-factory conditions
Reduction of disruption to the existing users of the site
Ability to run the casting in parallel with the construction of the substructure
Overall reduction in construction programme and hence cost savings
Classic Erection Methods
In its traditional form, the incrementally launched method of construction is based on casting
segments in a mould placed behind the bridge abutment. Segments are cast on a weekly cycle
and each week the deck isjacked forward out of the mould to make space for the next segment
to be cast. Whereas in precast segmental construction the segments are match cast but not
continuously reinforced, in incrementallylaunched constructionthe segments are cast up against
each other with reinforcement passing through the constructionjoint. It would be common for
the casting length to be one third or one half of the span length and normally the deck is
internallyprestressed. The prestress during launching must be centroidal and is supplemented,
after launching, with additional draped tendons. Because the centroidal prestress is less
efficient, the prestress is typically 25% greater than a similar bridge built by other methods.
Spans are typically 45m and steel launching noses, around 30m long, are used to control the
effects at the construction head during the launch (see Figs. 26-27).
Fig. 26 Sungai Sitiawan Bridge
Classic launch and nose techniques
Fig. 27 Sungai Sitiawan Bridge
Classic section details and internal prestressing
There have, of course, been a large number of derivatives of this basic method. In the next
section, I show details of a recent, innovative development that has proved cost-effective on two
bridges in Ireland.
Partial Prestressing
Broadmeadow Estuary Bridge (see Fig. 28) carries the MI Motorway over the estuary north of
Dublin and it was constructed to a value-engineereddesign prepared by Benaim. The sensitive
Page 13 of 29
nature of the site demanded careful consideration of both the appearance of the bridge and
nature of the site demanded careful consideration of both the appearance of the bridge and its
construction methods. The value-engineereddesign maintainedthe overall appearanceof the
bridgewith its 69m spans, but was based on the incrementally launched method of construction
(see Fig. 29).
Fig. 28 Broadmeadow Estuary Bridge
Overview of the project
In the revised design, the deck concrete was cast in sections behind the abutment and
incrementally launched across the estuary (see Fig. 30). The deck post-tensioning was not
applied until after the deck was fully launched; prior to this stage the deck was purely reinforced
concrete and was supported on temporary piers in the middle of the spans as well as at the
permanent piers. This is an innovative form of construction, which was developed out of the
research that was the basis for the HA documents BD and BA 58/94. In particular, these
documents recognise that for externally prestressed structures the corrosion protectionto the
tendon is primarily provided by the grouted or wax-filled duct and that normal cracking of the box
girder can be allowed. This leads to a fully prestresseddesign under dead loads and a partially
prestressed design under live loads. This novel combination of post-tensioning and un-
tensioned reinforcementled to a 35% saving in the weight of the prestressingsteel set against a
small increase in the un-tensioned reinforcement.
Fig. 29 Broadmeadow Estuary Bridge
Showing the nose and the temporary
midspan props
Page 14 of 29
Fig. 30 Broadmeadow Estuary Bridge Layout of the casting area The internal prestress for the
Fig. 30 Broadmeadow Estuary
Bridge
Layout of the casting area
The internal prestress for the original design is shown at the top
of Fig. 31, following the normal
layout of a balanced cantilever bridge. The prestress layout for the revised design is shown at
the bottom of the same Fig. 31 for comparison. All of the prestress was external and was
installedfrom one end of the bridge to the
other, anchored on the abutment diaphragms. The re-
design led to a reduction in the number of prestressing tendons from 660 No. 12 strand tendons
to 24 No. 27 strand tendons running the full length of the bridge (see Fig. 32).
Fig. 31 Broadmeadow Estuary Bridge
Comparison of the original and alternative
prestressing layouts
Fig. 32 Broadmeadow Estuary Bridge
Details inside the box showing the
simple, external prestressing layout
It is believedthat this is the first time that a bridge has been launched on reinforcementonly and
subsequently post-tensioned. It is also understoodthat this is the first bridgewith a curved soffit
to be constructed by launching anywhere and it is the first substantial launched bridge in Ireland.
Page 15 of 29
The success of this project has led on to the construction of another bridge in
The success of this project has led on to the construction of another bridge in Ireland - the
BlackwaterViaduct (see Fig. 33) on the Fermoy Bypass. This uses similar principles, but this
time the bridge is 450m long with 58m spans, and a special low-friction prefabricated
prestressingtendon is being used to enable the cables to be stressed from end to end (see Figs.
34-35).
Fig. 33 Blackwater Viaduct
Overview of the ~roiect
Fig. 34 Blackwater Viaduct
Proposed partial prestressingsystem
with low-friction, banded cables
Fig. 35 Blackwater Viaduct
Showing the nose and the temporary
props over the river
Page 16 of 29

4

Conclusions

Segmental and launched construction in its various forms has been used for many years and it might be thought of as a mature construction method, but this does not mean that there is no further room for innovationand development to suit particularprojects. A number of examples of precast segmental and incrementally launched bridge construction methods have been considered, which highlight particular developments in the last few years, each of which was chosen to improve the speed of construction. These include the use of:

Temporary prestressing bars - with fewer prestressing operations - with fewer prestressing operations

0 Integration of substructure -with no pilecaps and greater use of precasting

Precast shells -with lighter lifts and fewer critical operationssubstructure -with no pilecaps and greater use of precasting Temporary midspan props - with fewer prestressing

Temporary midspan props - with fewer prestressing operations - with fewer prestressing operations

0 Partial prestressing- fewer prestressing anchorages

The key rules to achieve speed are to either remove work stages, to remove work stages away from the critical path, or to make the stages quicker and easier. These effects can only be achieved by the detailed and thorough analysis of methodologies, sequences and programmes, with the essential need being that the design is carried out in full recognitionof the construction process.

Engineers,working in teams - client, client's engineer, contractor, contractor's designer - must strive for creative thinking and develop new and improved methods of construction to suit the challenges of each and every project.

Page 17 of 29

Glued Segmental Bridges- Route 3, Hong Kong Colin.McKenna Technical Director, Scott Wilson INTRODUCTION Route 3
Glued Segmental Bridges- Route 3, Hong Kong
Colin.McKenna
Technical Director, Scott Wilson
INTRODUCTION
Route 3 is a new expressway connecting Guangdong Province with Kowloon and Hong Kong
Island. It was constructed in a number of contracts of which this is one
The Country Park Section lies between Ting Kau on the coast and Yuen Long nearthe provincial
border. The contract commences at the approachesto the Ting Kau Bridgeand terminates near
Yuen Long where it connects with the existing New Territories Circular Road which leads to the
border and the Guangzhou-Shenzen Superhighway. A 30 year franchise for this 12km long
section was let to a consortium led by Sun Hung Kai Properties. Scott Wilson was appointed in
joint venture with Maunsell ConsultantsAsia Ltd to act as lead consultants for the construction
consortium which included several of Hong Kong's leading contractors, namely Nishimatsu,
Dragages et Travaux Publics (HK) Ltd and Gammon Construction Ltd.
The structures that are the subject of this paper were designed by Scott Wilson and all lie to the
north of Tai Lam tunnel which serves to divide the section into two.
The general layout of the contract is shown in Figure 1
GUANGDONG
.>
PROVINCE
\ I
'
,
I.
1
,.
1
'I
,,
,\<
>,'
,
I
"'
Figure 1 - Route 3 Country Park Section
2
DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURES
Page 18 of 29

The precast segmental bridges all form part of the Au Tau Interchangewith Bridge Ia carrying the main carriageway and Bridges E, G and H carrying slip roads. These all consist of simply supported spans, longitudinally linked with a continuous top slab and curved in plan. Span lengths of up to 37m are used with a maximum of 16 spans per bridge. Segment joints are glued. Bridges E, G and H are all single cell boxes in which the main box dimensions are constant and the cantilever lengths vary to accommodate the road widening for visibility requirements. Bridge la carries dual carriageways of up to 17.4m width and it consists of two separate decks each made up from two single cell boxes connected by a short insitu deck slab.

The complex highway alignment is dictated by major existing roads which are joined by the slip roads and other constraints below. Radii as low as 200 metres are required.

Simply supported structures were chosen for the segmental structures since at the time of carrying out the design there was insufficient geotechnical information for the relatively poor ground conditionsto be able to assess differential settlements. Itwas consideredthat the cost of additional piling to minimise these settlements would outweigh the savings to be made if continuous superstructureswere employed. Ready access was availableto a suitable location for a precasting facility which made the use of match cast segments even more beneficial.

3

DESIGN

3.1

Substructures

The piers all consist of a standard tapered upper section sitting on a circular stem. The upper section for the wide box structures tapers from the 2.5 metre diameter stem to a pier top 6 metres by 3.5 metres over a height of 7.5 metres.

The piers of Bridge la also have 2.5 metre diameter stems but support the deck on a cantilevered crosshead. In general each free pier is supported on a pair of 2 metre diameter bored piles up to 40 metres long and the restrained piers on 3 similar piles.

The ground offered low lateral restraint to the piles and a buckling analysis modelling the full length of the pier and pile system was required to determine effective lengths for design.

The majority of the piers were designed to allow unrestrained longitudinal movement of the superstructure, however the critical design condition was during the erection of the superstructure. The weight of the gantry plus the completedspan in combinationwith the high wind loadings of the area meant that in general all piers had similar reinforcement.

3.2 Superstructure

Short-line match casting techniqueswere used for the constructionof the precastsegmentswith two lines available for the wide box bridges (E, G and H) and two lines for the narrow box bridge (Ia). Production of over 1000 segments was required.

Up to six spans are linkedtogether with continuoustop slabs to reducethe number of movement joints. The longitudinalforces due to braking and traction or seismic effects are restrainedat two piers in each of these lengths. The continuity slabs between spans at unrestrained piers are designed to transfer all the longitudinal forces back to the points of fixity and also to resist the load effects due to wheel loads and the relative rotations of the adjacent spans. The decks are supported on metal pot bearings.

Page 19 of 29

Typical cross sections are shown in Figure 2

1600 WIDE x #I ACCESS HOLE THROUGH DIAPHRAGH

TYPE PI

CONCRETE

BARRIER

PUST TENSIONED

SEGMENTAL CONCRET€

Figure 2 -Twin and single box superstructures

The tendons used are some of the largest ever installed in bridges. The 37/16 system uses strand to draft Euronorm 10138 (1) , with a tensile strength of I860 ~/mm~which results in an ultimate force in each tendon of 10323kN.

3.3 Superstructure - Design

The structures are all designed to the requirementsof the Hong Kong Structures Design Manual (2) (which makes reference to British Standard BS5400 (3)), supplemented where necessary by UK Department of Transport Design Standards. The main additional standard is BD 58/94 -The Design of Concrete Highway Bridges and Structureswith Externaland Unbonded Prestressing

(4).

Highway loading on the structures is 45 units of HB and associated HA loading.

The segmental structures are required to satisfy Class 1 (no tension) stress limits in all load combinations. The insitu bridges satisfy Class 1 only for Combination 1 (Permanent Loading only) and Class 2 (limited tensile stresses) in all other load combinations.

The total prestress required in the longer segmental spans could not all be introducedwith only the self weight of the deck acting without inducing higherthan permissiblecompressivestresses in the bottom slab. A maximum of six tendons were initially stressed (Stage 1). After the construction of the edge parapets and a specified time delay calculated to account for the development of the time dependent losses due to creep and shrinkage any further required tendons were stressed (Stage 2) and the continuity slabs cast.

Page 20 of 29

A key feature of external prestressing is the potential for replacement of the tendons. It is a

requirementthat this should be possible without restricting traffic on the bridge. In most cases this is the governing criterion in determining the prestress requirements.

3.4 Segment Geometry

The individual segment geometry in any span was calculated to give units that are of equal length along their centre line exceptfor the penultimateunit and the diaphragm unitswhich were

of

necessity shorter than the box sections so as to be of similar weights. The maximumvariation

in

length of segments for all the span arrangements was 200mm.

Allowance was made in the geometry for the predicted deflections due to elastic and time dependent effects.

A precision of 0.1mm was specified for dimensions.

The basic box section was constant throughout; carriageway widening was provided for by increasing the length of the cantilevers on each side of the box.

The segments that included beams to restrain the tendons at deviators were designed so that

the length of segment between the bulkheadof the casting mould and the deviatorwas constant

This does however

complicate the overall geometry by making the plan arrangement non symmetrical.

in order to maximise the repetition of formwork and reinforcement.

4 DESIGN ASPECTS PARTICULAR TO EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING

A number of areas were noted as being peculiarto external prestressingand warranting special

mention.

4.1

Ultimate Bending Strength

The recommendationof reference (4) is that the ultimate bending capacity should be calculated using the calculated tendon force after all losses have occurred unless the tendons are within 0.1d of the soffit, in which case an addition to this force can be made, or a non-linear analysis is carried out.

4.1.I

Precast Segmental Bridges

The potential enhancement of the tendon force based on the geometric criterion was not applicable since the centroid of the tendons lies 285mm above the soffit of a section 2100mm deep and so a non-linear analysis was performed.

For one particular span it is worth noting that bonded tendons in the same section would have provided a capacity moment of 118MNm compared with a value of 61MNm for the unbonded tendons using the unenhanced stress after losses. A capacity of 76MNm was required. The non-linear analysis was carried out using LUSAS to confirm acceptable capacity at ULS. Thin shell three dimensional semiloof elementswith elasto-plastic material propertiesfor those elements likely to go into tension or beyond their elastic limit in compression were used to representthe concrete elements and isoparametricthree dimensionalbar elements, again with elasto-plastic properties, to representthe tendons. The tendons were modelled as fixed to the concrete at the anchorages, but free to slip at deviator locations. The connections between

Page 21 of 29

adjacent concrete elements were modelled by non-linear joint elements to simulate the joints between units in practice.

An initial stress was introduced into the bar elements to represent the tendon force in the

standing state condition.

parabolic moment distribution of imposed loading.

A further loading was then incrementally applied to represent a

This analysis also provided results for deflections at failure which were required for design of some of the deviators.

4.2 Tendon Geometry

The ducts form straight line connections between the various "fixed points" (anchorages and deviators). Unlike internal prestressing where the tendons are specified relative to the local concretefaces it is importantto take account of the global geometry of the structure and also any local changes of cross section that may occur in order to give free passage to a tendon.

It was considered undesirable for a tendon to touch a web due to plan curvature and so considerable effort was expended in designing a standard layout compatible with all the geometric constraints. This also had to take account of the minimumallowable radii in reference (4) at deviators and the required spacing between deviators to account for lateral forces due to plan curvature.

A consistent layout of tendons at deviators and anchorageswas required on the precast bridges to simplify casting arrangements for the units. This required fine tuning of the tendon forces to satisfy both short and long term stress requirements.

4.3 Deviators

Not only must the intermediate deviator units provide for the geometric requirements of the tendon but also they must accommodate the considerable forces imposed by that change of direction. In general all tendons were inclined between the diaphragms and the first (nominally "quarter span" deviator) and then ran nominally straight through "midspan" deviators. The maximum vertical angular change at the first deviator was approximately 7.50which resulted in local concentrated vertical forces of 1350kN per tendon being applied to the deviator. The deviator beams were also subject to horizontal forces due to deviation of the tendons in plan.

In the segmental structures the weight of each unit was at a premium and so a "minimum concrete" solution was adoptedfor the deviator design. The forces were distributed around the box by bending of the deviator beam, requiring a considerable amount of reinforcement to be provided.

The deviators through which the tendons pass nominally straight are required to maintain the eccentricity of the tendon under ultimate bending conditions. The design forces on them were calculated by consideration of the angular change that would occur at failure of the beam as a whole, as calculated by the non-linear analysis.

4.4 Anchorages and Diaphragms

With internal prestress a diaphragm is generally providedfor transfer of imposed loadings onto the bearings. With external prestress it also serves the primary function of transferring the tendon forces to the structure. The forces in each anchorage are large and since the integrity of the structure is dependent on this element a conservative approachwas considered appropriate

Page 22 of 29

to the design of these elements. Deep beam design in the UK is outside the scope of reference

(3) and reference is generally made to ClRlA Guide No 2 (5).

A finite element analysis of a loaded diaphragm was

that little transverse distribution of load occurred for those anchorages located away from the webs and that it could be considered as spanning vertically between the top and bottom slabs.

carried out which gave results suggesting

The anchorages are positioned close to the support points of the diaphragm (the top and bottom slabs) and the bending design of the section as described in Reference 5 was readily satisfied. The guide however was written for elements likely to be supporting reasonably uniform loading and the shear design limits were not consideredtotally appropriateto the particular situation. It was considered that the introduction of vertical prestress near the tensile face would restrict the development of any cracking, which though it might not be structurally significant might cause concern and serviceability problems. This vertical prestress was designed by calculating the prestress required to reduce the Principal Tensile Stress (PTS) induced by the maximum calculated shear stress to that which would exist with the allowable shear stress of 4.75~/mm* given in reference 3 Part 4.

4.5

Shear

The design of the boxes for shear was found to be simplified when compared with internal prestressing. Reference 4 requires that the design be carried out assuming a reinforced concrete section with the prestressing forces, both axial and any vertical component, being treated as external loads. Further benefit is gained from being able to utilise the full section of the webs because of the absence of any ducts.

5

ERECTION

5.I

General

The segmental bridges were all constructed span by span. A specially designed overhead segmental launching gantry was employed to temporarily support the precast units prior to the permanent external prestress being applied and the completed deck being transferred to its support bearings. The gantry was designed to position and support all the segments of the span until completion of the first stage prestress. It then moved itself onto the next span in order to repeat the operation. The sequence of operations for movement of the gantry is shown on Figure 3.

5.2 Gantry Description

The gantry consisted of seven main sections; the Additional Rear Leg, (ARL); the Rear Leg, (RL); the Front Leg, (FL); the Nose Strut, (NS); the Plate Girders, (PG);the HoistCarriage,(HC); and the Segment Hanger System, (SHS).

All launching was carried out from the ARL using hydraulically operated sprag trolley devices. Due to the length of gantry at the rear the maximum launch possible was approximately 12 metres, in increments of 1.2 metres, this being governed by the stroke of the launching cylinders. A system located below the launching equipment allowed the gantry to be slewed from side to side so that it could follow the curvature of the bridge structure. The ARL was removed once the process had been completed in order to allow installation of the segments at the rear of the gantry.

Page 23 of 29

The RL was designed as a fixed leg at the top and a pin joint at the base. A lower frame sat on

However during launching this lower frame was

detached. The weight of the gantry was transferred to the bridge deck webs using a transverse beam.

the pier head during segment erection.

To give the gantry longitudinal stability during launching it was necessary to use restraining props attached to the head frame of the FL. This beam was stressed down to the bridge deck. The FL was designed as a pin joint, achieved by placing Hillman Rollers between the head frame and the PGs. The FL was pushed out to the next pier using the HC.

A fixed leg at the front of the gantry, the NS, allowed the load to be taken while the FL was pushed to the forward pier.

The twin PGs were approximately 2.4 metres deep and 77 metres long at 3 metres centres and were stiffened using transverse bracing. The weight of the PG was reduced by cutting out the web towards the NS and welding diagonals for strength.

Below the lower flange of the PG's ran the HC. Its main function was to remove the segments from the transporter and transfer them to the required position. By using a stiffened connection the HC could be attached to the FL or the ARL in order to transit to the following pier or to the back of the RL respectively.

Once a segment had been taken to its correct location it was attached to the SHS. This consisted of a transverse beam supported over both PG's with two high tensile steel bars, one each side, a high strength wire sling and a lifting beam. The lifting beam was attached to the segment prior to delivery to the gantry and was also used to attach segment and HC.

5.3 The Launching Process

The ARL was positionedjust behind the RL and the load carried by the RL then transferred to the ARL. The ARL sprag trolley with the launching cylinder was engaged and the cylinder extended, thus launching the gantry towards the next pier. Once the maximum length was achieved the RL would again take the load. This process of moving the ARL, transferring load from RL to ARL, and ARL to RL was repeated until the NS landed on the next pier. The load at the front of the gantry was then taken on the NS, allowing the HC to push the FL forward. The FL, once plumbed and levelled,would then take the load once more so launching could proceed.

The launching process continued until the RL reached its final position.

5.4 Segment Erection

As mentioned earlier, the ARL needed to be removed to allow segment installation. The segments were introduced in the following order, as shown in Figure 4. Segment 1, the diaphragm segment, was brought in and adjusted for level and alignment. Segments 2 to 11 where then stacked as shown. This allowed segment 12 to be passed through the RL and be rotated 900. The segments were then rearranged, leaving a slight clearance for cleaning and applying glue.

Starting at the rear, the penultimate segment was glued to the diaphragm segment, and these were temporarilystressed together using Macalloy bars. The two segmentswere then checked for level and alignment, with any necessary adjustment made. This checking and adjustment was critical as once these segments were glued together it became too complicated for any adjusting.

Page 24 of 29

The segments were then glued and temporarily stressed together, one by one, until the span was complete.

5.5 Permanent Prestressing

After the segments were installed, several lengths of HDPE pipe were joined together to form the required tendon length. Several holes were then drilled, at the required locations, in the HDPE duct and grout vents fixed. The strands were then fed into the HDPE pipe, using a strand pusher, one by one until the required number of strands were threaded.

5.6 Load Transfer

Temporary support jacks, two each end, were then checked to ensure they sat in the correct position. They were extendedto ensure the swivel headwas in close contact with the underside of the diaphragm segments either end of the span, taking an initial load of 10kN each.

The spans could support their self weight after 3 or 4 tendons had been stressed 100%. The design required stressing to be carried out in pairs, meaning that 4 tendons needed to be stressed prior to the span being released from the gantry. In order to stress the tendons, and transfer the load gradually, the following procedure was adopted. The first pair of tendons was stressed to 50% of their design capacity. This gave capacity for 25% of the span's total weight. By hydraulically linking the temporary support jacks, and operating one set at a time, the temporary jacks acted as a three point support. Thus the first set of temporary jacks would be extended, linked hydraulically and the other end locked off, until 12l12% of the load was taken. The jacks were locked off using a safety ring nut and the other

end extended untilthey took 12Il2% of the load between them. (12Il2% + 12Il2% = 25% of the total deck load)

Once this operation was complete the first pair of tendons was stressed to their design capacity with the temporary support jacks being extended to take 50% of the total deck load. The process was then repeated for the second pair of tendons with the temporary support jacks extended in order to take 75% and then 100% of the deck weight.

When the temporary supportjacks were carryingall of the deck loadthe segment hangersystem was detached.

Page 25 of 29

5.7

Launching Preparations

Using the temporary support jacks, the bridge deck was adjusted for level. Once adjusted the gap between the bearing plinth and the diaphragm segment was then grouted. When sufficient strength had been gained the temporary support jacks were removed.

However since not every span containeda fixed bearing it was necessary to maintaintemporary longitudinal and transverse restraint until the continuity slabs could be cast. The temporary longitudinal restraint consisted of two high tensile Macalloy bars which acted as tension ties betweenone span and another. Universalchannels were fitted and wedged betweendiaphragm segments to act as struts.

The transverse restraintconsisted of two turnbuckles, crossed, and securedto the pier segment and the pier head.

The ARL was reconnected at the rear of the gantry and positioned just behind the RL. The FL restraint propswere also fixed. It was also necessary to raisethe SHS above the FL headframe to prevent damage from collision.

The gantry was now ready for launching to the next span.

CONCLUSIONS

The paper has described the successful design and construction of externally post-tensioned concrete box structures. The importanceof taking into account temporary loading conditions in both the construction stage and the service life has been highlighted.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Sun Hung Kai Properties and Highways Department for their permission to publish this paper, and also the design and construction teams without whose efforts they would not have succeeded.

REFERENCES

1.

Euronorm 10138 (Draft) - Prestressing Steels

2.

Structures Design Manual for Highways and Railways - Highways Department, Hong Kong Government

3.

British Standard BS5400 Parts 1 to 10 - Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges.

4.

Department of Transport Design Standard BD 58/94 - The Design of Concrete Highway Bridges and Structures with External and Unbonded Prestressing

5.

ClRlA Guide No 2 - The Design of Deep Beams in Reinforced Concrete

Page 26 of 29

FTAGE

I AUNCtI

2

GANTRY

STAGE 2

.-

HOVE

AOOITIOYAL

RE*

LEG

STAGE

lAUNCH GANTRY

4

AIL

RL

STdGf 5

NOVE AOOlT/ONAl

F1

REAR

LEG

NS

7

sm o(:.j-

~

NOVE FRONT LSG 70 I EAOING PER

CTA(i6

--

-

7

LAIINLH GANTRY

STAGf

NOVr

8

AODIflONAL

STAGE2-

LAUNCH

GANTRY

RFAR

1CCi

Figure 3 - Gantry Movement Sequence

Page 27 of 29

5.7

Launching Preparations

Using the temporary support jacks, the bridge deck was adjusted for level. Once adjusted the gap betweenthe bearing plinth and the diaphragmsegment was then grouted.When sufficient strength had been gained the temporary support jacks were removed.

However since not every span contained a fixed bearing it was necessary to maintaintemporary longitudinal and transverse restraint until the continuity slabs could be cast. The temporary longitudinal restraint consisted of two high tensile Macalloy bars which acted as tension ties betweenone span and another. Universalchannels were fitted and wedged betweendiaphragm segments to act as struts.

The transverse restraint consisted of two turnbuckles, crossed, and securedto the pier segment and the pier head.

The ARL was reconnected at the rear of the gantry and positioned just behind the RL. The FL restraint propswere also fixed. Itwas also necessary to raisethe SHS above the FL head frame to prevent damage from collision.

The gantry was now ready for launching to the next span.

CONCLUSIONS

The paper has described the successful design and construction of externally post-tensioned concrete box structures. The importance of taking into account temporary loading conditions in both the construction stage and the service life has been highlighted.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Sun Hung Kai Properties and Highways Department for their permission to publish this paper, and also the design and construction teams without whose efforts they would not have succeeded.

REFERENCES

1.

Euronorm 10138 (Draft) - Prestressing Steels

2.

Structures Design Manual for Highways and Railways - Highways Department, Hong Kong Government

3.

British Standard BS5400 Parts 1 to 10 - Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges.

4. Department of Transport Design Standard BD 58/94 - The Design of Concrete Highway Bridges and Structures with External and Unbonded Prestressing

5. ClRlA Guide No 2 - The Design of Deep Beams in Reinforced Concrete

Page 26 of 29

jlAGE 3 HOVE ADDlTiONAL RL* LEG STAGE -- 4 .- lAUN[H GANTRY Figure 3 -
jlAGE
3
HOVE
ADDlTiONAL
RL*
LEG
STAGE
--
4
.-
lAUN[H GANTRY
Figure 3 - Gantry Movement Sequence
Page 27 of 29

Fast Construction - Segmental and Launched Bridges

The contents of this paper are based on presentations made at the 2005 Annual Conference of the Concrete Bridge Development Group, prepared by Simon Bourne (Director, Benaim) and Colin McKenna (Technical Director, Scott Wilson) for CBDG.

Fast Construction - Segmental and Launched Bridges Technical Paper No 9

First published 2005

O Concrete Bridge Development Group 2001

Published by the Concrete Bridge Development Group Riverside House 4 Meadows Business Park StationApproach Blackwater Camberley Surrey GU17 9AB UK

Tel: +44 (0)1276 33777

Camberley Surrey GU17 9AB UK Tel: +44 (0)1276 33777 Fax: +44 (0)1276 38899 All rights reserved.
Camberley Surrey GU17 9AB UK Tel: +44 (0)1276 33777 Fax: +44 (0)1276 38899 All rights reserved.
Camberley Surrey GU17 9AB UK Tel: +44 (0)1276 33777 Fax: +44 (0)1276 38899 All rights reserved.

Fax: +44 (0)1276 38899

All rights reserved. Except as permitted under current legislation no part of this work may be photocopied, stored in a retrieval system, published, performed in public, adapted, broadcast, transmitted, recorded or reproduced in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to the Concrete Bridge Development Group.

Although the Concrete Bridge Development Group (limited by guarantee) does its best to ensure that any advice, recommendations or information it may give either in this publication or elsewhere is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) howsoever and from whatsoever cause arising it, is accepted in this respect by the Group, its servants or agents.