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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Turbo" redirects here. For the movie, see Turbo film!. For other uses, see Turbo disambiguation!.

"ut#a$ay vie$ of an air foil bearing# supported turbocharger. % turbocharger, or turbo collo&uialism!, from the 'reek "()*+," "turbulence"! is a turbine driven forced induction device that makes an engine more efficient and produce more po$er for its si-e by forcing e.tra air into the combustion chamber./01/21 % turbocharged engine is more po$erful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers $ere originally kno$n as turbosuperchargers $hen all forced induction devices $ere classified as superchargers3 no$adays the term "supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanically driven forced induction devices./41 The key difference bet$een a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, $hereas a turbocharger is po$ered by a turbine that is driven by the engine5s e.haust gas. "ompared to a mechanically#driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive. T$incharger refers to an engine $ith both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Turbos are commonly used on truck, car, train, aircraft, and construction e&uipment engines. Turbos are popularly used $ith 6tto cycle and 7iesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells./81

0 9istory 2 Turbocharging versus supercharging 4 6perating principle o 4.0 :ressure increase ; boost o 4.2 Turbo lag o 4.4 <oost threshold 8 =ey components of a turbocharger 8.0 Turbine 8.0.0 T$in#turbo 8.0.2 T$in#scroll 8.0.4 >ariable#geometry o 8.2 "ompressor o 8.4 "enter housing;hub rotating assembly ? %dditional technologies commonly used in turbocharger installations o ?.0 @ntercooling o ?.2 Water inAection o ?.4 Fuel#air mi.ture ratio

?.8 Wastegate ?.? %nti#surge;dump;blo$ off valves ?.B Free floating B %pplications o B.0 :etrol#po$ered cars o B.2 7iesel#po$ered cars o B.4 Cotorcycles o B.8 Trucks o B.? %ircraft o B.B Carine and land#based diesel turbochargers D <usiness and adoption E Fafety G Fee also 0H Ieferences 00 J.ternal links
o o o

Forced induction dates from the late 0Gth century, $hen 'ottlieb 7aimler patented the techni&ue of using a gear#driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 0EE?./?1
The turbocharger $as invented by F$iss engineer %lfred <Kchi 0EDG#0G?G!, the head of diesel engine research at 'ebrKder Ful-er engine manufacturing company in Winterhur,/B1 $ho received a patent in 0GH? for using a compressor driven by e.haust gasses to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase po$er output but it took another 2H years for the idea to come to fruition./D1/E1 7uring World War @ French engineer %uguste Iateau fitted turbochargers to Ienault engines po$ering various French fighters $ith some success./G1 @n 0G0E, 'eneral Jlectric engineer Fanford %le.ander Coss attached a turbo to a >02 Liberty aircraft engine. The engine $as tested at :ikes :eak in "olorado at 08,HHH ft 8,4HH m! to demonstrate that it could eliminate the po$er loss usually e.perienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude./G1 'eneral Jlectric called the system turbosupercharging./0H1 %t the time, all forced induction devices $ere kno$n as superchargers, ho$ever more recently the term "supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanically#driven forced induction devices. /41 Turbochargers $ere first used in production aircraft engines such as the Mapier Lioness/001 in the 0G2Hs, although they $ere less common than engine#driven centrifugal superchargers. Fhips and locomotives e&uipped $ith turbocharged 7iesel engines began appearing in the 0G2Hs. Turbochargers $ere also used in aviation, most $idely used by the Nnited Ftates. 7uring World War @@, notable e.amples of NF aircraft $ith turbochargers include the <#0D Flying Fortress, <#28 Liberator, :#4E Lightning, and :#8D Thunderbolt. The technology $as also used in e.perimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of Focke#Wulf F$ 0GH models, but the need for advanced high#temperature metals in the turbine kept them out of $idespread use./citation needed1

Turbocharging versus supercharging

Cain article: Fupercharger @n contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. /021 <elts, chains, shafts, and gears are common methods of po$ering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the

engine./041/081 For e.ample, on the single#stage single#speed supercharged Iolls#Ioyce Cerlin engine, the supercharger uses about 0?H horsepo$er 00H kW!. Oet the benefits out$eigh the costs3 for the 0?H hp 00H kW! to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 8HH horsepo$er, a net gain of 2?H hp 0GH kW!. This is $here the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent3 the engine must $ithstand the net po$er output of the engine plus the po$er to drive the supercharger. %nother disadvantage of some superchargers is lo$er adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers especially Ioots#type superchargers!. %diabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor5s ability to compress air $ithout adding e.cess heat to that air. The compression process al$ays produces heat as a byproduct of that process3 ho$ever, more efficient compressors produce less e.cess heat. Ioots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more o.ygen molecules, and therefore more potential po$er than the supercharged air. @n practical application the disparity bet$een the t$o can be dramatic, $ith turbochargers often producing 0?P to 4HP more po$er based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. <y comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine ho$ever, turbochargers place e.haust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses!. /021 This is more efficient because it uses the other$ise $asted energy of the e.haust gas to drive the compressor. @n contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is $hat is referred to as "lag" or "spool time". This is the time bet$een the demand for an increase in po$er the throttle being opened! and the turbocharger s! providing increased intake pressure, and hence increased po$er. Throttle lag occurs because turbochargers rely on the build up of e.haust gas pressure to drive the turbine. @n variable output systems such as automobile engines, e.haust gas pressure at idle, lo$ engine speeds, or lo$ throttle is usually insufficient to drive the turbine. 6nly $hen the engine reaches sufficient speed does the turbine section start to spool up, or spin fast enough to produce intake pressure above atmospheric pressure. % combination of an e.haust#driven turbocharger and an engine#driven supercharger can mitigate the $eaknesses of both./0?1 This techni&ue is called t$incharging. @n the case of Jlectro#Cotive 7iesel5s t$o#stroke engines, the mechanically#assisted turbocharger is not specifically a t$incharger, as the engine uses the mechanical assistance to charge air only during starting. 6nce started, the engine uses true turbocharging. This differs from a turbocharger that uses the compressor section of the turbo#compressor only during starting, as a t$o#stroke engines cannot naturally aspirate, and, according to F%J definitions, a t$o#stroke engine $ith a mechanically#assisted compressor during starting is considered naturally aspirated.

Operating principle

@n most piston engines, intake gases are "pulled" into the engine by the do$n$ard stroke of the piston/0B1 /0D1 $hich creates a lo$#pressure area!, similar to dra$ing li&uid using a syringe. The amount of air actually inhaled, compared to the

theoretical amount if the engine could maintain atmospheric pressure, is called volumetric efficiency./0E1 The obAective of a turbocharger is to improve an engine5s volumetric efficiency by increasing density of the intake gas usually air!. The turbocharger5s compressor dra$s in ambient air and compresses it before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure./0G1 This results in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The po$er needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic energy of the engine5s e.haust gases./2H1 % turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency $ithout increasing po$er. /201 This is achieved by recovering $aste energy in the e.haust and feeding it back into the engine intake. <y using this other$ise $asted energy to increase the mass of air, it becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is burned before being vented at the start of the e.haust stage. The increased temperature from the higher pressure gives a higher "arnot efficiency. The control of turbochargers is very comple. and has changed dramatically over the 0HH#plus years of its use. Codern turbochargers can use $astegates, blo$#off valves and variable geometry, as discussed in later sections. The reduced density of intake air is often compounded by the loss of atmospheric density seen $ith elevated altitudes. Thus, a natural use of the turbocharger is $ith aircraft engines. %s an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes, the pressure of the surrounding air &uickly falls off. %t ?,8EB metres 0D,GGG ft!, the air is at half the pressure of sea level, $hich means that the engine produces less than half#po$er at this altitude./221

Pressure increase / boost

This section does not cite any references or sources. :lease help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Nnsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010) @n automotive applications, boost refers to the amount by $hich intake manifold pressure e.ceeds atmospheric pressure. This is representative of the e.tra air pressure that is achieved over $hat $ould be achieved $ithout the forced induction. The level of boost may be sho$n on a pressure gauge, usually in bar, psi or possibly k:a./221 @n aircraft engines, turbocharging is commonly used to maintain manifold pressure as altitude increases i.e., to compensate for lo$er#density air at higher altitudes!. Fince atmospheric pressure reduces as the aircraft climbs, po$er drops as a function of altitude in normally aspirated engines. Fystems that use a turbocharger to maintain an engine5s sea#level po$er output are called turbo# normali-ed systems. 'enerally, a turbo#normali-ed system attempts to maintain a manifold pressure of 2G.? inches of mercury 0HH k:a!./221 @n all turbocharger applications, boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbo, inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. 6ver#boosting an engine fre&uently causes damage to the engine in a variety of $ays including pre#ignition, overheating, and over#stressing the engine5s internal hard$are. For e.ample, to avoid engine knocking aka detonation! and the related physical damage to the engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high, thus the pressure at the intake manifold of the engine must be controlled by some means. 6pening the $astegate allo$s the e.cess energy destined for the turbine to bypass it and pass directly to the e.haust pipe, thus reducing boost pressure. The $astegate can be either controlled manually fre&uently seen in aircraft! or by an actuator in automotive applications, it is often controlled by the Jngine "ontrol Nnit!.

Turbo lag
Turbo lag is the time re&uired to change po$er output in response to a throttle change, noticed as a

hesitation or slo$ed throttle response $hen accelerating from idle as compared to a naturally aspirated engine. This is due to the time needed for the e.haust system and turbocharger to generate the re&uired boost. @nertia, friction, and compressor load are the primary contributors to turbo lag. Fuperchargers do not suffer this problem, because the turbine is eliminated due to the compressor being directly po$ered by the engine. Turbocharger applications can be categori-ed into to those that re&uire changes in output po$er such as automotive! and those that do not such as marine, aircraft, commercial automotive, industrial, engine#generators, and locomotives!. While important to varying degrees, turbo lag is most problematic in applications that re&uire rapid changes in po$er output. Jngine designs reduce lag in a number of $ays: Lo$ering the rotational inertia of the turbocharger by using lo$er radius parts and ceramic and other lighter materials "hanging the turbine5s aspect ratio @ncreasing upper#deck air pressure compressor discharge! and improving $astegate response Ieducing bearing frictional losses e.g., using a foil bearing rather than a conventional oil bearing! Nsing variable#no--le or t$in#scroll turbochargers discussed belo$! 7ecreasing the volume of the upper#deck piping Nsing multiple turbos se&uentially or in parallel Nsing an %ntilag system Nsing a turbo spool valve to increase e.haust gas flo$ speed to the t$in#scroll! turbine

Boost threshold
The boost threshold of a turbo system is the lo$er bound of the region $ithin $hich the compressor operates. <elo$ a certain rate of flo$, a compressor produces insignificant boost. This limits boost at a particular I:C, regardless of e.haust gas pressure. Me$er turbocharger and engine developments have steadily reduced boost thresholds. Jlectrical boosting "J#boosting"! is a ne$ technology under development. @t uses an electric motor to bring the turbo up to operating speed &uicker than possible using available e.haust gases. /241 %n alternative to e#boosting is to completely separate the turbine and compressor into a turbine#generator and electric#compressor as in the hybrid turbocharger. This makes compressor speed independent of turbine speed. @n 0GE0, a similar system that used a hydraulic drive system and overspeed clutch arrangement accelerated the turbocharger of the C> Canadian Pioneer DBJ8"I engine!.

citation needed1

Turbochargers start producing boost only $hen a certain amount of kinetic energy is present in the e.haust gasses. Without ade&uate e.haust gas flo$ to spin the turbine blades, the turbo cannot produce the necessary force needed to compress the air going into the engine. The boost threshold is determined by the engine displacement, engine rpm, throttle opening, and the si-e of the turbo. The operating speed rpm! at $hich there is enough e.haust gas momentum to compress the air going into the engine is called the "boost threshold rpm". Ieducing the "boost threshold rpm" can improve throttle response.

Key components of a turbocharger

The turbocharger has three main components: 1 The turbine, $hich is almost al$ays a radial inflo$ turbine 2 The compressor, $hich is almost al$ays a centrifugal compressor 3 The center housing;hub rotating assembly Cany turbocharger installations use additional technologies, such as $astegates, intercooling and blo$#off valves.

This section may require cleanup to meet Wi ipedia!s &uality standards. The specific problem is: no description of the type and properties of the turbines" poor choice of illustrations. (September 2012) Jnergy provided for the turbine $ork is converted from the enthalpy and kinetic energy of the gas. The turbine housings direct the gas flo$ through the turbine as it spins at up to 2?H,HHH rpm. /281/2?1 The si-e and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. 6ften the same basic turbocharger assembly is available from the manufacturer $ith multiple housing choices for the turbine, and sometimes the compressor cover as $ell. This lets the balance bet$een performance, response, and efficiency be tailored to the application. The turbine and impeller $heel si-es also dictate the amount of air or e.haust that can be flo$ed through the system, and the relative efficiency at $hich they operate. @n general, the larger the turbine $heel and compressor $heel the larger the flo$ capacity. Ceasurements and shapes can vary, as $ell as curvature and number of blades on the $heels.

6n the left, the brass oil drain connection. 6n the right are the braided oil supply line and $ater coolant line connections.

Turbine side housing removed.

"ompressor impeller side $ith the cover removed.

% turbochargerQs performance is closely tied to its si-e. /2B1 Large turbochargers take more heat and pressure to spin the turbine, creating turbo lag at lo$ I:C. Fmall turbochargers spin &uickly, but may not have the same performance at high acceleration./2D1/2E1 To efficiently combine the benefits of large and small $heels, advanced schemes are used such as t$in#turbochargers, t$in#scroll turbochargers, or variable#geometry turbochargers. T#in$turbo

Cain article: T$in#turbo T#in$turbo or bi$turbo designs have t$o separate turbochargers operating in either a se&uence or in parallel./2G1/4H1 @n a parallel configuration, both turbochargers are fed one#half of the engineQs e.haust. @n a se&uential setup one turbocharger runs at lo$ speeds and the second turns on at a predetermined engine speed or load./4H1 Fe&uential turbochargers further reduce turbo lag, but re&uire an intricate set of pipes to properly feed both turbochargers. /2G1 T$o#stage variable t$in#turbos employ a small turbocharger at lo$ speeds and a large one at higher speeds. They are connected in a series so that boost pressure from one turbo is multiplied by another, hence the name "2#stage." The distribution of e.haust gas is continuously variable, so the transition from using the small turbo to the large one can be done incrementally./401 T$in turbochargers are primarily used in diesel engines./4H1 For e.ample, in 6pel bi#turbo diesel, only the smaller turbocharger $orks at lo$ rpm, providing high tor&ue at 0?HH#0DHH rpm. <oth turbochargers operate together in mid range, $ith the larger one pre#compressing the air, $hich the smaller on further compresses. % bypass valve regulates the e.haust flo$ to each turbocharger. %t higher speedR2?HH to

4HHH I:CRonly the larger turbocharger runs./421 Fmaller turbochargers have less turbo lag than larger ones, so often t$o small turbochargers are used instead of one large one. This configuration is popular in engines over 2,?HH ""s and in >#shape or engines./2G1 T#in$scroll T#in$scroll or divided turbochargers have t$o e.haust gas inlets and t$o no--les, a smaller sharper angled one for &uick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance. With high#performance camshaft timing, e.haust valves in different cylinders can open at the same time, overlapping at the end of the po$er stroke in one cylinder and the end of e.haust stroke in another. @n t$in#scroll designs, the e.haust manifold physically separates the channels for cylinders that can interfere $ith each other, so that the pulsating e.haust gasses flo$ through separate spirals scrolls!. This lets the engine efficiently use e.haust scavenging techni&ues, $hich decreases e.haust gas temperatures and M6. emissions, improves turbine efficiency, and reduces turbo lag.

"ut#out of a t$in#scroll turbocharger, $ith t$o differently angled scrolls

"ut#out of a t$in# scroll e.haust and turbine3 the dual "scrolls" pairing cylinders 0#8 and 2#4 are clearly visible

%ariable$geometry Cain article: >ariable#geometry turbocharger %ariable$geometry or variable$no&&le turbochargers use moveable vanes to adAust the air#flo$ to the turbine, imitating a turbocharger of the optimal si-e throughout the po$er curve./2B1/2D1 The vanes are placed Aust in front of the turbine like a set of slightly overlapping $alls. Their angle is adAusted by an actuator to block or increase air flo$ to the turbine./2D1/2E1 This variability maintains a comparable e.haust velocity and back pressure throughout the engineQs rev range. The result is that the turbocharger improves fuel efficiency $ithout a noticeable level of turbo lag./2B1

'arrettvariable#geometry turbocharger on 7>BTJ78


The compressor increases the mass of intake air entering the combustion chamber. The compressor is made up of an impeller, a diffuser and a volute housing. Cain article: "entrifugal compressor The operating range of a compressor is described by the "compressor map". Cain article: "ompressor map Ported shroud This section does not cite any references or sources. :lease help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Nnsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) The flo$ range of a turbocharger compressor can be increased by allo$ing air to bleed from a ring of holes or a circular groove around the compressor at a point slightly do$nstream of the compressor inlet but far nearer to the inlet than to the outlet!. The ported shroud is a performance enhancement that allo$s the compressor to operate at significantly lo$er flo$s. @t achieves this by forcing a simulation of impeller stall to occur continuously. %llo$ing some air to escape at this location inhibits the onset of surge and $idens the operating range. While peak efficiencies may decrease, high efficiency may be achieved over a greater range of engine speeds. @ncreases in compressor efficiency result in slightly cooler more dense! intake air, $hich improves po$er. This is a passive structure that is constantly open in contrast to compressor e.haust blo$ off valves, $hich are mechanically or electronically controlled!. The ability of the compressor to provide high boost at lo$ rpm may also be increased marginally because near choke conditions the compressor dra$s air in$ard through the bleed path!. :orted shrouds are used by many turbocharger manufacturers.

Center housing/hub rotating assembly

The center hub rotating assembly "9I%! houses the shaft that connects the compressor impeller and turbine. @t also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allo$ing it to rotate at very high speed $ith minimal friction. For instance, in automotive applications the "9I% typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressuri-ed engine oil. The "9I% may also be considered "$ater#cooled" by having an entry and point for engine coolant. Water#cooled models use engine coolant to keep lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking destructive distillation of engine oil! from the e.treme heat in the turbine. The development of air#foil bearings removed this risk. <all bearings designed to support high speeds and temperatures are sometimes used instead of fluid bearings to support the turbine shaft. This helps the turbocharger accelerate more &uickly and reduces turbo lag./481 Fome variable no--le turbochargers use a rotary electric actuator, $hich uses a direct stepper motor to open and close the vanes, rather than pneumatic controllers that operate based on air pressure./4?1

'dditional technologies commonly used in turbocharger installations

@llustration of inter#cooler location.

When the pressure of the engine5s intake air is increased, its temperature also increases. @n addition, heat soak from the hot e.haust gases spinning the turbine may also heat the intake air. The $armer the intake air the less dense, and the less o.ygen available for the combustion event, $hich reduces volumetric efficiency. Mot only does e.cessive intake#air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation, $hich is destructive to engines. Turbocharger units often make use of an intercooler also kno$n as a charge air cooler!, to cool do$n the intake air. @ntercoolers are often tested for leaks during routine servicing, particularly in trucks $here a leaking intercooler can result in a 2HP reduction in fuel economy. Mote that intercooler is the proper term for the air cooler bet$een successive stages of boost, $hereas charge air cooler is the proper term for the air cooler bet$een the boost stage s! and the appliance that consumes the boosted air.!

Water in)ection
Cain article: Water inAection engines! %n alternative to intercooling is inAecting $ater into the intake air to reduce the temperature. This method has been used in automotive and aircraft applications./citation needed1

*uel$air mi+ture ratio

Cain article: %ir#fuel ratio @n addition to the use of intercoolers, it is common practice to add e.tra fuel to the intake air kno$n as "running an engine rich"! for the sole purpose of cooling. The amount of e.tra fuel varies, but typically reduces the air#fuel ratio to bet$een 00 and 04, instead of the stoichiometric 08.D in petrol engines!. The e.tra fuel is not burned as there is insufficient o.ygen to complete the chemical reaction!, instead it undergoes a phase change from vapor li&uid! to gas. This phase change absorbs heat, and the added mass of the e.tra fuel reduces the average kinetic energy of the charge and e.haust gas. Jven $hen a catalytic converter is used, the practice of running an engine rich increases e.haust emissions.

Fee Cain %rticle: Wastegate Cany turbochargers use a basic $astegate, $hich allo$s smaller turbochargers to reduce turbo lag. /4B1 % $astegate regulates the e.haust gas flo$ that enters the e.haust#side driving turbine and therefore the air intake into the manifold and the degree of boosting. @t can be controlled by a solenoid operated by the engineQs electronic control unit or a boost controller but most production vehicles use a spring loaded diaphragm./citation needed1

'nti$surge/dump/blo# off valves

Cain article: <lo$off valve

% recirculating type anti# surge valve Turbocharged engines operating at $ide open throttle and high rpm re&uire a large volume of air to flo$ bet$een the

turbo and the inlet of the engine. When the throttle is closed, compressed air flo$s to the throttle valve $ithout an i.e., the air has no$here to go!. @n this situation, the surge can raise the pressure of the air to a level that can cause damage. This is because if the pressure rises high enough, a compressor stall occursRstored pressuri-ed air decompresses back$ard across the impeller and out the inlet. The reverse flo$ back across the turbocharger makes the turbine shaft reduce in speed more &uickly than it $ould naturally, possibly damaging the turbocharger. To prevent this from happening, a valve is fitted bet$een the turbo and inlet, $hich vents off the e.cess air pressure. These are kno$n as an anti#surge, diverter, bypass, blo$#off valve <6>!, or dump valve. @t is a pressure relief valve, and is normally operated by the vacuum in the intake manifold. The primary use of this valve is to maintain the spinning of the turbocharger at a high speed. The air is usually recycled back into the turbo inlet diverter or bypass valves! but can also be vented to the atmosphere blo$ off valve!. Iecycling back into the turbocharger inlet is re&uired on an engine that uses a mass#airflo$ fuel inAection system, because dumping the e.cessive air overboard do$nstream of the mass airflo$ sensor causes an e.cessively rich fuel mi.tureRbecause the mass#airflo$ sensor has already accounted for the e.tra air that is no longer being used. >alves that recycle the air also shorten the time needed to re#spool the turbo after sudden engine deceleration, since load on the turbo $hen the valve is active is much lo$er than if the air charge vents to atmosphere.

*ree floating
% free floating turbocharger is used in the 0HH liter engine of the caterpillar mining vehicle. % free floating turbocharger is the simplest type of turbocharger./4D1 This configuration has no $astegate and canQt control its o$n boost levels./4D1/4E1 They are typically designed to attain ma.imum boost at full throttle. Free floating turbochargers produce more horsepo$er because they have less backpressure but are not driveable in performance applications $ithout an e.ternal $astegate./4D1/4E1

Petrol$po#ered cars
Cain article: Turbocharged petrol engines The first turbocharged passenger car $as the 6ldsmobile Jetfire option on the 0GB2#0GB4 FE?;"utlass, $hich used a turbocharger mounted to a 20? cu in 4.?2 L! all aluminum >E. %lso in 0GB2, "hevrolet introduced a special run of turbocharged "orvairs, initially called the Con-a Fpyder 0GB2#0GB8! and later renamed the "orsa 0GB?#0GBB!, $hich mounted a turbocharger to its air cooled flat si. cylinder engine. This model populari-ed the turbocharger in Morth %mericaRand set the stage for later turbocharged models from :orsche on the 0GD?#up G00;G4H, Faab on the 0GDE# 0GE8 Faab GG Turbo, and the very popular 0GDE#0GED <uick Iegal;T Type;'rand Mational. Today, turbocharging is common on both diesel and gasoline#po$ered cars. Turbocharging can increase po$er output for a given capacity/4G1 or increase fuel efficiency by allo$ing a smaller displacement engine. For e.ample, the 2H04 "hevrolet "ru-e is available $ith either a 0.E liter non# turbocharged engine or a 0.8 liter turbocharged engineRboth produce the same 04E horsepo$er. Lo$

pressure turbocharging is the optimum $hen driving in the city, $hereas high pressure turbocharging is more for racing and driving on high$ays;motor$ays;free$ays.

,iesel$po#ered cars
Cain article: Turbodiesel The first production turbo diesel passenger car $as the 'arrett#turbocharged /8H1 Cercedes 4HHF7 introduced in 0GDE./801/821 Today, many automotive diesels are turbocharged, since the use of turbocharging improved efficiency, driveability and performance of diesel engines, /801/821 greatly increasing their popularity.

Cain article: Turbocharged petrol enginesSCotorcycles The first e.ample of a turbocharged bike is the 0GDE =a$asaki T0I T"./841 Feveral Japanese companies produced turbocharged high performance motorcycles in the early 0GEHs, such as the "U?HH Turbo from 9onda# a transversely mounted, li&uid cooled >#T$in also available in naturally aspirated form. Fince then, fe$ turbocharged motorcycles have been produced. This is partially due to an abundance of larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines being available that offer the tor&ue and po$er benefits of a smaller displacement engine $ith turbocharger, but do return more linear po$er characteristics. The 7utch manufacturer J>% motorcycles builds a small series of turbocharged diesel motorcycle $ith an EHHcc smart "7@ engine.

Truc s
The first turbocharged diesel truck $as produced by Fch$ei-er Caschinenfabrik Faurer F$iss Cachine Works Faurer! in 0G4E./881

% natural use of the turbocharger # and its earliest kno$n use for any internal combustion engine, starting $ith e.perimental installations in the 0G2Hs # is $ith aircraft engines. %s an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air &uickly falls off. %t ?,8EB m 0E,HHH ft!, the air is at half the pressure of sea level and the airframe e.periences only half the aerodynamic drag. 9o$ever, since the charge in the cylinders is pushed in by this air pressure, the engine normally produces only half#po$er at full throttle at this altitude. :ilots $ould like to take advantage of the lo$ drag at high altitudes to go faster, but a naturally aspirated engine does not produce enough po$er at the same altitude to do so. The table belo$ is used to demonstrate the $ide range of conditions e.perienced. %s seen in the table belo$, there is significant scope for forced induction to compensate for lo$er density environments.

7aytona <each


7eath >alley

"olorado Ftate 9igh$ay ?

La Iinconada, :eru,

elevati 0,BHG m ; #EB m ; ?,0HH m ; 0B,D42 H m ; H ft 8,48D m ; 08,2B8 ft on ?,2EH ft #2E2 ft ft atm 0.HHH H.E24 0.H0H H.?E0 H.?2B bar 0.H04 H.E48 0.H28 H.?EG H.?44 psia 08.BGB 02.0HH 08.E8B E.?84 D.D40 k:a 0H0.4 E4.8H 0H2.8 ?E.GH ?4.4H % turbocharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea#level pressures, or even much higher, in order to produce rated po$er at high altitude. Fince the si-e of the turbocharger is

chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude, the turbocharger is over#si-ed for lo$ altitude. The speed of the turbocharger is controlled by a $astegate. Jarly systems used a fi.ed $astegate, resulting in a turbocharger that functioned much like a supercharger. Later systems utili-ed an adAustable $astegate, controlled either manually by the pilot or by an automatic hydraulic or electric system. When the aircraft is at lo$ altitude the $astegate is usually fully open, venting all the e.haust gases overboard. %s the aircraft climbs and the air density drops, the $astegate must continuously close in small increments to maintain full po$er. The altitude at $hich the $astegate fully closes and the engine still produces full po$er is the critical altitude When the aircraft climbs above the critical altitude, engine po$er output decreases as altitude increases, Aust as it $ould in a naturally aspirated engine. With older supercharged aircraft, the pilot must continually adAust the throttle to maintain the re&uired manifold pressure during ascent or descent. The pilot must also take care to avoid over#boosting the engine and causing damage, especially during emergencies such as go#arounds. @n contrast, modern turbocharger systems use an automatic $astegate, $hich controls the manifold pressure $ithin parameters preset by the manufacturer. For these systems, as long as the control system is $orking properly and the pilot5s control commands are smooth and deliberate, a turbocharger cannot over#boost the engine and damage it. Oet the maAority of World War @@ engines used superchargers, because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers, $hich $ere larger, involved e.tra piping, and re&uired e.otic high#temperature materials in the turbine and pre#turbine section of the e.haust system. The si-e of the piping alone is a serious issue3 %merican fighters >ought F8N and Iepublic :#8D used the same engine but the huge barrel#like fuselage of the latter $as, in part, needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane. Turbocharged piston engines are also subAect to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines. :ilots must make smooth, slo$ throttle adAustments to avoid overshooting their target manifold pressure. The fuel;air mi.ture must often be adAusted far on the rich side of stoichiometric combustion needs to avoid pre#ignition or detonation in the engine $hen running at high po$er settings. @n systems using a manually operated $astegate, the pilot must be careful not to e.ceed the turbocharger5s ma.imum rpm. Turbocharged engines re&uire a cooldo$n period after landing to prevent cracking of the turbo or e.haust system from thermal shock. Turbocharged engines re&uire fre&uent inspections of the turbocharger and e.haust systems for damage due to the increased heat, increasing maintenance costs. The great maAority of World War @@ %merican heavy bombers used by the NF%%F # particularly the Wright I#0E2H Cyclone!" po$ered <#0D Flying Fortress, and :ratt V Whitney I#0E4H T$in Wasp po$ered "onsolidated <#28 Liberator four#engined bombers both used similar models of 'eneral Jlectric#designed turbochargers in service,/8?1 as did the t$in %llison ># 0D0H#engined Lockheed :#4E Lightning %merican heavy fighter during the $ar years. Today, most general aviation aircraft are naturally aspirated./citation needed1 The small number of modern aviation piston engines designed to run at high altitudes in general use a turbocharger or turbo#normali-er system rather than a supercharger./citation needed1 The change in thinking is largely due to economics. %viation gasoline $as once plentiful and cheap, favoring the simple but fuel#hungry supercharger. %s the cost of fuel has increased, the supercharger has fallen out of favor. Turbocharged aircraft often occupy a performance range bet$een that of normally aspirated piston# po$ered aircraft and turbine#po$ered aircraft. The increased maintenance costs of a turbocharged engine are considered $orth$hile for this purpose, as a turbocharged piston engine is still far cheaper than any turbine engine. %s the turbocharged aircraft climbs, ho$ever, the pilot or automated system! can close the $astegate, forcing more e.haust gas through the turbocharger turbine, thereby maintaining manifold pressure during the climb, at least until the critical pressure altitude is reached $hen the $astegate is fully closed!, after $hich manifold pressure falls. With such systems, modern high#performance piston engine aircraft can cruise at altitudes above 2H,HHH feet, $here lo$ air density results in lo$er drag and higher true airspeeds. This allo$s flying "above the $eather". @n manually controlled $astegate

systems, the pilot must take care not to overboost the engine, $hich causes pre#ignition, leading to engine damage. Further, since most aircraft turbocharger systems do not include an intercooler, the engine typically operates on the rich side of peak e.haust temperature to avoid overheating the turbocharger. @n non#high#performance turbocharged aircraft, the turbocharger is solely used to maintain sea#level manifold pressure during the climb this is called turbo#normali-ing!./221 Codern turbocharged aircraft usually forgo any kind of temperature compensation, because the turbochargers are in general small and the manifold pressures created by the turbocharger are not very high. Thus, the added $eight, cost, and comple.ity of a charge cooling system are considered unnecessary penalties. @n those cases, the turbocharger is limited by the temperature at the compressor outlet, and the turbocharger and its controls are designed to prevent a large enough temperature rise to cause detonation. Jven so, in many cases the engines are designed to run rich so they can use the evaporating fuel for charge cooling.

-arine and land$based diesel turbochargers

% medium#si-ed si.# cylinder marine 7iesel# engine, $ith turbocharger and e.haust in the foreground Turbocharging, $hich is common on diesel engines in automobiles, trucks, tractors, and boats is also common in heavy machinery such as locomotives, ships, and au.iliary po$er generation. Turbocharging can dramatically improve an engine5s specific po$er and po$er#to# $eight ratio, performance characteristics that are normally poor in non#turbocharged diesel engines. 7iesel engines have no detonation because diesel fuel is inAected at or to$ards the end of the compression stroke and is ignited solely by the heat of compression of the charge air. <ecause of this, diesel engines can use a much higher boost pressure than spark ignition engines, limited only by the engine5s ability to $ithstand the additional heat and pressure. Turbochargers are also employed in certain t$o#stroke cycle diesel engines, $hich $ould normally re&uire a Ioots blo$er for aspiration. @n this specific application, mainly Jlectro#Cotive 7iesel JC7! ?BD, B8?, and D0H Feries engines, the turbocharger is initially driven by the engine5s crankshaft through a gear train and an overrunning clutch, thereby providing aspiration for combustion. %fter combustion has been achieved, and after the e.haust gases have reached sufficient heat energy, the overrunning clutch is disengaged, and the turbo#compressor is thereafter driven e.clusively by the e.haust gases. @n the JC7 application, the turbocharger is used for normal aspiration during starting and lo$ po$er output settings and is used for true turbocharging during medium and high po$er output settings. This is particularly beneficial at high altitudes, as are often encountered on $estern N.F. railroads.

Business and adoption

'arrett no$ 9oney$ell! and <org Warner are the largest manufacturers in Jurope and the NF. /21/8B1/8D1 Feveral factors are e.pected to contribute to more $idespread consumer adoption of

turbochargers, especially in the NF:/8E1/8G1 Me$ government fuel economy and emissions targets./8B1/8D1 @ncreasing oil prices and a consumer focus on fuel efficiency. 6nly 0H percent of light vehicles sold in the NF are e&uipped $ith turbochargers, making the Nnited Ftates an emerging market, compared to ?H percent of vehicles in Jurope that are turbo diesel and 2D percent that are gasoline boosted./?H1 9igher temperature tolerances for gasoline engines, ball bearings in the turbine shaft and variable geometry have reduced driveability concerns. <y 2H0B, 8H percent of light vehicles sold in the N.F. are e.pected to be turbocharged./8E1/8G1 @n Jurope about B? percent of vehicles are turbocharged, $hich is e.pected to gro$ to E? percent by 2H0?./8G1 9istorically, more than GH percent of turbochargers $ere diesel, ho$ever, adoption in gasoline engines is increasing./8G1 9oney$ell proAects the number of turbochargers in passenger vehicles in the N.F. to more than double to 24 percent by 2H0B./?H1 The NF "oalition for %dvanced 7iesel "ars is pushing for a technology neutral policy for government subsidies of environmentally friendly automotive technology. @f successful, government subsidies $ould be based on the "orporate %verage Fuel Jconomy "%FJ! standards rather than supporting specific technologies like electric cars. :olitical shifts could drastically change adoption proAections./?01 Turbocharger sales in the Nnited Ftates increased $hen the federal government boosted corporate average fuel economy targets to 4?.? mpg by 2H0B./?21

%n intercooler is any mechanical device used to cool a fluid, including li&uids or gases, bet$een stages of a multi#stage heating process, typically a heat e.changer that removes $aste heat in a gas compressor./01 They are used in many applications, including air compressors, air conditioners, refrigerators, and gas turbines, and are $idely kno$n in automotive use as an air#to#air or air#to#li&uid cooler for forced induction turbocharged or supercharged! internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through nearly isobaric constant pressure! cooling.

0 @nternal combustion engines o 0.0 %pplications to forced induction o 0.2 %ir#to#li&uid intercoolers o 0.4 "harge air cooler 2 Motes

(nternal combustion engines

@ntercoolers increase the efficiency of the induction system by reducing induction air heat created by the supercharger or turbocharger and promoting more thorough combustion. This removes the heat of compression i.e., the temperature rise! that occurs in any gas $hen its pressure is raised or its unit

mass per unit volume density! is increased. % decrease in intake air charge temperature sustains use of a more dense intake charge into the engine, as a result of forced induction. The lo$ering of the intake charge air temperature also eliminates the danger of pre#detonation knock! of the fuel;air charge prior to timed spark ignition. This preserves the benefits of more fuel;air burn per engine cycle, increasing the output of the engine. @ntercoolers also eliminate the need for using the $asteful method of lo$ering intake charge temperature by the inAection of e.cess fuel into the cylinders5 air induction chambers, to cool the intake air charge, prior to its flo$ing into the cylinders. This $asteful practice $hen intercoolers are not used! nearly eliminated the gain in engine efficiency from forced induction, but $as necessitated by the greater need to prevent at all costs the engine damage that pre#detonation engine knocking causes./21 The inter prefi. in the device name originates from historic compressor designs. @n the past, aircraft engines $ere built $ith charge air coolers that $ere installed bet$een multiple stages of forced induction,/citation needed1 thus the designation of inter. Codern automobile designs are technically designated aftercoolers because of their placement at the end of the supercharging chain. This term is no$ considered archaic in modern automobile terminology, since most forced#induction vehicles have single#stage superchargers or turbochargers, although "aftercooler" is still in common use in the piston#engined aircraft industry. @n a vehicle fitted $ith t$o#stage turbocharging, it is possible to have both an intercooler bet$een the t$o turbocharger units! and an aftercooler bet$een the second#stage turbo and the engine!. The J"< 7ieselma. land speed record#holding car is an e.ample of such a system. @n general, an intercooler or aftercooler is said to be a charge#air cooler. @ntercoolers can vary dramatically in si-e, shape and design, depending on the performance and space re&uirements of the entire supercharger system. "ommon spatial designs are front mounted intercoolers FC@"!, top mounted intercoolers TC@"! and hybrid mount intercoolers 9C@"!. Jach type can be cooled $ith an air#to#air system, air#to#li&uid system, or a combination of both.

'pplications to forced induction

The engine bay of a 2HH4 C@M@ "ooper FRthe top mounted intercooler is circled in red.

@nterior close up vie$ of an air to air intercooler.

J.terior of the same intercooler core. Turbochargers and superchargers are engineered to force more air mass into an engine5s intake manifold and combustion chamber. @ntercooling is a method used to compensate for heating caused by supercharging, a natural byproduct of the semi# adiabatic compression process. @ncreased air pressure can result in an e.cessively hot intake charge, significantly reducing the performance gains of supercharging due to decreased density. @ncreased intake charge temperature can also increase the cylinder combustion temperature, causing detonation, e.cessive $ear, or heat damage to an engine block. :assing a compressed and heated intake charge through an intercooler reduces its temperature due to heat reAection! and pressure due to flo$ restriction of fins!. @f the device is properly engineered, the relative decrease in temperature is greater than the relative loss in pressure, resulting a net increase in density. This increases system performance by recovering some losses of the inefficient compression process by reAecting heat to the atmosphere. %dditional cooling can be provided by e.ternally spraying

a fine mist onto the intercooler surface, or even into the intake air itself, to further reduce intake charge temperature through evaporative cooling. @ntercoolers that e.change their heat directly $ith the atmosphere are designed to be mounted in areas of an automobile $ith ma.imum air flo$. These types are mainly mounted in front mounted systems FC@"!. "ars such as the Missan Fkyline, Faab, >olvo 2HH Feries Turbo, >olvo DHH Feries and GHH series! turbo, 7odge FIT#8, 0st gen Ca-da CU#B, Citsubishi Lancer Jvolution and "hevrolet "obalt FF all use front mounted intercooler s! mounted near the front bumper, in line $ith the car5s radiator. Cany other turbo#charged cars, particularly $here the aesthetics of the car are not to be compromised by unattractive top mount scoops, such as the Toyota Fupra JT%EH only!, Missan 4HHTU T$in Turbo, Missan Filvia F04;08;08a;0?!, Missan 0EHs., Citsubishi 4HHHgt, Faab GHH, >olks$agen, Fiat Cultipla, %udi TT, and Turbo Citsubishi Jclipse use side#mounted air# to#air intercoolers FC@"!, $hich are mounted in the front corner of the bumper or in front of one of the $heels. Fide#mounted intercoolers are generally smaller, mainly due to space constraints, and sometimes t$o are used to gain the performance of a larger, single intercooler. "ars such as the Fubaru @mpre-a WIU, C@M@ "ooper F, Toyota "elica 'T#Four, Missan :ulsar 'T@# I, Ca-daspeed4, Ca-daspeedB, and the :F% :eugeot "itroWn turbo diesels, use air#to#air top mounted intercoolers TC@"! located on top of the engine. %ir is directed through the intercooler through the use of a hood scoop. @n the case of the :F% cars, the air flo$s through the grille above the front bumper, then through under#hood ducting. Top mounted intercoolers sometimes suffer from heat diffusion due to pro.imity $ith the engine, $arming them and reducing their overall efficiency. Fome World Ially "hampionship cars use a reverse#induction system design $hereby air is forced through ducts in the front bumper to a hori-ontally mounted intercooler.

Fitting an after market front mount intercooler to a car $ith a factory installed top mount. <ecause FC@" systems re&uire open bumper design for optimal performance, the entire system is vulnerable to debris. Fome engineers choose other mount locations due to this reliability concern. FC@"s can be located in front of or behind the radiator, depending on the heat dissipation needs of the engine. %s $ell as allo$ing a greater mass of air to be admitted to an engine, intercoolers have a key role in controlling the internal temperatures in a turbocharged engine. When fitted $ith a turbo as $ith any form of supercharging!, the engine5s specific po$er is increased, leading to higher combustion and e.haust temperatures. The e.haust gases passing through the turbine section of the turbocharger are usually around 8?H X" E8H XF!, but can be as high as 0HHH X" 0E4H XF! under e.treme conditions. This heat passes through the turbocharger unit and contributes to the heating of the air being compressed in the compressor section of the turbo. @f left uncooled, this hot air enters the engine, further increasing internal temperatures. This leads to a build#up of heat that $ill eventually stabilise, but this may be at temperatures in e.cess of the engine5s design limits# 5hot spots5 at the piston cro$n or e.haust valve can cause $arping or cracking of these components. 9igh air charge temperatures $ill also increase the possibility of pre#ignition or detonation. 7etonation causes damaging pressure spikes in the engine5s cylinders, $hich can &uickly damage an engine. These effects are especially found in modified or tuned engines running at very high specific po$er outputs. %n efficient intercooler removes heat from the air in the induction system, preventing the cyclic heat build#up via the turbocharger, allo$ing higher po$er outputs to be achieved $ithout damage. "ompression by the turbocharger causes the intake air to heat up and heat is added due to compressor inefficiencies adiabatic efficiency!. This is actually the greater cause of the increase in air temperature in an air charge. The e.tra po$er obtained from forced induction is due to the e.tra air available to

burn more fuel in each cylinder. This sometimes re&uires a lo$er compression ratio be used, to allo$ a $ider mapping of ignition timing advance before detonation occurs for a given fuel5s octane rating!. 6n the other hand, a lo$er compression ratio generally lo$ers combustion efficiency and costs po$er.

'ir$to$liquid intercoolers
% custom#built air#to# $ater intercooler, as used in a time attack car. %ir#to#li&uid intercoolers aka "harge#%ir# "oolers! are heat e.changers that transfer intake charge heat to an intermediate fluid, usually $ater, $hich finally reAects heat to the air. These systems use radiators in other locations, usually due to space constraints, to reAect un$anted heat, similar to an automotive radiator cooling system. %ir#to# li&uid intercoolers are usually heavier than their air#to#air counterparts due to additional components making up the system $ater circulation pump, radiator, fluid, and plumbing!. The Toyota "elica 'T#Four had this system from 0GEE to 0GEG, 0GG8 to 0GGG, also in the "arlos Fain- Ially "hampionship >ersion from 0GGH to 0GG4. The 0GEG#0GG4 Fubaru Legacy $ith the 2.H L 769" flat#8 engine also used a top installed air#to#$ater intercooler on the 'T and IF models sold in Japan, Jurope, and %ustralia. % big advantage of the air#to#li&uid setup is the lo$er overall pipe and intercooler length, $hich offers faster response lo$ers turbo lag!/citation needed1, giving peak boost faster than most front#mount intercooler setups. Fome setups can use reservoirs that can have ice put into it for intake temperatures lo$er than ambient air, giving a big advantage but of course, ice $ould need constant replacement!. Ford had adopted the technology $hen they decided to use forced induction via Fupercharger! on their Custang "obra and Ford Lightning truck platforms. @t uses a $ater;glycol mi.ture intercooler inside the intake manifold, Aust under the supercharger, and has a long heat e.changer front mounted, all po$ered by a <osch pump made for Ford. Ford still uses this technology today $ith their Fhelby 'T?HH. The 2HH?#2HHD "hevrolet "obalt FF Fupercharged also utili-es a similar setup. %ir#to#li&uid intercoolers are by far the most common form of intercooler found on marine engines, given that a limitless supply of cooling $ater is available and most engines are located in closed compartments $here obtaining a good flo$ of cooling air for an air#to#air unit $ould be difficult. Carine intercoolers take the form of a tubular heat e.changer $ith the air passing through a series of tubes and cooling $ater circulating around the tubes $ithin the unit5s casing. The source of $ater for the intercooler depends on the e.act cooling system fitted to the engine. Cost marine engines have fresh $ater circulating $ithin them $hich is passed through a heat e.changer cooled by sea $ater. @n such a system, the intercooler $ill be attached to the sea $ater circuit and placed before the engine5s o$n heat e.changer to ensure a supply of cool $ater.

Charge air cooler

% charge air cooler is used to cool engine air after it has passed through a turbocharger, but before it enters the engine. The idea is to return the air to a lo$er temperature, for the optimum po$er for the

combustion process $ithin the engine.

8#stroke diesel engine coolers "harge air coolers range in si-e depending on the engine. The smallest are most often referred to as intercoolers and are attached to automobile engines or truck engines. The largest are reserved for use on huge marine diesel engines, and can $eigh over 2 tonnes see picture!. Carine diesel engine charge#air coolers are still manufactured in Jurope, despite the very largest engines mostly being built in the Far Jast. >estas aircoil %;F and 'J% are the oldest makers still in business. The first marine diesel engine charge air cooler $as built by >estas aircoil %;F in 0G?B. There is some confusion in terminology bet$een aftercooler, intercooler, and charge#air cooler. @n the past, aircraft engines $ould run turbochargers in stages, $here the first stage compressor $ould feed the inlet of the second stage compressor that $ould further compress the air before it enters the engine. 7ue to the e.tremely high pressures that $ould develop, an air cooler $as positioned bet$een the first and second stage compressors. That cooler $as the "@ntercooler". %nother cooler $ould be positioned after the second stage, $hich $as the final compressor stage, and that $as the "aftercooler". %n aftercooler $as the cooler $hose outlet fed the engine.

Location of cooler on large diesel engine % charge#air cooler is simply an all# encompassing term, meaning that it cools the turbo5s air charge before it is routed into the engine. Nsually a charge#air cooler means an air#to#air cooler $here the heat is reAected using ambient air flo$ing through the heat e.changer, much like the engine5s coolant radiator. While the multi#stage turbocharger systems are still in use in some tractor pull classes, selected high#performance diesels, and are also being used on ne$er late model commercial diesels, the term intercooler and aftercooler are used synonymously today. The term intercooler is $idely used to mean in#bet$een the Turbocharger and the engine. <oth terms, intercooler or aftercooler, are correct, but this is the origin of the t$o terms that are used interchangeably by all levels of e.perts. %n intercooler, or ""harge#%ir "ooler", is an air#to#air or air#to#li&uid heat e.change device used on turbocharged and supercharged forced induction! internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air#charge density through isochoric cooling. % decrease in air intake temperature provides a denser intake charge to the engine and allo$s more air and fuel to be combusted per engine cycle, increasing the output of the engine. The inter prefi. in the device name originates from historic compressor designs. @n the past, aircraft engines $ere built $ith "harge#%ir "oolers that $ere installed bet$een multiple stages of supercharging, thus the designation of inter. Codern automobile designs are technically designated aftercoolers because of their placement at the end of supercharging chain. This term is no$ considered archaic in modern automobile terminology since most forced induction vehicles have single#stage superchargers or turbochargers. @n a vehicle fitted $ith t$o#stage turbocharging, it is possible to have both an intercooler bet$een the t$o turbocharger units! and an aftercooler bet$een the second#stage turbo and the engine!. @n general, an intercooler or aftercooler is said to be a "harge#%ir "ooler. Te.t

taken from %v#Tekk "harge#%ir "oolers $ebsite