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UNI EN ISO 13790:2005
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UNI EN ISO
13790

APRILE 2005

Prestazione termica degli edici

Calcolo del fabbisogno di energia per il riscaldamento

Thermal performance of buildings

Calculation of energy use for space heating

La norma fornisce un metodo di calcolo semplicato per la deter-
minazione del fabbisogno energetico annuo per il riscaldamento

degli edici residenziali e non residenziali, o di loro parti.

T TE ES ST TO O I I N NG GL LE ES SE E

La presente norma la versione ufciale in lingua inglese della

norma europea EN ISO 13790 (edizione giugno 2004).
ICS 91.140.10; 91.120.10
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UNI Pagina II
UNI EN ISO 13790:2005
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PREMESSA NAZIONALE

La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, del-
la norma europea EN ISO 13790 (edizione giugno 2004), che assu-
me cos lo status di norma nazionale italiana.
La presente norma stata elaborata sotto la competenza dellente
federato allUNI

CTI - Comitato Termotecnico Italiano

La presente norma stata raticata dal Presidente dellUNI, con
delibera dell11 marzo 2005.
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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPENNE
EUROPISCHE NORM
EN ISO 13790
June 2004
ICS 91.140.10
English version
Thermal performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for
space heating (ISO 13790:2004)
Performance thermique des btiments - Calcul des besoins
d'nergie pour le chauffage des locaux (ISO 13790:2004)
Wrmetechnisches Verhalten von Gebuden - Berechnung
des Heizenergiebedarfs (ISO 13790:2004)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 September 2003.
CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official
versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMI T EUROPEN DE NORMALI SATI ON
EUROPI SCHES KOMI TEE FR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels
2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Ref. No. EN ISO 13790:2004: E
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
2
Contents
Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................4
1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................................4
2 Normative references..........................................................................................................................................5
3 Terms and definitions .........................................................................................................................................5
4 Symbols and abbreviations................................................................................................................................9
5 Outline of the calculation procedure and required data................................................................................11
6 Intermittent heating ...........................................................................................................................................15
7 Heat loss (single zone calculation) ..................................................................................................................16
8 Heat gains...........................................................................................................................................................19
9 Heat use..............................................................................................................................................................21
10 Annual heat use of the building....................................................................................................................24
11 Energy for space heating ..............................................................................................................................24
12 Report..............................................................................................................................................................25
Annex A (normative) Application to existing buildings .......................................................................................27
Annex B (normative) Multi-zone calculation method ...........................................................................................28
Annex C (normative) Intermittent heating Calculation of adjusted internal temperature..............................29
Annex D (normative) Calculation with holiday period..........................................................................................37
Annex E (normative) Heat loss of special envelope elements ............................................................................38
Annex F (normative) Solar gains of special elements..........................................................................................42
Annex G (informative) Ventilation airflow rates ....................................................................................................49
Annex H (informative) Data for solar gains............................................................................................................53
Annex I (informative) Calculation of heat use for each heating mode................................................................57
Annex J (informative) Accuracy of the method.....................................................................................................59
Annex K (informative) Conventional input data ....................................................................................................60
Annex ZA (informative) Normative references to international publications with their
corresponding European publications...................................................................................................................62
Bibliography ..............................................................................................................................................................63
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
3
Foreword
This document EN ISO 13790:2004 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 89 "Thermal
performance of buildings and building components, the secretariat of which is held by SIS, in collaboration with
Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use in the built environment, sub-
committee 2, Calculation methods.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or
by endorsement, at the latest by December 2004, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest
by December 2004.
Annexes A to F are normative. Annexes G to K are informative.
This document includes a Bibliography.
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard : : Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
4
Introduction
This standard is one of a series of calculation methods for the design and evaluation of thermal performance of
buildings and building components.
The calculation method presented in this standard is based on an energy balance taking account of internal and
external temperature variations and, through a utilisation factor, of the dynamic effect of internal and solar gains.
This method can be used for the following applications:
1) judging compliance with regulations expressed in terms of energy targets;
2) comparing the energy performance of various design alternatives for a planned building;
3) displaying a conventional level of energy performance of existing buildings;
4) assessing the effect of possible energy conservation measures on an existing building, by calculation of the
energy use with and without the energy conservation measure;
5) predicting future energy resource needs on a national or international scale, by calculating the energy uses of
several buildings representative of the building stock.
Reference can be made to other International Standards or to national documents for input data and detailed
calculation procedures not provided by this standard. In particular, this applies to the calculation of the efficiency or
the heat loss of the heating systems.
Unlike EN 832, whose scope is restricted to residential buildings, this standard can be applied to both residential
and non-residential buildings. The most important changes in EN ISO 13790 compared to EN 832:1998, Thermal
performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for heating - Residential buildings, are:
1. Ventilation rates are calculated according to standards prepared by CEN/TC 156;
2. Clause 11 has been made simpler, and energy use is calculated from heat use according to existing
International Standards or, by default, to national documents;
3. A normative method has been included to calculate the effect of intermittence.
4. New input data have been included for non-residential buildings, in particular for utilisation factors.
For all these reasons, calculation using EN ISO 13790 gives results that may slightly differ from those obtained with
EN 832.
1 Scope
This standard gives a simplified calculation method for assessment of the annual energy use for space heating of a
residential or a non-residential building, or a part of it, which will be referred to as "the building".
It does not apply to buildings with air conditioning systems likely to provide space cooling during the heating
season.
This method includes the calculation of:
1. the heat losses of the building when heated to constant internal temperature;
2. the annual heat required to maintain the specified set-point temperatures in the building;
3. the annual energy required by the heating system of the building for space heating, using heating system
characteristics which are to be found in specific European or International Standards, or, by default, in
national documents.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
5
The building can have several zones with different set-point temperatures, and can have intermittent heating.
The calculation period is the month. For residential buildings the calculation can also be performed for the heating
season. Monthly calculation gives correct results on an annual basis, but the results for individual months close to
the beginning and the end of the heating season can have large relative errors. Annex J provides some information
on the accuracy of the method.
2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These
normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the
publication referred to applies (including amendments).
EN ISO 7345:1995, Thermal insulation Physical quantities and definitions (ISO 7345:1987).
EN ISO 13370:1998, Thermal performance of buildings Heat transfer via the ground Calculation methods
(ISO 13370:1998).
EN ISO 13789, Thermal performance of buildings Transmission heat loss coefficient Calculation method
(ISO 13789:1999).
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345:1995 and the
following apply.
3.1
calculation period
time period for the calculation of heat losses and gains
NOTE The calculation period is the month. For residential buildings the calculation can also be performed for the heating season.
3.2
external temperature
temperature of external air
NOTE For transmission heat loss calculations, the radiant temperature of the external environment is supposed equal to the external air
temperature; long-wave transmission to the sky is considered in F.5.
3.3
internal temperature
arithmetic average of the air temperature and the mean radiant temperature at the centre of the occupied zone
NOTE This is the approximate operative temperature according to ISO 7726, Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Instruments for
measuring physical quantities.
3.4
set-point temperature
internal temperature, as fixed by the control system in normal heating mode
3.5
set-back temperature
minimum internal temperature to be maintained during reduced heating periods
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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3.6
adjusted internal temperature
constant virtual internal temperature leading to the same heat loss as intermittent heating
3.7
heated space
room or enclosure heated to a given set-point temperature
3.8
unheated space
room or enclosure which is not part of the heated space
3.9
heat use
heat to be delivered to the heated space by an ideal heating system to maintain the set-point temperature during a
given period of time
NOTE The heat use can include additional building heat loss resulting from non-uniform temperature distribution and non-ideal temperature
control, if they are taken into account by increasing the set-point temperature and not included in the heat loss due to the heating system.
3.10
energy use for space heating
thermal energy to be delivered to the heating system to satisfy the heat use
3.11
intermittent heating
heating pattern where normal heating periods alternate with reduced heating periods
3.12
modes of intermittence
during intermittent heating, the heating system is operated according to either of the following modes:
3.12.1 normal mode: the heating system functions to maintain the internal temperature at the value it would have
with continuous heating;
3.12.2 cut-off mode: the heating system does not provide heat;
3.12.3 reduced heating power mode: the heating system provides a heat flow rate lower than in normal heating;
3.12.4 set-back mode: heat flow rate is controlled to maintain a set-back temperature;
3.12.5 boost mode: the heating system runs at full power in order to reach the set-point temperature at or before
the end of the reduced heating period
NOTE Depending on the control system, the boost mode can start according to two different strategies:
a) fixed time boost: the start of the boost mode is fixed by the user;
b) optimised boost: the time when the set-point internal temperature is recovered is fixed by the user, and the control system
optimises the start of the boost mode, taking account of the external and internal temperatures.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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3.13
heated zone
part of the heated space with a given set-point temperature, throughout which the internal temperature is assumed
to have negligible spatial variations
3.14
heat transfer coefficient
heat flow rate between two zones divided by the temperature difference between both zones
3.15
heat loss coefficient
heat transfer coefficient from the heated space to the external environment
NOTE The heat loss coefficient of the building cannot be used when the multi-zone calculation method according to annex B is applied
3.16
building heat loss
heat transferred from heated space to the external environment by transmission and by ventilation, during a given
period of time
3.17
ventilation heat loss
heat lost with the air leaving the heated space either by exfiltration or ventilation
3.18
transmission heat loss
heat loss by transmission through the building envelope and through the ground
3.19
heat gains
heat generated within or entering into the heated space from heat sources other than the space and hot water
heating systems
NOTE These include internal heat gains and solar gains.
3.20
internal heat gains
heat provided within the building by occupants (sensible metabolic heat) and by appliances other than the space
and hot water heating systems (lighting, domestic appliances, office equipment, etc.)
3.21
solar gains
heat provided by solar radiation entering into the building through windows or passive solar devices such as
sunspaces, transparent insulation and solar walls
NOTE Active solar devices such as solar collectors are considered as part of the heating system.
3.22
solar irradiation
incident solar heat per area over a given period
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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3.23
utilisation factor
factor reducing the total monthly or seasonal heat gains to obtain the resulting reduction of the heat use
3.24
recovered heat
heat recovered from the environment or from heating and hot water systems (including auxiliary equipment), if not
directly taken into account in a reduction of the heating system losses
3.25
ventilation heat recovery
heat recovered from the exhaust air
3.26
heating system losses
total of the heat lost by the heating system, including recovered system heat loss
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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4 Symbols and abbreviations
Table 1 Symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
A area m
a numerical parameter in utilisation factor -
b correction factor for unheated zones -
C effective heat capacity of a heated space J/K
c specific heat capacity J/(kgK)
d layer thickness m
F factor -
g total solar energy transmittance of a building element -
I solar irradiance J/m
H heat transfer coefficient, heat loss coefficient W/K
h surface coefficient of heat transfer W/(mK)
L length m
N number
Q quantity of heat or energy J
R thermal resistance mK/W
T thermodynamic temperature K
t time, period of time s
U thermal transmittance W/(mK)
V volume of air in a heated zone m
V

airflow rate m/s


heat flow rate, heating power W
heat loss parameter for solar walls W/(mK)

absorption coefficient of a surface for solar radiation -

gain/loss ratio -

ratio of the accumulated internal-external temperature difference when the


ventilation is on to its value over the calculation period
-

emissivity of a surface for thermal radiation -


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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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Symbol Quantity Unit

efficiency, utilisation factor for the gains -

factor related to heat losses of ventilated solar walls -

Celsius temperature C

density kg/m
Stefan-Boltzmann constant ( = 5,67 10
-
8
)
W/(mK
4
)

time constant s

heat capacity per area J/(mK)

ratio of the effects of a change in heating flow rate on the internal temperature
and on the structure temperature
-

effective part of the heat capacity -

ratio of the total solar radiation falling on the element when the air layer is open
to the total solar radiation during the calculation period
-
NOTE Hours can be used as the unit of time instead of seconds for all quantities involving time (i.e. for time periods as well as for air change
rates), but in that case the unit of energy is Watt-hours [Wh] instead of Joules.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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Table 2 Subscripts
C capacity, calculation,
convective
f form, final r radiative, recovered,
reduced
F frame g gains s solar, sunspace
G ground h heating, heated, hemispherical sb set back
L loss hol holidays se surface external
P related to power hw hot water si surface internal
S shading i internal ss surface-sky average
T transmission ih intermittent heating sw solar wall
V ventilation i,j,k,m,n dummy integers t transparent insulation
a air l layer th heating system
ad adjusted m metabolic, month u unheated
ap appliances nh no heating v ventilation
bh boost heating o overall w window
c structure p partition wall y, z zone number
d design, daily, direct pp peak power perpendicular
e exterior, envelope ps permanent shading 0 base, reference
5 Outline of the calculation procedure and required data
5.1 Energy balance
The energy balance includes the following terms (only sensible heat is considered):
5. transmission and ventilation heat loss from the heated space to the external environment;
6. transmission and ventilation heat transfer between adjacent zones;
7. internal heat gains;
8. solar gains;
9. generation, distribution, emission and control losses of the space heating system;
10. energy input to the space heating system.
It may also include recovered energy from various sources.
NOTE As heat gains may induce internal temperature to rise above the set-point, the resulting additional heat loss is taken into account
through a utilisation factor reducing heat gains.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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The main terms of the energy balance are schematically illustrated in Figure 1.
3
Q
4
Q
g
Q
hw
Q
oa
Q
m
Q
i
Q
g
Q
s
1
Q
h
Q
Vr
Q
T
Q
V
2 Q
r
Q
hs
Q
L
Key
Q Energy use for heating
Q
oa
Heat from other appliances
Q
r
Recovered energy
Q
hs
Losses from the heating system
Q
m
Metabolic heat
Q
s
Passive solar gains
Q
i
Internal gains
Q
g
Total gains
Q
g
Useful gains
Q
h
Heat use
Q
V
Ventilation heat loss
Q
Vr
Ventilation heat recovery
Q
T
Transmission heat loss
Q
hw
Heat for hot water preparation
Q
L
Total heat loss
1 Boundary of the heated zone
2 Boundary of the hot water system
3 Boundary of the heating plant
4 Boundary of the building
Figure 1 Energy balance of a building
5.2 Calculation procedure
The calculation procedure is summarised below. In addition, the special approach given in annex A shall be
followed when applying this standard to existing buildings.
1) Define the boundaries of the heated space and, if appropriate, of different zones and unheated spaces,
according to 5.3.
2) In case of intermittent heating or intermittent ventilation define, within the calculation period, the periods having
different heating and ventilation patterns (e.g. day, night, weekend) according to clause 6.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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3) For a single zone calculation, calculate the heat loss coefficient of the heated space according to clause 7; or
for a multi-zone calculation, follow the procedure in annex B.
4) For seasonal calculation, define or calculate the length and climatic data of the heating season, according
to 9.2.
Then, for each calculation period (month or heating season):
5) calculate the adjusted internal temperature for each period according to clause 6;
6) calculate the heat loss, Q
L
, according to clause 7;
7) calculate the internal heat gains, Q
i
, according to 8.1;
8) calculate the solar gains, Q
s
, according to 8.2;
9) calculate the utilisation factor for heat gains, , according to 9.2;
10) calculate the heat use, Q
h
, for all calculation periods, according to clause 9;
11) calculate the annual heat use, Q
h
, according to clause 10;
12) calculate the energy use for heating taking into account the losses of the heating system, according to
clause 11.
5.3 Definition of boundaries and zones
5.3.1 Boundary of the heated space
The boundary of the heated space consists of all the building elements separating the considered heated space
from external environment or from adjacent heated zones or unheated spaces.
5.3.2 Thermal zones
5.3.2.1 Single zone calculation
When the heated space is heated to the same temperature throughout, and when internal and solar gains are
relatively small or evenly distributed throughout the building, the single zone calculation applies.
The division in zones is not required when:
a) set-point temperatures of the zones never differ by more than 4 K, and it is expected that the gain/loss ratios
differ by less than 0,4 (e.g. between south and north zones), or
b) doors between zones are likely to be frequently open.
In such cases, even if the set-point temperature is not uniform, the single zone calculation applies. Then the
internal temperature to be used is:

z
z
H
H
z
iz z
i

(1)
where

iz
is the set-point temperature of zone z;
H
z
is the heat loss coefficient, according to clause 6, but calculated separately for each zone z.
In this case, a unique intermittence pattern shall be chosen.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
14
5.3.2.2 Multi-zone calculation
In other cases with significant differences in set-point temperatures or heat gains, the building is divided into
several zones.
If the purpose of the calculation is to assess heat use for each zone individually, then the calculation procedure
given in annex B shall be used.
Otherwise, each zone may be calculated independently using the single zone procedure and assuming adiabatic
boundaries between zones. The energy use for the building is the sum of the energy use calculated for the
individual zones.
5.4 Input data
5.4.1 Source and type of input data
When no International Standard is given as a reference, the necessary information may be obtained from national
standards or other suitable documents, and these should be used where available. The informative annexes give
values or methods to obtain values when the required information is otherwise not available.
For predicting the energy needs or judging compliance with regulations or specifications, conventional values shall
be used, in order to make the results comparable between different buildings.
For optimisation of a planned building or retrofitting an existing building, the best available estimate for that
particular building shall be used (see annex A). However, if no better estimates are available, conventional values
may be used as first approximations.
The physical dimensions of the building construction shall be consistent throughout the calculation. Internal,
external or overall internal dimensions can be used, but the same type shall be kept for the whole calculation and
the type of dimensions used shall be clearly indicated in the report.
NOTE 1 Some linear thermal transmittances of thermal bridges depend on the type of dimensions used.
The input data required for single zone calculation are listed below. Some of these data may be different for each
calculation period (e.g. shading correction factors, airflow rates in cold months) and for each period of an
intermittence pattern (e.g. air flow rate, thermal transmittance of windows due to closing of shutters during night
periods). Input data for heat loss are
H
T
transmission heat loss coefficient according to EN ISO 13789.
NOTE 2 In contrast with EN ISO 13789, daily average values of the thermal transmittance of windows with shutters can be determined on the
basis of the values given by EN ISO 10077-1, Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters - Calculation of thermal transmittance
Part 1: Simplified method.
.
V air flow rate through the building, including airflows to and from unheated spaces.
5.4.2 Input data for heat gains

i
average internal heat gains during the calculation period.
For glazed envelope elements, the following data shall be collected separately for each orientation (e.g. horizontal,
pitched, and vertical south and north):
A
j
area of opening in the building envelope for each window or door;
F
Fj
frame factor, i.e. transparent fraction of the area A
j
, not occupied by a frame;
F
sj
shading correction factor, i.e. average shaded fraction of the area A
j
;
g
j
total solar energy transmittance for solar radiation.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
15
NOTE In non-residential buildings internal gains vary substantially between occupied and non-occupied periods. Gains can be first
calculated for each occupancy period and then averaged taking into account the length of each period. This calculation is often easier on a
weekly basis.
Additional data shall be collected for components that collect solar radiation, such as transparent insulation,
ventilated solar walls and sunspaces, and for calculation of the effect of intermittent heating. The required data are
listed in annexes E and F. Annex H gives some information on data useful to assess the solar gains.
5.4.3 Dynamic characteristics
C heat capacity of the heated space, calculated for heat use according to 9.2;
time constant of the heated space
NOTE Either C or should be specified, not both.
5.4.4 Input data for energy use
Q
hs
losses of the heating system.
5.4.5 Climatic data
The calculation method requires the following climatic data:

e
monthly or seasonal average of external temperature;
I
s,j
monthly or seasonal total solar radiation per area for each orientation j, in J/m.
NOTE EN ISO 15927-1, Hygrothermal performance of buildings Calculation and presentation of climatic data Part 1: Monthly and annual
means of single meteorological elements is available.
6 Intermittent heating
6.1 Intermittence patterns
When intermittent heating is applied, the calculation period(s) shall be divided into normal heating periods
alternating with reduced heating periods (e.g. nights, week-ends, and holidays).
All the normal heating periods shall have the same set-point temperature.
There may be several types of reduced heating periods with different patterns.
Within each calculation period, each type of reduced heating period is characterized by:
11. its duration;
12. the number of occurrences of that type of period in one calculation period;
13. the relevant mode of intermittence (see 3.12) ;
14. where relevant, the set-back temperature or the reduced heating power;
15. the boost mode (see 3.12.5) and the maximum heating power during the boost period.
An example is shown in Figure 2, where the calculation period includes four type A reduced heating periods (e.g.
nights) and one type B reduced heating period (week-end).
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
16
t
N
t
c
A
B

N N
N
N
A A A
Key
Set-point temperature
t Time
t
c
Calculation period
N Normal heating period
A Reduced heating period type A
B Reduced heating period type B
Figure 2 Example of intermittence pattern
The division into different periods is not required when:
a) set-point temperature variations between normal heating and reduced heating periods are lower than 3 K: in this
case time average of set-point temperatures may be used;
b) the time constant of the building (see 9.2.2 ) is greater than three times the duration of the longest reduced
period: in this case the normal set-point temperature may be used for all periods;
c) the time constant of the building is less than 0,2 times the duration of the shortest reduced heating period: in this
case the time average of set-point temperatures may be used.
The heating system is supposed to deliver sufficient heating power to enable intermittent heating.
NOTE 1 In non residential buildings, variations of set-point temperatures and ventilation flow rates are often linked to occupancy. Splitting into
different periods facilitates the evaluation of the mean air flow rate in each of them.
NOTE 2 As heating patterns are usually defined on a weekly basis, their definition will be facilitated if calculations are performed for one week
per month.
6.2 Adjusted internal temperature
The adjusted internal temperature is the constant internal temperature which would result in the same heat loss as
that obtained with intermittent heating during the period.
For each reduced period, the adjusted internal temperature shall be calculated using the procedure defined in
annex C for daily or weekly reductions, and annex D for holidays.
Values of adjusted internal temperature may also be provided at a national level based on the type of building,
building use, heating system, etc.
7 Heat loss (single zone calculation)
7.1 Without intermittent heating
The total heat loss, Q
L
, of a single zone building at a uniform internal temperature and for a given calculation
period, is:
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
17
t H Q ) (
e i L
(2)
where

i
is the set-point temperature;

e
is the average external temperature during the calculation period;
t is the duration of the calculation period;
H is the heat loss coefficient of the building, calculated according to 7.3.
Equation (2) can be adapted at national level to allow for the use of degree-days. The result of the adapted relation
shall nevertheless be the same as that of Equation (2) for any building.
7.2 With intermittent heating
If the division into different heating periods is not applicable, see 7.1.
If the division into different heating periods is applicable, the total heat loss, Q
L
, of a single zone building at a
uniform internal temperature and for a given calculation period, is calculated from Equation (3):


N
j
j j j j
t H N Q
1
e iad L
) , ( (3)
where
N is the number of heating period types (e.g. 3 for normal, nights, and week-ends);
N
j
is the number of heating periods of each type during the calculation period;

iad,j
is the adjusted internal temperature of the heating period j;
t
j
is the duration of the heating period j;
H
j
is the heat loss coefficient of the building during period j, calculated according to 7.3.
NOTE

N
j
j j
t N
1
is equal to the duration of the calculation period.
To simplify the notation the subscript j is omitted below. Nevertheless when the division into heating periods is
applicable the calculation shall be performed for each heating period.
7.3 Heat loss coefficient
The heat loss coefficient of a single zone building at a uniform internal temperature, and for a given calculation
period or sub-period, is defined by Equation (4):
H = H
T
+ H
V
(4)
where
H
T
is the transmission heat loss coefficient, calculated according to EN ISO 13789 (for envelope elements
incorporating ventilating devices, see annex E);
H
V
is the ventilation heat loss coefficient (see 7.5).
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
18
7.4 Buildings with significant heat loss through the ground
EN ISO 13789 states that the steady state method given in EN ISO 13370 should be used to include heat loss
through the ground into the transmission heat loss coefficient H
T
. However, that could result monthly heat losses
through the ground being overestimated by 30 % to 40 % in winter and, if heat loss through the ground is an
important part of the total heat loss, detailed calculation of the ground heat loss according to B.1 of EN
ISO 13370:1998 shall be done. In this case, the total heat loss Q
L
is given,
16. without division into different heating periods, by:
( )t H Q
G e i L
) ( ' + (5)
17. in case of division into different heating periods, by:
t t H N Q
N
j
j j j j G
1
e iad L
) , ( ' +

(6)
where
H' is calculated according to 7.3 but without ground heat loss;

G
is the heat loss rate through the ground calculated according to EN ISO 13370.
7.5 Ventilation heat loss coefficient
7.5.1 Principle
The ventilation heat loss coefficient, H
V
, is calculated from:
V c H
a a V


(7)
where
.
V is the airflow rate through the heated space;

a
c
a
is the heat capacity of air per volume.
NOTE 1 If the air flow rate, V

, is in m
3
/s, a
c
a
1200 J/(m
3
K). If V

is given in m/h, a
c
a 0,34 Wh/(m
3
K).
Average airflow rate over each heating period shall be used.
For residential buildings, the airflow rate, V

, may be calculated either according to EN 13465, or provided at


national level based on the type of building, building use, climate, exposition, etc.
For other buildings, the airflow rate, V

, may be calculated either according to an appropriate International


Standard, or provided at national level based on the type of building, building use, climate, exposition, etc.
NOTE 2 Unless otherwise specified, the method in annex G can be used.
7.5.2 Heat recovery
Heat recovery from exhaust air is taken into account by reducing the real airflow rate in proportion to the efficiency
of heat recovery.
This efficiency is always smaller than the effectiveness of the heat exchanger itself. It shall take account of
differences between supply and extract airflow rates, of leakage and infiltration through the building envelope, and
recirculation of air.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
19
NOTE Unless otherwise specified, the method in annex G can be used.
7.6 Special elements
Special methods are needed to calculate the heat loss of some special elements such as ventilated solar walls and
other ventilated envelope elements. These methods are given in annex E.
8 Heat gains
8.1 Internal heat gains
Internal heat gains, Q
i
, include any heat generated in the heated space by internal sources other than the space
heating system, e.g.:
18. metabolic gains from occupants;
19. the energy consumption of appliances and lighting devices.
Average monthly or seasonal values are appropriate for the calculation according to this standard. In this case,
internal heat gains are calculated from Equation (8):
Q
i
= [
i,h
+ (1-b)
i,u
)] t =
i
t (8)
where

i,h
is the average power of the internal gains in heated spaces;

i,u
is the average power of the internal gains in unheated spaces;

i
is the average power of the internal gains;
b is the reduction factor defined in EN ISO 13789.
NOTE There are substantial variations between users and climates, and values should normally be determined on a national
basis. Unless otherwise specified, the conventional values given for internal gains in annex K can be used.
8.2 Solar gains
8.2.1 Basic equation
Solar gains result from the solar radiation normally available in the locality concerned, the orientation of the
collecting areas, the permanent shading, and the solar transmission and absorption characteristics of the collecting
areas. The collecting areas to take into consideration are the glazing, the internal walls and floors of sunspaces,
and walls behind a transparent covering or transparent insulation. For opaque areas exposed to solar radiation,
see annex F.
For a given calculation period, solar gains are calculated from:

]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+
]
]
]
]
,
,

j n
nj j
j n
nj j
A I b A I Q
u , s s s s s
) 1 ( (9)
where the first term is for heated space and the second for unheated space. Solar gains in unheated spaces are
multiplied by (1-b), where b is the reduction factor defined in EN ISO 13789. Heat gains of sunspaces are
calculated according to annex F.
In each term, the first sum is over all orientations, j, and the second over all the surfaces, n, collecting the solar
radiation, and:
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
20
I
sj
is the solar irradiance, e.g. the total energy of the global solar radiation during the calculation period on a
surface of area 1 m having orientation j, in J/m;
A
snj
is the solar effective collecting area of the surface n having orientation j, that is the area of a black body
having the same solar gain as the surface considered.
NOTE I
sj can be replaced by an orientation factor multiplied by the total solar radiation per area for a single orientation (e.g. vertical south).
8.2.2 Effective collecting area of glazed elements
The effective area of a glazed envelope element (e.g. a window) is:
A
s
= A F
S
F
F
g

(10)
where
A is the overall area of the glazed element (e.g. window area);
F
S
is the shading correction factor;
F
F
is the frame factor,

ratio of the transparent area to the overall area of the glazed element;
g is the total solar energy transmittance of the glazing taking account of permanent solar protection
devices, if any.
NOTE Only permanent shading and permanent solar protection devices are taken into account in the shading correction factor and in the
total solar energy transmittance of the glazing.
8.2.3 Solar energy transmittance of glazing
In principle, the total solar energy transmittance g in Equation (10) is the time-averaged ratio of energy passing
through the unshaded element to that incident upon it. For windows or other glazed envelope elements, ISO 9050
provides a method to obtain the solar energy transmittance for radiation perpendicular to the glazing. This value,
g

, is somewhat higher than the time-averaged transmittance, and a correction factor, F


w
, shall be used:
g = F
w
g

(11)
NOTE g-values and guidance for the correction factor are given in annex H, together with typical solar transmission factors for global
radiation.
EN 13363-1 and prEN 13363-2 provide methods of determination of the total solar energy transmittance of glazing
equipped with solar protection devices.
8.2.4 Shading correction factors
The shading correction factor, F
S
, which is in the range 0 to 1, represents the reduction in incident solar radiation
due to permanent shading of the surface concerned resulting from:
20. other buildings;
21. topography (hills, trees etc.);
22. overhangs;
23. other elements of the same building;
24. external part of the wall where the glazed element is mounted.
The shading correction factor is defined by:
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
21
s
ps s,
S
I
I
F (12)
where
I
s,ps
is the total solar irradiance actually received on the collecting plane with the permanent shading during
the heating season;
I
s
is the solar irradiance without shading.
NOTE Annex H provides some information on shading correction factors.
8.2.5 Special elements
Special methods are needed to calculate the solar gains of some passive solar collecting elements, such as
unheated sunspaces, opaque elements with transparent insulation, and ventilated envelope elements. These
methods are given in annex F.
8.3 Total heat gains
Total heat gains, Q
g
, are:
Q
g
= Q
i
+ Q
s
(13)
9 Heat use
9.1 General
Heat loss, Q
L
, and heat gains, Q
g
are calculated for each calculation period. The heat use for space heating is
obtained for each calculation period from:
Q
h

= Q
L

- Q
g
(14)
setting Q
L
= 0 and

= 0 when the average external temperature is higher than the set-point temperature.
The utilisation factor, , is a reduction factor for the heat gains, introduced to compensate additional heat loss likely
to occur when heat gains exceed the calculated heat loss.
9.2 Utilisation factor for heat gains
9.2.1 Gain/loss ratio
The gain/loss ratio, , is defined as:
L
g
Q
Q
(15)
9.2.2 Building time constant
This time constant, , characterises the internal thermal inertia of the heated space. It is calculated from:
H
C
(16)
where
C is the internal heat capacity of the building, calculated according to 9.2.3;
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
22
H is the heat loss coefficient of the building, calculated according to 7.3.
Conventional time constants for typical buildings may also be provided at a national level.
9.2.3 Internal heat capacity of the building
The internal heat capacity of the building, C, is calculated by summing the heat capacities of all the building
elements in direct thermal contact with the internal air of the zone under consideration:
C =
j
A
j
=
j

i

ij
c
ij
d
ij
A
j
(17)
where

j
is the internal heat capacity per area of the building element j;
A
j
is the area of the element j;

ij
is the density of the material of the layer i in element j;
c
ij
is the specific heat capacity of the material of layer i in element j;
d
ij
is the thickness of the layer i in element j.
The sum is done for all layers of each element, starting from the internal surface and stopping at the first insulating
layer, the maximum thickness given in Table 3 or the middle of the building element; whichever comes first.
Table 3 Maximum thickness to be considered for internal heat capacity
Application Maximum thickness
cm
Determination of the utilisation factor 10
Effect of intermittence 3
The internal heat capacity of the building may also be calculated as the sum of the internal capacities of all building
elements, each calculated according to EN ISO 13786, or provided at a national level, based on the type of
construction. This figure can be approximate, and a relative uncertainty ten times higher than that of the heat loss is
acceptable.
9.2.4 Utilisation factor
The utilisation factor is calculated from:
if 1:
1
1
1
+

a
a

(18)
if = 1:
1 +

a
a
(19)
where a is a numerical parameter depending on the time constant, , defined by:
0
0

+ a a (20)
Values of a
0

and
0
are given in Table 4. They can also be provided at a national level.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
23
Table 4 Values of the numerical parameter a
0
and reference time constant
0
Type of building
a
0
0
h
Continuously heated buildings (more than 12 h per day) such as residential
buildings, hotels, hospitals, homes and penitentiary buildings
monthly calculation method 1 15
I
seasonal calculation method 0,8 30
II
Building heated during day-time only (less than 12 h per day) such as
education, office and assembly buildings and shops
0,8 70
Figure 3 illustrates utilisation factors for monthly calculation periods and for various time constants for type I and
type II buildings.
NOTE 1 The utilisation factor is defined independently of the heating system characteristics, assuming perfect temperature control and infinite
flexibility.
NOTE 2 A slowly responding heating system and a less-than-perfect control system can significantly affect the use of gains.

0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0

168
48
24
8

[h]

0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0

168
48
24
8

[h]
Key
Utilisation factor
Time constant of the building
Gain/loss ratio
Figure 3 Utilisation factor for 8 h, 1 day, 2 days, 1 week and infinite time constants, valid for monthly
calculation period of continuously heated buildings (type I building, top), and for buildings heated during
the day only (type II building, bottom)
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
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10 Annual heat use of the building
10.1 Monthly calculation method
The annual heat use is the sum over all months with positive heat use:
Q
h
=
n
Q
hn
(21)
If the length of the heating season is specified at national level, the sum is taken only during that heating season.
10.2 Seasonal calculation method
This method can be applied only to type I buildings.
The first and last day of the heating season, hence its duration and its average meteorological conditions, can be
fixed at national level for a geographic zone and typical buildings. The heating season includes all days for which
the heat gain, calculated with a conventional utilisation factor,
1
, does not balance the heat loss, that is when:
d
gd 1
id ed
t H
Q
(22)
where

ed
is the daily average external temperature;

id
is the daily average internal temperature;

1
is the conventional utilisation factor calculated with = 1;
Q
gd
are the daily average internal and solar gains;
H is the heat loss coefficient of the building;
t
d
is the duration of the day, that is 24 h or 86 400 s.
The heat gains for Equation (22) may be derived from a conventional national or regional value of the daily global
solar radiation at the limits of the heating season. The monthly average values of daily temperatures and heat gains
are attributed to the 15
th
day of each month. Linear interpolation is used to obtain the limiting days for which
Equation (22) is verified.
The annual heat use for space heating is calculated according to the procedure described in clause 9, the
calculation period being the whole heating season.
11 Energy for space heating
Over a given period, the heating energy use (thermal energy input to the heating system), Q, is:
Q = (Q
h
- Q
r
) + Q
th
(23)
where
Q
h
is the heat use according to clause 10;
Q
r
is the heat recovered from auxiliary equipment, heating and hot water systems and environment
including renewable energy sources, where not directly taken into account as losses reduction;
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
25
Q
th
is the total of the heat losses due to the heating system, including recovered system heat loss. This
also includes the additional building heat loss due to non-uniform room temperature distribution and
non-ideal room temperature control, if they are not already taken into account in the set-point
temperature.
In the absence of a relevant International Standard, the recovered heat and the heat losses due to the heating
system are defined and calculated according to national information.
12 Report
12.1 General
A report giving an assessment of the annual heating energy use of a building obtained in accordance with this
standard shall include at least the following information.
If the calculation is performed to check compliance with regulation, conventional input data provided by the
regulation are used, and no error analysis is performed.
Otherwise, an estimate of the accuracy of input data shall be given, and an error analysis shall be performed to
estimate the uncertainty resulting from inaccuracy of the input data.
12.2 Input data
All input data shall be listed and justified, e.g. by reference to International or national Standards, or by reference to
the appropriate annexes to this standard or to other documents. When the input data are not conventional, an
estimate of the accuracy of input data shall also be given.
In addition, the report shall include:
reference to this standard;
the purpose of the calculation (e.g. for judging compliance with regulations, optimising energy performance,
assessing the effects of possible energy conservation measures, or predicting energy resource needs on a
given scale);
a description of the building, its construction and its location;
specification of the zone division, if any, that is the allocation of rooms to each zone;
a note indicating whether the dimensions used are internal, or external or overall internal;
a note indicating which method (monthly or seasonal) was used and, if seasonal, the length of the heating
season;
schedule and set-points if intermittent heating was assumed;
a note on how any thermal bridges have been taken into account.
12.3 Results
12.3.1 For each building zone and each calculation period:
a) Total heat loss;
b) Internal heat gains;
c) Solar gains;
d) Heat use.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
26
12.3.2 For the whole building
a) Annual heat use;
b) If required, annual energy use.
NOTE 1 Guidance and comments on the accuracy of the calculation method is given in annex J.
NOTE 2 Additional information can be required at national level.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
27
Annex A
(normative)
Application to existing buildings
A.1 Possible applications
Energy assessments of existing buildings are carried out for various purposes, such as:
a) transparency in commercial operations through the display of a level of energy performance (energy
declaration);
b) helping in planning retrofit measures, through prediction of energy savings, which would result from various
actions.
In contrast to new buildings, additional information is often available for existing buildings, which can be used to
enhance the reliability of the results. Therefore, the calculation framework in this standard shall be adapted when
possible to take account of these possibilities, as described below.
A.2 Data assessment
The energy use of the existing building shall be assessed as accurately as practicable, from recorded data, energy
bills, or measurements. In addition, any information such as actual climatic data, air permeability of the fabric,
transmission heat loss coefficients, heating system efficiencies, actual internal conditions (occupancy, intermittent
heating, temperatures, ventilation, etc.), should be assessed through surveys, measurements or monitoring, as far
as they are available for a reasonable cost. The confidence intervals of all data shall be estimated. Input data that
cannot be measured are taken from building technical documentation,

national references or standards.
NOTE Energy use can be correlated to climatic data through periodic consumption and temperature recordings over a suitable period. Such
methods are based on an overall modelling of the whole system, which may differ from the model used in this standard.
A.3 Calculations
The energy use of the existing building shall be determined according to the present standard using input data
collected according to A.2. The confidence intervals of the result shall be assessed, and compared to that of the
measured energy use.
If both confidence intervals overlap significantly, it may be assumed that the model of the building, including
estimated input data, is correct.
If the confidence intervals do not overlap significantly, further on-site investigations shall be made in order to verify
the data or to introduce new influencing factors that may have been previously ignored, and the calculation shall be
repeated with the new set of input data.
A.4 Energy declaration
For purpose a) (energy declaration), the input set is modified using conventional occupancy conditions and the
energy use of the building is determined again.
A.5 Planning retrofit measures
For purpose b) (planning retrofit measures) actual data are used for calculation. However, if it appears that the
building is not being used as intended in its design (e.g. by under- or overheating, under-or over ventilation),
reasonable data shall be used instead of the measured ones for planning retrofit measures. As a reference, the
energy use of the building as it is, is calculated using these reasonable data.
Then, the input set is modified according to the planned retrofit measures and the calculation performed again in
order to obtain the effect of these measures on the energy use.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
28
Annex B
(normative)
Multi-zone calculation method
If the multi-zone method is used, the procedure, based on monthly calculation periods, is as follows.
1) Define the heated space, according to 5.3.1.
2) Define the heated zones according to 5.3.2. For each zone, z, the input data according to 5.4 are collected.
In addition, inter-zone data are collected. These are:
H
T,zy
transmission heat loss coefficient between zones z and y, or :
zy
V

net air flow rates between zones.


3) Calculate separately the heat loss coefficient of each zone, H
z
, according to 7.3.
4) Determine the effect of intermittent heating for each zone when required.
5) Determine the heat transfer coefficients between zones z and y, H
zy
, in a similar way, taking account of heat
transfer between zones by transmission (through the building elements and through the ground) and
ventilation:
zy zy zy
V c H H

a a , T
+ (B.1)
Then, for each month and for each zone, operate steps 6) to 10):
6) Calculate the heat flow rates, including transmission and ventilation heat transfer to and from adjacent zones,
and between each zone and the external environment, based on the assumption of constant internal
temperature:
Q
L,zy
= H
zy
(
z
-
y
)t and Q
L,z
=
y
Q
L,zy
+ H
z

(
i
-
e
) t (B.2)
7) When Q
L,z

< 0, zone z shall be considered as an unheated space and calculation continued from step 3 for the
neighbouring zones.
8) Calculate internal and solar gains Q
g,z
according to 8.1 and 8.2.
9) Determine the utilisation factor
z
according to 9.2.
10) Calculate the heat use as the difference between the heat loss and the useful gains:
Q
h,z

= Q
L,z
-
z
Q
g,z
(B.3)
11) Calculate for each month the total building heat use as the sum of heat uses of each zone:
Q
h =
Q
h,z
(B.4)
12) Calculate the annual heat use as the sum of heat uses for each month.
13) Calculate the annual energy use according to clause 10.
The division into zones shall be described in the report.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
29
Annex C
(normative)
Intermittent heating Calculation of adjusted internal temperature
C.1 Introduction
The procedure in this annex enables the calculation of the adjusted internal temperature for one type of reduced
heating period (e.g. night, week-ends, and holidays). It shall be applied to each type of reduced heating period.
The procedure is suitable for heating systems where the heat output can be varied fairly rapidly in response to
changing heat demand. This procedure will overestimate the effect of intermittent heating for heating systems that
have a large thermal inertia.
The procedure also assumes a heating system with sufficient heating capacity to ensure warm up to the internal
design temperature when the external temperature is equal to the design external temperature. If the heating
system has been closely sized it should not be assumed that the heating is intermittent in the coldest months, but
rather that heating is continuous.
C.2 Input data
The following information is required to calculate the effect of intermittent heating:
C
ih
internal heat capacity of the zone for intermittent heating, calculated using the procedure described in 9.2.3
with a maximum thickness of 3 cm; C may also be provided at a national level, based on the type of
construction;
A
j
area of each surface contributing to the heat capacity;
R
sij
internal surface thermal resistance corresponding to these surfaces;

i0
set-point temperature;

2
maximum power of the heating system, i.e. the lowest of the heat emission and heat production power;
25. type of control of the heating system during reduced heating periods: cut-off, reduced heating power, or set-
back;
26. type of boost strategy : fixed or optimised;
27. definition of the intermittence pattern, including for each reduced heating period:
t
o
overall duration of the reduced heating period;
H
w
transmission heat loss coefficient of lightweight elements, such as windows and doors;
H
V
ventilation heat loss coefficient during reduced heating period;
H
2
total heat loss coefficient of the building during reduced heating period;
t
3
predefined duration of the boost heating phase in fixed time boost mode (see C.6).
For set-back mode:

i2
set-back temperature
For reduced power mode:

1
reduced heating power.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
30
C.3 Method
The method is based on the calculation of the evolution of the temperature of the building when it falls below its
normal set-point. This evolution is calculated by using a building model with three nodes representative of the
internal and external environments and of the building structure (Figure C.1). The internal thermal inertia of the
building is represented by a capacitance whose temperature is the structure temperature. Heat exchanges between
the structure and the external environment, between the structure and the internal environment and directly
between the internal and external environments are taken separately into account.

c
H
ic
H
ce
H
d

e

i
C
ih

h
Key

e
External temperature

c
Structure temperature

i
Internal temperature

h
Heating power
C
ih
Internal heat capacity of the zone related to intermittent heating
H
d
Direct heat loss coefficient
H
ce
Heat loss coefficient between the structure and the external environment
H
ic
Heat loss coefficient between the structure and the heated space
Figure C.1 Electrical equivalent representation of a zone
Structure includes all internal and external building elements in contact with the heated space. H
d
is the direct heat
loss coefficient by ventilation and transmission through lightweight envelope

elements. H
ic
is the heat loss
coefficient between the structure and the heated space. H
ce
is the heat loss coefficient between the structure and
the external environment, the value of which is determined to get the correct value of the overall heat loss
coefficient H.
The structure temperature is the weighted average of the temperatures of the internal and external structural
elements.
The method is based on the evaluation of the length of three different phases (Figure C.2), a phase during which
there is no heating or reduced heating power, a possible phase during which the set-back temperature is
maintained, and a phase of boost heating during which the heating system is operating with its maximum power
output and which ends when the internal temperature is equal to its set-point value.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
31

i
t
t
1
N
N
R
t
t
A
B
C

i3

h
'
i
'
i

i0

i2

i1
t
2
t
3
t
o
t
f

i3

i0
'
i1
t
1
t
3
t
f
t
o
t
1
t
o
t
3
t
f

i3

i0
'
i1
Key
N Normal heating period
R Reduced heating period
i Internal temperature
h Heating power
t Time
to Overall duration of the reduced heating period
t1 Duration of the no heating period or reduced
heating power period
t2 Duration of the set-back period
t3 Duration of the boost period
tf Duration of the final period between the end of the boost and the
end of the reduced heating period (close to zero with optimised
boost)
I0 Set-point temperature
i1 Equilibrium internal temperature without heating or with reduced
heating power
i1 Internal temperature at the beginning of boost, without set-back
i2 Set-back temperature
i3 Equilibrium internal temperature with maximum heating power
Figure C.2 Schedule of intermittent heating, showing the considered time periods
A: set back mode; B: cut-off mode; C: reduced heating power
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
32
C.4 Building characteristics
The values of the parameters considered are those of the reduced heating periods. If some parameters are not the
same for all these periods (e.g. if the mean ventilation rate is not the same during nights and weekends), these
characteristics shall be calculated for each type of reduced heating period.
1. Calculate the heat loss coefficient of the building during the considered period, H
2
, according to 7.3, with
input data corresponding to reduced heating period (e.g. with reduced ventilation and closed shutters).
2. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient H
ic
between the structure and the heated space:

j
j
j
R
A
H
si
ic
(C.1)
where windows and doors are excluded from the summation, and:
A
j
is the area of element j;
R
sij
is the internal surface thermal resistance of element j.
The sum is over all elements, including internal partitions.
H
ic
may be provided at national level for typical buildings.
3. Calculate the direct heat loss coefficient, H
d
, from internal to external environment, for lightweight structures
(windows and doors) and air change, with input data corresponding to the reduced period:
H
d
= H
w
+

H
V
(C.2)
where the heat loss coefficients of lightweight structures, H
w
, is the sum of all heat loss coefficients of
windows and doors, and H
V
is the ventilation heat loss coefficient calculated according to 7.5.
4. Calculate the heat loss coefficient between the structure and the external environment H
ce
;
) - ( -
- (
d 2 ic
)
d 2 ic
ce
H H H
H H H
H (C.3)
5. Calculate the effective fraction of the heat capacity :
ce ic
ic
+H H
H
(C.4)
6. Calculate the ratio, , between the relative variations, due to a change in heating power, on the steady-state
differences between external temperature, on one hand, and structure and internal temperatures, on the
other hand:
d ic
ic
H H
H
+
(C.5)
7. Calculate the time constant of the structure temperature after a change in heating power:
2
ih
H
C
P

(C.6)
where C
ih
is the effective internal heat capacity, calculated as the sum of the internal capacities of all building
elements, each calculated according to 9.2.3, with 3 cm for maximum thickness.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
33
The effective heat capacity may also be provided at a national level, based on the type of construction. Time
constants for typical buildings may also be provided at a national level.
8. Calculate the time constant of the structure temperature after a change in air temperature
c
.
ic ce
ih
c
+
=
H H
C
(C.7)
C.5 Calculation of adjusted internal temperature
This calculation shall be undertaken for each calculation period and each reduced heating period (e.g. night or
weekend).
The following notation is used:

i0
is the set-point temperature;

i1
is the equilibrium internal temperature with no heating or reduced heating power;

i1
is the internal temperature at the beginning of boost, without set back;

i2
is the set-back temperature;

i3
is the equilibrium internal temperature with maximum heating power;

c0
is the structure temperature at the beginning of the reduced heating period;

c1
is the structure temperature at the end of the no heating or reduced heating power phase;

c1
is the equilibrium structure temperature with no heating or reduced heating power;

c2
is the structure temperature at the end of the set-back phase;

c2
is the equilibrium structure temperature in set-back conditions;

c3
is the structure temperature at the end of the boost heating phase;

c3
is the equilibrium structure temperature with maximum heating power;
t
o
is the overall duration of the reduced heating period;
t
1
is the duration of the no heating or reduced heating power phase;
t
1
is the duration of the no heating or reduced heating power phase without set back;
t
2
is the duration of the set-back phase;
t
3
is the actual duration of the boost heating phase in setback mode;
t
3
is the duration of the optimised boost heating phase without setback;
t
3
is the predefined duration of the boost heating phase in fixed time boost mode;

1
is the reduced power output of the heating system;

2
is the maximum power output of the heating system during boost mode.
9. Calculate the structure temperature,
c0
, at the beginning of the reduced heating period:
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
34

c0 =

e
+ (
i0
-
e
) (C.8)
10. Calculate the structure temperature reached in steady-state when the internal temperature is maintained at
the set-back temperature
i2
:

c2
=
e
+ (
i2
-
e
) (C.9)
11. Calculate the highest internal and structure temperatures
i3
and
c3
which could be reached with full heating
power:
2
2
e i3

=
H

+ (C.10)

c3
=
e
+ (
i3
-
e
) (C.11)
12. Calculate the lowest internal temperature that can be reached at equilibrium:
in cut-off mode:

i1
=
e
(C.12)
in reduced heating power mode (e.g. with lower heating water temperature):
2
1
e i1

=
H

+ (C.13)
13 Calculate the relevant equilibrium internal structure temperature:

c1
=
e
+ (
i1
-
e
) (C.14)
14. Optimised boost: calculate the boost heating phase duration t
3
without set back:
( )
( )
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
,
,
,
,
,

,
(
(
(
(
(
,
\
,
,
,
,
,
(
j
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+

P
P
t
t

o
1 c 0 c i0 3 i
1 c 3 c
3
exp
ln , 0 max ' (C.15)
15. Optimised boost: calculate the duration of the no heating or reduced heating power phase without set-back:
t
1
= t
o
- t
3
(C.16)
16. Fixed time boost: calculate the duration of the no heating or reduced heating power phase without set back:
t
1
= t
o
- t"
3
(C.17)
t
3
is input or is calculated according to C.6 if unknown.
If t
3
or t
3
is too long (e.g. more than one or two hours), the peak power of the heating system is not
sufficient. It shall be increased before going further.
17. Calculate the internal temperature,
i1
, reached at the beginning of the boost phase without set-back:

i1 =

i1

+
(
c0
-
c1
) exp
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

P
t

1
(C.18)
18. In set-back mode and if
2
>
i1
, go to step 23
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
35
19. Calculate the structure temperature reached at the beginning of the boost phase without set-back:
if t
1
= 0 then
c1
=
c0
(C.19)
else



1 i
1 i
'
1 c
'
1 c

+ (C.20)
20. Since there is no set-back, the length of the set back period is 0 and the structure temperature at the end of
the set-back phase
c2
is that reached at the end of the no heating phase:
t
2
= 0 and
c2
=
c1
(C.21)
21. Optimized boost: go to step 29
22. Fixed time boost: go to step 27
23. In set-back mode, calculate the time, t
1
, taken to reach the set-back temperature:
( )
( )
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

1 i 2 i
1 c 0 c
1
ln , 0 max

P
t (C.22)
24. Calculate the structure temperature at the end of that period,
c1
:
if t
1
= 0 then
c1
=
c0
(C.23)
else



1 i 2 i
1 c 1 c

+ (C.24)
25. Calculate the duration of the set-back phase, t
2
:
optimised boost
( )
( )

]
]
]
]
,
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j



i0 3 i
2 c 3 c
1 o 2
ln , 0 max , 0 max

P
t t t (C.25)
fixed time boost t
2
= t
o
(t
1
+ t
3
) (C.26)
where t
3
can be calculated according to C.6 if it is not known.
26. Calculate the structure temperature at the end of the set-back phase,
c2
:
If t
2
is less than or equal to 0 then t
2
= 0 and
c2
=
c1
otherwise
c2
=
c2
+ (
c1
-
c2
) exp
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

P
t

2
(C.27)
27. Calculate the actual boost heating phase duration t
3
:
( )
( )
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

i0 3 i
2 c 3 c
3
ln , 0 max

P
t (C.28)
The value calculated here can be different from the value of t
3
28. Fixed time boost: if

t
3
is greater than t
3
then increase t
3
and perform the whole calculation again.
29. Calculate the structure temperature at the end of the boost heating phase
c3
.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
36
If t
3
= 0

then
c3
=
c2
(C.29)
otherwise



3 i 0 i
3 c
'
3 c

+ (C.30)
30. Calculate the time remaining between the end of the boost and the end of the reduced heating period
t
4
= t
o
- ( t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
) (C.31)
31. Calculate the adjusted internal temperature:

iad
= (
o
1
t
(
i1
t
1
+
i2
t
2
+
i3
t
3
+
i0
t
4
) +
P

(
c0
-
c1
+
c2
-
c3
)) (C.32)
C.6 Boost time
The duration of the fixed boost time t
3
can be estimated as follows:
1) specify the value,
e0
, of the external temperature for which the boost time is to be calculated;
2) apply the calculation procedure of C.5 with optimised boost and with

e
=
e0
(C.33)
3) an estimate of t
3
is obtained with Equation (C.28) with t
3
= t
3
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
37
Annex D
(normative)
Calculation with holiday period
In some buildings, such as schools, holiday periods during the heating season lead to a reduction in heat loss, heat
use and space heating energy use.
The following method shall be applied to take account of holiday periods. Only one holiday period, of specified
duration t (t' t), is to be considered in any one month.
1) Calculate the heat use, Q
hm0
, for one normal month (without holiday), following the method described in
clauses 5 to 9.
2) Calculate the heat use, Q
h1
, for the holiday period in the considered month. The method described in clauses 5
to 9 is applied with the calculation period equal to the holiday period.
3) Calculate the resulting heat use, Q
hm1
, for the considered month:
1 h 0 hm 1 hm
'
Q Q
t
t t
Q +

(D.1)
4) Calculate the yearly heat use from the sum of monthly heat use.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
38
Annex E
(normative)
Heat loss of special envelope elements
E.1 Ventilated solar walls (Trombe walls)
E.1.1 General
Figure E.1 Air flow path in a ventilated solar wall
The following applies to walls designed to collect solar energy, according to Figure E.1, where
28. the air flow is stopped automatically when the air layer is colder than the heated space, and
29. the air flow rate is set mechanically at a constant value, V

, when the air layer is warmer than the heated


space.
The heat loss coefficient of such a wall is:
H = H
0
+ H (E.1)
where
H
0
is the heat loss coefficient of the non ventilated wall;
H is an additional heat loss coefficient to be calculated according to E.1.3.
E.1.2 Required data
A area of the ventilated solar wall;
R
i
internal thermal resistance of the wall, between the air layer and the internal environment;
R
e
external thermal resistance of the wall, between the air layer and the external environment;
R
l
thermal resistance of the air layer;
V

set value of the air flow rate through the ventilated layer;
h
c
and h
r
: respectively the convective and radiative surface heat transfer coefficients in the air layer;
Q
g,sw
solar gains of the air layer during the calculation period: Q
g,sw
= I
w
A
s,sw
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
39
Q
L,al
heat loss of the air layer during the calculation period: Q
L,al
= U
e
A (
i
-
e
) t
E.1.3 Calculation method
Calculation of heat loss is based on set-point and external temperatures. Solar gains are calculated according to
F.3 in annex F. The additional heat loss coefficient of such a wall is calculated by:

2
i
e
a a ]
]
]
,

U
U
V c H

(E.2)
where

a
c
a
is defined in 7.5.1;
U
i
and U
e
are the internal and external thermal transmittances:
2
1
l
i
i
R
R
U
+
and
2
1
l
e
e
R
R
U
+
(E.3)
is the ratio of the accumulated internal-external temperature difference when the ventilation is on,
to its value over the whole calculation period. It is given in Figure E.2.
This ratio can be calculated by:
) 1 0003 , 0 ( 03 , 0 3 , 0
al
al
+

(E.4)
where
al
is the ratio of the solar gains Q
g,sw
to the heat loss of the air layer, Q
l,al
during the calculation period.
is a factor defined by:
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j


V c
AZ

a a
exp 1

(E.5)
where Z is a parameter defined by:
( )
e i r c c
r
1
2
1
U U h h h
h
Z +
+
+
(E.6)
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6

al
Figure E.2 Ratio of the accumulated internal-external temperature difference when the ventilation is on,
to its value over the whole calculation period, as a function of the gain/load ratio of the air layer,
al
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
40
E.2 Ventilated envelope elements
E.2.1 General
Circulating ventilation air within parts of the building envelope (wall, window, roof) decreases the overall heat losses
by heat recovery, although the transmission heat loss is increased in these building envelope elements. This
overall effect can be expressed through an equivalent heat exchanger between exhaust and supply air. The
efficiency of this equivalent heat exchanger can be calculated with the simplified method given in E.2.2, which is
applicable under the following conditions:
30. the air flow is parallel to the envelope surface (see Figure E.3);
31. the thickness of the air layer is between 15 mm and 100 mm;
32. the air permeability of the remaining parts of the envelope is low, so that most (about 90 %) of the air
circulating through the building passes through the ventilated envelope element;
33. the ventilation system meets the requirements in Table E.1;
34. air supply, if natural, is controlled through adjustable or self controlled inlets located on the internal part of the
envelope.
Figure E.3 Air path in the wall
Table E.1 Ventilation requirements for the application of the method
Shielding class Requirement
No shielding Mechanical exhaust and supply
Moderate Mechanical exhaust or supply
Heavy shielding No requirement
NOTE This method mainly applies where supply air is circulated within the building envelope elements. Exhaust air can also be used,
provided that suitable provisions are made to avoid condensation.
E.2.2 Calculation method
The efficiency factor of the equivalent air-to-air heat exchanger is:

e i
2
0
v
U U
U
(E.7)
where
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
41
U
i
and U
e
are respectively the thermal transmittances of the internal and external parts of the envelope
element containing the air space;
U
0
is the thermal transmittance of this envelope element, assuming the air space is not ventilated;
is the factor defined by Equation (E.5).
This efficiency factor of the equivalent air-to-air heat exchanger is always less than 0,25.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
42
Annex F
(normative)
Solar gains of special elements
F.1 Unheated sunspaces
F.1.1 General
The following applies to unheated sunspaces adjacent to a heated space, such as conservatories and attached
greenhouses separated by a partition wall from the heated space.
If the sunspace is heated, or if there is a permanent opening between the heated space and the sunspace, it shall
be considered as part of the heated space, and this annex does not apply. The area to be taken into account for
the losses and solar gains is the area of the external envelope of the sunspace.
F.1.2 Required data
The following data shall be collected for the transparent part of the partition wall (subscript w), and for the sunspace
external envelope (subscript e):
F
F
frame factor;
F
S
shading correction factor;
g effective total solar energy transmittance of glazing;
A
w
area of windows and glazed doors in the partition wall;
A
e
area of sunspace envelope.
In addition, the following data shall be assessed:
A
j
area of each surface, j, absorbing the solar radiation in the sunspace (ground, opaque walls; opaque part of
the partition wall has subscript p);

j
average solar absorption factor of absorbing surface j in the sunspace;
I
i
solar irradiance on surface i during the calculation period(s);
U
p
thermal transmittance of the opaque part of the partition wall;
U
pe
thermal transmittance between the absorbing surface of this wall and the sunspace.
g
p
A
w
H
is i s
e
g
w
A
p
Q
sd
Q
es
(1-b)Q
si
H
se
A
e
g
e
A
j

p

j
Figure F.1 Attached sunspace with gains and heat loss coefficients, and electrical equivalent network
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
43
F.1.3 Calculation method
The heat loss is calculated according to clause 5 for an unheated space. The solar gains entering the heated space
from the sunspace, Q
ss
, is the sum of direct gains through the partition wall, Q
sd
, and indirect gains, Q
si
, from the
sunspace heated by the sun:
Q
ss
= Q
sd
+ Q
si
(F.1)
It is assumed, in a first approximation, that the absorbing surfaces are all shaded in the same proportion by
external obstacles and by the outer envelope of the sunspace.
The direct solar gains Q
sd
are the sum of gains through the transparent (subscript w) and opaque (subscript p)
parts of the partition wall:
Q
sd
= I
p
F
S
F
Fe
g
e
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
pe
p
p p w w Fw
+
U
U
A A g F (F.2)
The indirect gains are calculated by summing the solar gains of each absorbing area, j, in the sunspace, but
deducting the direct gains through opaque part of the partition wall:
Q
si
= (1 b) F
S
F
Fe
g
e

(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j

pe
p
p p p
-
U
U
A I A a I
j
j j j
(F.3)
The weighting factor (1-b), defined in EN ISO 13789, is that part of the solar gains to the sunspace which enters the
heated space through the partition wall.
F.2 Opaque elements with transparent insulation
F.2.1 Required input data
A total area of the element;
A
t
area of the element covered with transparent insulation;
R
i
thermal resistance of the opaque element behind transparent insulation;
R
t
thermal resistance of transparent insulation;
g
t,
total solar energy transmittance of transparent insulation (normal incidence);
g
t,h
total solar energy transmittance of transparent insulation (diffuse-hemispherical incidence);
R
al
thermal resistance of the air layer (closed) between the opaque element and transparent insulation;
R
si
internal thermal surface resistance;
R
se
external thermal surface resistance;
F
S
shading correction factor.
Depending on the type of transparent insulation the following quantity is required (it is not required for products that
include a solar absorber):
absorptance of the opaque element behind transparent insulation.
F.2.2 Derived properties
U thermal transmittance of the element, from environment to environment;
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
44
U
te
external thermal transmittance of the element, from the surface facing the transparent insulation product to
external environment;
g
t
effective total solar energy transmittance of the transparent insulation product;
F
F
reduction factor due to non-transparent frame area of the transparent insulation.
F.2.3 Calculation method
The heat loss is calculated according to clause 7, as for usual envelope elements, including possible thermal
bridges in framed constructions. The solar gains of an opaque element with transparent insulation, having the
orientation j, are calculated for month m according to 8.2 using an effective collecting area.
The frame reduction factor is determined from the total area, A, of the element:
A
A
F
t
F

(F.4)
The following thermal transmittances are needed for the efficiency factor to be calculated:
si i al t se
al t se
te
1
1
R R R R R
U
R R R
U
+ + + +

+ +

(F.5)
The calculation of the effective total solar energy transmittance depends on the type of the transparent insulation. It
takes into account the angle of incidence of direct solar radiation, using the coefficients c
j,m
of Table F 1.
For products with non-negligible solar energy transmittance, the effective value is proportional to the absorptance
of the opaque element behind transparent insulation:
( )


t, , t,h , t,
g c g g
m j m j

(F.6)
For transparent insulation with negligible solar transmittance (e.g. products with solar absorber included) the value
determined from measurements shall only be modified to take account of the thermal resistance, R
g
, of the air gap
between the transparent insulation and the opaque element:
( )

+ +
+

t, , h t,
g t se
t se
m , , TI
g c g
R R R
R R
g
m j j
(F.7)
The effective collecting area for orientation j and month m is:
A
s,j ,m
= A F
S
F
F

t
U
U
g
t,j,m
(F.8)
The gains are added to the other solar gains.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
45
Table F.1 Coefficients c
j,m
for calculation of the effective total solar energy transmittance of transparent
insulation using the measured values for normal and hemispherical incidence (for vertical walls)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
S -0,105 -0,067 -0,023 0,042 0,073 0,089 0,094 0,062 0,005 -0,054 -0,093 -0,105
SW/SE -0,034 -0,027 -0,010 0,002 0,022 0,037 0,036 0,013 -0,015 -0,025 -0,034 -0,026
W/E 0,054 0,033 0,016 -0,012 -0,005 -0,002 -0,012 -0,007 -0,001 0,024 0,049 0,052
NE/NW 0,002 0,008 0,016 0,030 0,018 0,013 0,013 0,024 0,033 0,014 0,004 0,000
N 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,011 0,021 0,031 0,042 0,012 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
F.3 Ventilated solar walls (Trombe walls)
F.3.1 Required data
The following applies to ventilated solar walls as defined in E.1.
In addition to data listed in E.1.2, the following input data are needed:
F
F
frame factor;
F
S
shading correction factor;
absorption coefficient of the surface behind the air layer;
g total solar energy transmittance of the glazing covering the air layer.
F.3.2 Calculation method
The additional heat loss for ventilated solar walls is calculated according to E.2. Solar gains are calculated
according to 8.2 using an effective collecting area, A
s
:
a) if the ventilated layer is covered by an opaque external layer:
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+
A
V
c
U
U
h
U
F F A A

a a
2
i
0
e
0
F S s
1 (F.9)
where
U
i
and are calculated according to E.1.3;
is the ratio of the total solar radiation falling on the element when the air layer is open to the total
solar radiation during the whole calculation period; is given in Figure F 2. It can be calculated by:
( )
al
2 , 2 exp 1
(F.10)
where
al
is the gain/loss

ratio of the air layer during the calculation period defined in E.1.3.
e l i
0
1
R R R
U
+ +
(F.11)
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
46
is the thermal transmittance of the wall.
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4

al
Figure F.2 Ratio of the total solar radiation falling on the element when the air layer is open to the
total solar radiation during the calculation period, as a function of the gain/loss ratio of the air layer,
al
b) if the air layer is covered by glazing:
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+
A
V
c
U U
R U
R U g F F A A

a a
e i
i
2
0
e 0 w F S s
(F.12)
NOTE This procedure is implicit: equations (F.9) and (F.10) should be used in an iterative process to calculate the solar gains, starting
with al = 1.
F.4 Ventilated envelope elements
F.4.1 General
If the supply air for ventilation is taken through envelope elements, it can be heated on one hand by the
transmission heat loss through the element (see E.2) and on the other hand by solar radiation absorbed either by
the external opaque pane or by the internal surface of the air layer if this layer is covered by glazing.
F.4.2 Required data
In addition to data listed in E.2.2, the following input data are necessary:
A area of the element;
F
F
frame factor;
F
S
shading correction factor;
a absorption coefficient of the surface receiving the solar radiation;
R
i
internal thermal resistance of the wall, between the air layer and the internal environment;
R
e
external thermal resistance of the wall, between the air layer and the external environment;
R
l
thermal resistance of the air layer;
V

air flow rate through the ventilated layer;


h
e
surface heat transfer coefficient at external surface;
g total solar energy transmittance of the glazing covering the air layer;
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
47
h
c
convective surface heat transfer coefficient in the air layer;
h
r
radiative surface heat transfer coefficient in the air layer.
F.4.3 Calculation method
The efficiency of the equivalent heat exchanger is calculated according to E.2. Solar gains are calculated according
to 8.2 with the following effective collecting areas:
a) if the ventilated layer is covered by an opaque external layer:
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+
A
V
c
U
U
h
U
F F A A

a a
2
i
0
e
0
F S s
1 (F.13)
b) if the air layer is covered by glazing:
]
]
]
]
,
,

,
+
A
V
c
U U
R U
R U g F F A A

a a
e i
i
2
0
e 0 w F S s
(F.14)
F.5 Solar gains of opaque envelope elements
F.5.1 General
The annual net solar gains of opaque elements without transparent insulation are a small portion of the total solar
gains and are partially compensated by radiation losses from the building to clear skies. They can therefore be
neglected. Solar gains of opaque elements with transparent insulation are treated in F.2.
If, however, solar gains through opaque elements are expected to be important, e.g. for dark, poorly insulated
surfaces, or if radiation losses of any envelope element are expected to be important, e.g. large areas facing the
sky, the gains and losses of all envelope elements (opaque and transparent) shall take account of the radiation
balance between short-wave and long-wave radiation.
F.5.2 Required data
U thermal transmittance of the element;
A total area of the element;
R
se
external surface resistance of the element;
absorption coefficient of the element for solar radiation;
I
j
solar irradiance on the orientation j;
F
f
form factor between the element and the sky (1 for unshaded horizontal roof, 0,5 for unshaded vertical wall);
h
r
external radiative coefficient;

er
average difference between the external air temperature and the apparent sky temperature;
t time duration of the calculation period.
F.5.3 Calculation method
The net loss of an opaque element without transparent covering with orientation j, is calculated by:
Q
L
= U A R
se
(F
f
h
r

er
t I
j
) (F.15)
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
48
The external radiative coefficient h
r
is:
h
r
= 4 (
ss
+ 273)
3
(F.16)
where
is the emissivity for thermal radiation of the external surface;
is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant: = 5,67 10
-8
W/(mK
4
);

ss
is the arithmetic average of the surface temperature and the sky temperature.
To a first approximation, h
r
can be taken equal to 5 [W/(m
2
K)], which corresponds to an average temperature
of 10 C.
When the sky temperature is not available from climatic data, the difference
er
between the external air
temperature and the sky temperature should be taken as 9 K in sub-polar areas, 13 K in the tropics and 11 K in
intermediate zones.
The net loss is added to the other losses.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
49
Annex G
(informative)
Ventilation airflow rates
G.1 General
Unless otherwise specified in International Standards or in national provisions, this annex can be used to calculate
the airflow rate in buildings.
G.2 Minimum ventilation rate
For comfort and hygienic reasons a minimum ventilation rate is needed when the building is occupied. This
minimum ventilation rate can be determined on a national basis, taking account of the building type and the pattern
of occupancy for the building.
Typical values are:
min
.
V = 0,3 h
-1
V [m
3
/h], where V is the ventilated volume, for residential buildings;
min
.
V = 15 m/h per person (during occupancy) for non-residential buildings.
G.3 Natural ventilation
The total ventilation rate is determined as the greater of the minimum ventilation rate min
.
V
and the design
ventilation rate d
.
V
.
V = max [ min
.
V ; d
.
V ] (G.1)
Where no national information is available the air change rate in residential buildings can be assessed from
Tables G.2 or G.3.
G.4 Mechanical ventilation systems
The total airflow rate is determined as the sum of the ventilation rate determined from the average airflow rates
through the system fans when in operation,
f
V

, and an additional airflow rate,


x
V

, induced by wind and stack effect


through ventilation openings and infiltration cracks:
x f
V V V

+ (G.2)
For supply or exhaust only systems,
f
.
V is equal to the supply airflow rate,
sup
.
V , or to the exhaust flow rate, ex
.
V .
For balanced ventilation systems,
f
.
V is equal to the greater of the supply airflow rate,
sup
.
V , and the exhaust
airflow rate, ex
.
V .
The additional airflow rate, x
.
V , can be calculated from:
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
50
2
50
ex sup
50
x
1
]
]
]
]
,
,

,

+

n V
V V
e
f
e n V
V

(G.3)
where
n
50
is the air change rate resulting from a pressure difference of 50 Pa between inside and outside,
including the effects of air inlets;
e and f are shielding coefficients which can be found in Table G.4
If there is mechanical ventilation switched on for a part of the time, the airflow rate is calculated by:
) ( ) 1 )( (
x f
'
x 0
V V V V V

+ + + (G.4)
where
f
V

is the design airflow rate due to mechanical ventilation;


x
V

is the additional airflow rate with fans on, due to wind and stack effect;
0
V

is the airflow rate with natural ventilation, including airflow through ducts of mechanical system;
'
x
V

is the additional airflow rate with fans off, due to wind and stack effect:
'
x
V

= V n
50
e;
is the fraction of the time period with fans on.
In non-residential buildings, mechanical ventilation systems can be off for a large part of the time. This is taken into
account through the definition of different periods or through the evaluation of . A poor evaluation of or a poor
definition of periods can lead to large errors in the results.
For mechanical systems with variable design airflow rate, f
.
V is the average airflow rate through the fans during
their running time.
G.5 Mechanical systems with heat exchangers
For buildings with heat recovery from exhaust air to inlet air, the heat loss by the mechanical ventilation is reduced
by the factor (1-
v
) where
v
is the global efficiency of the heat recovery system. Thus the effective air flow rate for
heat loss calculation when fans are on is determined from:
( )
x v f
1 V V V

+ (G.5)
where

v
is the global heat recovery efficiency, taking account of the differences between supply and extract
airflow rates. Heat in air leaving the building through leakage cannot be recovered.
For systems with heat recovery from the exhaust air to the hot water or space heating system via a heat pump, the
ventilation rate is calculated without any reduction. Instead, the reduction in energy use due to heat recovery is
allowed for in the calculation of the energy use of the relevant system.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
51
G.6 Data for estimation of natural ventilation
In Table G.1, the tightness level is defined from ranges of air change rate at 50 Pa pressure difference between the
internal and the external environments, n
50.
This figure includes air flow rates through closed air inlets.
Table G.1 Air tightness levels as used within this annex
Air change rate at 50 Pa
h
-1
Envelope tightness level
Multi-family buildings Single family buildings
Less than 2 Less than 4 High
2 to 5 4 to 10 Medium
More than 5 More than 10 Low
NOTE 1 The difference between multi-family and single-family buildings is related to the typical
difference in their external wall areas for a given internal volume.
NOTE 2 In residential buildings with n
50 less than 3 h
-1
(with open air inlets), minimum ventilation requires opening
windows at proper intervals.
The ventilation rate by natural ventilation can be determined on a national basis, taking into account the climate,
the surroundings, the building type and geometry, and the size and the position of the openings. Where no national
information is available the monthly average ventilation rate during the heating season can be determined from
Table G.2 or G.3
Table G.2 Air change rate, n in h
-1
, in naturally ventilated multi-family buildings,
determined from shielding class and building tightness
More than one exposed facade Only one exposed facade
Tightness of building Tightness of building Shielding class

Low Medium High Low Medium High


No shielding 1,2 0,7 0,5 1,0 0,6 0,5
Moderate 0,9 0,6 0,5 0,7 0,5 0,5
Heavy shielding 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5
Shielding classes are defined in Table G.4
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
52
Table G.3 Air change rate, n in h
-1
in naturally ventilated single family houses,
determined from shielding class and building tightness
Tightness of building
Shielding class Low Medium High
No shielding 1,5 0,8 0,5
Moderate 1,1 0,6 0,5
Heavy shielding 0,7 0,5 0,5
Table G.4 Shielding coefficients, e and f, for calculation of additional air flow rate according to
Equation (G.3)
Coefficient e for shielding class:
More than one
exposed facade
One exposed
facade
No shielding: buildings in open country, high rise buildings in city
centres.
0,10 0,03
Moderate shielding: buildings in the country with trees or other
buildings around them, suburbs.
0,07 0,02
Heavy shielding: buildings of average height in city centres, buildings in
forests.
0,04 0,01
Coefficient f 15 20
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
53
Annex H
(informative)
Data for solar gains
H.1 Total solar energy transmittance for glazing
The energy transmission through transparent surfaces depends on the type of glass. The total solar energy
transmittance defined in ISO 9050 is calculated according to EN 13363 for solar radiation perpendicular to the
glazing, g

. Table H.1 provides some indicative values for normal incidence, assuming clean surface and normal,
untainted glass.
For monthly calculations, a value averaged over all angles of incidence is required. The factor F
w
defined in 8.2.3 is
approximately:
9 , 0
w

g
g
F
It depends on type of glass, latitude climate and orientation.
Table H.1 Typical values of thermal transmittance and total solar energy transmittance for common
types of glazing
Glazing type g

Single glazing 0,85


Double glazing 0,75
Double glazing with selective coating 0,67
Triple glazing 0,7
Triple glazing with 2 selective coatings 0,5
Double window 0,75
Another method is to refer to the solar gains through single and double clear glazing. Solar gains through other
type of glazing can be referenced to these by:
Q
sz
= Q
s,ref

ref
g
g
(H.1)
where
Q
sz
is the solar gain through the type of glazing considered;
Q
s,ref
is the solar gain through the reference glazing, which is a single clear glazing for all cases where
the actual glazing is single, and a double clear glazing for all other cases;
g is the total solar energy transmittance of the type of glazing considered;
g
ref
is the total solar energy transmittance of the reference glazing.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
54
H.2 Effect of permanent curtains
Curtains placed permanently inside or outside the windows reduce the global transmission of solar radiation. Some
reduction factors are given in Table H.2. These factors are multiplied by the total solar energy transmittance of the
glazing to obtain the g-factor of the glazing with permanent curtain.
Table H.2 Reduction factors for some types of curtains
Optical properties of curtain Reduction factor with
Curtain type
absorption transmission curtain inside curtain outside
White venetian blinds 0,1 0,05 0,25 0,10
0,1 0,30 0,15
0,3 0,45 0,35
White curtains 0,1 0,5 0,65 0,55
0,7 0,80 0,75
0,9 0,95 0,95
Coloured textiles 0,3 0,1 0,42 0,17
0,3 0,57 0,37
0,5 0,77 0,57
Aluminium coated textiles 0,2 0,05 0,20 0,08
Movable curtains and movable solar protections are taken into account in the utilisation factor.
H.3 Shading correction factors
H.3.1 Principle
The shading correction factor can be calculated from:
F
S
= F
h
F
o
F
f
(H.2)
where
F
h
is the partial shading correction factor for the horizon;
F
o
is the partial shading correction factor for overhangs;
F
f
is the partial shading correction factor for fins.
H.3.2 Shading from horizon
The effect of shading from the horizon (e.g. the ground, trees and other buildings) depends on horizon angle,
latitude, orientation, local climate and heating season. Shading correction factors for typical average climates and a
heating season from October to April are given in Table H.3, for three latitudes and four window orientations.
Interpolation can be used for other latitudes and orientations. The horizon angle is an average over the horizon
facing the facade considered.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
55

Figure H.1 Horizon angle,


Table H.3 Partial shading correction factor for horizon, F
h
45
o
N lat. 55
o
N lat. 65
o
N lat. Horizon
angle
S E/W N S E/W N S E/W N
0
o
10
o
20
o
30
o
40
o
1,00
0,97
0,85
0,62
0,46
1,00
0,95
0,82
0,70
0,61
1,00
1,00
0,98
0,94
0,90
1,00
0,94
0,68
0,49
0,40
1,00
0,92
0,75
0,62
0,56
1,00
0,99
0,95
0,92
0,89
1,00
0,86
0,58
0,41
0,29
1,00
0,89
0,68
0,54
0,49
1,00
0,97
0,93
0,89
0,85
H.3.3 Shading from overhang and fins
The shading from overhangs and fins depends on overhang or fin angle, latitude, orientation and local climate.
Seasonal shading correction factors for typical climates are given in Tables H.4 and H.5.

a)
b)
a) Vertical section b) Horizontal section
Key
Overhang angle
Fin angle
Figure H.2 Overhang and fin
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
56
Table H.4 Partial shading correction factor for overhang, F
o
Overhang 45
o
N lat. 55
o
N lat. 65
o
N lat.
angle S E/W N S E/W N S E/W N
0
o
30
o
45
o
60
o
1,00
0,90
0,74
0,50
1,00
0,89
0,76
0,58
1,00
0,91
0,80
0,66
1,00
0,93
0,80
0,60
1,00
0,91
0,79
0,61
1,00
0,91
0,80
0,65
1,00
0,95
0,85
0,66
1,00
0,92
0,81
0,65
1,00
0,90
0,80
0,66
Table H.5 Partial shading correction factor for fins, F
f
45
o
N lat. 55
o
N lat. 65
o
N lat. Fin angle
S E/W N S E/W N S E/W N
0
o
30
o
45
o
60
o
1,00
0,94
0,84
0,72
1,00
0,92
0,84
0,75
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,94
0,86
0,74
1,00
0,91
0,83
0,75
1,00
0,99
0,99
0,99
1,00
0,94
0,85
0,73
1,00
0,90
0,82
0,73
1,00
0,98
0,98
0,98
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
57
Annex I
(informative)
Calculation of heat use for each heating mode
I.1 General
With intermittent heating, the heating system is run under different heating modes: normal (subscript 0), no heating
(subscript 1), set back (subscript 2), peak power (subscript 3).
One of the reasons to use intermittent heating is an energy cost varying during the day. In this case, it can be
useful to calculate the heating use during each heating mode separately. That could also be useful in order to
assess the heat losses due to the heating system under different heating modes.
The goal of this annex is to provide the calculation of heating use for each heating mode.
I.2 Splitting of heat use in different modes
The space heating use Q
h
for each calculation period is calculated by Equation (14) from the heat loss Q
L
, the heat
gains Q
g
and the utilisation factor .
The heating use for each heating mode (Q
h0
, Q
h1
, Q
h2
, Q
h3
) are calculated through the following steps.
1. Split the heat loss Q
L
between the different heating mode and get Q
L0
, Q
L1
, Q
L2
, Q
L3
.
2. Split the used heat gains Q
g
between the different heating mode and get Q
g0
, Q
g1
, Q
g2
, Q
g3
.
3. Calculate the heating use for each heating mode by applying Equation (14) separately to each heating mode.
I.2.1 Splitting of heat loss
Q
L
is calculated according Equation (3), which includes
iad
.

iad
is given by Equation (C.32) for reduced heating periods and is equal to
i
for normal heating periods.
Merging two equations and splitting in the sum normal (N) and reduced (R) heating periods leads to:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

+ +
N R
P j j j j j
t H N t H N Q
) 3 C C0 4 e i0 e i L0

(I.1)
( )
1 e i1 L1
t H N Q
R
j j

(I.2)
( ) ( ) ( )

+ +
R
P e j j
t H N Q
1 C C2 2 2 i L2

(I.3)
( )


R
j j
t H N Q
3 e i3 L3

(I.4)
I.2.2 Splitting of heat gains
The splitting of heat gains used depends on the building time constant. The following procedure can be applied.
1. Calculate the heat gains used in each heating mode with a building time constant equal to 0. It is assumed that
heat gains are recovered with a decreasing priority in normal, no heating, set back and peak power heating
mode.
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
58
2. Calculate the heat gains used in each heating mode with a building time constant equal to 100 h. It is assumed
in this case that the ratio between heat gains used and heat loss in each heating mode is the same in all
heating modes.
3. Heat gains used in each heating mode for a time constant between 0 and 100 h are then calculated as a
weighted average between the heat gains used with a time constant of 0 and a time constant of 100 h. If the
time constant is larger than 100 h, the heat gains used are applied with a time constant of 100 h.
Step 1:
Q0
g,0
= min(Q
g
,Q
L,0
) (I.5)
Q0
g,1
= min (Q
g
-Q0
g0
,Q
L,1
) (I.6)
Q0
g,2
= min (Q
g
-Q0
g0
-Q0
g,1
,Q
L,2
) (I.7)
Q0
g,3
= min (Q
g
-Q0
g0
-Q0
g,1
-Q0
g,2
,Q
L,3
) (I.8)
Step 2:
For each heating mode i :
Q100
g,i
= Q
g

L
L,
Q
Q
i
(I.9)
Step 3:
For each heating mode i :
if
P
< 100 h
Q
g,i
= (
,
\
,
(
j

100
1
P

Q0
g,i
+ (
,
\
,
(
j
100
P

Q100
g,i
(I.10)
where
P
is expressed in hours
else Q
g,i
= Q100
g,i
(I.11)
I.3 Heat use during the different heating modes
For each heating mode i:
Q
h,i
= Q
L,i
- Q
g,i
(I.12)
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
59
Annex J
(informative)
Accuracy of the method
J.1 Propagation of errors
The accuracy of the method, that is the extent to which the results of the calculation correspond with the actual
energy use of the building, depends mainly on the quality of the input data, and some of these data (e.g. the air
change rate) are often not known precisely.
The uncertainty of input data propagates through the formulae and equations, resulting in a generally larger relative
error in the results. In particular, when the gains are high, the small heat use results from the subtraction of two
large numbers, and the factor multiplying the uncertainty on load and gains becomes large. Error analysis has
shown that when the gain/loss ratio is 0,75, this factor is between 4 and 7, depending on the time constant of the
building. In this case, uncertainty of 5 % on heat loss will result in an uncertainty of 20 % to 35 % on heat use.
Therefore it is advisable, when the annual heat use is less than one third of the heat losses, to take great care with
input data, and to perform an error analysis taking account of the uncertainties of the input data.
When this standard is used to judge compliance with regulations expressed in terms of energy targets, the
calculation is based on conventionally well defined input data. In this case, the error analysis is not necessary.
J.2 Comparison with actual buildings
In particular, the calculations are made using conventional assumptions about the behaviour of the occupants and
airflow rates. In practice, these factors can change the energy use from 50 % to 150 % of the calculated average
value, and even more in terraced houses and blocks of flats, where moderate temperature differences between
adjacent zones often result in noticeable heat transfer between them.
J.3 Comparison between building designs
The method described in this standard is particularly appropriate for comparison between proposed buildings, in
order to determine the influence of various options on the energy use. Insofar as these options are taken into
account in the calculation, their relative influence is well predicted.
J.4 Comparison with dynamic numerical models
When the same set of input data is used for all models, the annual energy use calculated by the method described
in this standard and by a fully dynamic numerical model are, on the average, in very good agreement. The results
of this method are within the range of results of different dynamic models.
J.5 Comparison between users of the standard
It has been shown, by round robin tests, that different users may obtain results differing by as much as 20 % for the
same building in the same climate, for the following reasons:
35. the standard allows for input data defined on a national basis, which may differ between users;
36. the standard allows different calculation methods (e.g. single- or multi-zone);
37. the user may provide different input data from the same source (e.g. by taking dimensions from a drawing).
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
60
Annex K
(informative)
Conventional input data
K.1 Introduction
Input data are normally provided at the national level. When no national data are available, the conventional values
given in this annex can be used.
Data given per square metre (such as the internal gains) are multiplied by the gross heated floor area to obtain
absolute values for the considered building.
K.2 Data for buildings occupied continuously e.g. residential buildings
No division into periods is needed, only one period is considered, with the following characteristics:
Operation modeset-point
Duration t the full month
Number of periods in a month N 1
Internal temperature
i
20 C (this mean value includes the effect of set-back)
Internal gains
i
4 W/m
2
Air change rate n 0,3 h
-1
, corresponding to minimum ventilation
K.3 Data for buildings occupied during the daytime only (e.g. office buildings)
Division into periods is necessary. The data below correspond to a building occupied 5 days a week and 10 h per
day.
Period Day Night Weekend
Type set-point reduced reduced
t 36 000 s (10 h) 50 400 s (14 h) 223 200 s (62 h)
N (for a week) 5 4 1

i
20 C 16 C 12 C
Internal gains:
Offices (60 % of floor area) Other rooms, lobbies, corridors
(40 % of floor area)
Day 20 W/m
2
8 W/m
2
Night 2 W/m
2
1 W/m
2
Weekend 2 W/m
2
1 W/m
2
Average 7,4 W/m
2
3,1 W/m
2
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
61
Ventilation rate:
Offices Lobbies,
corridors
Classrooms Cafeteria
conference
room
Auditorium
Occupied 3 m/(hm) 2 m/(hm) 5 m/(hm) 10 m/(hm) 10 m/(hm)
Not occupied 0,2 m/(hm) 0,2 m/(hm) 0,2 m/(hm) 0,2 m/(hm) 0,2 m/(hm)
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
62
Annex ZA
(informative)
Normative references to international publications with their corresponding
European publications
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These
normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the
publication referred to applies (including amendments).
Publication Year Title EN Year Title
ISO 7345 - Thermal insulation Physical
quantities and definitions
EN ISO 7345 - Thermal insulation Physical
quantities and definitions (ISO
7345:1987)
ISO 9050 Glass in building
Determination of light
transmittance, solar direct
transmittance, total solar
energy transmittance and
ultraviolet transmittance, and
related glazing factors
EN 410 Glass in building - Determination
of luminous and solar
characteristics of glazing
ISO 13370 1998 Thermal performance of
buildings Heat transfer via
the ground Calculation
methods
EN ISO 13370 1998 Thermal performance of buildings
Heat transfer via the ground
Calculation methods (ISO
13370:1998)
ISO 13786 - Thermal performance of
building components
Dynamic thermal
characteristics Calculation
methods
EN ISO 13786 - Thermal performance of building
components Dynamic thermal
characteristics Calculation
methods (ISO 13786:1999)
ISO 13789 - Thermal performance of
building Transmission heat
loss coefficient Calculation
method
EN ISO 13789 - Thermal performance of building
Transmission heat loss
coefficient Calculation method
(ISO 13789:1999)
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EN ISO 13790:2004 (E)
63
Bibliography
Published documents used to prepare this standard are listed below.
[1] EN 12831, Heating systems in buildings Method for calculation of the design heat load.
[2] EN 13363-1, Solar protection devices combined with glazing Calculation of solar and light transmittance
Part 1: Simplified method.
[3] prEN 13363-2, Solar protection devices combined with glazing Calculation of solar and light transmittance
Part 2: Detailed calculation method.
[4] EN 13465, Ventilation for buildings Calculation methods for the determination of air flow rates in dwellings.
[5] EN ISO 13786, Thermal performance of building components Dynamic thermal characteristics Calculation
methods (ISO 13786:1999).
[6] ISO 9050, Glass in building Determination of light transmittance, solar direct transmittance, total solar
energy transmittance and ultraviolet transmittance, and related glazing factors.
[7] PASSYS. Final Report of the Simplified Design Tool Subgroup. Commission of the European Communities,
Directorate General XII, Brussels, 1989.
[8] Rgles ThG, Rgles de calcul du coefficient GV des btiments dhabitation et du coefficient G1 des btiments
autres que dhabitation. Cahiers du CSTB 2256, 1988, Paris.
[9] Rgles ThBV, Rgles de calcul du coefficient de besoins de chauffage des logements. Cahiers du CSTB 2486,
1991, Paris.
[10] Rgles ThBV, Rgles de calcul du coefficient de besoins de chauffage des logements - Annexes. Cahiers du
CSTB 2274, 1988, Paris
[11] Rgles ThC, Rgles de calcul du coefficient de performance thermique globale des logements. Cahiers du
CSTB 2259, 1988, Paris.
[12] Rgles ThC, Rgles de calcul du coefficient de performance thermique globale des logements. Complments
et annexes. Cahiers du CSTB 2275, 1988, Paris.
[13] SIA 380-1, Energie im Hochbau nergie dans le btiment. SIA, Postfach, 8039 Zrich, 1988.
[14] PLATZER, W.J., Energetische Bewertung der transparenten Wrmedmmung. Bauphysik, Heft 2/99, 1999,
pages 67-76.
[15] Richtlinie Bestimmung des solaren Energiegewinns durch Massivwnde mit transparenter Wrmedmmung.
Fachverband Transparente Wrmedmmung e.V., Gundelfingen, Germany, 1999.
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Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.

UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano
di Unicazione

Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B
20133 Milano, Italia
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