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Impianti di riscaldamento degli edifici


NORMA E U R OP E A

Metodo per il calcolo dei requisiti energetici e dei rendimenti dellimpianto


Parte 4-4: Sistemi di generazione del calore, sistemi di cogenerazione negli edifici

UNI EN 15316-4-4

MAGGIO 2008 Heating systems in buildings

Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies


Part 4-4: Heat generation systems, building-integrated cogeneration systems La norma descrive un metodo di calcolo dei requisiti energetici, della produzione di elettricit e di energia termica, e delle perdite recuperabili delle unit di cogenerazione (riscaldamento e produzione acqua calda) in un edificio. Tali unit sono comunemente riconosciute come unit di piccola e micro-cogenerazione, o micro o piccoli CHP.

TESTO INGLESE

La presente norma la versione ufficiale in lingua inglese della norma europea EN 15316-4-4 (edizione luglio 2007).

ICS
UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione Via Sannio, 2 20137 Milano, Italia

91.140.10

UNI Riproduzione vietata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. Nessuna parte del presente documento pu essere riprodotta o diffusa con un mezzo qualsiasi, fotocopie, microfilm o altro, senza il consenso scritto dellUNI. www.uni.com UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008 Pagina I

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PREMESSA NAZIONALE
La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, della norma europea EN 15316-4-4 (edizione luglio 2007), che assume cos lo status di norma nazionale italiana. La presente norma stata elaborata sotto la competenza dellente federato allUNI CTI - Comitato Termotecnico Italiano La presente norma stata ratificata dal Presidente dellUNI ed entrata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 22 maggio 2008.

Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti interessate e di conciliare ogni aspetto conflittuale, per rappresentare il reale stato dellarte della materia ed il necessario grado di consenso. Chiunque ritenesse, a seguito dellapplicazione di questa norma, di poter fornire suggerimenti per un suo miglioramento o per un suo adeguamento ad uno stato dellarte in evoluzione pregato di inviare i propri contributi allUNI, Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, che li terr in considerazione per leventuale revisione della norma stessa. Le norme UNI sono revisionate, quando necessario, con la pubblicazione di nuove edizioni o di aggiornamenti. importante pertanto che gli utilizzatori delle stesse si accertino di essere in possesso dellultima edizione e degli eventuali aggiornamenti. Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a verificare lesistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi. UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008 UNI Pagina II

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EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPENNE EUROPISCHE NORM


ICS 91.140.10

EN 15316-4-4

July 2007

English Version

Heating systems in buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies - Part 4-4: Heat generation systems, building-integrated cogeneration systems
Systmes de chauffage dans les btiments - Mthode de calcul des besoins nergtiques et des rendements des systmes - Partie 4-4: Systmes de gnration de chaleur, systmes de co-gnration intgrs au btiment Heizsysteme in Gebuden - Verfahren zur Berechnung der Energieanforderungen und Wirkungsgrade der Anlagen Teil 4-4: Wrmeerzeugungssysteme, gebudeintegrierte KWK-Anlagen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 June 2007. CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member. This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMIT EUROPEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPISCHES KOMITEE FR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels

2007 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 15316-4-4:2007: E

UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Contents

Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5 1 2 3 4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5 5.7.6 5.7.7 5.7.8 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................6 Normative references ............................................................................................................................6 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6 Symbols and abbreviations ..................................................................................................................9 CHP system calculation ......................................................................................................................10 System boundaries..............................................................................................................................10 Auxiliary energy consumption ...........................................................................................................10 Recoverable system thermal loss......................................................................................................10 Calculation period................................................................................................................................10 Available methodologies ....................................................................................................................10 Fractional contribution method..........................................................................................................11 Annual heat output of the cogeneration installation .......................................................................11 Annual fuel input for the cogeneration installation .........................................................................12 Annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration installation ........................................................12 Annual electricity output of the cogeneration installation ..............................................................13 Annual load profile method ................................................................................................................13 General approach ................................................................................................................................13 Determining the energy performance for full range of load conditions for the cogeneration unit.................................................................................................................................13 Determining the annual load profile for the cogeneration unit.......................................................14 Annual heat output of the cogeneration installation .......................................................................15 Annual fuel input for the cogeneration installation .........................................................................16 Electricity output of the cogeneration installation...........................................................................16 Annual average thermal efficiency of the cogeneration installation..............................................16 Annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration installation ........................................................16

Annex A (informative) Share of preferential CHP systems ...........................................................................18 Annex B (informative) Efficiency of building integrated cogeneration units..............................................19 Annex C (informative) Example: Annual load profile method ......................................................................20 C.1 Cogeneration unit specifications (load-performance curve) ..........................................................20 C.2 Building heat demand profile .............................................................................................................21 C.3 Combining cogeneration unit specifications (load performance curve) and the annual load profile............................................................................................................................................21 C.4 Energy rating........................................................................................................................................22 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................24

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 15316-4-4:2007) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 228 Heating systems in buildings, the secretariat of which is held by DS. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2008, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2008. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association (Mandate M/343), and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD). It forms part of a series of standards aimed at European harmonisation of the methodology for calculation of the energy performance of buildings. An overview of the whole set of standards is given in prCEN/TR 15615. The subjects covered by CEN/TC 228 are the following: design of heating systems (water based, electrical etc.); installation of heating systems; commissioning of heating systems; instructions for operation, maintenance and use of heating systems; methods for calculation of the design heat loss and heat loads; methods for calculation of the energy performance of heating systems.

Heating systems also include the effect of attached systems such as hot water production systems. All these standards are systems standards, i.e. they are based on requirements addressed to the system as a whole and not dealing with requirements to the products within the system. Where possible, reference is made to other European or International Standards, a.o. product standards. However, use of products complying with relevant product standards is no guarantee of compliance with the system requirements. The requirements are mainly expressed as functional requirements, i.e. requirements dealing with the function of the system and not specifying shape, material, dimensions or the like. The guidelines describe ways to meet the requirements, but other ways to fulfil the functional requirements might be used if fulfilment can be proved. Heating systems differ among the member countries due to climate, traditions and national regulations. In some cases requirements are given as classes so national or individual needs may be accommodated. In cases where the standards contradict with national regulations, the latter should be followed. EN 15316 Heating systems in buildings Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies consists of the following parts: Part 1: General

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Part 2-1: Space heating emission systems Part 2-3: Space heating distribution systems Part 3-1: Domestic hot water systems, characterisation of needs (tapping requirements) Part 3-2: Domestic hot water systems, distribution Part 3-3: Domestic hot water systems, generation Part 4-1: Space heating generation systems, combustion systems (boilers) Part 4-2: Space heating generation systems, heat pump systems Part 4-3: Heat generation systems, thermal solar systems Part 4-4: Heat generation systems, building-integrated cogeneration systems Part 4-5: Space heating generation systems, the performance and quality of district heating and large volume systems Part 4-6: Heat generation systems, photovoltaic systems Part 4-7: Space heating generation systems, biomass combustion systems According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Introduction
This European Standard constitutes the specific part related to building-integrated cogeneration systems, of the set of EN 15316 standards on methods for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies of space heating systems and domestic hot water systems in buildings. This European Standard specifies the structure for calculation of the system energy losses and the system performance of building-integrated cogeneration systems. The calculation method is used for the following applications: judging compliance with regulations expressed in terms of energy targets; optimisation of the energy performance of a planned heat generation system, by applying the method to several possible options; assessing the effect of possible energy conservation measures on an existing heat generation system, by calculating the energy use with and without the energy conservation measure.

The user needs to refer to other European Standards or to national documents for input data and detailed calculation procedures not provided by this European Standard.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Scope

This European Standard defines a method for calculation of the energy requirements, electricity production, thermal output and recoverable losses of building-integrated cogeneration units forming part of a heat generation system (space heating and domestic hot water) in a building. Such units are commonly known as micro- or small scale cogeneration, or micro- or small scale CHP. The calculation is based on the performance characteristics of the units, defined in product standards, and on other characteristics required to evaluate the performance of the units as included in the technical building system. The test of building-integrated cogeneration units for heating systems may be worked out in a national annex. As soon as European test methods are available these should be used.
NOTE Primary energy savings and CO2 savings, which can be achieved by cogeneration units compared to separate production of heat and consumption of electricity, are calculated according to prEN 15603. Indications about the savings calculations are given in informative Annex C.

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. prEN 156031 , Energy performance of buildings Overall energy use, CO2 emissions and definition of energy ratings
)

Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 annual load profile method calculation method for an installation where the cogeneration unit is sized to run on different load ranges throughout the year (e.g. the cogeneration unit operates as a boiler substitute and supplies the entire heat demand of the building) 3.2 annual electrical efficiency total annual electrical output of the cogeneration unit divided by the total annual fuel input 3.3 annual heat efficiency total annual heat output of the cogeneration unit divided by the total annual fuel input 3.4 auxiliary energy electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and/or domestic hot water to support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs

1) To be published.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

NOTE 1 This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics etc. Electrical energy input to the ventilation system for air transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but as energy use for ventilation. NOTE 2 In EN ISO 9488 the energy used for pumps and valves is called "parasitic energy".

3.5 building-integrated cogeneration cogeneration unit installed to supply space heating, domestic hot water and possibly cooling within a building
NOTE It could operate as the only heating/cooling appliance of the building or in combination with other heat generators, such as boilers or electrical chillers. Unlike district heating systems, where heat and electricity are generated at central plants and transmitted through networks to a number of remote buildings, a building-integrated cogeneration unit produces heat for use within the building. The electricity produced by the integrated cogeneration unit may be used within the building or may be exported.

3.6 cogeneration unit unit designed to provide thermal energy and electricity to a building using a cogeneration process
NOTE 1 NOTE 2 The unit may include supplementary burners and thermal storage. The cogeneration units are also called CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plants or units.

3.7 cogeneration simultaneous generation in one process of thermal energy and electrical and/or mechanical energy 3.8 design heat load desired heat flow necessary to achieve the specified design conditions 3.9 dumped heat wasted heat, which exceeds the current heat demand of the building and cannot be stored or used 3.10 electricity from cogeneration electricity generated in a process linked to the production of useful heat 3.11 full load operation state of the technical system (e.g. cogeneration unit) where the actual load requirement is equal to the nominal (maximal) output capacity of the device 3.12 fractional contribution method calculation method for an installation where the CHP unit is sized to run at full load most of the time, thus the heat output of the CHP unit supplies the base load of the installation (fractional contribution of the heat demand) 3.13 gross calorific value quantity of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel, when it is burned completely with oxygen at a constant pressure equal to 101 320 Pa, and when the products of combustion are returned to ambient temperature
NOTE 1 This quantity includes the latent heat of condensation of any water vapour contained in the fuel and of the water vapour formed by the combustion of any hydrogen contained in the fuel. NOTE 2 According to ISO 13602-2, the gross calorific value is preferred to the net calorific value.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

NOTE 3

The net calorific value does not take into account the latent heat of condensation.

3.14 heat-led installations unit controlled by the heat demand with no dumped heat
NOTE This does not mean that the unit provides the whole heat demand.

3.15 net power production electrical total power production minus all auxiliary energy consumption 3.16 part load operation state of the technical system (e.g. cogeneration unit) where the actual load requirement is lower than the nominal (maximal) output capacity of the device 3.17 peak boiler boiler used to supplement the heat output provided by the cogeneration unit for peak heat loads 3.18 plant size ratio maximum rate of heat output of the cogeneration unit divided by the sum of the design heat load and any additional daily heat load (averaged over the day) 3.19 power bonus method all energy inputs are related to the thermal output and the electricity produced is counted as a bonus 3.20 preferential generation appliances appliance in a multi-plant generation system (e.g. cogeneration units) which are operating in priority 3.21 recoverable system thermal loss part of a system thermal loss which can be recovered to lower either the energy need for heating or cooling or the energy use of the heating or cooling system 3.22 thermal efficiency of a cogeneration heat output of the cogeneration divided by the fuel input
NOTE 1 Efficiency can be based on annual load conditions or part-load conditions.

NOTE 2 The energy input and all system losses are related to the thermal output. The electricity is counted as a bonus (power bonus method).

3.23 useful heat heat produced in a cogeneration process to satisfy the demand for heating or cooling

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and units (Table 1) and indices (Table 2) apply. Table 1 Symbols and units Symbol E Quantity energy in general, including primary energy, energy carriers (except quantity of heat, mechanical work and auxiliary (electrical) energy) number of days power in general including electrical power quantity of heat auxiliary (electrical) energy, mechanical work fraction fraction efficiency factor Celsius temperature Unit a b J

ndays P Q W X


a b

W a J a J % C

Hours (h) may be used as the unit for time instead of seconds for all quantities involving time (i.e. for time periods as well as for air change rates), but in that case the unit for energy is Wh instead of J The unit depends on the type of energy carrier and the way its amount is expressed.

Table 2 Indices an avg C chp day dis el annual time-average cooling combined heat and power daily distribution electricity gen H HW in ls max npref generation heating heating and domestic hot water input losses maximum non preferential out pr pref rbl T W output produced preferential recoverable thermal domestic hot water

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

5
5.1

CHP system calculation


System boundaries

The system boundary for the cogeneration sub-system comprises only the cogeneration unit. The cogeneration unit may be of any type, possibly including a supplementary burner and thermal store, provided it has been tested as a whole to provide the energy performance information needed. The generated heat is used for heating, domestic hot water and eventually an absorption chiller. Electrical connection components are only taken into account if they are part of the unit and tested together. Peak boilers of conventional design are used when the heat output of the CHP plant is insufficient to meet the instantaneous heat demand. Peak boilers are not included in the cogeneration sub-system boundaries.

5.2

Auxiliary energy consumption

Auxiliary energy consumption is taken into account by applying only the net power production i.e. the total power production minus all auxiliary energy consumption, e.g. for pumps inside the system boundaries. Wchp,gen,aux = 0
NOTE This value is input data for calculations according to prEN 15603.

5.3

Recoverable system thermal loss

No losses are recoverable for space heating needs. Qchp,gen,ls,rbl = 0


NOTE This value is input data for calculations according to prEN 15603.

5.4

Calculation period

System thermal losses should be calculated separately for each calculation period. The average values shall be consistent with the selected time intervals. This may be done in one of the following two different ways: by using annual data for the system operation period and performing the calculations using annual average values; by dividing the year into a number of calculation periods (e.g. months, weeks), performing the calculations for each period using period-dependent values and sum up the results for all the periods over the year. If there is seasonal heating in the building, the year should at least be divided into two calculation periods, i.e. the time of the heating season and the time of the rest of the year.

5.5

Available methodologies

NOTE 1 The performance of a cogeneration unit (thermal efficiency, electrical output) varies strongly with the part-load. The operation mode depends on boiler/CHP/buffer tank combinations, regulatory frameworks etc.

Two operation modes may be distinguished: cogeneration unit is sized to run at full load most of the time, thus the heat output of the CHP unit supplies the base load of the installation;

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

cogeneration unit is sized to run on different load ranges (e.g. the cogeneration unit operates as a boiler substitute and supplies the entire heat demand of the building).

NOTE 2 For such installations, the load varies over a large range throughout the year and operation at low load influences strongly the annual energy performance of the cogeneration unit.

In this European Standard, two calculation methods corresponding to the two operation modes are given: "fractional contribution method", for a CHP unit running at full load most of the time and supplying the base load of the installation (fractional contribution of the heat demand); "annual load profile method", for a CHP unit running on different part loads (e.g. operating as a boiler substitute).

NOTE 3 In principle, the annual load profile method could also be applied for cogeneration units operated to supply the base load of the installation. However, the fractional contribution method is easier to use and has a sufficient accuracy for the considered case. NOTE 4 The cogeneration unit can be sized to supply the base electricity demand and supplies thus only part of the heat demand. In this European Standard, only heat which is not dumped heat is accepted. This case can be taken into account by the annual load profile method. It is only a question of sizing.

All methods used to calculate part load and annual performance of CHP systems should be validated. At least the following influence factors should be taken into account: water temperature (return/flow); start/stop effects; part load operation; air inlet temperature.

5.6
5.6.1

Fractional contribution method


Annual heat output of the cogeneration installation

The annual heat output of the cogeneration installation excludes any dumped heat and is limited by the maximum heat demand within the building(s). The annual heat output of the cogeneration installation Qchp,gen,out shall be determined by:

Qchp , gen,out = QHW ,dis ,in X HW ,dis ,in ,chp + QC , gen,in X C , gen,in ,chp
where QHW,dis,in QC,gen,in XHW,dis,in,chp XC,gen,in,chp is the heat input to the space heating and domestic hot water distribution subsystem according to prEN 15603; is the heat input to the cooling generation system according to prEN 15603; is the share of the heat input to the space heating and domestic hot water distribution sub-system covered by the cogeneration installation; is the share of the heat input to the cooling generation system covered by the cogeneration installation.

(1)

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

If cogeneration is combined with other space heating/cooling/ domestic hot water appliances, the relative share of space heating, cooling and domestic hot water provided by the cogeneration installation has to be determined. For space heating/cooling/domestic hot water systems in existing buildings, the share of cogeneration could be determined on the basis of operational records. In the case of new installations, the shares of cogeneration could be estimated on the basis of the design specifications and the control strategies of all relevant components of the space heating/cooling/domestic hot water systems. Detailed methods for determining the relative share of space heating, cooling and domestic hot water provided by the cogeneration installation should be specified in national annexes to this European Standard. One possible calculation method is given in Annex A. 5.6.2 Annual fuel input for the cogeneration installation

The annual fuel input for the cogeneration installation Echp,gen,in is calculated by:

Echp , gen,in =

Qchp , gen,out

T ,chp ,an

(2)

where Qchp,gen,out T,chp,an is the annual thermal output of the cogeneration (e.g. heating, domestic hot water); is the annual heat efficiency of the cogeneration.

All energy inputs are related to the thermal output. The electricity is counted as a bonus (power bonus method). The heat efficiency of the cogeneration installation should be based on operational data or certified values for type-tested cogeneration units. Typical values should be given in national annexes to this European Standard. If the heat efficiency of a cogeneration unit is not known, indicative efficiency values given in informative Annex B may be used. 5.6.3 Annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration installation

The annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration Qchp,gen,ls is calculated by:

Qchp , gen,ls = Qchp , gen ,out (

T ,chp ,an

1)

(3)

All sub-system losses are related to the thermal output. The electricity is counted as a bonus (power bonus method).

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

5.6.4

Annual electricity output of the cogeneration installation

The annual electricity generated by the cogeneration unit Eel,chp,out is calculated by:

Eel ,chp ,out = Echp , gen,in el ,chp ,an


where el,chp,an is the annual electrical efficiency of the cogeneration.

(4)

The electrical efficiency of the cogeneration installation should be based on operational data or certified values for type-tested cogeneration units. Typical values should be given in national annexes to this standard. If the electrical efficiency of a cogeneration unit is not known, indicative efficiency values given in informative Annex B may be used.

5.7
5.7.1

Annual load profile method


General approach

NOTE This method develops the annual energy performance of the cogeneration installation from knowledge of the performance of the cogeneration at operating conditions (e.g. part-load, water temperature, ambient temperature) and the annual load profile of the cogeneration. This method is well suited for cogeneration installations where the load varies over a large range throughout the year, and operation at low load influences strongly the annual energy performance (e.g. for cogeneration installations which supply the entire heat demand of the building, the cogeneration unit operates as a boiler substitute).

For this method, the thermal and electrical energy performance of the cogeneration unit over the full load range shall be known. For preference, this should be ascertained by suitable laboratory tests under a number of different part-load conditions. The plant size ratio of the cogeneration unit, taking account of the demand for heat in the building, shall be determined. An annual load profile is developed from relevant regional climate data (such as degree-days) in conjunction with the plant size ratio. Annual energy input and output, and average annual efficiency, are subsequently calculated by summing up the performance at different part-load levels. It is assumed, that the cogeneration unit is heat-led and controlled in such a way, that there is no dumped heat. Total annual quantities for fuel input, heat output, system thermal loss and net electrical output are recorded as the output from this method. If the cogeneration unit is inadequately sized for the heat demand of the building, the heat deficit (to be produced by another heat generator) is also calculated. Combining these quantities for calculation of primary energy and CO2 emissions is carried out according to prEN 15603. 5.7.2 Determining the energy performance for full range of load conditions for the cogeneration unit

Knowledge of the energy performance of the installed cogeneration unit under different part-load conditions is obtained from either laboratory test results or other relevant data. This information is used to establish the load-performance curves for thermal efficiency and electrical output of the cogeneration unit. An example of load performance curves is illustrated in Figure 1.

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UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Key R Results from laboratory test procedure X Y Z Thermal efficiency Proportion of full-load Electrical output (kWh)

Figure 1 Load-performance curves for thermal efficiency and electrical output (example only) The load performance curves for thermal efficiency and net electrical output may be representative for each cogeneration technology or for each cogeneration unit. The intervals defining the performance curve shall give reliable information over the whole part load range. These intervals are defined in the relevant product standards.
NOTE 1 If product information based on product standards is not available, the load-performance curve for thermal efficiency should be given with values at 10 % intervals over the load range 0 to 100 % recorded as T,chp,0 to T,chp,100. From the load-performance curve for net electrical output, values at 10 % intervals over the load range 0 to 100 % should be recorded as Eel,chp,out,0 to Eel,chp,out,100 (kWh/day). NOTE 2 It would be preferable if the thermal efficiency of the cogeneration unit is also given as a function of the temperature of the heat output. For some cogeneration unit parts, the output temperature could be very low (example: intercooler out = 35 C). If the heat emission system of the building installation is not adapted accordingly, the heat output of the cogeneration unit can not be totally used.

5.7.3

Determining the annual load profile for the cogeneration unit

The annual load profile for the cogeneration unit is determined by taking account of e.g. the regional climate, design heat load, plant size ratio, control strategies (operation modes). An example of an annual load profile for a cogeneration unit with sufficient power to provide the entire heat demand of the building is given in Figure 2.

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UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

NOTE 1 For a cogeneration unit with insufficient power to provide the entire heat demand of the building, the annual load profile comprises a larger proportion of the time at full load.

Key X Days per year

H Heat load through year (10% brands) Y Proportion of full load

Figure 2 Annual load profile of the cogeneration unit (example only)


NOTE 2 From the annual load profile, the number of days at 10 % intervals over the load range 0 to 100 % should be recorded as ndays0 to ndays100. Observe that:

ndays = 365.
i i

The annual load profile and the values obtained from the load-performance curves are subsequently combined in order to determine: total heat output, total fuel input, total net electricity generated,

during one year. 5.7.4 Annual heat output of the cogeneration installation

The annual heat output of the cogeneration unit Qchp,gen,out is calculated by:

Qchp , gen,out = Qchp , gen,out ,i ndaysi


i

(5)

15
UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

where i Qchp,gen,out,i ndaysi is the part-load index; is the thermal output per day of cogeneration unit at load i; is the number of days per year for which part-load i applies.

5.7.5

Annual fuel input for the cogeneration installation

The annual fuel input for the cogeneration unit Echp,gen,in is calculated by:

Echp , gen,in =
i

Qchp , gen,out ,i

T ,chp ,i

ndaysi

(6)

where i T,chp,i ndaysi is the part-load index; is the thermal efficiency of cogeneration unit at part-load i; is the number of days per year for which part-load i applies.

5.7.6

Electricity output of the cogeneration installation

The annual net electricity generated by the cogeneration unit Eel,chp,out is calculated by:

Eel ,chp ,out = Eel ,chp ,out ,i ndaysi


i

(7)

where i Eel,chp,out,i ndaysi is the part-load index; is the net electrical output per day of cogeneration unit at part-load i; is the number of days per year for which part-load i applies.

5.7.7

Annual average thermal efficiency of the cogeneration installation

The annual average thermal efficiency of the cogeneration installation T,chp,an,avg, defined as the total heat output of the cogeneration installation divided by the total fuel input during one year, is calculated by:

T ,chp ,an,avg =

Qchp , gen,out Echp , gen ,in

(8)

5.7.8

Annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration installation

The annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration installation Qchp,gen,ls is calculated by:

Qchp , gen,ls = Echp , gen,in Qchp , gen ,out

(9)

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UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

All system losses are related to the thermal output. The electricity is counted as a bonus (power bonus method).

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Annex A (informative) Share of preferential CHP systems

The part of heat generated by preferential operated cogeneration units in the heat supply to the building is a function of the plant size ratio T (Table A.1). Table A.1 Share of heat generated by preferential operated cogeneration units as a function of plant size ratio T T From 0,1 to 0,2 From 0,2 to 0,8 XT,chp 0,4 0,6

This example shows that if the plant size ratio is between 10 % and 20 %, then the cogeneration unit supplies 40 % of the annual heat demand to the building. If the cogeneration unit has a much higher plant size ratio (e.g. 80 %), then the supplied heat to the building is only increased to 60 %.
NOTE XT,chp depends on the operation mode of the cogeneration unit, the technology etc. In the example given in Table A.1, the CHP is heat led and the CHP is the preferential generation appliance. The example in Table A.1 is given only to illustrate the calculation method. It is strongly recommended to determine XT,chp in a detailed manner in a national annex.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Annex B (informative) Efficiency of building integrated cogeneration units

Indicative heat efficiency and electrical efficiency at nominal load for building-integrated cogeneration installations are given in Table B.1. Table B.1 Indicative efficiency for different prime mover technologies for building-integrated ) cogeneration installations (based on the lower heating value of the fuel)2 Unit Internal Internal combustion combustion engine engine (gas) (diesel) 45 to 61 50 to 60 Micro turbine Stirling engine Fuel Cell

Heat efficiency (at nominal load) Electrical efficiency (at nominal load) Total efficiency (at nominal load)

52 to 66

61 to 95

35 to 70

21 to 38

30 to 40

13 to 32

10 to 25

25 to 50

73 to 95

78 to 95

70 to 90

83 to 105

75 to 95

2) Preliminary figures, because most cogeneration systems using Stirling engine and fuel cell system technologies are

currently still at the development or demonstration project stage.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Annex C (informative) Example: Annual load profile method

C.1 Cogeneration unit specifications (load-performance curve)


In this example, the cogeneration unit specifications at full load are: PT,chp,out,100 = 17,36 kW; Pel,chp,out,100 = 4,62 kW. Heat and electricity output at full load are calculated from these specifications as: Qchp,gen,out,100 = 17,36 24 = 417 kWh = 1 500 MJ/day; Eel,chp,out,100 = 4,6 24 = 110 kWh = 397,5 MJ/day. Performance of the cogeneration unit, under part-load conditions at 10 % intervals, has been determined in laboratory tests, and the results are given in Table C.1.
NOTE It may be acceptable to interpolate some of the values, rather than measure performance at every 10 % interval, provided the characteristics of the unit are well understood and it is known there are no discontinuities of value or gradient in the load-performance curves. Discontinuities are likely to occur in multi-stage plant; for example in units that have supplementary burners, or a limited modulation range, or generator cut-off at low thermal output.

Table C.1 records results for a whole day in every case, so the unit does not necessarily have to perform at a uniform rate throughout the day. The thermal efficiency at each part-load condition is calculated as the heat output divided by the fuel input. Table C.1 Results from performance tests of the cogeneration unit
C1 Part-load i C2 Heat output C3 Fuel input C4 Net electrical output C5 Thermal efficiency

Qchp,gen,out,i
Test procedure MJ/day 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1 050 1 200 1 350 1 500

Echp,gen,in,i
Test procedure MJ/day 0 375 545 750 952 1 136 1 323 1 500 1 667 1 824 2 000

Eel,chp,out,i
Test procedure MJ/day 0 0 0 72,5 144,5 217,0 289,0 325,0 361,5 379,5 397,5

T,chp,i
(C2/C3)x100 % 0 40 55 60 63 66 68 70 72 74 75

% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

From Table C.1 a load-performance curve can be drawn, as shown in Figure 1.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

C.2 Building heat demand profile


The heat input to the building thermal distribution systems is determined for every day of a typical year, taking into account those services, for which the cogeneration unit should contribute (e.g. space heating, domestic hot water). The heat demand for space heating is based on a.o. the heat transfers and knowledge of climate conditions (e.g. degree-days). The daily heat demand values (in MJ) are divided into ranges, corresponding to 10 % part-load intervals. The number of days of each month relevant to every part-load interval of daily heat demand is recorded as shown in Table C.2. Table C.2 Building heat demand profile (days in typical year) Daily building heat demand (in MJ) divided into 10% part-load intervals i and approximate load of the cogeneration unit (%)
less than 75 MJ 75 to 225 MJ 225 to 375 MJ 375 to 525 MJ 525 to 675 MJ 675 to 825 MJ 8 25 to 975 MJ 975 to 1 125 MJ 65 %75 % 1 125 to 1275 MJ 75 %85 % 1 275 to 1425 MJ 85 %95 % 1 425 MJ or more

<5%

5 %15 %

15 %25 %

25 %35 %

35 %45 %

45 %55 %

55 %65 %

> 95 %

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec TOTAL

Days/ month 31 28 31 30 31 30 31 31 30 31 30 31 365

0%

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 % 2 3 6 6 6 4

50 % 4 4 7 5 3

60 % 5 5 4 5 2

70 % 6 5 4 4 2

80 % 6 5 4 3 2

90 % 5 3 2 1

100 % 3 2

4 10 18 8

40

3 6 13 8 4 3 2 1 40

1 1 6 7 8 5 4 4 3 1 40

1 3 5 7 9

4 6 3 2 40

3 4 3 3 40

3 4 5 5 40

2 4 5 5 37

1 3 4 5 34

1 2 3 4 30

1 2 4 18

1 6

The annual load profile consists of the number of days (ndays) at each part-load condition for the cogeneration unit. It can also be plotted as a histogram, as shown in Figure 2.

C.3 Combining cogeneration unit specifications (load performance curve) and the annual load profile
The load performance curve and the annual load profile for the cogeneration unit are combined in Table C.3 to produce the annual energy totals, using equations from 5.7.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Table C.3 Annual energy calculations C1 i C2 ndays i


days

C3 Qchp,gen,out,i
MJ/d

C4 (Qchp,gen,out,i * ndays i)
MJ/year

C5 T,chp,i
%

C6 Echp,gen,in,i
MJ/year

C7 Eel,chp,out,i
MJ/day

C8 (Eel,chp,out,i * ndays i)
MJ/year

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Table C2/total 40 40 40 40 40 40 37 34 30 18 6 365

Table C1/C2 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1 050 1 200 1 350 1 500

C2xC3 0 6 000 12 000 18 000 24 000 30 000 33 300 35 700 36 000 24 300 9 000 228 300

Table C2/C5 0 40 % 55 % 60 % 63 % 66 % 68 % 70 % 72 % 74 % 75 %

C4/C5 0 15 000 21 818 30 000 38 093 45 452 48 970 51 000 50 000 32 836 12 000 345 169

Table C1/C4 0 0 0 72,5 144,5 217,0 289,0 325,0 361,5 379,5 397,5

C2xC7 0 0 0 2 900 5 780 8 680 10 693 11 050 10 845 6 831 2 385 59 164

The results from the annual energy calculations are: Qchp,gen,out = 228 300 MJ; Eel,chp,out = 59 164 MJ; Echp,gen,in = 345 169 MJ. The annual average thermal efficiency of the cogeneration installation T,chp,an,avg defined as the total heat output of the cogeneration installation divided by the total fuel input during one year, is calculated by: T,chp,an,avg = Qchp,gen,out / Echp,gen,in T,chp,an,avg = 228 300 / 345 169 = 0,66 = 66 %

The annual system thermal loss of the cogeneration installation Qchp,gen,ls is calculated by:

Qchp , gen,ls = Echp , gen,in Qchp , gen ,out Qchp , gen,ls = 345169 228300 = 116 869

C.4 Energy rating


The benefit of the cogeneration unit is shown by the energy rating of the installation according to prEN 15603. In this example, it is assumed that the whole electricity produced by the cogeneration unit is exported. The primary energy rating of the cogeneration installation according to prEN 15603 is given in Table C.4.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Table C.4 Primary energy rating of the installation with a cogeneration unit Building thermal needs MJ/year 228 300 Technical building system performance MJ/year 57 705 (345 169 228 300 59 164) Energy delivered MJ/year Fuel input 345 169 (gas) Energy exported MJ/year Electricity 59 164 177 492 (rating factor 3,0) 340 261 (517 753 177 492) Energy rating MJ/year 517 753 (rating factor 1,5)

The primary energy rating without the cogeneration unit would be as given in Table C.5. It is assumed that the annual average efficiency of the heat generator is 90 %. Table C.5 Primary energy rating of the installation without a cogeneration unit Building thermal needs MJ/year 228 300 Technical building system performance MJ/year 25 366 (253 666 228 300 0) Energy delivered MJ/year Fuel input 253 666 (gas) Energy exported MJ/year Electricity 0 0 380 500 (380 500 0) Energy rating MJ/year 380 500 (rating factor 1.5)

As a result, the installation equipped with a cogeneration unit has lower primary energy consumption than an installation with a heat generator with an annual average efficiency of 90 %.

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EN 15316-4-4:2007 (E)

Bibliography

[1] EN 12831, Heating systems in buildings Method for calculation of the design heat load [2] prCEN/TR 15615 3 , Explanation of the general relationship between various CEN standards and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) ("Umbrella document") [3] EN ISO 9488, Solar energy Vocabulary (ISO 9488:1999) [4] ISO 13602-2, Technical energy systems Methods for analysis Part 2: Weighting and aggregation of energywares
)

3) To be published.

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UNI EN 15316-4-4:2008

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UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione Via Sannio, 2 20137 Milano, Italia

Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 N 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.