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Climate Change & Development Policy


2829 September 2012 Helsinki, Finland

UN Photo/Tim McKulka

T F A R D
This is a paper submitted for presentation at UNU-WIDER conference on Climate Change and Development Policy, held in Helsinki on 2829 September 2012. This is not a formal publication of UNU-WIDER and may reect work-in-progress. If you wish to cite this, please request permission directly from the author(s).

UNUWIDERConferenceon

ClimateChangeandDevelopmentPolicy
Helsinki,Finland,2829September2012 WhitepaperTitle

LandscapeArchitectureRoleinMitigatingNegativeClimateChange ImpactsUponUrbanEnvironment
by

IslamHamdiElGhonaemy,PhD
AssociateProfessorofLandscapeArchitectureandEnvironmentalUrbanDesign DepartmentofArchitecture,CollegeofFineArts. AlexandriaUniversity,Egypt eslam_elghonaimy@yahoo.com 2012

LandscapeArchitectureRoleinMitigatingNegativeClimateChange ImpactsUponUrbanEnvironment
1.

Introduction

Inaworldofclimatechange,challengeindealingwiththeresultedproblemsisfacingdeveloping countries, especially its impacts upon urban environment. Consequently, climate change is dramatically effects on urban, natural resources and people's livelihoods. During the past century, the Earth has warmed by approximately 0.7C. unless we take measures to address climate change, temperatures could rise even more rapidly, by between 1.4C and 5.8C, during thenext100years.Poorpeopleindevelopingcountriesareparticularlyexposedtothee ectsof climate change, not least because they often live and work in the very areas where natural disasters most often occur, such as flood plains, mountainsides and deltas. Also, it causes multiple threats to poor rural people, who often live in areas where climate change is increasing the risk and disasters. Therefore, many approaches were studied by expertise to find out the prober tools that could be used to utilize residents' life quality and comfort in poor countries in generalandMENAcitiesinparticular. Climate change is being one of the most global important dilemmas. It is one of the initiative has been globally ratified at the highest political levels in the United Nations Millennium Declaration onthebasisthatitisoneoftheforeseeablechallengeswithspecificgoalsandactionstoimprove the lives of economically, environmentally and socially marginalized populations in urban areas etc. A great awareness in the developed countries with the problems may result is presented. Many practical steps had been taken to join efforts between nations and cooperate to face the resulted phenomena due to Climate Change such as global, warming, sea level rise, desertification, etc. For instance it was settled that there is strong positive relation between urban density and greenhouse gas emissions.1 While "David Dodman 2009, stated that "The relationshipbetweenurbandensityandvulnerability:anadaptationagenda". Respecting the vision that we live in small world, whenever a region has an environmental problemsuchasclimaticchangesanditsresultedproblems;itneveraffectsthatregionalonebut extend to affect the neighbor regions as well. Regrettably, In Middle East and North Africa countries (MENA cities) the climate changes impacts is dramatically increasing due to the absenceoftheintegrationbetweeneachothertomanageandcontrolsuchproblems.Inspiteof the importance of Landscape Architecture roles in national developing plans to face the impact of the climatic changes problems, many countries have yet primitively to mainstream climate changeproblems. 1.1. Diagnosisoftheproblem: While the changing in political systems and the spreading of the vision of "spring of liberty", many disorganized and unplanned orders and progress in such countries that ignoring environmentalconsiderationingeneralandclimaticchangeinparticularoccurred. Therefore haphazard and scattered actions with no scientific base had been done just to satisfy the community opinion and protesters that not serving the developing process. Consequently, it isexpectingtobemanyenvironmentalproblemsduetotheseunplannedactions. In addition to, the miss integration between MENA cities national developments plans and the conflict of Urban Planning Policy and its Strategies in MENA Cities Urban Developing and the resulted miss design of Landscape Architecture work produces adverse impacts, in general, to theenvironmentandinparticulartothecitiesurbanareasapplyingthefollowings: i. CityUrbancondition ii. standardofliving iii. qualityoflife

1.2.

Significanceofthestudy:

The Significance of the studying Landscape Architecture Role in Mitigating Negative Climate Change is to explore a unique vision to control the adverse impacts of the climate changes upon humanlifeandurbanquality. 1.3. MotivationofselectingLandscapearchitectureeffectsinfacingClimaticchangesimpacts: So, aims to show how Landscape Architecture science in urban environment can help address problems facing humanity due to Climate change, we have to understand the focus and field of Landscape architecture work. It would be achieved through creating knowledge and understanding on a complex area of interrelationships between human actions and environment under the umbrella of Landscape Architecture and defining specific solutions that can address theproblemifappliedonanurbanlargescale 1.4. StudyIdea

AglobalvisiontodealwithLandscapeArchitecturerolewheneverwedealwithClimaticchanges impacts. Comprehensive policy should deal with these impacts. MENA cities have limited technical resources and vision, especially with the dramatic political changes. Comprehensive policy that consider MENA cities resources and problems have to be sit, which need technical studies and expertise team work as well. This policy has to consider three main targets to be improved 1.5. Aimofthestudy

The aim of the study is to present guide lines the role of Landscape Architecture in reducing the adverse impacts of climatic changes upon city urban life. This aim could be achieved by implementing regional policy that unique the efforts of MENA cities using Landscape Architectureelements. Creating regional policy with emphasis of strategies following by action plans in pilot projects will explore the Landscape Architecture significant in controlling the impact of climatic changes impacts.FormattingLandscapeArchitectureChapterinMENAcitiescantaketheresponsibilityin managing MENA cities efforts and prepare homogeneous policy between them targeting city that can manage the efforts of in Mitigating Negative Climate Change Impacts Upon Urban Environment
2.

Climatechangeisasustainabledevelopmentissue:
2.1. Asustainablecity,andeco-city

Asustainablecity,oreco-cityisacitydesignedwithconsiderationofenvironmentalimpact, inhabitedbypeoplededicatedtominimizationofrequiredinputsofenergy,waterandfood,and wasteoutputofheat,airpollution -CO2,methane,andwaterpollution .RichardRegisterfirst coinedtheterm"eco-city "inhis1987book,Eco-cityBerkeley :buildingcitiesforahealthy future.2Anotherleadingfigurewhoenvisionedthesustainablecityisarchitect PaulF .Downton, wholaterfoundedthecompanyEcopolisPtyLtd .Thefieldofindustrialecologyissometimes usedinplanningthesecities. Asustainablecitycanfeeditselfwithminimalrelianceonthesurroundingcountryside,and poweritselfwithrenewablesourcesofenergy .Thecruxofthisistocreatethesmallestpossible ecologicalfootprint,andtoproducethelowestquantityofpollutionpossible,toefficientlyuse land;compostusedmaterials,recycleitorconvertwaste-to-energy,andthusthecity'soverall contributiontoclimatechangewillbeminimal,ifsuchpracticesareadheredto. It is estimated that around 50 %of the worlds population now lives in cities and urban areas .

These large communities provide both challenges and opportunities for environmentally conscious developers .In order to make them more sustainable, building design and practice, as wellasperceptionandlifestylemustadoptsustainabilitythinking .3 2.2. Climatechangeanddangerousthreats Ingeneral,Climatechangeisoneofthemostdangerousthreatseverfacedbyhumankind. Fuelledbytwopowerfulhumaninducedforcesthathavebeenunleashedbydevelopmentand manipulationoftheenvironmentintheindustrialage,theeffectsofurbanizationandclimate changeareconverginginwayswhichthreatentohaveunprecedentednegativeimpactson urbanqualityoflife,andeconomicandsocialstability(unhabitat,GlobalReportonHuman Settlements2011). Inparticular,mostoftheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica(MENA)citiesarelocatedinvulnerable countriesspeciallywiththelocalandnarrowvisionofdecisionmakersandpolicydesigners. Therefore,indicatorsoftherelationbetweenClimatechangesandLandscapeArchitecturerole uponsustainabledevelopmentcanbeinformativeforclimatechangeandinotherhandclarify theimageinproberway. Consequently, many warning signs from the academic side and many alarms raised in many specific conferences and symposiums but never less shortage of practical steps to face such resulted problems from the climatic change. On the other hand, in Middle East and North Africa countries (MENA), authorities' actions that had been taken to deal with the phenomena of climatic change and to can manage and to control the resulted problems are still fragile and not efficient. Even the shay proceedings to develop practical policy are not enough to realize on in dealingwiththeresultedurbanandruralproblems. 2.3. Climatechangesubjectisasustainabledevelopment

Furthermore, It should be considered that Climate change subject is a sustainable developmentissue,notjustanenvironmentalconcern,that:


i. ii. iii. iv. Climatechangethreatenstoeraseprogressmadeinachievingsustainabledevelopment goals,includingtheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals. Greenhousegasemissionsdependoneconomicandtechnologicalpathways. Currentemissionsimpactonthelivingconditionsoffuturegenerations. Poorandvulnerablecountriesareexpectedtofacethegreatestburdenofclimate change,whilehavingcontributedtheleasttotheproblem.

Actions toward dealing with climatic changes impacts within city urban areas or rural region as well should have unique vision in MENA cities. For instance, In Egypt, authority creates action levels to manage City problems, which were varying between the general masterplantillandthegovernmentalonthefollowinglevels: i. Regionallevel, ii. Governmentallevel, Throughtheregionalplanoftheregion. Throughgeneralreportforgovernorateplanning. UrbandevelopmentplanfortheGovernorate. Inadditiontothelocalgovernmentallegislation. Thedevelopmentreport. Throughthegeneralmasterplanforcitiessuch.4

iii. locallevel

3.

ClimatechangeandMENAcities

Unfortunately, Climate Change shade Middle East and North Africa (MENA) cities with serious direct and indirect environmental problem. These problems are not limited to urban areas but extended to the rural areas as well. Urban and rural problems outcomes marginalized populations in urban areas in the form of desertification, sea level rise, forming slum areas,

deterioration of quality of live and living standard, low quality of lives economically, environmentally and socially. It should be noted that deal with climate change is a thorny issue, involving direct impacts or synergistic effects upon physical, social, economic, organizational (administrative) and environmental conditions to be made by local residents, population groups, businessmen and local authorities, in order to enhance integration of important roles of the public sector into the contributions of global world; all through constructive and fruitful cooperation. 3.1. ClimatechangeimpactsuponMENAcities Generally, climate changes have enormous impacts upon urban areas in (MENA) cities as developing countries. The known and growing effects of climate change (increased temperatures, rising seas, and increased incidence of severe storms) will be especially significant forcitiesduetothelocationofmanyalongthecoast(PeterFeiden,August2011). PopulationintheMENA citiesinparticularwiththecapitalassetsisatriskinnationaleconomies, especially the port cities. Consequently within MENA cities zone, urban communities have some ofthepotentialimpactsonprairiecitieswhichincluded: i. longersummerrecreationalseasonandshorterwinterseason ii. increasedheatstressanddecreasedairquality iii. increaseddemandforairconditioningbutreducedwinterheatingdemand iv. decreasedneedforsnowremoval v. invasionofnewinsectsanddiseases Given all these potential impacts, almost all cities departments will be affected by climate changeincluding: i. transportation ii. garbagecollection iii. humansafety iv. parksandrecreation v. snowandicecontrol vi. energyuse vii. waterandsewage iii. pestcontrol x. horticulture x. constructionandbuildingcodes xi. hazards(blizzards,windstorms,cold..etc) 3.2. ClimatechangeimpactsuponMENAcitiesarenotsharplimited: Asexplored above,climatechangeimpactsuponurbanareasarenotsharplimited,buttoclarify theidea,forinstance,ithadpotentialimpactsupon: i. Infrastructure, Cities have become increasingly dependent on their lifelines, including transportation systems (e.g., air, water, road and rail) that move people and goods; water and electric power supply systems; and sewers and waste removal systems. All of these elementshavebecomeessentialinthemoderncity,makingthempointsofvulnerability. ii. Due to climate change urban areas' infrastructure is increasingly forced to withstand more frequent and extreme weather events, more climate variability, and changes in climate norms. iii. Economic, globally, it is estimated that the overallcosts of climate changewill be equivalent to losing at least 5% of global GDP each year. According to these estimates, As the climate changes the increase in extreme weather events may double the annual costs in the coming decadesandaccountfor10%to20%ofthetotaleconomicimpactofclimatechange.Froman urbanperspectivemanyoftheseeconomiccostswillincurincities. 3.3. Globalclimatechangeandurbanization It is wellnigh universally agreed by men of all parties that it is deeply to be deplored that people should continue to stream into the already overcrowded cities (Ebeneezer Howard, 1898). But, considering that the tensions between economic growth and basic services agendas should be studied well. Rather, to complete the image, in most of MINA cities, the complex relationships between density and emissions; vulnerability. These cities are varying in

size, characteristics and shape. The different sizes and shapes of cities imply different geographical advantages (Batty 2008). It should be noted that density is one key issue. The relation between Urban Density and Greenhouse Gas Emissions depends on the following factors: i. Therelativecontributionofcities ii. Patternsofmobility iii. Housingdensitiesandenergyconsumption.5 3.4. ClimatechangeandurbanizationinMENAcities: In MINA areas, most of the cities are characterized by high density and crowded. Attention from MENA cities towards Climate Change and its linkages between urbanization and climate change are positively developed. Illustrate the significant contribution of Landscape Architecture within urbanareasduetoclimatechangeisoneoftheimportantiteminsharingthepublicparticipation totheproblem,whileatthesametimehighlightingthepotentiallydevastatingeffectsofclimate change on urban populations' environment. It reviews policy responses, strategies and practices that are emerging in urban areas to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as their potentialachievementsandconstraints.

Figure1. Alexandria,costalcitysufferfromclimaticchangesimpacts.

In urbanization process, the primary task of municipal leaders is to care for their own citizens, as entity concern. Climate change is affecting municipal policy because it is public institutions who decide on landuse planning, adopting construction codes, Building design and are responsible fortheinvestmentsingeneralandpreventionmeasures.Therefore,decisionmakers willneedto becomeasinformedaspossibleaboutclimatechangeimpacts. However, successful responses to the challenges of climate change will require change in how urban areas operate. Such response also requests enhancement of coordination between local governments, civil society, community and private sector stakeholders, while at the same time building new connection between central power structures and marginalized segments of urban populations. Table1,showsthemajorClimateChangeImpactsinUrbanAreas:(ChangesinMeans) Change Urbanimpacts Healthimpacts i. Temperature Increased energy demand for Increasedvulnerabilityto/respiratory; heating/cooling;worseningof diseases young and elderly particularly at airquality risk ii. Precipitation Increased risk of flooding; Increase waterborne and waterwashed increased risk of landslides; diseases;foodshortagesandmalnutrition distressmigration iii. Sealevelrise Coastal flooding; Stalinization Loss of land and property; health problems ofwatersources fromsalinatedwater(especiallychildren)

Figure2. MajorClimateChangeImpactsinUrbanAreas(ChangesinMeans) Whiletable2,showsthemajorClimateChangeImpactsinUrbanAreas:(ChangesinExtremes) Change Urbanimpacts Healthimpacts Higherlevelsofmortalityandmorbidity; Moreintenseflooding;higher i. Extreme lossofincomeandassets rainfall/ riskoflandslides;disruptionto livelihoodsandcityeconomies tropical cyclones ii. Drought Watershortages;higherfood Higherprevalenceofwaterwaterborne prices;disruptionofhydro andwaterwasheddiseases;food electricity shortages iii. Heat or cold Shorttermchangesinenergy Mortalityfromextremeheatorcold waves demand Rapidandextremesealevelrise Significanteffectsonmorbidityand iv. Abrupt /mortalityextremetemperature mortality(especiallyinmost climate vulnerablegroups) change change

Figure3. MajorClimateChangeImpactsinUrbanAreas:(ChangesinExtremes)

Furthertable3,showsthemajorClimateChangeImpactsinUrbanAreas:(ChangesinExposure) Change Urbanimpacts Healthimpacts i. Population Movementsfromstressed Increasedpopulationincreasedstresson movements ruralhabitats infrastructureandresources ii. Biological Extendedvectorhabitats Increasedriskofdiseasessuchasmalaria changes anddengue

Figure4.MajorClimateChangeImpactsinUrbanAreas:(ChangesinExposure) 3.5. TeamworkformonitoringClimatechangeeffects:

The negative results from climate change must be monitored in order to control the resulting hazards, the economic and environmental disaster and its impacts on both the urban and rural areas.Duetothissignificance,national,international,localauthoritiesandothersareinvolvedin studyingtheimpactsoftheclimatechangephenomenasuchas: i. Ministries(suchasAgricultureMinistryofdevelopment,newcommunities,housingand publicutilities). ii. Generalorganizationforhousing,buildingandplanningresearch. iii. Governorateandthelocalauthoritieswithincities. iv. Nongovernmentalsocietiesandthelocalpubliccongress. v. Generalauthorityofurbanplanning,structuralmasterplansofcities. vi. Academicfaculties,institutesandUniversity.
4.

Landscapearchitectureroleinclimatechangemitigation

Argues that Landscape Architecture in urban areas have a pivotal role in climate change mitigation adaptation and identifies strategies and approaches for strengthening this role. Landscape architecture has significant roles in dealing with climatic changes impacts within city urbanareasorruralareasaswell. 4.1. Whatisthe"Landscapearchitecture"?: Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, socialbehavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes: urban design; site planning; storm water management; town or urban planning; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscapemasterplanninganddesign;allatvaryingscalesofdesign,planningandmanagement. Apractitionerintheprofessionoflandscapearchitectureiscalledalandscapearchitect.Itshould be noted that Landscape architect use their knowledge of landscape processes to advise on the longterm care and development of the landscape. They often work in forestry, nature conservationandagriculture. 4.2. Landscapearchitectasscientists Landscape architects as scientists have specialist skills such as soil science, hydrology, geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance ofparticularspeciesinagivenarea.

Figure5. Landscapeprofessionprojectsranges

For different level, Landscape planners are concerned with landscape planning for the location, scenic, ecological and recreational aspects of urban, rural and coastal land use. Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy, and their remit includes master planning for new developments, landscape evaluations and assessments, and preparing countryside

management or policy plans. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeologyorlawtotheprocessoflandscapeplanning.6 4.3. Landscapearchitectureisamultidisciplinaryfield Landscapearchitectureisamultidisciplinaryfield,incorporatingaspectsof: Geography,&ecology industrialdesign, botany, environmentalpsychology, geology&theearthsciences, architecture, horticulture, thefinearts,

The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, from the design of residential estates tothedesignofcivilinfrastructureandthemanagementoflargewildernessareasorreclamation ofdegradedlandscapessuchasminesorlandfills. Landscape architects work on all types of structures and external space large or small, urban, suburban and rural, and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while integrating ecological sustainability. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the overall concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are prepared. They can also review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work. Other skills include preparing design impact assessments, conducting environmental assessmentsandaudits,andservingasanexpertwitnessatinquiriesonlanduseissues.Theycan alsosupportandprepareapplicationsforcapitalandrevenuefundinggrants.7

Figure6.Landscapearchitectureisamultidisciplinaryfield 4.4. MajorlandscapearchitectureFieldsofactivity

The variety of the professional tasks that landscape architects collaborate on is very broad, but someexamplesofprojecttypesinclude: a. Theplanning,form,scaleandsittingofnewdevelopments b. Civildesignandpublicinfrastructure c. Sustainabledevelopment d. Stormwatermanagementincludingraingardens,greenroofs,groundwaterrecharge,and treatmentwetlands e. Campusandsitedesignforpublicinstitutionsandgovernmentfacilities f. Parks,botanicalgardens,arboretums,greenways,andnaturepreserves g. Recreationfacilities;i.e.:playgrounds,golfcourses,themeparksandsportsfacilities h. Housingareas,industrialparksandcommercialdevelopments i. Estateandresidencelandscapemasterplanninganddesign j. Highways,transportationstructures,bridges,andtransitcorridors k. Urbandesign,townandcitysquares,waterfronts,pedestrianschemes,andparkinglots l. Largetosmallurbanrenewalplanninganddesign

m. Naturalpark,touristdestination,andrecreatinghistoricallandscapes,andhistoricgarden n. o. p. q.

appraisalandconservationstudies Reservoirs,dams,powerstations,reclamationofextractiveindustryapplicationsormajor industrialprojectsandmitigation Environmentalassessmentandlandscapeassessment,planningadviceandland managementproposals. Coastalandoffshoredevelopmentsandmitigation EcologicalDesignanyaspectofdesignthatminimizesenvironmentallydestructiveimpactsby integratingitselfwithnaturalprocessesandsustainability.8

Figure7. MajorlandscapearchitectureFieldsofactivity 4.5. ProblemofDesigningpublicspaceinMINAcities:

Neglecting the role of Landscape Architecture in design public spaces affects climate change results.LandscapeArchitectureelementsinbothSoftscapespecies(shrubs,trees,groundcover, ) and hardscape materials (type of tiles, smart material, light structure, ), are playing significantfactorinincreasedcityurbanandruralproblemsinmanyformssuchas: i. Increasingcitytemperatures ii. risingseaslevel iii. increasedincidenceofseverestorms iv. formingslumareas v. deteriorationoflivingstandard vi. Deteriorationofqualityoflive. vii. declinequalityofliveseconomically, viii. desertification environmentallyandsocially In some states, provinces, municipalities, and jurisdictions, such as Ontario, Canada and Santa Barbara, California, all designs for public space must be reviewed and approved by licensed landscapearchitects. Unfortunately in MINA cities design public spaces in major projects always come within urban design projects as complementary stage, so no clear approval is required in such landscape architecture work in such urban and planning projects. Therefore, negative impacts always occurred. Consequently, the proposed designs become below standard and always follow no sound base of environmental issues in its design and neglect botany, horticulture, industrial design,geologyandtheearthsciences,environmentalpsychology,geography,andecology.9
4.5.1. GarbageCity.orWhat?

It is question that always came to surface, but No, it is not just trash talk or slang for some city slum this place really is known as Garbage City with good reason; its denizens live in a surreal urban landscape with waste stuffed in every spare corner, stacked on the sidewalks and surrounding every structure More amazing than the trash-strewn architecture and garbagestuffed city streets is the strange fact that this place is fully occupied and abuzz with activity. People live, work, eat and sleep within this object graveyard outside the city center. Spaces not occupiedbypeoplearegivenovertolivestock(fedwithtrashscraps)&guerrillaurbangardens.

For instance, Manshiyat Naser (Cairo, Egypt) , this district has shops and apartments like any other, but its residents earn their keep by specializing in collecting, sorting and recycling specific types of trashed materials .A group of children can be found sifting for plastic bottles while an organized team of women scours the remnants for cans or glass .Other items are burned locally asfuel.WhileitmightnotmeetanyhealthstandardsonEarth,theuniqueurbanphenomenonis arguably sustainable in a certain sense even green in a some ways .Working in the area does provide some basic necessities for itsinhabitants, though water, sewage and (perhaps ironically) evenofficialgarbagecollectionservicesarenotavailabletothoselivingwithinitstrash-cluttered walls.10

Figure8.ManshiyatNaser(Cairo,Egypt)missuseofroofstobegarbageroof CapturedabovebyphotographerBasPrincen(2006).
4.5.2. UrbanheatIsland:

Theurbanheatislandistheoverheatingofurbanandsuburbanareas,relativetothesurrounding countryside, due to increased paved, built-over, and hard surface areas .Average summer temperatures in major cities have been on the rise over the past decade .These artificially high summertemperatureshavearangeofdirectandindirectnegativeimpactsonourqualityoflife . The urban heat island effect increases the use of more electricity for air conditioners and it increasestherateatwhichchemicalprocessesgeneratepollutantssuchasgroundlevelozone .It alsoexacerbatesheat-relatedillnesses.

AtBelem, Parastate,Brazil KiberasluminNairobi,Kenya SuburbansluminCairo Figure9.overheatinginUrbanheatIsland inurbanandsuburbanareas


4.5.3. Urbanandvisualpollution:

Visual pollution is created due to the ignoring maintenance and cleaning urban open spaces, sub urban and vacant areas, and buildings roofs. For instance, in many residential buildings, owners spend budget towards building process concerning faade design, plans and some interior motives with paying no attention to roof design, therefore, it might be used as storage for buildings expired parts. Many unnecessary issues from expired houses furniture or equipment alwaysleftforyearsleadingtovisualpollutionanduglytopviewfromhighrisebuildings

Figure10.

TopView,visualpollutionorbeatificationissues.

4.5.4. Environmentalpollution:

Due to the miss use of urban spaces and housing roofs and in other words sort of ignoring maintenance, insects, mouse, etc are finding this miss urban areas and housing roofs suitable placeforlivingandincreasingcausingmanytypesofhealthandenvironmentalproblems
4.5.5. UrbanHazards

The presence of city urban problems and different pollution types (garbage, noise, toxic heavy metals, ) and the unneeded and unnecessary issues from expired houses furniture or equipment'salwaysleft. 4.6. Landscapearchitecture branches: Landscapearchitecture branchesfocusonbasicinfrastructures,includingthefollowingtopics: i. Land markets in urban areas: one of the main causes for the proliferation of slums is lack of planning and clarity in many countries around the land market, forcing the urban poor to settle in marginal, unwanted and dangerous areas, or to encroach on the land owned by the public and private sectors or to become victims of informal land markets after the failure of formal markets. Generally, there are some proposals to address these complex issues in the areaofurbanland: Preparation of a national or local strategy to organize landuse and its landscape architecture in the existing slums on a fait accompli basis and to devise an equation to absorbthemintheurbanfabricwithaminimumdisruptionsandcost. Based on the calculated increase in urban population, in addition to the expected migration from rural areas, a future plan can be developed to meet the needs for land in the new cities and settlements using landscape architecture principals, providing them with basic services, to replace the current control policies and mechanisms. This method oflegislationshouldlimittheencroachmentongovernmentandprivatelands. ii. Roads and movement: the existing road system in the poor planned areas can be rehabilitated, but in slum areas, where there is no system of roads, an innovative and careful replanning solution can be adopted, to allow, at least, vehiclesto access tospecific points in thevariousslums,andthenpeoplecanreachtheirhomesonfoot. Water systems: new networks can be provided or the existing ones can be improved inside replanned slum, taking into account water resources, funding, treatment, supply, maintenanceandpricesetc... Sanitation and waste collection: It is not expected to have a system for sanitation in poor areas, so the idea is to try to apply a socially, economically and environmentally workable system. This proposal may vary from one city to another and from one country to another. With regard to waste collection, it is clear that the same system used in the main city can be used.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

Prevent andminimize risks: Due to the deterioration of the urban land market as mentioned above, the poor and vulnerable are often forced to live in or adjacent to marginal, undesirable land with highrisks and narrow roads, as well as lack of natural rainwater drainage. Buildings top views (A roof garden): A roof garden is any garden on the roof of a building . Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings may provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or corridors for wildlife, and recreationalopportunities.11

Accordingly, in view of these risky areas caused by nature or man, risks and their associated potentialcatastropheshaveincreased.

Figure11.

Exampleofroofgarden

5.

Conclusion:ClimaticChangesLinkingtoLandscapeArchitecture:

Fromsustainabledevelopingsideofview,linkingLandscapeArchitecturewithclimaticchanges impactsismajorwhenevertalkingaboutenhancingtheenvironmentandtryingtominimizing natureriskwithincityurbanareasandsuburbanorruralareasaswell.12 ThemajorcontributionbetweenClimaticchangesandLandscapeArchitecturecantakeplace withinthesethreemainaxesasfollows: i. Humanbehaviorandresources; ii. Urbanandnaturalresources; iii. Systemofgovernmentandurbanmanagement. Themaintoolsindesigninglandscapeprojectsanditsinterpretationarevaryingbetween: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Softscapespeciesvegetationtypeswithitsperformance Hardscapematerials(typeoftiles,smartmaterial,lightstructure,).13 Designaspectsandconcept. Socialandeconomicissues. Environmentalconsideration.14 LifetimeAesthetic PhysicalurbanspacesandBuildingconditions.

Linkingclimatechangetolandscapearchitectureistoachievesustainabledevelopment respectingindicatorsincreasescoherenceamongindicatorsets. i. ii. Thisavoidsriskofsendingmixedmessages. Coherencecanfurtherbeincreasedbyincorporatingexistingissuespecificsetsof sustainabledevelopmentindicators,forexample EnergyIndicatorsofSustainableDevelopment BiodiversityIndicators. Disaggregatinggeneralindicatorsofsustainabledevelopmentmaymakethemclimate changerelevant. Italsohelpstoavoidduplicationofefforts. Itmayreducereportingburdenforagencies

iii. iv. v.

Landscapearchitecturesharestheresponsibilityinsustainabledevelopment.Someitemssetsare ausefulpointofdepartureforthederivationofclimatechangeindicators. i. Recognizestheimportantlinkagesbetweenclimatechangeandothersustainable developmentissues,e.g. Reducingemissionsfromcombustionof(imported)fossilfuelscanincreaseenergy security. Improveddisasterriskmanagementhelpstoaddressnotonlyclimaterelatedevents (droughts,floods,),butalsononclimaterelatedones(earthquakes,volcanoes) ii. Preservingforeststomaintainnaturalcapitalandtosustainlivelihoodsalsoincreases carbonabsorption Consequently,landscapearchitectureplaythenationalsetsofsustainabledevelopmentasbasis forglobalclimatechange,thereforeotherprocessesshouldbeintegratedasfollows: i. InternationalprocessesundertheUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimate Change(UNFCCC): Negotiationsrelatedtomeasurable,reportableandverifiablecommitmentsand actionsonmitigation,financing,technologyandcapacitybuilding Performanceindicatorsontechnologytransfer Reducedemissionsformdeforestationandforestdegradation ii. Nationalclimatestrategiesandactionplans iii. ProgressonSystemofEnvironmentalEconomicAccounting iv. ClimatechangerelatedworkonCSDindicators.15
6.

Recommendations:

Itissmallwords.Climaticchangesnegativeimpactsarenotlimitedoraffectonecountryrather thanother.Thereforeaglobalvisiontodealwiththeseimpactsshouldbebasicwheneverwe dealwithClimaticchanges.Indeed,withtheeraofcommunications,Comprehensivepolicy shoulddealwiththeseimpacts.MENAcitieshavelimitedtechnicalresourcesandvision, especiallywiththedramaticpoliticalchanges. Landscape Architecture chapter can play important act in reducing the adverse impacts of climatic changes upon city urban life, which could be achieved by implementing regional policy thatintegratetheeffortsofMENAcitiesusingLandscapeArchitectureelements. Landscape Architecture chapter main task will emphasis upon creating regional policy with emphasis of strategies following by action plans in pilot projects. These efforts will explore the LandscapeArchitecturesignificantincontrollingtheimpactofclimaticchanges. Formatting the proposed Landscape Architecture Chapter in MENA cities can take the responsibility in managing MENA cities efforts and prepare homogeneous policy between them targeting city that can manage the efforts of in Mitigating Negative Climate Change Impacts uponUrbanEnvironment Indeed,LandscapeArchitecturechapterresponsibilityinproposingcomprehensivepolicythat considerMENAcitiesresourcesandproblemshavetobesit,whichtechnicalstudiesand expertiseteamworkareneededaswell.Thispolicyhastoconsiderthreemaintargetstobe improved,whichare:urbancondition,qualityoflife,andstandardofliving Asmentionedwithinresearchcontext,landscapearchitecturebranchmainlydealwithmajor humanandcityurbanaspects.Itsemphasisspreadalongincitiesurbanpartsandextendsto includesuburbanandruralareasaswell.Theproberlandscapedesignsthatarefollowing suitableintendaspectsandusingappropriateSoftscapespecies(minimizingwater consumption),andhardscapematerials(friendlyenvironmentalmaterial,ecomaterials,

economicallyvisionaswell)areplayingimportantfactorinenhancingtheenvironment, especiallywheneverwedealwithClimaticchangesimpactssubject. Therefore,LandscapeArchitecturechaptercharacteristicswillbeasfollows: i. LandscapeArchitecturechapterscopewilldealwithClimaticChangessubjectis recommendedtobeformattedandcreated.Pilotstudyshouldbetalkedfirstusingthe existingfacilitiesofurbanobservatory.Comingfromthepilotstudyresults,thatLandscape ArchitecturechaptershouldbedevelopedrespectingClimaticChangesissuesandindicators. ThischapterisrecommendedtoconsistofLandscapemultidisciplinaryexpertiseteamwork. ThischapterfocusesuponconcerningandunderstandingLandscapeArchitecturetaskand importance.Consequently,Mainmissionofthischapteristoprovideleadershipandtobean authoritativesourceofexpertisewithinthevisionofdealingClimaticchangesand understandingUnitedNationssystemonsustainabledevelopment. ThemainobjectivesofthischapterarenotlimitedtodealwithClimaticchangesonlyrather thandeveloppopulationwithaccesstoqualityhealthservices.Inadditiontoconduct normativework,analyticalworkandtechnicalcooperation.Roleofofficialstatisticsin nationalindicatorshouldbesetguidedwithUNsystem.16Thatindicatorsconductthe currentcircumstancesshouldbelisted,analyzedandstudiedcarefullybythechapter committeemembers. Consequently,theexpectingresultsareGuidelinesthatshouldbegiventolocalauthority. Transfertheinformationandtheadvicesareessentialforlocalauthoritiestohelpthem watchingoutandconsideringwithinitsdevelopingplanstoface,oravoidandcontrolthe negativeimpactsofClimaticchangesissues. LandscapeArchitectureChapterMembersofteamParticipants: Officialsinmunicipalities LocaldecisionmakersinMiddleEastandNorthAfrica LeadersinLandscapeArchitectureandurbancommunities LocalLandscapeArchitectureprofessionals Otherpartners International and regional experts specialized in socio economic and environmental issuesespeciallyinClimaticchangesissues. International organizations working in the area of climatic changes and environmental upgrading,suchastheWorldBank,CitiesAlliance,AUDI,organizationsetc.. MENACitiesthatareinterestinthetopicsoftheLandscapeArchitecture. MajorLandscapeArchitecturechapterscopeandinterestsaredirectedtoclimaticchange problemsforexample; Interestedinsustainability,ecocity,greenbuilding. InterestintheGreenbuildwhichisSocialEquitytosupportthesocialequityobjectives.17 LandscapearchitecturesubjectssuchasGreenroof(extensiveandintensive) Benefit of storm water management, evapotranspirative cooling, sustainable architecture,aesthetics,andhabitatcreation. ObjectivesoftheLandscapeArchitecturechapterisnotlimited,butitwillstartby: a. to train municipalities officials and local professionals in the nature and size of the climatic change impacts and upgrading process of Landscape Architecture in enhancing urbanqualityandupgradingslumareas,withrespecttothefollowingtopics: Understandingtheproblemsandidentifyingtheappropriatepolicies Implementationapplicationofstrategiesandactions. Localadministrationsupportcommunityefforts

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

b.

c.

d.

e. f.

Integrationintotheexistingurbaninfrastructure Listing the urban quality and upgrading priorities, depending on the immediate needs ofpartnersandtheavailabilityoffunding. Stagesandpotentiallevelsofcommunityparticipation. Roleofspecialistsandprofessionalsintheactualapplication. Identifying partners needs, expectations and services, especially those of the most vulnerablegroups. Basicguidelinesonwhotodealwiththehistoricalareas. Developing a development strategy in conjunction with all sectors, containing economic,socialandphysicalfeatures. Establish guidelines and detailed steps in different stages that should be followed in the process of MENA cities upgrading since its inception, policies development to implementation. Preparation of comprehensible planning for facing the adverse impacts of climatic changes and regulations for construction as well, to enhance successful implementation ontheground . Propose legislation aimed to develop urban and rural areas as well, to enable municipalities and local administrators to do their daily work and deal with emerging issues. Preparing the costs of various phases of the project's based on the previously approved listofpriorities. Preparing a comprehensive action plan, based on the projects which were approved, containing clear financial estimates for each work and contribution of each partner, such as: local government, business community, NGOs, central government, international lenders etc.. In short, what is the role of each partner, including the contribution and participationofurbanandruraldwellers?

vii.

Theexpectedimpact:

Increasing the public awareness of the climatic change subjects such as: nature, impacts and importanceofclimaticchangeimpacts,urbanspacesandruralareasupgradingandimprovement projects and their social and economic impact on residents, local population, municipalities, and localandnationalbusinessesingeneral.. viii. Expectedresults: a. Public participation will be positive factor in implementing such policy and its strategies and actionprojects. b. Thepreparatoryguidelinesandstepstobefollowedpriortoclimaticchangeeffectsandthe implementationofanyurbanupgradingproject. c. Planning and construction regulations that govern any future urban spaces upgrading projectrespectingcontrollingclimaticchangeissues d. Administrative legislations that enable municipalities and local administrations to address climatic change impacts in general, and in particular, resettlement, compensation of the displacedpopulationissues,controllingthenewurbanchanges,etc. e. Experienceofvariouscitiesinfundingandupgradingprojects,intheregionandextendedto theattachedregionsrespectingthevisionof:"climaticchangeimpactsarenotlimitedinone regionbutitaffectsandaffectedbythesurroundingenvironment". f. Improving the management capacity within the local authority and civil society, to carry out andmanagelocaldevelopment. 7. Referencesandreadings:
1

DavidDodman,(2009),UrbanDensityandClimateChange,AnAgendaforMitigationandAdaptation,


ExpertGroupMeetingonPopulationDynamicsandClimateChange,London,June252009,International InstituteforEnvironmentandDevelopment(IIED) 2 Register,Richard,(1987),Eco_cityBerkeley:buildingcitiesforahealthyfuture .NorthAtlanticBooks 3 https//:www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/fields/2212.html?countryName=World&countryCode=xx&regionCode=oc&#xx 4 ElGhonaimy,Islam,(2000),EnvironmentalAssessmentofResidentialUrbanAreas,Thesistitle :Monitoring thechangesofUrbanExpansionandLandusePatternanditsImpactsuponResidentialAreas,PhD thesis,submittedtoArchitecturalEngineeringDepartment,FacultyofEngineering,Al-Mansoura University. 5 DavidDodman,(2009),UrbanDensity..,(IIED) 6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landscape_architecture#cite_ref0 7 ElGhonaimy,Islam(2010),DesignCriteriaforOpenSpacesofResidentialZonesinUniversitiesCampuses, Casestudy:UniversityofDammamCampus,K.S.A,JournalofMenofiaUniversity,EngineeringSector, volume33,number2April2010,Egypt 8 www.asla.org/design 9 ElDardiry,Dalia,(2010),impactofenvironmentalconditionsonlowcosthousinginnewtownsinEgypt,the casestudyofBurgElArabCity,JournalofMenofiaUniversity,EngineeringSector,volume33,number 2April2010,Egypt 10 ElGhonaimy,Islam,(2011), EfficiencyandMagnificenceofRoofGardenAchievingHighPerformance SustainableandGreenBuildingsinArabRegions,10THINTERNATIONALCONFERENCEFORENHANCED BUILDINGOPERATIONS(ICEBO2010),ENERGYEFFICIENCYAPPLICATIONSFORSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT,Building&EnergyTechnologiesDepartmentEnvironmentandUrbanDevelopment Division,KuwaitInstituteforScienticResearch,OCTOBER2628,2010,Maintheme:Highperformance sustainableandgreenbuildings,KUWAIT 11 Behrens-Abouseif,Doris,(1992),IslamicArchitectureinCairo,BrillPublishers,p.6,ISBN9004096264 12 ElGhonaimy,Islam,(2011), ParadigmofLandscapeArchitectureRealizingtheSustainabilityinRecreational UrbanAreas,JournalofAlAzharUniversityEngineeringSector,underpublishing,September2011,Egypt, 13 ElGhonaimy,Islam,(1994),EenvironmentalstudiesinresidentialUrbanareas,unpublishedM.Sc,of "environmentalstudies".Sectionof"EnvironmentalManagementandEconomic",Departmentof EnvironmentalStudies,InstituteofGraduateStudiesandResearch,AlexandriaUniversity. 14 ElGhonaimy,Islam,(2010),"LandscapearchitectureapproachforsustainabilityinArabCountries" conferenceorganizedbyLeagueofArabStates,Housing&BuildingNationalResearchCenterCairo, {2326}/12/2010 15 MeetingheldinNewYorkinOctober2008,see: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/15Oct_2008/egm.htm 16 MatthiasBruckner,(2008),ClimateChangeandIndicatorsofSustainableDevelopment,Divisionfor SustainableDevelopment,DepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairs,UnitedNations,Conferenceon ClimateChange,DevelopmentandO cialStatistics,Seoul,1112December2008 17 http://www.usgbcncc.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=713&Itemid=370