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Design Manual 109

Design User Manual


CAF Fixed Piping Systems for Hydrocarbons and Polar Solvents Flammable Liquid Hazards
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Design Manual 109

Index
Forward Applications Systems Deluge and Fixed Spray Systems Monitor System Hand-Held Hose Equipment Installation Appendix AR-AFFF Concentrate, Universal Gold 1-3% 3 4 5 6 11 16 20 20 23 29

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Forward
Compressed Air Foam (CAF)
A homogenous foam produced by the combination of water, foam concentrate, and air or nitrogen under pressure. A unique fire fighting foam agent, CAF, extinguishes the fire by establishing a blanket of foam on the surface. The blanket creates separation of oxygen and heat from the burning fuel, extinguishing the fire and preventing re-flash. CAFs ability to reduce heat contributes to the effectiveness of this agent. CAF created with nitrogen provides an even more effective blanket for superior re-flash protection.

Compressed Gas

GAS

Air or Nitrogen

AFFF SOLUTION
Water and AFFF Concentrate

CAF
Compressed Air Foam

Compressed Air Foam Systems


ACAFs Compressed Air Foam systems are pre-engineered, special hazard, fire suppression systems that deliver AFFF foam thru a network of piping automatically. CAF, a unique fire suppression material, is created by expanding an AFFF or ARAFFF foam water solution. The expanded material is applied to the hazard area much the same as foam water systems are. CAF, however, has many distinct properties that need to be considered in the design and installation of a system. How the CAF is created and discharged is an important aspect of the design; as such, special nozzles are used to distribute the CAF over a hazard area.

Standards
NFPA 10 NFPA 409 NFPA 11 NFPA 13 NFPA 15 NFPA 24 NFPA 30 NFPA 16 NFPA 418 FM 5130

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Applications

Hazards that Compressed Air Foam Systems are permitted to protect include the following: 1. Flammable liquids (flash points below 38C (100F) having a vapor pressure not exceeding 276 KPa (40 psi). 2. Combustible liquids (flash point of 38C (100F) and above). ACAF Systems are suitable for Class B hydrocarbon and polar solvents flammable liquids, storage and handling locations where the risk of spill and pool fires exist. Polar solvents hazards require the use of AR-AFFF Foam. Applications shall include the protection of equipment used in the process of handling flammable liquids. ACAF Systems may be designed for use in deluge and fixed spray systems, monitor systems and handheld foam hose systems. Automatic fire sprinkler systems may be required as backup protection to CAF installations.

Example Hazards
The following are examples of hazards that may be protected with an ACAF System. This list is to provide a sample of hazards and is not intended to include all applications. Further discovery must be taken to insure that the intended hazard is protected with the proper foam. Only Class B hydrocarbon flammable liquids may be protected by AFFF Foam with ACAF systems. Polar Solvent and hydrocarbon flammable liquids may be protected by AR-AFFF Foam.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Fuel loading and pumping stations Cut-off rooms for flammable liquid storage Emergency power generator rooms Elevator machine rooms Industrial process applications that involve flammable liquids Small to medium aircraft hangars Heliports Marine storage at maintenance facilities

9. Fuel storage tanks

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Systems

Deluge
A system that is designed for the protection of a hazard. An arrangement of fixed pipe and nozzles for the disbursement of compressed air foam over the entire hazard area automatically.

Fixed Spray
A system designed for the protection of a specific application, i.e. machinery, pumps and equipment within a hazard. An arrangement of fixed pipe and nozzles positioned for specific application of CAF automatically or manually.

Fixed Monitor (Not FM Approved)


A system that is designed for the protection (primary or supplementary) of a hazard. An arrangement of fixed pipe and monitors for the automatic disbursement of CAF over the entire hazard area.

Hand-Held Hose (Not FM Approved)


A system design of manual fire hose CAF application. An arrangement of fixed pipe and hose stations for the automatic operation of CAF fire hose application.

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Deluge and Fixed Spray Systems

1. Deluge and Fixed Spray Systems 1.1 Self-Contained System


A premixed solution of AFFF or AR-AFFF concentrate and water is stored in ASME steel pressure tanks sized by ACAF to meet the system or systems demand.

A network of piping designed to distribute CAF over the entire hazard area automatically.

A balanced pressure piping design will proNitrogen gas drives the solution from the pressure vide an even distribution of CAF thru special tank to the CAF generator where it is mixed with nozzles in the pendent or horizontal position. nitrogen gas under pressure to produce CAF. The Nozzles must be installed in accordance with size and number of mixing chambers is provided table 1.a and 1.b. Only nozzles listed in this by ACAF based upon the number of nozzles the manual shall be installed in an ACAF system. generator is supplying. Nozzles shall not be installed in the upright position. ACAF deluge and fixed spray systems are pre- engineered systems. For pipe size requirements refer to table 2a. and 2b.
NOTE: Each ACAF SC unit and CAF generator is constructed to meet a specific system demand. ACAF Systems builds each SC unit custom to the required flow specified. CAF generators must only be connected to the system it is built to service. Connection to any other system may result in failure.

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1.1a

Fixed Water Supply System

When a reliable water supply is available a compressed air foam system may be designed using ACAFs fixed water supply system. This system requires a foam proportioner to mix foam concentrate and water to a predetermined ratio, 3% or 6 %. CAF requires lower water flow and pressure than standard foam water systems. Because of this fact CAF systems may be designed for applications with as much as 75 % less water demand. For fixed water supply system ACAF will provide the minimum water supply requirements, flow and residual pressure based upon the number of nozzle served by the CAF generators. Water supply of a fixed water supply system must be hydraulically calculated to prove the supply can support the minimum pressure required at the CAF generator (55psi (3.8 Bar) plus the demand of any automatic sprinklers. The pressure loss of foam proportioner pump must also be taken into consideration. A single system or multiple systems may be served by a single proportioner as long as the device will provide the proportioning across the flow range. For this application ACAF has found that the FireDos proportioner is the best suited as it can provide a wide range of proportioning. ACAF will establish the FireDos proportioner pump size to meet the system demand during the system design. For concentrate storage an atmospheric poly tank is provided, sized by ACAF based upon the number of nozzles, mix ratio and duration of the system. CAF generators, MOD 1 thru MOD 4 are connected to a fixed pipe systems and will be sized by ACAF based upon the number of nozzles in the protected area. A solution supply pipe makes the connection from proportioner to CAF generator or generators. CAF generators maybe located remote from the proportioner provided that hydraulic calculations are conducted to insure the minimum pressure and flow required at the CAF generator. ACAF will provide calculations during the design of each system to establish the correct pipe size. NOTE: Each ACAF FW unit and CAF generator is constructed to meet a specific system demand. ACAF Systems builds each FW unit custom to the required flow specified. CAF generators must only be connected to the system it is built to service. Connection to any other system may result in failure
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1.2 Duration
Deluge systems require a minimum run time (duration) of 10 minutes. Fixed Spray systems require a minimum duration of 5 minutes (except FM insured properties that shall be 10 minutes). Some applications may require longer duration; refer to standards and AHJ. Larger areas may be protected by the addition of zones (see annex for sample layout)

1.3 Detection and Release


The automatic electric release of an ACAF SC and FW units shall be by an approved NFPA 72 type detection system for deluge release. The Potter Signal release panel provided with the SC and FW units will support most all listed detection devices. Refer to Potter Signal RP 4410 installation manual for further details. Pneumatic release shall be by pilot line detection with listed heat sensors connected to the manual release control line.

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FIXED WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

To CAF Nozzles

ACAF SYSTEMS CAF Generator

FOAM CONCENTRATE ATMOSPHERIC STORAGE TANK FOAM PROPORTIONER PUMP

Nitrogen Gas Supply

FireDos

FIXED WATER SUPPLY

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Deluge and Fixed Spray Systems

Table 1.a DN-7 Nozzle Design for Area Coverage

Height From To

Nozzle Type

Max Spacing Hydrocarbon

Max Spacing Polar Solvent Alcohol

Max Spacing Polar Solvent Ketone

Minimum Rate of Application

6 Ft.

49 Ft.

DN-7

13 Ft. x 13 Ft. 169Sq. Ft.

Universal Gold 1-3 0.045 GPM/sq. ft./ min. 12 Ft x 12 Ft 144 Sq. Ft. Universal Gold 1-3 0.09 GPM/sq. ft./ min. 12 Ft x 12 Ft 144 Sq. Ft. Universal Gold 1-3 0.09 GPM/sq. ft./ min. .

6 Ft.

40 Ft.

DN-7 DN-7

6 FT.

40 Ft.

1.3.1 DN 7 Pendent Nozzle Layout


Square spacing for: Hydrocarbon: 169 sq. ft. coverage 13 ft. by 13 ft. From 6 ft. up to 49 ft. Polar Solvent: Alcohol 144 sq. ft. 12 ft. by12 ft. Ketone

Minimum nozzle height above surface shall be 6 ft. Maximum nozzle height above surface shall not exceed 49ft, except for Polar Solvents, maximum height shall not exceed 40 ft.

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Deluge and Fixed Spray Systems

1.3.2 Nozzle coverage for Specific Hazard Fixed Spray


For protection of specific hazards the layout must not exceed that of the surface coverage and must take into consideration all surfaces of the protected hazard. The design must provide for CAF spray to all surface areas.

Table 2.a Pipe Design Schedule for DN-7 Nozzle


Maximum Nozzles
2 4

Pipe Size
1-1/2 inch 2 inch

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Fixed Monitor
Not FM Approved 3. Automatic CAF fixed Monitor Systems
ACAF Systems automatic fixed monitor systems are systems designed to distribute CAF automatically over a hazard area. Water-powered oscillating monitors or fixed monitors are connected to a fixed piping network that shall be activated by an automatic fire detection system. Activation of the detection system triggers the CAF generator to start creating CAF and will simultaneously open a control valve that will start solution flow to the monitor creating the sweeping motion that distributes the CAF. Monitors are positioned so as to cover the entire hazard area with CAF. The design of the system needs to consider the hazard and all the potential conditions that may exist over time, i.e.: weather for exterior applications.

3.1 Applications
The use of monitor systems for foam distribution is referred to in many NFPA standards. CAF distribution by means of a monitor is the same as low expansion foam with the exception to rate of application. ACAF Systems, Fixed Monitor Systems, may be used to protect hazards of Class B ( hydrocarbon) flammable liquids for spill and pool fires. In addition, they may be used to protect equipment that is used in the process of handling Class B (hydrocarbon) flammable liquids. Applications such as helipads and aircraft hangers may be protected to extinguish fires caused by burning fuels. Refer to NFPA 418 and 409 for further guidance.

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Fixed Monitor

3.2 Design
Layout of the monitors shall be so that the entire hazard area is protected. Monitor selection should be based upon hazard requirements for rate of application. Monitor size shall be no less than 200 GPM . The minimum rate of application shall be .045GPM/Sq. Ft./Min. (for up to 15 foot high distribution) for hydrocarbons with AFFF foam, unless greater based upon authority having jurisdiction.

3.3 Pipe Layout


A fixed piping system shall be connected to the monitor(s). A balanced supply network is required to provide equal flow of all monitor nozzles. As with the fixed spray and deluge system, the monitor system must have a balanced piping system with equal discharge pressure at each monitor.

3.4 Pipe Sizing


2 inch 2-1/2 inch One One Monitor Range 3550Ft Monitor Range 5070 Ft

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Fixed Monitor

3.5 Discharge Duration


The run time of a monitor system will depend on the application but shall not be less than 5 minutes. Refer to NFPA standards and AHJ for further guidance.

3.6 CAF Generator Selection


Selection of the correct size SC unit is dependent on:

Rate of Application Duration Number of Monitors Size of Monitors (flow Rate)

This information shall be submitted to ACAF Systems for unit selection. Note: The SC unit will be custom built by ACAF Systems. To meet the flow rate of the system it is not to be connected to any other system.

3.7 Monitor Area Coverage Formula


E NGLISH V ERS ION ( 0 X0 .01 74 5)
A =

A =A rea in ft 0 = Mon itor arc of o s cillation in de gre es ARC RANGE NF R = Ran ge o f noz zle throw in fe et N F= Distance from m o nito r to first point on s urface that foam f allou t f ro m noz zle stre am c onta cts (in fe et)

X (R - N F )

M on itor A = Are a M 0 = Mon itor arc of os cillation in d e gre es R= Range of nozz le throw in m e te rs M ET RIC V ERS ION (0 ) A= 2 X ( R - NF ) N F = Dista nc e from m onitor to f irst po int o n s u rf ac e that fo am fallo ut from noz zle stre am co ntacts (in m eters )

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3.7 Monitor Spray Pattern

35 - 70 Feet

Monitor

10 Feet

Fixed Spray

Monitor

Sweeping Spray

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Hand Held Hose Not FM Approved


4. Automatic Fire Hose Systems
A fixed pipe network connected to hose stations that are prepositioned to supply CAF automatically to a hazard area.

4.1 Applications
Hand-held hose streams are required in many hazards that store or handle flammable liquids. ACAFs automatic fire hose systems may provide protection for this requirement and others. CAF hose streams can add fire protection to heliport, aircraft hangars and shipyards and any location that may require supplementary protection for Class B hydrocarbon fuel fires and Class A hazards.

4.2 Design
A fixed pipe layout is connected to fire hose stations (reel or rack) that are located to provide hose streams to the hazard areas. A signal CAF generator may provide multiple hose stations; however, only one fire hose may be used at any given time. By providing a second control valve in the SC unit, a second hose station may be supplied for additional hose demands. This would be a two-zone design requiring a second piping network. See Annex for sample layouts. Supervision of the piping network is provided to insure the system integrity so that no open valve or pipe will go undetected. Low nitrogen pressure of 10 psi is maintained on the piping network and supervised.

4.3 Hose Station Layout


Hose stations shall be positioned so that the entire hazard area is protected by the system or systems. Hose stations need to be located so that the adjacent hose station will provide overlapping coverage. All portions of the hazard area shall be provided with a hose connection within 120 ft for 1-inch hose and 130 ft for 1-1/2 inch hose. Distance shall be measured along a path of travel originating at the hose connection.

4.4 Duration
Fire hose system duration will vary from application. Refer to the NFPA standard for the hazard protected for further guidance. The minimum duration shall be not less than 5 minutes, continuous hose stream.

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Hand Held Hose


4.5 Piping Layout
Single hose connection: A single supply pipe with multiple hose connection spaced as required to meet hose station layout. Maximum length 400 feet in any one direction starting from the CAF generator. Dual hose connections: When more than one hose stream is required at any one time, a second supply line must be installed. Hose connections along the two lines must be alternated. Maximum length 400 feet in any one direction starting from the CAF generator.

4.6 Hose Stations


Hose Stations shall consist of:

fire hose w/nozzle remote activation device (electric or pneumatic) manual control valve an automatic air release valve for hose stations with more than 200 feet of supply piping.

4.7 Fire Hose and Nozzles Hose


1-1/2 inch (38.1 mm) lined, collapsible or non-collapsible hose 1 inch (25.4 mm) rubber non-collapsible

4.8 Nozzles
All nozzles shall be listed for CAF 1-1/2 inch 7/8 inch smooth bore tip 1 Inch 5/8 inch smooth bore tip

4.9 Hose Reel and Racks


All reels and racks shall be listed for their use.
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4.10 Piping
A piping network designed by ACAF System is connected to the control valve. Installation of the piping system and materials must be in accordance with this design manual.

4.11 Pipe Sizing


1 inch fire hose stations 1-1/2 inch fire hose 1-1/2 inch 2 inch

4.12 CAF Generator Sizing


Sizing of the SC unit will be determined by duration requirement and the number of hose streams of the system.

Hose Stream Solution Requirement A single 1 inch hose stream requires 20 gpm of solution . A single 1-1/2 inch hose requires 25 gpm of solution

Sizing formula:
Hose Stream Solution Requirement X Duration = Total Solution Required Example: System requires two 1-1/2 inch hose streams for 10 min duration (25 gpm / hose X2 streams) 50 gpm X 10 min = 500 gal. This system requires a 500 gal unit or a SC 500 2

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Equipment
5. System Equipment

5.1 CAF Generators


ACAF Systems are pre-engineered CAF fire suppression systems made up of single or multiple CAF generator assemblies. The CAF generator is a factory built assembly that is sized to the number of nozzles it may supply. CAF generators may be supplied by pressure tanks for self-contained systems or a foam proportioner for a fixed water supply system.
XX YYYY Z

5.2 Piping
A piping network designed by ACAF System is connected to the control valve. Installation of the piping system and materials must be in accordance with this design manual.

5.3 Nitrogen Supply


Compressed nitrogen is the power that may drive the system and creates the CAF. Nitrogen is provided by DOT certified compressed air cylinders. The number and size of the cylinders is calculated by ACAF System based upon the system size. Nitrogen is stored in the cylinders at a pressure range 1800-2600 psi. A pressure regulator is used to reduce the supply to the required system operation pressure. This is a nonadjustable regulator that is sized by ACAF System for the system requirements. Supervision of the nitrogen is provided by a lowlevel pressure sensor that monitors the nitrogen supply.

Generator Description

System Size in Gallons

Number of Mixing Valves

CAF generators are available in four assemblies MOD -1 thru MOD- 4, modules that may supply 2 to 16 CAF nozzles. ACAF Systems will size each CAF generator based upon the system demand. Systems are identified as follows Example: SC 225 1 Self Contained, 225 gallon pressure tank, having one CAF mixing valve (MOD 1). Example: FW 60 2 Fixed Water Supply, 60 gallon concentrate tank, having two CAF mixing chambers (MOD2). By combining multiple CAF generators and mixing chambers, large areas may be protected.

5.4 Foam Solution Pressure Tank

(Self-Contained Systems)
A foam/water solution is stored in steel pressure tank or tanks that are sized by ACAF Systems for the system design. The tank is an ASME constructed pressure vessel equipped with a pressure relieve valve to protect against over pressurizing in the event of a system malfunction. Liquid levels of the storage tank are supervised by a Potter WLS tank water level switch.

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Equipment
5.4a Foam Concentrate Storage Tank (Fixed Water Supply Systems)
For fixed water supply systems AFFF concentrate is stored in atmosphere poly tanks sized to supply concentrate for the duration and proportioning demand.

proportioning systems are driven hydraulically and will proportion accurately over a wide range of flow requirements. Each system will be sized by ACAF Systems to match the correct proportioning pump unit to the CAF system design. Other proportioning devices may be used, however the device must be listed for the concentrate used at the required flow rate. ACAF recommends that this is confirmed by the manufacture of the device.

5.5 Foam Mixture


A mixture of AFFF or AR-AFFF concentrate may be pre-mixed and stored in a pressure tank for self contained systems. The water and AFFF concentrate mix shall be 97% water, 3% AFFF concentrate. When mixing Universal Gold 1-3% concentrate care must be taken in filling the pressure tank with this solution. The concentrate is a thick material that must be mixed well before it is placed into the tank. This is best done with a power mixer in a 30 to 50 gallon drum. Mix the concentrate well with water in the drum. Using a power mixer, make sure all the concentrate is blended with the water. Now pump the mix into the pressure tank. With the blended mix now in the tank fill the balance of the tank with water. To insure that the mix is completely blended, a pump is used to circulate the mix from the bottom of the tank back into the top. Circulating the mix with the pump should be no less than 15 minutes for small tanks and 1 hour for larger tanks. The flow rate of the pump should be 20 gpm.

5.6 System Control


Actuation of the system may be manually, electrically or pneumatically, also the combination of electric/pneumatic. Each control valve assembly is built with an emergency release valve for manual release. By connecting a pilot line to the control valve, pneumatic release is provided. The addition of an electric solenoid valve provides electric release. A Potter PFC-4410RC releasing control panel is provided for supervisory, alarm and release of the system. The Potter Model PFC-4410RC is a flexible multihazard releasing control panel that is listed for agent-based fire suppression systems.

5.5a Foam Proportioning Fixed water supply systems use a foam proportioner to mix water and foam concentrate. The mixing ratio for ACAF Systems and Universal Gold 1-3 concentrate is 3% for both hydrocarbon and polar solvent fuels. The proportioning system preferred for use with ACAF Systems is FireDos. These
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5.7 System Supervision


Supervision of all aspects of the control valve is by the Potter PFC-4410RC. The main system solution control valve is provided with tamper switches as is the nitrogen supply control valve. A low-liquid level indicator is provided to supervise the solution level of the supply tank and a low- pressure switch in the nitrogen supply is provided to monitor the nitrogen cylinders pressure. Alarm detection is provided by a low pressure alarm switch located on the manual release line.
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Installation
6.1 Pipe and Fittings
Pipe and fittings required for a CAF system are the same materials commonly used in wet and dry sprinkler systems with the exception of plastic CPVC is NOT ALLOWED. The piping does not require being galvanized material unless the system is to be exposed to an environment that would require a protective coating. Pipe material permitted for ACAF Systems are listed in Table 6a.
Pipe size 1 to 2 inch shall be schedule 40

Forged steel fittings socket welded...

ASME B16.11
Wrought copper and copper alloy solder

joint pressure fittings...ASME B16.22


Cast copper alloy solder joint pressure fit-

tings...ASME B16.18

steel pipe threaded or grooved joints


Pipe size 2-1/2 6 inch shall be schedule 10

6.3 Joining of Pipes and Fittings


Pipes and fittings may be joined by threaded, grooved, welded or soldered. All assemblies must be in accordance with NFPA 13 for method of joining.

or 40 steel pipe grooved


Copper Tube as specified shall have a wall

thickness of Type L or M .

6.2 Fittings
Material and Dimensions Standard Cast Iron
Cast iron threaded fittings, Class 125 and

6.4 Pipe Hangers and Attachments


Refer to NFPA 13 Installation of sprinkler systems.

6.5 System Location


The placement of the ACAF system control valve assembly should be out of the hazard area protected when at all possible. It must be maintained in a clean environment that will not subject the equipment to chemical, mechanical or other conditions that would adversely affect the operation of the equipment. For proper performance, the temperature required to maintain the system is between 40 to 110 F (4.4 to 43.3 C). The maximum tested distance of the control valve from the hazard area is 160 feet with 16 elbows.

250...ASME B16.4
Cast iron pipe flange fittings...ASME B 16.1 Malleable Iron Malleable iron threaded fittings Class 150

and 300 steel...ASME B16.3


Factory-made wrought steel buttwelded fit-

tings...ASME B16.9
Buttwelding ends for pipe, valves, flanges,

and fittings...ASME B16.25


Steel pipe flanges and flange fittings... 21

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Installation
Table 6a Piping:

Ferrous Piping (Welded and Seamless) Specification for black and hot-dipped zinc welded and seamless steel pipe for fire protection use ASTM A 795

Specification for welded and seamless steel pipe. Specification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe Cooper Tube (Drawn, Seamless) Specification for seamless copper tube

ANSI/ASTM A 53 ASTM A 135

ASTM B 75

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Appendix

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1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

DN-7 Nozzle

DN-7 Nozzle

1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

DN-7 Nozzle

DN-7 Nozzle

Balanced piping arrangement with four DN-7 pendent nozzles

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1-1/2 1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

DN 7

1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

2-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2 1-1/2 3

1-1/2

To CAF Generator
1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 2-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2

2 1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2

1-1/2 1-1/2

Balanced piping system for 16 DN-7 nozzles Not FM Approved

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7 Ft

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ft

DN-7 Pendent Spray Pattern

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5 4 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DN-7 Horizontal Spray Pattern-Side View


5 4 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DN-7 Horizontal Spray Pattern-Top View


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