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Republic of the Philippines

Polytechnic University of the Philippines


Taguig Campus
General Santos Avenue, Lower Bicutan, Taguig City
Tel Nos. 837-5858 to 60

College of Engineering
Electronics and Communications Engineering Department

“Biometrics Fingerprint Recognition in the Central Student Council

Election at Polytechnic University of the Philippines Taguig Campus”

ABSTRACT and CHAPTER 1

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the degree Bachelor of Science in

Electronics and Communications Engineering

Alvarez, Raponzel B.

Caravana, Jurami Lourdes R.

Firme, Jennifer D.

Manalo, Jeffrey Gerard S.

Manongsong, Melissa Joy B.

July 25, 2009


ABSTRACT

Here in the Philippines, people vote through traditional way: writing manually the
names of their chosen candidates in an ordinary piece of paper. It has always been a
burden for the public teachers who serve as poll watchers to do the counting of votes
which took for days to be done manually. Also, on the part of the security, many lives
were always at risk during these times due to own interests of other people. Given that
technology is rapidly advancing, almost everything can be automated so as the election
here in our country. Because of this, the researchers had come up of an idea to innovate
the traditional way of manual voting by making it technically advanced.

As a prototype, the group will conduct an automated election on a smaller scale


during the presidential election in Association of Electronics and Communications
Engineering Students at PUP-Taguig to prove the possibility of the proposed project
wherein a database system using biometric technology of fingerprint scanning in
accessing the authentication of votes in making the election fast and at the same time,
no more human errors.

The equipments that will be used with this automated election system include the
fingerprint scanner, monitors for the representation of the candidates during the election
period and a computer set. During the registration period, all the necessary data will
serve as an input for the database program which is, conversely, integrated to the
fingerprint scanner. These data includes the name of the person, home address, contact
details, their year level, student number and the scanned finger print. On the other hand,
during the election period, the computer has a programmed database that can be
accessed by using the scanned finger print which was saved during the registration
period. By means of the entries saved beforehand, the voters can fully access their right
to chose their candidates which will be shown on a monitor in which, automatically
counted by the programmed database connected to the database system of the base
computer set.

The success of this project thesis will be beneficial to all the students especially
to the committees who have been working real hard tallying the votes. The automation
of election in PUP-T through fingerprint recognition proved to be very competent and
convenient.
1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter begins with the brief discussion of the background of the study.
Biometrics, more specifically, fingerprint recognition shall be discussed in this study.
The main goal, which is to automate the election with the use of fingerprint scanner, will
further be given importance. Objectives are also enumerated under this chapter. In
addition to this, the scope and delimitation are also given into consideration. And to
conclude, the significance of the study will end this chapter.

1.1 Background of the Study

Traditional methods of personal authentication, such as keys, cards, PINs and


passwords are becoming less convenient and less secure as they are under constant
attack from more and more sophisticated cyber-criminals. Biometrics is the most secure
and convenient authentication tool. It can't be borrowed, stolen, or forgotten, and forging
one is practically impossible. Replacement part surgery, by the way, is outside the
scope. Biometrics measure individuals' unique physical or behavioral characteristics to
recognize or authenticate their identity. Common physical biometrics include fingerprints;
hand or palm geometry; and retina, iris, or facial characteristics. The most mature, most
widely accepted and therefore most often used biometric technology is fingerprint
recognition. We find it really interesting and were very challenged on putting this
technology in to our annual Central Student Council election to ensure a fraud less and
unintrusive election. But just on the smaller scale, we would like to implement it first in
our annual AECES election.

A fingerprint looks at the patterns found on a fingertip. There are a variety of


approaches to fingerprint verification. Some emulate the traditional police method of
matching minutiae; others use straight pattern-matching devices; and still others are a bit
more unique, including things like moiré fringe patterns and ultrasonic. Some verification
approaches can detect when a live finger is presented; some cannot. A greater variety
of fingerprint devices is available than for any other biometrics. As the prices of these
devices and processing costs fall, using fingerprints for user verification is gaining
acceptance—despite the common-criminal stigma.

This project thesis is based exclusively on fingerprints, due to the relatively low
cost, small size, and ease of integration of fingerprint authentication devices. The
process involved in using fingerprint scanner for election is very simple. First, the
chosen finger, for example the thumb, is captured and extracted. The fingerprint
template is then enrolled and store in a local repository, a database. This primary
process is done during the registration period. After that, the chosen finger can be live-
scan. The fingerprint template is then processed and extracted. It will subsequently
match the scanned fingerprint against the stored templates. Upon verification, they’ll
have the access to vote for their desired candidates. Mismatched fingerprint certainly
would indicate denial from this access.

1.2. The Problem

As we all know, PUP-Taguig Campus is conducting elections in different


department and even in the entire campus for student council every year. The elections
were done in traditional way, using ballot, ink and tallying the votes afterward. But this
system prevents an election from being accurate.

Problems encountered from the usual election are as follows:

1. It requires human participation in tallying the votes that makes the election
time-consuming and prone to human error.
2. Students find the event boring resulting to a small number of voters.
3. Deceitful election mechanism.
4. Constant spending funds for the election stuff every year.

Having these problems within the university pushed the researchers of finding
rational ways on how to improve the election system.

1.3. Objectives

This study aims to design and implement an Automated Election System using
Biometrics Fingerprint Recognition technology.

Its specific objectives are:

1. To design a database that will serve as the source information of the matched
fingerprint template.
2. To create a program that will accurately tally the votes automatically.
3. To avoid counterfeiting of votes.
4. To encourage students to vote for their chosen representatives.
5. To alter annual election expenses into a single investment.

1.4 Scope and Delimitations


This thesis will be limited to:

1.) Registered voters with direct contact to the voting machine, considering
single voter at a time.

2.) Registered voters with normal condition of fingertip, unscarred epidermis.

This thesis will not consider:

1.) Any form of absentee voting such as internet access, SMS, etc.

2.) Other possible means of biometrics than through the use of fingerprint
recognition.

3.) Protection against any violent act of cutting, splicing, or removing of fingers
as anyone’s way to prevent someone from their access to vote.

4.) Protection against finger cloning or the like.

5.) Larger storage capacity of fingerprint records than what is specified.

1.5 Significance of the Study

An election is a decision-making process by which a population chooses an


individual to hold formal office. The conduct of elections for the past four decades has
remained largely unchanged. Elections rely heavily on manual tallying and canvassing of
votes thus making them vulnerable to control and manipulation. To ensure a credible
and transparent electoral process, the modernization of the electoral system through
computerization shall be supported to ensure the credibility of polls and correct the
deficiencies in the electoral system.

Biometrics Fingerprint Recognition in the CSC election of the PUP-Taguig


guarantees highly reliable elections, voter-friendly interfaces, smooth performance and
swift results, using software tools and security as well as mainstream computer
technology.

It is extremely fast, allowing obtaining final results in a matter of minutes. It has a


very complete and user-friendly interface for system operators and as well as the voters.
Final results can be published within minutes after the polls have closed. It is time
efficient where in two operators can accomplish in minutes what used to take several
days to a large team of people.

In addition, it optimizes a one-time investment and only requires a time to time


modification. Fake, spurious or previously scanned fingers can be detected even without
the use of indelible ink. After the polls close, the goal of any modern voting system is to
ensure all votes are securely collected, validated, counted, and that final results are
confidently computed, delivered and published, all in the shortest possible time.

Furthermore, the challenge is to develop the student’s appreciation of their vote


as a means to reform the administration and receive better services from it. This type of
voting system encourages the student’s to promote suffrage.