Pravin Chopade' and Dr.Marwan Bikdash
Computational Science and Engineering Department ,Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering North Carolina A & T State University Greensboro, USA Email: bikdash@ncat.edu.pravinvchopade@gmail.com
(LAuthor is doing Ph.D. at NCA T, USA and Assc. Professor at Bharati Vidyapeeth
Deemed University College of Engineering Pune.INDIA)
AbstractLoads 
in a power distribution 
system network 
are 
mostly inductive and lead to poor power factor. In order to utilize 

tbe generated 
power optimaUy it is necessary to maintain close 

tounity 
power factor. Power factor correction is possible 
by 

introducing 
the capacitive loads in the circuit, as to nullify the 

effect of inductive loading. Due to simplicity of analysis of radial 

distribution 
systems, most previous work (I) studied the effect of 

nonlinear 
and capacitive loads on the optimal solution of the 

Capacitor 
Placement Problem (CPP) 
for radial distribution 

systems only. In this paper, we study optimal capacitor placement 

on interconnected distribution systems 
in the presence 
of 

nonlinear 
loads. The placement problem 
is solved using Genetic 

Algorithms 
(GA) as implemented 
in the ETAP Power station 

software. 
Results (power losses, operating 
voltages and annual 

benefits) 
are analyzed. Computational 
results show 
that 
harmonic 
components affect optimal capacitor placement 
in all 

system configurations. If all loads were linear, interconnected 
and loop system configurations
offer lower power losses and
better operating conditions than the radial system configuration.
Keywords Optimal placement of capacitors, Reactive POII/Cr, ETAP Software.
L
INTRODUCTION
The leading current provided by a capacitor can effectively
cancel
the lagging current demanded
by reactive
load
components. Power factor is defined as the ratio of real power
(kW) to total power (kV A). When the distribution system's
reactive load can be canceled by a capacitor placed at the reactive load center, the entire power delivery system will be
relieved
of KVAR, originally supplied from the power
supplier's generator. This makes the full capacity of the
generator
available to serve real power loads [1]. If a capacitor
is connected to the distribution system either too far ahead of or too far beyond the system's inductive load center, the capacitor still provides reactive loading relief, but the system will not gain the full advantages of voltage and loss improvement which would be afforded by proper capacitor placement [2]. Electric power is supplied to final users by means of Medium Voltage (MY) or Low Voltage (LV) distribution systems, their structures and schemes can differ significantly according to loads location. Overhead lines with short interconnection capabilities are mostly employed in rural areas, whilst cables
with a great number of lateral connections for alternative
supplies
are widespread used in urban
areas [3]. Most power
distribution systems are designed to be radial, using only one path between each customer and the substation. If power flowing away from the substation to the consumer is interrupted, complete loss of power to the consumer will follow
[4]. The predominance of
radial distribution is due to two
overwhelming advantages: it is much less costly than the other
two alternatives (loop and interconnected systems) and it is much simpler in planning, design, and operation. An alternative
to purely radial
feeder design is a loop system, which has two
paths between the power sources (substations, service transformers) and each customer [5]. Equipment is sized and
each loop is designed so that service can
single fault.
In terms of complexity, a
be maintained under a loop feeder system is
only slightly more complicated than a radial system [6]. Power
usually flows out from both sides toward the middle, and in all cases can take only one of two routes. Voltage drop, sizing, and protection are only slightly more complicated than for radial systems. Interconnected distribution systems are the most
complicated and costly
but they are the most reliable method
of distributing electric power. An interconnected distribution system involves multiple paths between all points in the network and provide continuity of service (reliability) far beyond that of radial and loop designs. Interconnected distribution systems are more expensive than radial distribution systems, but not greatly so in dense urban applications, where the load density is very high and the distribution must be underground. Given that repairs and maintenance are difficult because of traffic and congestion, interconnected systems may cost little more than loop systems.
Interconnected
systems require little more conductor
capacity than a loop system. The loop configuration required "double capacity" everywhere to provide increased reliability. Interconnected systems are generally no worse and often need considerably less capacity and cost, if that are well designed. The solution procedures of the Capacitor Placement Problem (CPP) start with performing a load flow analysis to analyze the steadystate performance of the power system prior to capacitor placement and after capacitor placement and to study the effects of changes in capacitor sizes and locations [7].
9781424495924/11/$25.00
© 2011 IEEE
26
,
Load and power flow direction are easy to establish in a
radial distribution system, and voltage profiles
can be
determined with a good degree of accuracy without resorting to exotic calculation methods; equipment capacity requirements can be ascertained exactly; capacitors can be sized, located, and
set using relatively simple procedures (simple compared to those required for similar applications to nonradial (loop and interconnected) system designs [8]. Due to the simplicity of analysis of radial distribution systems, all previous work studied the effect of nonlinear loads on optimal solution ofCPP on only radial distribution systems [9].
The study of the optimal placement and sizing of fixed capacitor banks placed on distorted interconnected distribution systems using Genetic Algorithms (GA) as used in ETAP Software [10] is presented in this paper. Results (power losses, operating conditions and .annual benefits) are compared with that obtained from radial and loop distribution systems. The radial, loop and interconnected distribution systems models are obtained by suitably simplification of a typical Power grid. The Commercial package ETAP 7.1 program is also used for . harmonic load flow analysis [10].
Computational results obtained
showed that harmonic
component distortion affects the optimal capacitor placement in all system configurations. When all loads were assumed to be linear, interconnected and loop system configurations offer the lowest power losses and best operating conditions rather than the radial system configuration. Radial system configuration offers the best annual benefits due to capacitor placement. In distorted networks, the interconnected system configuratior offers lower power losses, best operating conditions, and best annual benefits due to capacitor placement.
II. CAPACITOR BASED POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
As a rural power distribution system load grows, the system
power 
factor usually declines. Load growth and a decrease in 
power 
factor lead to [ 3, 5] 
I. Voltage regulation problems;
2. Increased system losses;
3. Power factor penalties in wholesale power contracts; and
4. Reduced system capacity.
In addition to improving the system Power
Factor,
capacitors also provide some voltage drop correction. A capacitor's leading current cause a voltage rise on the system. But care must be exercised as not to cause too much voltage rise or provide too much leading current. Distribution
capacitors can also reduce system line losses,
as long as the
system power factor is not forced into a leading mode. Properly placed and sized capacitors can usually reduce system line losses sufficiently to justify the cost of their installation [I, II].
BuLk power facilities have to use some of their capacity to carry the inductive kVAR current to the distribution system. The resultant reactive current flow produces losses on the bulk facilities as wel!, introducing unnecessary costs. Generators provide the reactive needs of distribution plant inductive loads
2
reducing the generator's designations.
capacity to produce reef' power.
III.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
The current in branch (i,k) connecting buses i and k is given
by[I,2,4,12]
where
L, = Pit  JQik
(1)
Vi
lik = Current through branch (i, k). ?ik = Total real power flow in the branch (i, k). Qik = Total reactive power flow in the branch ( i, k).
Vi =
The Total
Voltage at node i. Power Loss in the transmission lines is :
where
n
TPL = L.,;I I'k 1R'k
,,
2
ik;1
n = Current through branch (i f1 Rik = Resistance of branch Ci f1
A branch curr nt has two component":
e,rtive (l ^{a} )
and
reactive ( l ' ).The total loss associated with the active and reactive components of a branch current can be written as
and
n
~,r(1I""'"
ik=1
n
TPL _{r} = LI I~ 12Rik
ik;1
The loss TPL" associated with the active component of
branch current cannot network because all
be minimized for a single  source radial active power must be supplied by the
source at the root bus. However, supplying part of the reactive power demands locally, the loss TPL _{r} associated with the reactive components of branch currents can be minimized.
The
capacitor draws a reactive current I, and for a radial
network it changes only
the reactive component of current of
branch set c. The current of other branches is unaffected by the capacitor. Thus the new reactive current of the (i,k)'h branch is given by
where
(2)
27
3
..7
_{D}
ik
=
1, if branch (i R) E a
_{I}_{V}_{.}
CAPACITOR LOCATION
_{0}_{,}
otherwise.
Here I,~ is the reactive current of branch in the original system
obtained from the load flow solution.
The loss TPL _{r}_{c}_{o}_{m}
associated with the reactive component of branch current in the
compensated system (when the capacitor is connected) can be
written as
n
TPL~om= L U;;' + Dik1c)2 Rik
ik=1
(3)
The loss saving TLSis the difference between equation (2)
and (3) and is given by
.
Maximum benefits are obtained by locating the capacitors
as near the inductive reactance kVAR loads as possible and by
matching the magnitude of the inductive reactance kVAR
requirement.
Practical considerations
of economics
and
availability of a limited number of standard kVAR sizes
necessitate that capacitors be clustered near load centers.
Computer modeling or rigorous evaluation of considerable load
metering data are absolutely necessary to make the proper
capacitor placement decision and keep line losses as low as
possible. The loss reduction benefits possible with capacitor
use can be significant enough to economically justify feeder
metering or a large share of SCADA system costs.
A textbook solution [I] assume
a uniform distribution of
TLs = TPLr TPLrcom
consumers,
and suggests that as the distance from the
substation increases, the number of consumers per main
line
n
n
= LU;;')2 Rik  L U,~+ DikIi~)2 Rik
ik=1
ik=1
mile of feeder increases.
To obtain maximum benefits in voltage improvement and
reduction of loss on such a line, a permanently connected
n
_{=}_{L} (2DikI,: + DikI/}R _{i}_{k}
ik=1

_:::: ':Cfixed)_capllcilor bank should be located at a.distance from the
substation
which is 1/2 to 2/3 of the total length of theIine."
This location method is used strictly as a "Rule
of Thumb"
The capacitor current Ie that provides maximum loss saving
can be obtained from dS/d1e= 0
because few rural circuits contain such uniformly distributed
loads.
"
L (DiJ:~ +DikI~)Rik
ik=1
=0
Thus the capacitor current form
loss saving is given by
L I;;' Rik
I = ikea
c
L.J H,k
'"
ik ea
The corresponding capacitor size is
where
Q c =V I
me
Q _{c} =
Capacitor size in KV AR
Vm = Voltage magnitude of bus' m' in volts
Ie = Capacitor current in amps
The corresponding susceptance is
Thus, the following method is better suited for locating
capacitors: Use a computer model of electric system and allow
the computer program to place the capacitors on the system in
blocks of the largest size that can be used to limit the voltage
changes to 3 volts per switched bank.
Computer models calculate proper capacitor placement by
trying the smallest size capacitor a system uses in each line
section of every feeder and calculating the total circuit losses.
In this way, the computer selects the line secuon with the
lowest net losses an
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