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Lecture 13 Serviceability

Serviceability refers to the structural performance of the finished building under service loads. Beam deflection Lateral drift Vibration

We will be focusing our discussion on beam deflection. The ACI 318-02 Code dictates that the deflections be checked on the basis of effective moment of inertia, Ie, under service loads. Before we can determine the value of the effective moment of inertia, we must first have an understanding of the gross moment of inertia, Ig, and the cracked moment of inertia, Icr. Gross Moment of Inertia Ig: The gross moment of inertia is not appropriate for reinforced concrete beams because the concrete under the neutral axis is in tension and is ineffective. Since tension is carried by the steel rebar, the beam becomes composite and therefore must be analyzed as such (See AECT 360 lecture notes). The calculated value of gross moment of inertia is higher than what is actually present. b

Ig = Gross moment of Inertia


=

bh 3 12

Lecture 13 - Page 1 of 7

Cracked Moment of Inertia Icr: The cracked moment of inertia takes into consideration the composite action between the concrete and steel rebar. This assumes that the concrete in the tension zone is totally ineffective, which is overly conservative. However, the cracked moment of inertia is far closer to predicting the actual moment of inertia of a reinforced concrete beam than the gross moment of inertia. b

y N.A. d

nAs

Icr =

by 3 + nAs (d y ) 2 3

Where: n = Modular ratio E 29,000,000 PSI = steel = E conc 57,000 f ' c As = Area of steel rebar in tension, in2

bd nAs 1 + 2 1 nAs y= b

Lecture 13 - Page 2 of 7

Effective Moment of Inertia, Ie: The effective moment of inertia is typically used to determine the section property of the member at a specific point along the moment diagram. In most cases, the effective moment of inertia is used to determine the actual deflection of the member when comparing to Code-dictated maximums.

M cr Ie = M a

3 M cr 1 + I g M a

I cr I g

where: Mcr = moment that would initially crack the section fr I g = yt fr = modulus of rupture for the concrete = 7.5 f ' c yt = dist. from N.A. of uncracked cross-section to extreme tension fiber =

h 2

Ma = maximum unfactored moment at specific location along the moment diagram

Ig = gross moment of inertia Icr = cracked moment of inertia

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Example 1 GIVEN: A simply-supported rectangular beam is shown below. The loads indicated are SERVICE loads. Use concrete fc = 4000 PSI and grade 60 bars. REQUIRED: 1) Determine the gross moment of inertia Ig of the beam. 2) Determine the cracked moment of inertia Icr of the beam. 3) Determine the maximum allowable mid-span deflection of the beam L assuming allow = . 360 4) Determine the actual mid-span deflection of the beam using Ie.

Wservice = 1500 PLF

25-0

12

2 - #4 hanger bars #3 stirrup bars @ 9 o.c. 20 3 - #8 main bars Section A-A d = h conc. cover stirrup bar dia. (main tension bar dia.) = 20 (8/8) = 18.375
Lecture 13 - Page 4 of 7

concrete cover

Step 1 Determine gross moment of inertia Ig:

Ig =

bh 3 12 (12" )(20) 3 12

Ig =8000 in4 Step 2 Determine cracked moment of inertia Icr:

Icr =

by 3 + nAs (d y ) 2 3
Where: n = Modular ratio E 29,000,000 PSI 29,000,000 PSI = = steel = E conc 57,000 f ' c 57,000 4000 PSI = 8.04 As = Area of steel rebar in tension, in2 = 3 bars(0.79 in2 per #8 bar) = 2.37 in2

bd nAs 1 + 2 1 nAs y= b (12" )(18.375" ) (8.04)(2.37in 2 ) 1 + 2 1 (8.04)(2.37in 2 ) = 12"


= 6.2

Lecture 13 - Page 5 of 7

Icr =

by 3 + nAs (d y ) 2 3 (12" )(6.2" ) 3 + 8.04(2.37in 2 )(18.375"6.2" ) 2 3

Icr = 3778 in4 Step 3 - Determine the maximum allowable mid-span deflection of the beam assuming allow = L/360:

allow =

L 360 (25'0" )12" / ft 360

allow = 0.83
Step 4 - Determine the effective moment of inertia Ie: fr = modulus of rupture for the concrete = 7.5 f ' c = 7.5 4000 PSI = 474.3 PSI Mcr = moment that would initially crack the section fr I g = yt =

(474.3PSI )(8000 PSI ) 20" 2

= 379,473 Lb-In = 379.4 KIP-In = 31.6 KIP-FT

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Ma = maximum unfactored moment at specific location along the moment diagram =

wL2 8 (1.5KLF )(25'0" ) 2 8

Ma = 117.2 KIP-FT

M cr Ie = M a
=

3 M cr 1 I + g M a

I cr

3 31.6k ft 3 31.6k ft 4 4 in in + ( 8000 ) 1 ( 3778 ) Ig 117.2k ft 117.2k ft

Ie = 3861 in4 Step 5 Determine actual mid-span deflection using Ie:

act =

5wL4 384 E conc I e

1500 PLF 4 5 (25'0" x12" / ft ) 12 = 384(57000 4000 PSI )(3861in 4 )

act = 0.95
Since act = 0.95 > allow = 0.83 member is NOT acceptable

Lecture 13 - Page 7 of 7