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URINARY SYTEM

iii. EXCRETORY MECHANISMS OF THE BODY: 1. Urinary System: water, nitrogencontaining wastes and salts --- urine 2. Digestive System: water, some salts, bile, residue of digestion --- feces 3. Respirat ry System: CO2 and water --exhalation 4. Integ!mentary System: water, salts, few nitrogenous wastes --- perspiration OR"ANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM: #Main $arts % t&e Urinary system' 1. ( )i*neys extract wastes from the blood, balance bod! fluids and form urine 2. ( Ureters conduct urine from the "idne!s to the urinary bladder 3. + Urinary ,-a**er reser#oir that recei#es and stores urine brought to it b! the ureters 4. + Uret&a conducts urine from the bladder to the outside of the body for elimination

shaped basin forming the upper end of ureter Ca-y/es cupli"e extensions of the renal pel#is' surround tips of the p!ramids and collect urine Urine3333 %r m pe-vis t !reters t ,-a**ers

i#.

I. )IDNEYS:
2 "idne!s lie against the muscles of the bac" in upper abdomen in area called retroperitoneal space $behind peritoneum% i. Mem,ran !s /aps!-e C& that encloses each "idne! ii. A*ip se /aps!-e fat around perimeter of the organ iii. Rena- artery short branch of abdominal aorta' brings blood to the "idne! S!,*ivi*es into smaller and smaller branches ------ until contact with nep&r ns i#. Rena- vein where blood lea#es the "idne!' carries blood to inferior #ena ca#a Str!/t!re % )i*ney: (bout 1) cm long, * cm wide and 2.* cm thic" i. Hi-!s notch at the border, inner or medial' region where renal artery, renal vein and ureter connect with the kidney ii. 0 regi ns: 1. rena- CORTEX outer portion 2. rena- MEDU11A contains tubes that collect urine' these tubes form p!ramids 3. rena- $E12IS where tips of p!ramids are pointed' funnel

NE$HRON $ 1 + nephron, "idne!% 1. basic unit of the "idne! 2. tin!-coiled tube with a bulb $B 4man5s /aps!-e% at one end 3. with cluster of capillaries called "- mer!-!s 4. A%%erent arteri -e supplies glomerulus with blood *. E%%erent arteri -e carries blood from glomerulus to capillaries that surround tubular portion of nephron $perit!,!-ar /api--aries' 6. T!,!-ar part i. $CT coiled-portion leading from -owman.s capsule--- uncoils to form: ii. 1 p % Hen-e hairpin shaped segment' continues to: iii. DCT 7 farther along the tubule from -owman.s capsule'

/istal end of each tubule empties into a / --e/ting *!/t --- continues through the medulla to renal pel#is 0lomerulus, -owman.s capsule, 1C& and /C&---- within rena- / rter 2oop of 3enle extends to me*!--a

i#. 8" apparat!s point where /C& contact afferent arteriole' speciali4ed glandular cells F!n/ti ns % t&e 9i*neys: +. E:/reti n of unwanted substances such as waste products from cell metabolism, excess salts and toxin. E-iminati n of 5-containing wastes $mainl! urea% (. Maintenan/e % 4ater ,a-an/e: 6o that #olume of water remains stable da! to da!. 0. Reg!-ati n % a/i*3,ase ,a-an/e: (cids constantl! produced b! cell metabolism, certain foods can cause acids and bases to be formed in the bod!.

;. $r *!/ti n % renin: 7enin, en4!me important in the regulation of -1. 8f -1 too low, the cells of 90 apparatus release into the blood. Renin --- acti#ates Angi tensin, protein that causes constriction of blood #essels. <. Eryt&r p ietin hormone, stimulates production of 7-Cs when "idne!s don.t ha#e enough O2.

RENA1 $HYSIO1O"Y +. "1OMERU1AR FI1TRATION 1rocess of urine formation begins in the glomerulus and Bowmans capsule (. Mem,ranes of the g- mer!-ar /api--ary 4a--s are sie#e-li"e ---- permit the free flow of water and soluble material through them. a. &hese capillar! walls are impermeable to RBCs and -arge pr teins b. Diameter of afferent arteriole is slightl! larger than efferent arteriole, thus blood can enter glomerulus more easily than it can leave c. &hus= press!re of blood in g- mer!-!s about 03; times &ig&er than other bod! capillaries. &hus, "- mer!-ar %i-trati n s:uee4ing of materials out of the blood into the -owman.s capsule due to increased pressure in glomerulus. 0. T!,!-ar rea,s rpti n a. (bout 1;)-1<) 2 filtrate formed each da! in the "idne!s b. -ut onl! 1-1.* 2 eliminated c. +ostl! water, nutrients and ions are returned to the circulation after passing through the nephron ---- Rea,s rpti n d. (s the filtrate tra#els through the tubular s!stem of the nephron, water and other needed substances lea#e the nephron b! diffusion and acti#e transport ---then: e. =enter the blood in the peritubular capillaries and return to the circulation. f. +ost urea and 5-wastes: "ept within the tubule to be eliminated with urine.

;. T!,!-ar se/reti n a. -efore filtrate lea#e as urine, final ad>ustment in composition is made b! the process of t!,!-ar se/reti n b. T!,!-ar se/reti n some substances are acti#el! mo#ed from blood into the nephron, ? and 1 ions are secreted c. &he long term regulation of of (- balance carried b! "idne! through tubular secretion of 3 ions. <. C n/entrati n % t&e Urine a. C !nter3/!rrent me/&anism in#ol#es fluid tra#eling in opposite direction within the loop of 3enle' amount of urine is influenced b! the (/3 $r /esses inv -ve* in !rine % rmati n: +. "- mer!-ar %i-trati n allows all diffusible material to pass from blood to nephron (. T!,!-ar rea,s rpti n mo#es useful substances bac" into the blood while "eeping wastes products in the nephron to be eliminated in the urine. 0. T!,!-ar se/reti n mo#es additional substances from the blood into the nephron for elimination. +o#ement of 3 ions means to balance p3 of bod! ;. C !nter3/!rrent me/&anism concentrates urine and reduces #olume excreted.

II. OR"ANS THAT STORE AND TRANS$ORT URINE:


A. URETERS
2ong slender, muscular tubes' extend from the basin down to and through the lower part of the !rinary ,-a**er 2*-32 cm long 2.* cm of its lower part: enters bladder passing obli:uel! at the bladder wall entirel! extraperitoneal $behind and at the lower part, below peritoneum% wall: epithelial cells, thic" in#oluntar! muscles and coat of fibrous C&. muscles capable of $erista-sis @rine mo#ed from "idne!s along ureter to bladder b! gra#it! and peristalsis.

M t r imp!-ses sent to the ,-a**er musculature and is emptied. E:terna- sp&in/ter: below the internal sphincter' #oluntar! In/ ntinen/e inabilit! to control external sphincter Urinary retenti n opposite of incontinence' inabilit! to expel contained urine

C. URETHRA
3 3 3 &ube that extends from bladder to the outside Aemale: 3-4 cm long' opens to urethral meatus' in front of #aginal openig +ale: 2) cm long' passes through prostate glands where it is >oined b! 2 ducts carr!ing sperm --- leading to penis

URINE
Bellowish li:uid about C*D water and *D dissol#ed solids and gases N rma- / nstit!ents : i. Eater ii. 5-waste urea, creatinine, uric acid iii. Flectrol!te 5aCl, phosphates, sulfates i#. 1igments from certain bile compounds

B. URINARY B1ADDER

8f empt!, located below parietal peritoneum and behind pubic >oint 8f filled, pushes peritoneum upward and ma! extend to abdominal ca#it! F!n/ti n: temporar! reser#oir for urine Trig ne smooth triangular region outlined b! 2 ureter opening and 1 urethral opening 1ayers: i. 2ined b! M!/ !s mem,rane transitional epithelium ii. CT beneath mucosa iii. Inv -!ntary -ayer capable of stretching M *erate-y %!-- ,-a**er: ma! hold 4;) m2 urine

Fi-trate contains e#er!thing that blood plasma does $except protein%' but loses most of its water b! the time it reaches collecting ducts' what remains are urine. ?ater ,a-an/e: water inta"eGwater output $2*)) m2% F-!i* / mpartments: location of water inside the bod! i. 8CA $2,3% inside li#ing cells ii. FCA bod! fluids outside cells -lood plasma $<)D% and interstitial fluid $2)D%

URINATION>MICTURITION 3 the process of expelling $#oiding% from the bllader% 3 Interna- sp&in/ter: smooth muscle circling near outlet of bladder' contracts in#oluntar! (s the bladder fills, stret/& re/ept rs send impulses to a center in the lower part of the spina- / r*

ACID3BASE BA1ANCE 5ormal p3 is ;.3*-;.4* (l"alosis- abo#e ;.4* (cidosis- below ;.3* 1h!siological acidosis p3 b,w ;.3*-;.) A. H rm nes 1. A-* ster ne reabsorption of 5a, excretion of ?' increase water reabsorption' Hwater follows saltI a. Renin3angi tensin me/&anism triggers aldosterone relase, mediated b! 90( b. 8f -1 too low, the cells of 90 apparatus release into the blood. c. Renin --- acti#ates Angi tensin II, protein that causes constriction of blood #essels. d. Res!-t: increase blood #olume and -1 e. $ress!re *r p excite baroreceptors in larger blood #essels i. Bar re/ept rs alert s!mpathetic 56 to cause #asoconstrition 2. $TH increase blood Ca le#el 3. Ca-/it nn decrease blood Ca le#el B. B- * ,!%%ers pre#ent sharp changes in 3 ion concentration. 1 4CJ Imp rtant ,!%%er system: i. ,i/ar, nate ii. p& sp&ate iii. pr tein ,!%%er system