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Dr.

Aleksa Obradovi Department of Plant Pathology Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade, Serbia

Pyramid of the disease


The pathogen (considered not present) Susceptible hosts

Potential vectors Suitable environmental conditions

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Pathogen geographical distribution


North America: Canada, USA, Mexico Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica South America: Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Paraguay EPPO and EU region: Absent, intercepted only. Unconfirmed reports on imported grapevine material from USA in FR and from Kosovo (EPPO Reporting Service 500/02, 505/13 and 1998/9, Berisha et al., 1998). Asia: India (requires confirmation); Taiwan

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Host range
(http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/xylella)

Wide, including species from spontaneous and cultivated flora

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Vectors
All insects that feed predominantly on xylem fluid are potential vectors (Purcell, 1989). Leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters) and spittle bugs or froghoppers (Cercopidae) are by far the most common vectors of X. fastidiosa in North America. In central and southern Europe, green cicada Cicadella viridis and the meadow spittle bug Philaenus spumarius are common and widespread, and therefore may act as potential vectors. Xyphon (Carneocephala) fulgida, Draeculacephala minerva and Graphocephala atropunctata are among the most frequent vectors to grapevine. Homalodisca vitripennis (coagulata), H. insolita, Oncometopia orbona, Graphocephala versuta and Cuerna costalis are reported vectors of the peach strain (Turner & Pollard, 1959; Yonce, 1983).
COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

18-22 October 2010

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Risks related to the bacterium


X. fastidiosa can be introduced as latent infection or in simptomless hosts. Bacterium is irregularly distributed in the tissues. Difficult to detect. Detection techniques often not sensitive enough.

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Risks related to the host plant


Massive importation of rootstocks from Americas to Europe provides an opportunity for X. fastidiosa introduction. Wide range of those plants are symptomless hosts of X. fastidiosa, harboring latent infections. Many susceptible hosts already exist in Europe (Vitis spp., Citrus spp., stone fruits, etc. Resistance in European grapes is scarce or absent.

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Risks related to the vectors


Potential vectors are also present in European countries. However, it is unknown if there are vectors surviving winter as adults and able to spread the disease once it is established. The pathogen absence in Europe may be due to lack of vectors that overwinter as adults and are responsible for early season infections (Purcell, personal communication, 1998). Later infections usually do not result in disease. It has been demonstrated in potted grapevines that cold winters may cure PD (Purcell, 1980). Introduction of more efficient vector.
18-22 October 2010 COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic 9

Control
Quarantine (X. fastidiosa has the A1 quarantine status in the EPPO region) - Control of imported plant material for presence of the pathogen as well as its vectors - Permanent training in detection methods, upgrade of standard procedures, ring test (revision of EPPO Diagnostic protocol PM-7/24)

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

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Control
Cultural practices: - Use of less susceptible cvs - Reduction of stress factors - Optimal cultivation practices - Removal of infected trees - Management of the neighboring flora potentially harboring inoculum or vector population - Vector control
COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

18-22 October 2010

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Control
Thermotherapy (treatment of dormant cuttings immersion at 45C for three hours or at 50C for 20 minutes will destroy X. fastidiosa) Biological control - cross-protection using avirulent strains - bacteriophages - pathogen confusion

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

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Control
ROLE OF SURVEY AND MONITORING - Early detection of the pathogen outbreak (good knowledge of symptomatology, reliable detection procedures, systematic approach) - Vector population monitoring

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

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Kosovo outbreak (Berisha et al., 1998)


Published in EJPP 104: 427433, 1998. UN protectorate since 1999. Survey for symptomatic Vitis spp. in the autumn of 2005. Sampling from vineyards in south-east Serbia, neighboring Kosovo Sample processing (EPPO Diagnostic protocol PM7/24)
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HU CRO

RO

BIH BG

MNE FYROM
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COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

Sample processing (EPPO Diagnostic protocol PM-7/24)


Isolation from petioles and small twig segments (BCYE, PD2) ELISA (Loewe Biochemica Gmbh) PCR (RST 31/33)

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

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Reporting and awareness raising


Report to national phytosanitary service Preparation of printed material for grapevine growers and extension specialists

18-22 October 2010

COST873 Workshop on diagnosis, MAIB, Italy Control of Xylella fastidiosa. A. Obradovic

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Epidemiologija: Xylella fastidiosa se odrava i iri insektima vektorima i zaraenim biljnim materijalom. U biljci se nalazi u ksilemu, odakle je ishranom usvajaju vektori i prenose na zdrave biljke. S obzirom na prisustvo brojnih osetljivih domaina, unos ovog patogena na evropski kontinent imao bi nesagledive posledice. Mogui putevi unosa patogena su zaraenim sadnim materijalom ili vektorima prisutnim na biljnim organima i plodovima koji dolaze iz zaraenog podruja. Bakterija se ne prenosi putem embriona na sledeu generaciju insekata. Distribucija patogena limitirana je uticajem klimatskih faktora kako na samog patogena tako i na insekte vektore. Mere zatite: za podruja gde patogen nije do sada registrovan to su svakako karantinske mere zatite, ogranienje uvoza sadnog materijala iz podruja gde je patogen prisutan, kontrola biljnog materijala na prisustvo patogena i insekata vektora, dvogodinji nadzor i pregled uveenog materijala svih vrsta registrovanih biljaka domaina koje dolaze sa rizinog podruja. Na teritoriji gde je utvreno prisustvo patogena gaje se manje osetljive sele selekcije kcije Vitis rotundifolia, koristite se klopke za vektore, uklanjaju se izvori infekcije.

Pirsova bolest vinove loze (Xylella fastidiosa)

Broura je tampana kao rezultat programa Rasprostranjenost Rasprostranjenost prokariota na jabuastom vou i vinovoj lozi u Srbiji i utvrivanje podruja bez prisustva patogena koji finansira Uprava za zatitu bilja, Ministarstva poljoprivrede, umarstva i vodoprivrede Republike Srbije. Autori: A. Obradovi, V. Gavrilovi, S. Milijaevi, E. Rekanovi

Xylella fastidiosa
Karantinski status u SCG: A1 lista EPPO: A1 lista Domaini: glavni domain je vinova loza (Vitis vinifera), ali takoe i amerike vrste V. labrusca i V. riparia. riparia . Badem (Prunus dulcis) i lucerka (Medicago sativa), kao i brojne vrste divljih trava, bunja i drvenastih biljaka takoe mogu biti zaraeni sojem koji parazitira vinovu lozu, bez ispoljavanja karakteristinih simptoma. Postoje patogeni varijeteti navedene bakterije iji su glavni domaini breskva i citrusi, ali takoe i brojne druge vrste gajenih, ukrasnih i korovskih biljaka (ljiva, kajsija, dud, hrast, platan, sirak, itd.) Vektori: najee pominjani vektori su insekti koji se hrane sisanjem sokova iz ksilema - Cicadellidae i Cercopidae, Cercopidae , i to vrste Carneocephala fulgida (slika 1d) 1d), , Draeculacephala minerva (slika 1e) i Graphocephala atropunctata (slika 1f). Rasprostranjenost: ameriki kontinent

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) (f) (e)

Slika 1. Simptomi Pirsove bolesti vinove loze i vektori patogena

Simptomi na vinovoj lozi: rani simptomi primarne infekcije su iznenadno izumiranje dela lisne povrine (slika 1a), praeno promenom boje zahvaenog tkiva u mrku i okolnog tkiva u utu ili crvenu. Vremenom, ceo list se osui i opadne, ostavljajui peteljku privrenu za lastar (slika 1b). Usled neravnomernog sazrevanja i zdrvenjavanja na zaraenim lastarima se uoavaju zone mrkog i zelenog tkiva (slika 1c). Naredne sezone iz zaraenog okota razvijaju se slabi i hlorotini lastari. Opte slabljenje dovodi do izumiranja zaraenih biljaka u potpunosti.