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LESSON - I Network Concepts: - Introduction
Goals and applications of Computer Networks Distributed processing Topologies Categories of Networks- roadcast !multipoint" and point-to-point networks# Local $rea Networks# %etropolitan $rea Networks# &ide $rea Networks# Internetworks Introduction to S%DS# '()*# ISDN# frame rela+ and $T% networks

In contrast to t,e earlier generations of computing in w,ic, computation and data storage was centrali-ed# we now ,a.e distributed s+stems in w,ic, a user ma+ retrie.e a program from one place# run it on an+ of a .ariet+ of processors# and send t,e result to a t,ird location( Suc, a s+stem connecting different de.ices suc, as /Cs# printers# disk etc( is a computer network( $ Computer Network ma+ specificall+ be defined as 0an interconnected collection of autonomous computers1( Two computers are said to be interconnected if t,e+ are able to e2c,ange information( T,e connections ma+ be t,ru copper wires# optical fibers# and wireless electromagnetic or optical media( 3$utonomous4 means t,at t,ere is no master5sla.e relations,ip between t,e connected de.ices( T+picall+# eac, in a network a specific purpose for one or more indi.iduals( 6or e2ample# a /C can pro.ide access to information or software( On t,e ot,er ,and anot,er /C ma+ be a file server de.oted to managing a disk dri.e containing s,ared files( $ network ma+ a small geograp,ic area connecting de.ices in a single building or group of buildings( Suc, a network is a Local area network (LAN). $ network t,at co.ers a large area suc, as a state# countr+ or t,e world is called a Wide area network (WAN). GOA S AND APP ICATIONS O! COMPUTER NETWORKS

Network goals can be summari-ed in terms of t,e uses of Networks for companies# organi-ations# people etc( T,ese uses can be .iewed as t,e facilities pro.ided b+ computer networks( Some of t,e goals or can be summari-ed as9 I( Reso"rce s#$r%n&: Goal is to make all programs# data# and e:uipment a.ailable to an+one on t,e network wit,out regard to t,e p,+sical location of t,e resource and t,e user( T,is pro.ides a ,ig, a.ailabilit+ of resources to users( o$' s#$r%n&: t,is is anot,er aspect of resource s,aring( S,aring load between multiple computers connected toget,er can reduce t,e dela+s for carr+ing out time intensi.e applications( (%&# re)%$*%)%t+: ;ig, reliabilit+ can be ac,ie.ed due to alternati.e sources of suppl+( 6or e2ample# all files could be replicated on two or t,ree mac,ines( So# if one of t,em is una.ailable! due to a ,ardware failure"# t,e ot,er copies could be used( In addition# t,e presence of multiple C/<s means t,at if one goes down t,e ot,ers ma+ be able to take its work( 6or real time applications suc, as militar+# banking# air traffic control etc( # t,e abilit+ to continue operating in t,e face of ,ardware problems is of great importance( Cost e,,ect%-eness: Small computers ,a.e a muc, better price5performance ratio t,an large ones( %ainframes are roug,l+ a factor of ten faster t,an t,e fastest single c,ip microprocessor# but t,e+ cost a t,ousand times more( T,us it ma+ be more appropriate to ,a.e network of low cost /Cs running in parallel rat,er t,an terminals !users" connected to a single ,ig, cost mainframe operating in time-s,aring mode( T,is imbalance ,as caused designers to build s+stems in w,ic, data is kept on one or more s,ared file mac,ines and users !clients" can s,are !access" t,is data t,ru t,eir personal computers connected to t,e!s" on a network( Suc, a network wit, man+ computers located in t,e same room or building is called a Local $rea Network !L$N"( In contrast# t,ere can be far flung networks co.ering entire countries or continents( Suc, networks are called &ide $rea Networks !&$N"( Sc$)$*%)%t+: $ closel+ related point is t,e abilit+ to increase s+stem performance graduall+ as t,e workload increases 8ust b+ adding more /Cs( &it, a central mainframe# w,en a s+stem is full# it must be replaced b+ a larger one# usuall+ at great e2pense and wit, e.en greater disruption to t,e users( Power,") co.."n%c$t%on .e'%".: $ real time communication can be possible between two persons sitting on-line and far apart !distant geograp,ical locations"( Two aut,ors sitting far apart can prepare a report






toget,er# making c,anges to t,e document and .iewing it toget,er at t,e same time# instead of waiting se.eral da+s for a letter(

Network App)%c$t%ons:
I( Access to re.ote %n,or.$t%on9 $ccess to remote information is one of t,e most important applications of networks and it co.ers .arious areas suc, as access to financial institutions !people can pa+ t,eir bills# manage t,eir bank accounts# and ,andle t,eir in.estments electronicall+"# ,ome s,opping !online catalogs# instant .ideo on an+ product# order placement and ,ome deli.eries"# on-line newspapers# maga-ines# scientific 8ournals# on-line digital librar+ etc( &orld &ide &eb is anot,er information access application area t,at pro.ides access to information about t,e arts# business# cooking# go.ernment# ,ealt,# ,istor+# ,obbies# recreation# science# sports# tra.el and almost,ing of interest( $ll t,ese applications in.ol.e interactions between a person and a remote database( II( Person-to-person co.."n%c$t%on9 T,e second broad categor+ of network use is person-to-person interaction( Electronic-mail !email" is widel+ used b+ millions of people to send mails containing te2t# audio and .ideo( >eal-time email allows remote users to co.."n%c$te w%t# no 'e)$+ $)on& w%t# see%n& $n' #e$r%n& e$c# ot#er( T,is tec,nolog+ makes it possible to ,a.e .irtual meetings called .ideoconference# among far-flung people( =ideoconferencing setting up .ideo cameras and tele.isions at different locations so t,at people at eac, location can see and ,ear eac, ot,er( In effect# t,e+ attend meetings or conferences wit,out t,eir indi.idual locations( 6igures and c,arts needed for presentations also can be broadcast for all to see( &orldwide newsgroups# wit, discussions on topic are anot,er area pro.iding communication between a selected group of people( ;ere# one person posts a message and all t,e subscribers to t,e newsgroup can read it( III( Inter$ct%-e entert$%n.ent9 /%'eo on 'e.$n' will pro.ide access to an+ or an+ program in an+ countr+( Li.e tele.ision wit, t,e audience participating in :ui- s,ows and ot,er similar programs interacti.el+ is anot,er area( Game pla+ing in a worldwide s,ared ?-D .irtual real en.ironment is anot,er killer application w,ere we ,a.e multiperson real time simulation

games# like ,ide-and-seek in a .irtual dungeon# and flig,t simulators wit, t,e pla+ers on one team tr+ing to s,oot pla+ers on t,e opposing team( DISTRI0UTED PROCESSING Networks use distributed processing# in w,ic, a task is di.ided among multiple computers( Instead of a centrali-ed s+stem in w,ic, a single large mac,ine is responsible for all aspects of a process# eac, separate computer !usuall+ a personal computer or workstation" ma+ ,andle a subset of t,e complete task( Suc, a distribution of processing leads to t,e following ad.antages9 Sec"r%t+1enc$ps")$t%on9 $ccess and interaction of a user wit, t,e entire s+stem can be limited upto ,is re:uirements and necessit+( !or e2$.p)e, $ *$nk c$n $))ow "sers to $ccess t#e%r own $cco"nts w%t#o"t $))ow%n& t#e. $ccess to t#e *$nk3s ent%re '$t$*$se4 D%str%*"te' '$t$*$ses9 T,e entire database can be distributed on multiple s+stems rat,er t,an re:uiring storage capacit+ of a single s+stem( 6or e2ample# t,e &&& users access to information t,at ma+ actuall+ be stored an+w,ere on t,e Internet( Suc, a s+stem also facilitates storage of a ,uge amount of information# w#%c# .$+ not *e poss%*)e to store on $ s%n&)e s+ste.4 !$ster $pp)%c$t%on process%n&9 %ultiple computers working on parts of a problem concurrentl+ can sol.e t,e problem faster t,an a single mac,ine working alone( Sec"r%t+ $n' #%&# re)%$*%)%t+ t#ro"&# re'"n'$nc+ 9 multiple computers running t,e same program simultaneousl+ can pro.ide securit+ in t,e sense t,at if one ,as a ,ardware problem# t,e ot,er two can o.erride it( Co))$*or$t%-e process%n&9 ot, multiple users and multiple computers ma+ interact wit, eac, ot,er on a task for e2ample a game in w,ic, actions of a pla+er are .isible to all ot,er pla+ers(

TOPO OGIES Network topolog+ defines t,e interconnection structure of stations and links( 6ollowing are some of t,e %ss"es t#$t $re %n,)"ence' b+ t,e interconnection structure9 7( E2p$ns%on cost9 T,e incremental cost of adding anot,er station(

)( ?( @( *( A(

Recon,%&"r$t%on ,)e2%*%)%t+9 T,e ease of modif+ing t,e topolog+( Re)%$*%)%t+9 Dependenc+ on a single component for network operation( So,tw$re co.p)e2%t+9 T,e comple2it+ of protocols re:uired( Per,or.$nce9 in terms of t,roug,put or dela+( 0ro$'c$st c$p$*%)%t+9 Sending a single message t,at is recei.ed b+ all ot,er stations(

In t,e following section we will see t,at networks can be c)$ss%,%e' according to t,e tr$ns.%ss%on tec#no)o&+ used and according to sc$)e( T,e topologies are discussed under eac, categor+( In general we ,a.e complete interconnection !mes,"# partial interconnection !partial mes,"# star# tree# serial bus# and ring topologies( In addition# t,ere are wireless networks# w,ic, do not ,a.e a regular topolog+ in t,e sense t,at t,e stations are not p,+sicall+ connected to eac, ot,er t,ru guided media !cables"(

In its simplest form# data communication takes places between two de.ices t,at are directl+ connected b+ some form of point-to-point transmission medium( Often# , it is impractical for two de.ices to be directl+# point-to-point connected( T,is is so because of one !or bot," of t,e following reasons( T,e de.ices are .er+ far apart( It would be inordinatel+ e2pensi.e to string a dedicated link between two de.ices t,ousands of miles apart( T,ere is a set of de.ices# eac, of w,ic, ma+ re:uire a link to man+ of t,e ot,ers at .arious times( E2cept for t,e case of a .er+ few de.ices# it is impractical to pro.ide a dedicated wire between eac, pair of de.ices(

T,e solution to t,is problem is to attac, eac, to a communications network( T,e wa+ in w,ic, different de.ices are connected ma+ be different depending upon t,e distance between t,e de.ices( Two dimensions stand out as important in t,e classification of networks according to t,e between t,e de.ices - Tr$ns.%ss%on tec#no)o&+ - Sc$)e

Tr$ns.%ss%on Tec#no)o&+
T,ere are two t+pes of transmission tec,nologies identified according to t,e arc,itecture and tec,ni:ues t,e+ use for transmission( 7( /oint-to-point networks )( roadcast5%ultipoint networks %ultipoint5 roadcast line configuration is one in w,ic, more t,an two specific de.ices s,are a single link( Broadcast networks ,a.e a single communication c,annel t,at is s,ared b+ all t,e mac,ines on t,e network( S,ort messages# called packets in certain conte2ts# sent *+ $n+ .$c#%ne $re rece%-e' *+ $)) t#e ot#ers( $n address field wit,in t,e packet specifies for w,om it is intended( <pon a packet# a mac,ine c,ecks t,e address field( If t,e packet is intended for itself# it processes t,e packetB if t,e packet is intended for some ot,er mac,ine# it is 8ust ignored( roadcast s+stem generall+ also allows t,e possibilit+ of addressing a packet to all destinations b+ using a special code in t,e address field( &,en a packet wit, t,is code is transmitted# it is recei.ed and processed b+ mac,ine on t,e network( T,is mode of operation is called broadcasting( Some broadcast s+stems also support transmission to a subset of t,e mac,ines# known as multicasting( One possible sc,eme is to reser.e one bit to indicate multicasting( T,e remaining n-7 address bits can ,old a group number( Eac, mac,ine can 0subscribe1 to an+ or all of t,e groups( &,en a packet is sent to a certain group# it is deli.ered to all mac,ines subscribing to t,at group( In contrast# a point-to-point line configuration pro.ides a 'e'%c$te' )%nk between two de.ices( Point to point (also called store and forward or switc!ed) networks consist of man+ connections between indi.idual pairs of mac,ines( To go from t,e source to t,e destination# a packet on t,is t+pe of network ma+ ,a.e to first .isit one or more intermediate mac,ines( Often multiple routes# of different lengt,s are possible# so routing algorit,ms pla+ an important role in point to point networks( $s a general rule !t,ere ma+ be e2ceptions" smaller# geograp,icall+ locali-ed networks !Local $rea Networks" tend to use broadcastingB w,ere as larger networks !&ide $rea Networks" usuall+ are point to point(




roadcast5%ultipoint !%&45

!b" /oint-to-point

$n alternati.e criterion for classif+ing networks is t,eir scale5distances( T,ese can be di.ided into9 - Local $rea Networks !L$Ns" - %etropolitan $rea Networks !%$Ns" - &ide $rea Networks !&$Ns" T,e connection of two or more networks is called an internetwork( T,e worldwide Internet is a well-known e2ample of an internetwork( Distance is important as a classification metric because different tec,ni:ues are used at different scales( INTERNETWORKS &,en two or more networks are connected# t,e+ become an internetwork or internet !not Internet"( Indi.idual networks are 8oined into internetworks b+ t,e use of internetworking de.ices suc, as routers and gatewa+s( Internet is an internet w,ic, is a worldwide network used to connect uni.ersities# go.ernment offices# companies and pri.ate indi.iduals pro.iding applications suc, as E-mail News groups# remote login# 6ile transfer and access to ,uge amounts of information(

L$N >



> L$N > &$N


> > %$N

!%& 64 Internetwork


O-er-%ew oc$) $re$ networks# generall+ called L$Ns# are pri.atel+ - owned networks wit,in a single office single building or campus of upto a few kilometers in si-e( T,e+ are widel+ used to connect personal computers and workstations in compan+ offices and factories to s,are resources !e(g(# printers" and e2c,ange information( L$Ns wit, t,eir emp,asis on low cost and simplicit+ ,a.e been based on t,e broadcast approac,( ANs $re '%st%n&"%s#e' from ot,er kinds of networks *+ t#ree c#$r$cter%st%cs: 758 t#e%r si"e, 768 t#e%r transmission tec!nolog#4 798 t#e%r topolog#4 54 S%:e9 L$Ns are restricted in si-e# w,ic, means t,at t,e worst-case transmission time is bounded and known in ad.ance( 64 Tr$ns.%ss%on Tec#no)o&+9 L$Ns often use a transmission tec,nolog+ consisting of a single cable to w,ic, all t,e mac,ines are attac,ed( Traditional L$Ns run at speeds of 7D to 7DD %bps# ,a.e low dela+ !tens of microseconds"# and make .er+ few errors( Newer L$Ns ma+ operate at ,ig,er speeds# up to ,undreds of megabits sec( 7 megabit E 7#DDD#DDD bits E 7DA bits

94 Topo)o&+ =arious topologies are possible for broadcast L$Ns( 6ig( ? s,ows a *"s !a linear cable" and a r%n& topolog+ commonl+ used in L$N4s( In a bus network# at an+ instant one .$c#%ne %s t#e .$ster and is allowed to transmit( $ll ot,er mac,ines are re:uired to refrain from sending( $n arbitration mec,anism is needed to resol.e conflicts w,en two or more mac,ines want to transmit simultaneousl+( T,e arbitration mec,anism ma+ be centrali-ed or distributed( IEEE FD)(?# popularl+ called Ethernet# for e2ample# is a busbased broadcast network wit, decentrali-ed control operating at 7D or 7DD %bps( Computers on an Et,ernet can transmit w, t,e+ want toB if two or more packets collide# eac, computer 8ust waits a random time and tries again later(



Computer Cable !%& 94 Two co..on AN topo)o&%es $ bus topolog+ ,as a multipoint configuration( One long cable acts as a backbone to link all t,e de.ices in t,e network( Nodes are connected to t,e bus cable b+ drop lines and taps( $ drop line is a connection running between t,e and t,e main cable( $ tap is a connector t,at eit,er splices into t,e main cable or punctures t,e s,eat,ing of a cable to create a contact wit, t,e metallic core( $s a signal tra.els along t,e backbone# some of its energ+ is transformed into ,eat( T,erefore# it becomes weaker and weaker t,e fart,er it ,as to tra.el( 6or t,is reason t,ere is a limit on t,e number of taps a bus can support and on t,e distance between t,ose taps( $ bus is intrinsicall+ broadcast as t,e s,ared transmission medium !twisted pair or coa2ial cable" interconnects all t,e stations( Simultaneous transmission b+ multiple stations results in interference and so a media access control mec,anism is needed to pre.ent or resol.e contention t,ere b+ increasing software comple2it+(



Drop Line Cable end Tap Tap Tap !%& ;4 0"s topo)o&+ Advantages of a bus topolog+ include ease of installation( ackbone cable can be laid along t,e most efficient pat,# and t,en connected to t,e nodes b+ drop lines of .arious lengt,s( In t,is wa+# a bus uses less cabling t,an ot,er topologies like mes,# star# or tree topologies( In a star# for e2ample# four network de.ices in t,e same room re:uire four lengt,s of cable reac,ing all t,e wa+ to t,e ,ub( In a bus# t,is redundanc+ is eliminated( Onl+ t,e backbone cable stretc,es t,roug, t,e entire facilit+( Eac, drop line ,as to reac, onl+ as far as t,e nearest point on t,e backbone( Eas+ e2pansion of t,e network is possible in t,is topolog+( It is simple to tap into t,e transmission line at an+ point# wit,out affecting ot,er stations( $lso# onl+ a single interface is needed to connect a station# resulting in low e2pansion cost( Error and flow control are end to end and no routing is re:uired t,ereb+ leading to simple communication software( Disadvantages include difficult reconfiguration and fault isolation( $ bus is usuall+ designed to be optimall+ efficient at installation( It can t,erefore be difficult to add new de.ices( $s mentioned abo.e# signal reflection at t,e taps can cause degradation in :ualit+( T,is degradation can be controlled b+ limiting t,e number and spacing of de.ices connected to a gi.en lengt, of cable( $dding new de.ices ma+ t,erefore re:uire modification or replacement of t,e backbone( >epeaters ma+ be re:uired if t,e lengt, of t,e bus e2ceeds its limit !usuall+ 7 or ) km"( $ll communication fails if t,e transmission medium is cut# so redundant transmission lines ma+ be re:uired( Single transmission line means it must be ,ig, capacit+ to cater for t,e sum of all t,e communication wit,in t,e network( $ second t+pe of broadcast s+stem is t,e ring( In a ring# eac, bit propagates around on its own# not waiting for t,e rest of t,e packets to w,ic, it belongs( T+picall+# eac, bit circumna.igates t,e entire ring in t,e time it takes to transmit a few bits# often before t,e complete packet ,as e.en been transmitted( Like all ot,er broadcast s+stems Tap Cable end


some rule is needed for arbitrating simultaneous accesses to t,e ring( IEEE FD)(* !token ring" is a popular ring-based L$N operating at @ and 7A %bps( In ring topologies# eac, ,as a 'e'%c$te' po%nt-to-po%nt )%ne con,%&"r$t%on onl+ wit, t,e two de.ices on eit,er side of it( $ signal is passed along t,e ring in one direction# from to until it reac,es its destination( Eac, in t,e ring incorporates a repeater( &,en a a signal intended for anot,er its repeater regenerates t,e bits and passes t,em along !6ig( *"(

Computer >epeater

!%&4 <: R%n& Topo)o&+ $ ring is relati.el+ eas+ to install and reconfigure( Eac, is linked onl+ to its immediate neig,bors !eit,er spatiall+ or logicall+"( To add or delete a re:uires onl+ two connections( T,e onl+ constraints are media access control and traffic consideration( In addition# fault isolation is simplified( Generall+ in a ring a signal is circulating at all times( If one does not recei.e a signal wit,in a specified period# it can issue an alarm( T,e alarm alerts t,e network operator to t,e problem and its location( Cutting an+ link causes complete failure and so double or braided loops are used w,ere reliabilit+ is important( /ower failure at a station causes loop failure unless t,e interface is designed to b+pass a station or some form of redundanc+ is included( St$r topolog+ is anot,er topolog+ t,at is used in L$Ns !IEEE FD)(?# Et,ernet L$N wit, 7D ase-T cabling"( In a star topolog+# eac, ,as a dedicated point-to-point link onl+ to a central controller# usuall+ called a hub( T,e de.ices are not linked to eac, ot,er(



Control Switc, or ,ub !%& =4 St$r Topo)o&+ $ star topolog+ does not allow direct traffic between de.ices( T,e controller acts as an e2c,ange9 If one wants to send data to anot,er# it sends to t,e controller# w,ic, t,en rela+s t,e data to t,e ot,er connected de.ices( $ star topolog+ is less e2pensi.e t,an some ot,er topologies like mes,( In a star# eac, needs onl+ one link and one I5O port to connect it to an+ number of ot,ers( T,is factor also makes it eas+ to install and reconfigure( 6ar less cabling needs to be ,oused# and additions# and deletions in.ol.e onl+ one connection between t,at and t,e ,ub( Ot,er $'-$nt$&es include robustness( If one link fails# onl+ t,at link is affected( $ll ot,er links remain acti.e( T,is factor also lends itself to eas+ fault identification and fault isolation( $s long as t,e ,ub is working# it can be used to monitor link problems and b+pass defecti.e links( ; alt,oug, a star re:uires far less cable t,an a mes,# but since eac, node must be linked to a central ,ub# more cabling is re:uired in a star t,an in a ring or bus topolog+( 6urt,er# all communication depends on t,e control ,ub and ,ence an+ fault in it will stop all t,e communication( Tree or ;ierarc,ical topolog+ is an e2tension of t,e star topolog+ and so ,as .er+ similar c,aracteristics( It is often used for process control as it reflects t,e ,ierarc,ical organi-ation of t,e control s+stem( In t,is# a single failure can isolate part of t,e network(



OCA AREA NETWORK E>AMP E ;ost mainframe or ot,er networks %icrocomputer Gatewa+5bridge S,ared /rinter

6ile %icrocomputer %icrocomputer

Data flow

%icrocomputer !%&4 ?4 E2$.p)e o, AN 6igure C s,ows fi.e microcomputers (clients) connected b+ a local area network cable arranged in a ring( In t,is network# messages mo.e around t,e ring in one direction onl+( $ll computers s,are t,e same circuit and must take turns sending messages(


T,is L$N also ,as a file server t,at performs t,e same functions as t,e central ,ost computer in a &$N( T,e file is usuall+ a microcomputer !usuall+ more powerful" but ma+ be a minicomputer or mainframe also( T,e bridge !or a router or a gateway" is a computer or special t,at connects two or more networks( $ bridge enables computers on t,is L$N to communicate wit, computers on ot,er L$Ns or &$Ns(

W#+ Use $ AN@

T,ere are two basic reasons for de.eloping a L$N( Information S,aring >esource S,aring

In,or.$t%on S#$r%n& refers to , users# w,o access t,e same data files# e2c,ange information .ia electronic mail# or searc, t,e Internet for information( 6or e2ample# a single purc,ase order database mig,t be maintained so all users can access its contents t,e L$N( Reso"rce S#$r%n& refers to one computer s,aring a ,ardware !e(g( printer" or software package wit, ot,er computers on t,e network in order to sa.e costs( 6or e2ample# suppose we ,a.e ?D computers on a L$N# eac, of w,ic, needs access to a word processing package( One option is to purc,ase ?D copies and install one on eac, computer( T,is would use disk space on eac, computer and re:uire a significant amount of staff time to perform t,e installation and maintain t,e software# particularl+ if t,e package were updated regularl+( $n alternati.e is to install t,e software on t,e network for all to use( T,is would eliminate t,e need to keep a cop+ on computer and free up disk space( It would also simplif+ software maintenance because an+ software upgrades would be installed once on t,e network

T+pes o, AN
T,ere are man+ different wa+s to classif+ L$Ns( One common ma+ is to group t,em b+ categories( Dedicated L$Ns /eer to /eer L$Ns


Hero-Slot L$Ns

De'%c$te' Ser-er ANs( T,ese L$Ns account for more t,an CD per cent of all installed L$Ns( $ dedicated server L$N can connect wit, almost an+ ot,er network# can ,andle .er+ large databases# ,as a dedicated network s erver# and user sop,isticated L$N software( ,ig,-end dedicated L$Ns can be easil+ interconnected to form enterprise-wide networks or# in some cases# replace t,e ,ost mainframe central computer( T,e dedicated is a powerful microcomputer or minicomputer( &it, dedicated L$Ns# t,e network ,as one or more computers t,at onl+ support t,e network b+ pro.iding access to files and ot,er network resources( T,e ser.ers usual operating s+stem !e(g(# DOS" is replaced b+ a network operating s+stem( Special purpose network communication software is also loaded on eac, client or user computer# and is t,e link between t,e client computers operating s+stem and t,e network operating s+stem on t,e T,is set of communication software pro.ides t,e protocols t,at allow data transmission to take place( T,ree software components must work toget,er and in con8unction wit, t,e network ,ardware to enable communications( T,e network operating s+stem in t,e dedicated T,e network communication software t,at interconnects t,e to t,e user computers and T,e application software t,at runs on t,e and client computers(

T,ere are man+ different t+pes of dedicated L$Ns( 6our common t+pes are 6ile ser.ers Data base ser.ers /rint Ser.ers Communication ser.ers


!%)e Ser-ers allow man+ users to s,are t,e same set of files on a common# s,ared disk dri.e( T,e si-e of ,ard disk .olume can be of an+ si-e# limited onl+ b+ t,e si-e of t,e disk storage itself( 6iles on t,e s,ared disk dri.e can be made freel+ a.ailable to all network users# s,ared onl+ among aut,ori-ed users# or restricted to onl+ one user( A '$t$ *$se ser-er is more powerful t,an file It not onl+ pro.ides s,ared access to t,e files on t,e but also can perform database processing on t,ose files associated wit, client computing( 6or e2ample# data base ser.ers can recei.e re:uests for information contained in a data base and searc, t,roug, t,e data base to find t,e re:uested information# w,ic, is t,en sent back to t,e client re:uesting t,e information( In contr$st # file ser.ers can onl+ send entire files# re:uiring an+ processing to be done b+ t,e client( T,e ke+ benefit of data base ser.ers is t,at t,e+ reduce t,e amount of data mo.ed between t,e and t,e client workstation( T,e+ can also minimi-e data loss and pre.ent widespread data inconsistencies if t,e s+stem fails( Pr%nt ser-ers ,andle print re:uests on t,e L$N( + offloading t,e management of printing from t,e main L$N file or data base print ser.ers ,elp reduce t,e load on t,em and increase network efficienc+ in muc, t,e same wa+ t,at front end processors impro.e t,e efficienc+ of ,ost computers( Co.."n%c$t%on ser-ers are dedicated to performing communication processing( T,ere are t,ree fundamental t+pes( 6a2 ser.ers %odem ser.ers $ccess ser.ers !$2 ser-ers manage a pool of fa2 boards t,at enable L$N users to send or recei.e fa2es( Access ser-ers and modem servers allow users to dial into and out of t,e L$N b+ telep,one( Dialing into t,e L$N is accomplis,ed wit, an access w,ereas dialing out is accomplis,ed wit, a modem $n access connects to t,e L$N and applications from t,e network ser.er4s ,ard disk to run on its own C/< or to transfer files to t,e computer t,at dialed into t,e L$N( Callers dialing in to an access


can c,eck t,eir e-mail# transfer files# print files# run application programs# or send fa2es .ia t,e fa2 $ccess ser.ers are ideal for data base applications in w,ic, t,e amount of information mo.ed is small and does not re:uire ,ig, speed be+ond t,e limited capabilities of regular .oice grade telep,one lines( Peer-to-Peer networks ecause peer-to-peer networks do not re:uire a dedicated an+ computer can function as bot, a user and a s,aring its ,ard disk and printer wit, an+ ot,er computer on t,e network( $ll computers run special network software t,at enables t,em to function bot, as a client and as a $ut,ori-ed users can connect to an+ computer in t,e L$N t,at permits access and use t,eir ,ard and printer as t,oug, t,e+ were p,+sicall+ attac,ed to t,eir own computers( /eer-to-peer networks are often slower t,an dedicated networks because if +ou access a computer t,at is also being used b+ its owner# it slows down bot, t,e owner and t,e network( In general# peer-to-peer L$Ns ,a.e less capabilit+# support a more( limited number of computers# pro.ide less sop,isticated software# and can pro.e more difficult to manage t,an dedicated L$Ns( ; t,e+ are c,eaper bot, in ,ardware and software( /eer-to-peer L$Ns are most appropriate for s,aring resources in small L$Ns( Aero-S)ot ANs

T,e lowest le.el of capabilit+ for a L$N is t,e in e2pensi.e zeroslot L$N# so called because t,e+ do not re:uire a network interface circuit cardB t,e -ero-slot L$N adapter plug can be plugged into a serial or parallel port instead of taking up one of t,e computers4 e2pansion slots( Hero-slot L$Ns cost from one-tent, to one-,alf t,e amount of more powerful dedicated L$Ns( Hero-slot L$Ns operate like peer-to-peer networks and pro.ide limited capabilities suc, as file transfer# file s,aring# printer s,aring and e-mail( T,e -ero-slot L$N operating s+stem works in con8unction wit, t,e computers4 operating s+stem( Installing a -erp-slot L$N usuall+ takes onl+ a s,ort time because it does not re:uire a circuit card( T,e+ are t+picall+ able to ,andle upto ?D computers# w,ic, can be increased b+ connecting se.eral -ero-slot L$NS toget,er(

AN co.ponents


T,ere are fi.e basic components of a L$N !6ig( F"( T,ese are Client Computer Network Interface Cards Network Cables I ,ubs Network Operating S+stems Client computer Network interface card !NIC"


Network Cable



!%& B4 AN Co.ponents

C)%ent $n' Ser-ers T,e Client is t,e input5output ,ardware at t,e users4 end of a communication circuit( It t+picall+ pro.ides users wit, access to t,e network and t,e data and software on t,e ,ost computer( T,e client accepts user re:uests# and processes t,em into database re:uests t,at are transmitted to t,e T,e accepts t,e re:uests# processes t,em against t,e database# and transmits t,e results to t,e client( T,e client accepts t,e results and presents t,em to t,e user( Netw ork Inter,$ce C$r's 7NIC8 T,e Network Interface Card !NIC" allows t,e computer to be p,+sicall+ connected to t,e network cable# w,ic, pro.ides t,e p,+sical la+er connection among t,e computers in t,e network( %ost NICs are installed inside t,e computer( T,e computer must be p,+sicall+ opened and t,e NIC# inserted into a slot on t,e computers bus( $ few computers# particularl+ laptops# ,a.e an NIC alread+ installed# or a


special port t,at enables networking cards to be installed wit, out p,+sicall+ opening t,em !i(e(# /C%CI$ slots"( One# t+pe of NIC is designed to be installed e2ternall+ on a computer4s parallel or serial port# rat,er t,an internall+ in a slot( T,ese NICs# called pocket adapters are primaril+ used for laptop computers t,at do not ,a.e built in NICs or /C%CI$ slots( T,e NIC card coordinates t,e transfer of information between t,e computer and t,e network( T,e NIC card transfers information in parallel format to and from main memor+ !>$%" in t,e computer( On t,e ot,er ,ard# t,e NIC card transfers information in serial format to and from t,e network# so parallel-to-serial con.ersion is one of t,e NIC4s functions( T,e speed of t,e network and t,e computer are not matc,ed# so t,e NIC card must also buffer data( T,e NIC card ,as a port t,at meets t,e connector and transmission specifications of p,+sical la+er standards( T,e NIC card includes read onl+ memor+ !>O%" containing firmware t,at allows t,e NIC to implement t,e %$C protocol of a L$N standard( T,is process taking network la+er /$<s !/rotocol data unit" encapsulating t,em inside %$C frames# and transferring t,e frames b+ using t,e %$C algorit,m# as well as %$C frames and deli.ering t,e network la+er /D<s to t,e computer( T,e NIC for eac, mac,ine ,as a unique address ( &,en an NIC is used to connect a mac,ine to an+ L$N# all mac,ines in t,e L$N are automaticall+ guaranteed to ,a.e uni:ue addresses( &, a frame is broadcast on a L$N# t,e NIC recogni-es t,at t,e frame is intended for its ,ost# so t,e card captures t,e frame for furt,er e2amination( T,e uni:ue p,+sical address assigned to an NIC card is burned into t,e >O%( T+picall+# t,e first t,ree b+tes of t,e address specif+ t,e card .endor# and t,e remaining b+tes specif+ a uni:ue number for t,at .endor( T,e NIC card contains ,ardware t,at allows it to recogni-e its p,+sical address# as well as t,e broadcast address( T,e ,ardware can also be set to recogni-e multicast addresses t,at direct frames to groups of stations( NIC cards are set b+ t,eir ,ost computer to accept specific multicast addresses( T,e broadcast address# indicated b+ t,e all 7s p,+sical address# indicates t,at all stations are to recei.e a gi.en packet( Netw ork C$*)es $n' ("*s


Eac, computer must be p,+sicall+ connected b+ network cable to t,e ot,er computers in t,e network !L$N"( T,e selection of L$N topolog+ can be influenced greatl+ b+ t,e t+pe of cable t,at alread+ e2ists in t,e building w,ere t,e L$N is to be installed( Just as ,ig,wa+s carr+ all kinds of traffic# t,e perfect cabling s+stem s,ould be able to carr+ all kinds of electronic transmissions to all corners of t,e building( Netw ork C$*)e: %ost L$Ns are formed wit, a blend of uns,ielded twisted pair !<T/" wires# s,ielded twisted pair !ST/"# coa2ial cable# and fiber optic cable( &e can also ,a.e wireless L$Ns t,at run on infrared or radio fre:uencies# eliminating t,e installation of cables( Network cables ,a.e been discussed in detail in lesson III( 6ollowing table focuses on some commonl+ used network cable standards( &,ile most L$Ns use onl+ one t+pe of cable# it is possible to bu+ de.ices t,at permit different t+pes of cable to be connected toget,er( $ $L<N ! $Lanced <N balanced" is a small about one-,alf inc, in diameter and ? inc,es long# w,ic, connects balanced twisted pair cabling wit, unbalanced coa2ial cable( One end ,as a standard twisted pair connection and t,e ot,er ,as a standard Screw-in coa2ial connector lead( Similar de.ices are a.ailable to connect fiber optic cable to twisted pair and coa2# but are significantl+ larger and more e2pensi.e# because t,e+ must con.ert between electricit+ and lig,t( T$*)e 5 Co..on)+ Use' Network C$*)e St$n'$r's Name Categor+ 7 Categor+ ) Categor+ ? Categor+ @ Categor+ * >G-*F >G-F T+pe <T/ <T/ <T/5ST/ <T/5ST/ <T/5ST/ Coa2 Coa2 Data >ate !% /S" 7 @ 7D 7A 7DD 7D 7D Distance !%eters" GD GD 7DD 7DD )DD 7F* *DD Often b+ <sed Topolog+ >ing Star >ing Star us( us(

%odem Token >ing @ 7D ase T Et,ernet Token >ing7A 7DD ase-T Et,ernet 7D ase-) Et,ernet 7D ase-* Et,ernet


' ?TG(*






Netw ork ("*s: Network ,ubs go b+ man+ names depending upon t,e t+pe of network and t,e specific .endor# suc, as oncentrator # multistation access unit # transceiver # or repeater ( Network ,ubs ser.e two purposes( !irst # t,e+ pro.ide an eas+ wa+ to connect network cables( In general# network cables can be directl+ connected b+ splicing two cables toget,er( 6or e2ample# T-connectors are often used to connect coa2ial cable but t,e+ lea.e little room for e2pansion a tec,nician must cut t,e cable and install a new connector to add a new connection( $ better approac, is to use a ,ub in an area in w,ic, t,e network mig,t e2pand( $ ,ub can be t,oug,t of as a 8unction bo2# permitting new computers to be connected to t,e network as easil+ as plugging a power cord into an electrical socket( ;ubs are commonl+ a.ailable in @-# F- and 7A- port si-es# meaning t,at t,e+ pro.ide an+w,ere from @ to 7A ports into w,ic, network cables can be plugged( &,en no cables are plugged in# t,e signal b+ passes t,e unused port( &,en a cable is plugged into a port# t,e signal tra.els down t,e cable as t,oug, it was directl+ connected to t,e cables attac,ed to t,e ,ub( Some ,ubs also enable different t+pes of cables to be connected and perform t,e necessar+ con.ersions !e(g(# twisted pair to coa2ial cable# coa2ial cable to fiber optic"( "econd # ,ubs act as repeaters or amplifiers( Signals can tra.el onl+ so far in a network cable before t,e+ attenuate and can no longer be recogni-ed( $ll L$N cables are rated for t,e ma2imum distance t,e+ can be used( $n+ L$Ns t,at spans more t,an t,is distances-and most L$Ns do-must use ,ubs wit, repeaters or amplifiers( Some ,ubs are 0Smart1 because t,e+ can detect and respond to network problems( 6or e2ample# a 0Smart1 ,ub could detect fault+ transmissions from a failing network card# and disable t,e incoming port so t,at t,e card could not send an+ more messages t,at would disrupt t,e network( %an+ 0Smart1 ,ubs go one step fart,er and alert t,e network manager about t,e problem and t,e action taken( &it, 0smart1 ,ubs#


finding and fi2ing faults is muc, easier( ;ubs are commonl+ used in Et,ernet L$Ns , 7D ase-T cabling( 6rom t,e outside# an Et,ernet L$N appears to be a star# because all cables flow into t,e central ,ub( Nonet,eless# it is reall+ a bus !See 6ig-G"(

us cable Terminator ;eadend ;ub

Terminal or %icrocomputer

!%&-C4 Et#ernet topo)o&+ "s%n& 5D 0$se-T %ost Et,ernet L$Ns span sufficient distance to re:uire se.eral ,ubs( In t,is case# t,e ,ubs are connected .ia cable in t,e same manner as an+ ot,er connection in t,e network !See fig-7D"( /arallel printer ;ub 7D ase-T ;ub Computer 7D Computer &orkstation !%&4 5D4 An e2$.p)e o, $n Et#ernet ase-T 7D Computer ase-T 6ile Computer AN w %t# tw o #"*s4

Earth dish #ubs ( T,ese are used in satellite communication in &$Ns( =S$Ts !=er+ Small $perture Terminals" ,a.e been discussed in Lesson III( T,ese are Low-cost microstations , 7- meter antennas and can put out about I watt of power( In man+ =S$T s+stems# t,e


microstations do not ,a.e enoug, power to communicate directl+ wit, one anot,er !.ia t,e satellite"( Instead# a special ground station# t,e hub # wit, large# ,ig,-gain antenna is needed to rela+ traffic between =S$TS( In t,is mode of operation# eit,er t,e sender or t,e ,as large antenna and a powerful amplifier( T,e trade-off is a longer dela+ in return for , c,eaper end-user stations !6ig-77"( Communication Satellite

K ;< K =S$T !%&4554 /SATS "s%n& $ #"*

&e can also ,a.e a ,ub in a token ring network a star ring or hub topolog+( $ passive ,ub acts onl+ as a wiring concentrator and does not participate in t,e token-ring protocols( It simplifies wiring because# to add a new station# we need onl+ run a pair of wires from t,e station to t,e ,ub# instead of between t,e new station# its predecessor and its successor( &it, an active ,ub# also called a bridge # t,e ,ub is bot, a predecessor and successor to station# t,us full+ participating in t,e token-ring protocol( $n acti.e ,ub can monitor t,e ring for link and station failures# eliminating failed components from t,e ring( !%&4564 ("* or st$r-r%n&


W%re)ess ANs 9- &ireless L$Ns are an alternati.e met,od of 0cabling1 a local area network( T,e+ use t,e same protocols !Et,ernet# for e2ample" as ot,er L$Ns# but t,e+ transmit data t,roug, t,e air rat,er t,an t,roug, coa2ial cable# twisted pair# or fiber optic cable( %ost wireless L$Ns ,a.e a NIC t,at is installed in t,e computer w,ic,# in turn# is connected to an e2ternal infrared or radio transmitter( Some wireless L$Ns are wireless onl+ between t,e ,ubsB t,e NICs are connected .ia traditional cabling to a network ,ub w,ic, contains t,e transmitter( T,e primar+ ad.antage of a wireless L$N is t,e lack of wiring( In an old building w,ere wiring is difficult and costs are e2tremel+ ,ig,# wireless L$Ns offer a low cost alternati.e( &ireless L$Ns are also being used increasingl+ wit, laptop computers# permitting new capabilities for mobile computing( Disad.antages of wireless L$Ns are increased noise causing disrupt transmission resulting in low data rates and lack of securit+( $n+one near a wireless network can easil+ ea.esdrop and potentiall+ steal corporate secrets( Solution is to encr+pt data before transmission( Netw ork Oper$t%n& S+ste. T,e network operating s+stem !NOS" is t,e software t,at controls t,e network( T,e NOS pro.ides t,e software t,at performs t,e functions associated wit, t,e data link and t,e network la+ers# and must interact wit, t,e application software and t,e computers own operating s+stem( NOS pro.ides two sets of software9 one t,at runs on t,e network!s"# and one t,at runs on t,e network client!s"( NOS Ser-er so,tw$re: - T,e NOS software enables t,e file print or data base to operate( In addition to ,andling all t,e re:uired network functions# it acts as t,e application software b+ e2ecuting t,e re:uests sent to it b+ t,e clients !e(g( cop+ing a file from its ,ard disk and transferring it to t,e client# printing a file on printer etc(" NOS C)%ent So,tw $re: - T,e NOS software running at t,e client computers pro.ides t,e data link la+er and network la+er to work effecti.el+ wit, t,e application software# t,e NOS must also work toget,er wit, t,e clients own operating s+stem(


Netw ork Pro,%)es:- $ network profile specifies w,at resources on eac, are a.ailable for network use b+ ot,er computers and w,ic, de.ices or people are allowed w,at access to t,e network( T,e network profile normall+ is configured w,en t,e network is establis,ed# and remains in place until someone# makes a c,ange( If a suc, as a ,ard disk on one of t,e networks computers is not included on t,e network profile# it cannot be used b+ anot,er computer( In addition to profiling disks and printers# +ou must build a user profile for eac, person w,o uses t,e L$N in order to add some securit+( Eac, and eac, user is assigned .arious access codes and onl+ t,ose users w,o login wit, t,e correct code can use a specific


T,e Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers !IEEE" publis,es se.eral widel+ accepted L$N recommended standards( T,ese standards are .er+ important because t,e+ encourage t,e use of common approac,es for L$N protocols and interfaces( T,e IEEE L$N committees are organi-ed as follows( IEEE ;ig, Le.el interface !and medium access control# %$C# bridges" IEEE FD)() Logical link control!LLC" IEEE FD)(? Carrier sense multiple access5collision detect !CS%$5CD" IEEE FD)(@ Token bus IEEE FD)(* Token ring IEEE FD)(A %etropolitan area networks IEEE FD)(C road band L$NS IEEE FD)(F 6iber optic L$NS IEEE FD)(G Integrated data and .oice networks IEEE FD)(7D Securit+ IEEE FD)(77 &ireless networks !%&4594 IEEE AN St$n'$r's FD)(7



$lt,oug, FD)(A was designed initiall+ for a L$N to %$N support t,e telep,one companies see it as a tec,nolog+ to pro.ide for interconnecting L$Ns to its central office( $ %$N is a network spanning a geograp,ical area t,at usuall+ encompasses a cit+ or countr+ area( It interconnects .arious buildings or ot,er facilities wit,in t,is cit+ wide area( %$Ns connect L$Ns and Ns ! ackbone" located in different areas to eac, ot,er and to wide area networks( %$Ns t+picall+ span from ? to ?D miles( $ %$N ma+ be single network suc, as a cable tele.ision network# or it ma+ be a means of connecting a number of L$Ns into a larger network so t,at resources ma+ be s,ared L$N-to-L$N as well as 6or e2ample# a compan+ can use a %$N to connect t,e L$Ns in all of its offices t,roug,out a cit+( !6ig( 7@"

/ublic cit+ Network

!%&4 5; $ %$N ma+ be w,oll+ owned and operated b+ a pri.ate compan+# or it ma+ be a pro.ided b+ a public compan+ suc, as a local telep,one compan+( &,en L$Ns in close pro2imit+ need to e2c,ange data# t,e+ can be connected pri.atel+ using cable and routers or gatewa+s( &,en L$Ns of a single enterprise are distributed a larger area !suc, as a cit+ or large campus"# , pri.atel+ owned connection infrastructure is impractical( E.en if it is permitted to la+ cable on public land# a better alternati.e is to use t,e ser.ices of e2isting utilities# suc, as t,e telep,one compan+( S%DS and DLD are two suc, ser.ices( %an+ telep,one companies pro.ide a popular %$N called Switc,ed %ulti-megabit Data !S%DS" !discussed in t,is lesson"


In addition to protocol listed earlier# anot,er protocol in t,e IEEE /ro8ect FD) !FD)(A" is distributed :ueue dual bus !DLD "# w,ic, uses a dual bus configuration(


$ wide area network pro.ides long - distance transmission of data# .oice# image# and .ideo information large geograp,ical areas t,at ma+ comprise a countr+# a continent# or e.en t,e w,ole world( In contrast to L$Ns !w,ic, depend on t,eir own ,ardware for transmission"# &$Ns ma+ utili-e public# leased# or pri.ate communication de.ices# usuall+ in combinations# and can t,erefore span an unlimited number of miles( $ &$N t,at is w,oll+ owned and used b+ a single compan+ is often referred to as an enterprise network( $ &$N interconnects computers# L$Ns# Ns# %$Ns and ot,ers data transmission facilities on countr+wide or worldwide basis( %ost organi-ations do not build t,eir own &$Ns b+ la+ing cables# building microwa.e towers# or sending up satellites( Instead# most organi-ations lease circuits from inter-e2c,ange carriers !eg( telep,one network" and use t,ose to transmit t,eir data( Telep,one compan+ Central office Switc,ing Connector cable %odem

%icro computer Local Loop

Intere2c,ange c,annels %odem Switc,ing


Telep,one compan+ Central office

;ost computer or

!%& 5<4 A W%'e Are$ Network E2$.p)e T,e network in 6ig 7* is a point-to-point network( $ microcomputer is connected to a remote ,ost mainframe computer( T,is simple network includes9 Ter.%n$) or .%croco.p"ter: ,uman to mac,ine interface w,ere people can enter and recei.e data or information( Connector c$*)e9 T,is connects t,e microcomputer to t,e modem and is called a serial cable or >S)?) interface because t,e standard t,at defines w,ic, signal is carried on w,ic, wire is t,e >S)?) standard( Mo'e.: Con.erts t,e direct electrical signals !digital" produced b+ computer to modulated analog signals t,at can be sent telep,one communication circuits( oc$) oops: Connections t,at interconnects +our ,ome or office to t,e telep,one compan+ central office !switc,ing office"# or to t,e special common carrier network( Centr$) O,,%ce: !end office or e2c,ange office" - Contains t,e switc,ing and control facilities t,at are operated b+ t,e telep,one compan+ or ot,er special common carrier( &,en we use a dial-up communication circuit# our data transmission goes t,roug, t,ese switc,ing facilities( &,en we use a pri.ate leased circuit# t,e telep,one compan+ wires our circuit pat, around t,e switc,ing facilities to pro.ide a clear unbroken pat, from one modem to t,e ot,er( Inter e2c#$n&e C#$nne)s: Circuits t,at go from one telep,one compan+ central office to anot,er central office( T,ese circuits can be microwa.e circuits# copper wire pairs# coa2ial cables# satellite circuits# optical fibers# or some ot,er transmission medium( <suall+ lines are leased from a 3common carrier4 suc, as Telep,one Compan+( &,en t,e message reac,es t,e distant ,ost computer# it first passes t,roug, anot,er modem# w,ic, con.erts t,e signal from analog back to digital( (ost co.p"ter9 C/< t,at processes our re:uests# performs data base lookups and carries out t,e processing re:uired(


$ &ide $rea Network !&$N" t+picall+# consists of a collection of mac,ines intended for running user !i(e( application" programs( T,ese ma+ be called ,ost mac,ines or end systems( T,e ,osts are connected b+ a communication subnet( T,e 8ob of t,e subnet is to carr+ messages from ,ost to ,ost( T,us separating communications aspects of t,e network !t,e subnet" from t,e application aspects !t,e ,osts"( In most wide area networks# t,e subnet consists of two distinct components9 Transmission lines Switc,ing elements

Transmission lines !c,annels or trunks" bits between mac,ines( T,e switc,ing elements are speciali-ed computers used to connect two or more transmission lines( &,en data arri.e on an incoming line# t,e switc,ing elements must c,oose an outgoing line to forward t,em on( T,ese switc,ing element# are .ariousl+ called as packet switc,ing nodes# interface message processors or routers( Eac, ,ost is generall+ connected to a L$N on w,ic, a router is present# alt,oug, in some cases a ,ost can be connected directl+ to a router( T,e collection of communication lines and router form t,e subnet(

;ost Subnet L$N >outer !%& 5=4 (osts $n' S"*net In most &$Ns# t,e network contains numerous cables or telep,one lines# eac, one connecting a pair of routers( If two routers t,at do not s,are a cable wis, to communicate# t,e+ must do t,is indirectl+# .ia ot,er routers( &,en a packet is sent from one router to anot,er .ia one or more intermediate routers# t,e packet is recei.ed at eac,


intermediate router in its entiret+# stored t,ere until t,e re:uired output line is free# and t,en forwarded( $ subnet using t,is principle is called a point-to-point# store-andforward or packet switched subnet( Nearl+ all &$Ns !e2cept t,ose using satellites" ,a.e store-and-forward subnets( &,en t,e packets are small and all t,e same si-e# t,e+ are called cells( &,en a point-to-point subnet is used# an important design issue is w,at t,e router interconnection topolog+ s,ould be( Some possible topologies are gi.en below9

WAN topo)o&%es:
"tar and $esh topolog+ are commonl+ used in &$Ns !I %$Ns" !>ing# bus and Star topologies are commonl+ used in L$Ns(" Mes# topo)o&+: In a true !full+ connected# complete" mes, topolog+# node is connected to ot,er node !switc,# router" b+ a dedicated point-to-point communication circuit !line"( It is also known as a full+ connected topolog+( T,e term dedicated means t,at t,e link carries traffic onl+ between t,e two de.ices it connects( $ full+ connected mes, network t,erefore ,as n!n-7"5) p,+sical c,annels to link n de.ices( To accommodate t,at man+ links# on t,e network must ,a.e n-7 input5output ports( $ complete mes, offers se.eral ad.antages ot,er network topologies( 6irst# t,e use of dedicated links guarantees t,at eac, connection can carr+ its data load# t,us eliminating t,e traffic problems t,at can occur w,en links must be s,ared b+ multiple de.ices( Second# a mes, topolog+ is robust( If one link becomes unusable# it does not incapacitate t,e entire s+stem(


!%&4 5?: !"))+ Connecte' .es# topo)o&+ $not,er ad.antage is or securit+( &,en message sent tra.els along a dedicated line# onl+ t,e intended recipient sees it( /,+sical boundaries pre.ent ot,er users from gaining access to messages( 6inall+# point-to-point links make fault identification and fault isolation eas+( Traffic can be routed to a.oid links wit, suspected problems( T,is facilit+ enables t,e network manager to t,e precise location of t,e fault and aids in finding its cause and solution( T,e main disad.antages of a mes, are related to t,e amount of cabling and t,e number of I5O ports re:uired( 6irst# because must be connected to ot,er installation and reconfiguration are difficult( Second# t,e s,eer bulk of t,e wiring can be greater t,an t,e a.ailable space !in walls# ceilings# or floors" can accommodate( $nd finall+# t,e ,ardware re:uired to connect eac, link !I5O ports and cable" can be pro,ibiti.el+ e2pensi.e( 6or t,ese reasons a mes, topolog+ is usuall+ implemented in a limited fas,ion - for e2ample# as a backbone connecting t,e main computers of a ,+brid network t,at can include se.eral ot,er topologies( P$rt%$) .es# 7%rre&")$r89 ecause of t,e ,ig, cost and cabling comple2ities of a full+ connected mes,# it is seldom used( Instead# usuall+ one or more computers become switc,ing centers# interconnecting computers wit, ot,ers( Telep,one s+stem is an e2ample of suc, a topolog+(


!%&4 5B: P$rt%$) Mes# >outing becomes an important issue in suc, a topolog+( $lternati.e pat,s are a.ailable between an+ two different nodes it a ,ig, reliabilit+ le.el at low cost(

St$r $n' Tree

!a" Star !%&4 5C

!b" Tree

Star topolog+ ,as alread+ been discussed in L$Ns( In t,is# eac, ,as a dedicated point-to-point link onl+ to a central controller !,ub or router"( $ tree is a .ariation of a star( $s in a star# nodes in a tree are linked to a central ,ub t,at controls t,e traffic to t,e network( ; not plugs directl+ into t,e central ,ub( T,e ma8orit+ of de.ices connect to a secondar+ ,ub t,at in turn is connected to t,e central ,ub( T,e central ,ub in t,e tree is an acti.e ,ub# w,ic, contains a repeater t,at regenerates t,e recei.ed bit patterns before sending t,em out( >epeating strengt,ens transmissions and increases t,e distance a signal can tra.el between sender and T,e secondar+ ,ubs ma+ be acti.e or passi.e( $ passi.e ,ub pro.ides a simple p,+sical connection between t,e attac,ed de.ices( T,e ad.antages and disad.antages of a tree topolog+ are generall+ t,e same as t,ose of a star( T,e addition of secondar+ ,ubs# , allows more de.ices to be attac,ed and can t,erefore increase t,e distance a signal can tra.el between de.ices( In a &$N we ,a.e routers in place of ,ubs(


(+*r%' topo)o&+: Often a network combines se.eral topologies as subnetworks are linked toget,er in a larger topolog+( ;ub ;ub



!%&4 6D4 (+*r%' In addition to t,e topologies described abo.e# t,e routers in a &$N can also be connected in a ring wit, eac, router connected to two ot,er routers( !6ig )7"

!%&4 65 $not,er possibilit+ for a &$N is a satellite or ground radio s+stem( Eac, router ,as an antenna t,roug, w,ic, it can send and recei.e( $ll routers can ,ear t,e output from t,e satellite# and in some cases t,e+ can also ,ear t,e upward transmissions of t,eir fellow routers to t,e satellite as well( Sometimes t,e routers are connected to a substantial point-to-point subnet# wit, onl+ some of t,em , a satellite antenna( Iss"e re)$te' w%t# WANs


6or transmission of data wit,in a L$N# communication is t+picall+ ac,ie.ed b+ transmitting data from source to destination t,roug, a network of intermediate switc,ing nodesB t,is switc,ing network design is sometimes used to implement L$Ns to %$Ns also( T,e switc,ing nodes are not concerned wit, t,e content of dataB rat,er t,eir purpose is to pro.ide a switc,ing facilit+ t,at will mo.e t,e data from node to node until t,e+ reac, t,eir destination( T,e end de.ices t,at wis, to communicate ma+ be referred to as stations( T,e stations ma+ be computers# terminals# or ot,er communicating de.ices( T,e switc,ing de.ices w,ose purpose is to pro.ide communication ma+ be referred to as nodes( Nodes ma+ be connected to eac, ot,er in some topolog+ b+ transmission links( Eac, station attac,es to a node# and t,e collection of nodes is referred to as a communications network( Two :uite different switc,ing tec,nologies are used in &$Ns Circuit Switc,ing /acket Switc,ing

T,ese two tec,nologies differ in t,e wa+ t,e nodes switc, information from one link to anot,er on t,e wa+ from source to destination( <suall+ t,e nodes are not full+ connectedB t,at is# t,ere is not a direct link between possible pair of nodes( 6or data communication# a pat, is to be c,osen from t,e source to destination( T,us routing is anot,er important issue related wit, &ide $rea Networks !T,ese issues are discussed in detail in following lessons(


Telep,one companies and ot,ers ,a.e begun to offer networking ser.ices to an+ organi-ation t,at wis,es to subscribe( T,e subnet is owned b+ t,e network operator# pro.iding communication for t,e customer4s ,osts and terminals( Suc, a s+stem is called a p"*)%c network( It is often a part of t,e public telep,one s+stem( Some of t,e e2ample data communication ser.ices are9 Distributed Lueue Dual us !DLD " Switc,ed %ultimegabit Data !S%DS" '()* 6rame >ela+ ISDN and $T% !DLD will be discussed in t,e following lessons"



S%DS is a for ,andling ,ig,-speed communications for %$Ns( It was de.eloped to support organi-ations t,at need to e2c,ange data between a number of L$Ns located in different parts of a cit+ or large campus( S%DS is a good c,oice for users w,o re:uire a data rate greater t,an t,at of switc,ed5*A!telep,one compan+ w,ic, is t,e digital e:ui.alent of analog switc,ed line" or Digital Data DDS !t,is is t,e digital e:ui.alent of an analog leased line using T-7 or T-? lines"( Leasing ,ig,speed( lines for full+ connecting t,e L$Ns could be .er+ e2pensi.e( S%DS is an alternati.e solution for t,is problem9


!%&4 664 Interconnect%on "s%n& SMDS S%DS network acts like a ,ig,-speed L$N backbone# allowing packets from an+ L$N to flow to an+ ot,er L$N( etween t,e L$Ns# in t,e customer4s offices# and t,e S%DS network# in t,e telep,one compan+4s offices# is a !s,ort" access line leased from t,e telep,one compan+( <suall+# t,is line is a %$N and uses DLD ( S%DS is designed to ,andle burst+ traffic( In ot,er words# once in a w,ile a packet ,as to be carried from one L$N to anot,er :uickl+# but muc, of t,e time t,ere is no L$N-to-L$N traffic( 6or intermittent traffic# leased lines are an e2pensi.e solution# and S%DS is priced to compete wit, t,em( &it, n L$Ns# a full+ connected leased line network re:uires leasing n!n-7"5) possibl+ long# e2pensi.e lines# w,ereas S%DS onl+ re:uires leasing n s,ort access lines to t,e nearest S%DS router( &it, S%DS# eac, L$N connects to a telep,one compan+ switc,# w,ic, routes packets t,roug, t,e S%DS network as needed to reac, t,e destination# possibl+ tra.ersing multiple switc,es in t,e process(


T,e basic S%DS is a simple connectionless packet T#e SMDS p$cket cons%sts o, t#ree ,%e)'s: t,e destination address !F b+tes"# t,e source address !F b+tes"# and a .ariable lengt, pa+load field for up to G7FF b+tes of user data( T,e mac,ine on t,e sending L$N t,at is connected to t,e access line puts t,e packet on t,e access line# and S%DS makes a best effort attempt to it to t,e correct destination( No guarantee is gi.en( T,e pa+load can contain an Et,ernet packet# an I % token ring packet# an I/ packet or an+t,ing else(

'()* is a packet switc,ed standard used in a &$N( '()* re:uires digital signaling on t,e telep,one lines and pro.ide an interface between public packet switc,ed networks and t,eir customers( T,e data link la+er deals wit, transmission errors on t,e telep,one line between t,e user4s e:uipment and t,e public network !router"( T,e network la+er protocol deals wit, addressing# flow control# confirmation# interrupts# and related issues( It allows t,e user to establis, .irtual circuits and t,en send packets of upto 7)F b+tes on t,em( T,ese packets are deli.ered reliabl+ and in order( %ost '()* networks work at speeds upto A@ kbps# w,ic, makes t,em obsolete for man+ purposes but still t,e+ are widespread( '()* is connection-oriented and supports bot, switc,ed .irtual circuits and permanent ones( $ switched virtual circuit is created w,en one computer sends a packet to t,e network asking to make a call to a remote computer( Once establis,ed# packets can be sent t,e connection# alwa+s in order( '()* pro.ides flow control# to make sure a fast sender cannot swamp a slow or bus+ $ permanent .irtual circuit is used t,e same ma+ as a switc,ed one# but it is set up in ad.ance b+ agreement between t,e customer and t,e carrier( It is alwa+s present# and no call setup is re:uired to use it( It is analogous to a leased line( '()* '()*



/acket network




!%& 694 >46< DTE - Data Terminal E:uipment DCE- Data Circuit -terminating E:uipment '()* defines t,e procedures for data transmission between a DTE I DCE( DTE can be a terminal# microcomputer# printer# fa2-mac,ine or an+ ot,er t,at generates or consumes digital data# w,ic, it passes to t,e DCE wit, necessar+ control information( DCE includes an+ functional unit t,at transmits or data in t,e form of an analog or digital signal t,roug, a network( Commonl+ used DCE include modems(

6rame >ela+ is a for people w,o want an absolute bare-bones connection oriented wa+ to mo.e bits from $ to at reasonable speed and low cost( Leased telep,one lines are now fast# digital# and reliable and computers are fast and in e2pensi.e( T,is suggests t,e use of simple protocols# wit, most of t,e work being done b+ t,e user4s computers rat,er t,an b+ t,e network( It is t,is en.ironment t,at frame rela+ addresses( 6rame >ela+ can be t,oug,t of as a .irtual leased line( T,e '%,,erence of a .irtual leased line wit, an $ct"$) one is t,at# user can send traffic all da+ long at ma2imum speed wit, an actual leased line( &it, a -%rt"$) one# data bursts ma+ be sent at full speed# but t,e long-term a.erage usage must be below a predetermined le.el( In return# t,e carrier c,arges muc, less for a .irtual line t,an a p,+sical one( 6rame rela+ competes wit, '()* permanent .irtual circuits operational at ,ig,er speeds t,an '()*# usuall+ at 7(* %bps( !r$.e Re)$+ pro-%'es $ .%n%.$) ser-%ce# primaril+ a wa+ to determine t,e start and end of eac, frame# and detection of transmission errors( If a bad frame is recei.ed# t,e frame rela+ simpl+ discards it( It is upto t,e user to t,at a frame is missing and take t,e necessar+ action to <nlike '()*# frame rela+ does not pro.ide acknowledgments or normal flow control( It does ,a.e a bit in t,e ,eader# , w,ic, one end of a connection can set to indicate to t,e ot,er end t,at problems e2ist( T,e use of t,is bit is upto t,e users( T,us 6rame >ela+ eliminates t,e e2tensi.e error c,ecking necessar+ in '()* protocol( !r$.e re)$+ oper$tes in t,e p,+sical and data link la+ers of t,e OSI model( No protocol is specified for t,e p,+sical la+erB t,e c,oice is up to t,e user(


In t,e data link la+er# frame rela+ uses a simplified .ersion of ;DLC protocol wit, t,e flag# 6CS and information fields as t,e same( T,e address and control fields# , ,a.e been combined into a single field( T,is field is a data link connection identifier !DLCI"( 6rame >ela+ pro.ides more congestion control t,an error control( 6rame rela+ transmission is based on permanent .irtual circuit !/=C" connections( T,e DLCI identifies a permanent .irtual circuit t,at is set up w,en t,e s+stem is put in place( $ll traffic between two gi.en stations takes t,e same pat,( T,e use of /=Cs means t,at routing information is included in t,e destination information( T,e pat, from point $ to pint D alwa+s passes t,roug, t,e same nodes( T,us# if t,e network knows t,e destination# it knows t,e route( + rel+ing on permanent .irtual circuits# t,e functions of routing and switc,ing# traditionall+ ,andled b+ t,e network la+er# can be ,andled b+ t,e data link la+er( Instead of re:uiring bot, a network la+er address and a data link la+er address# t,erefore# frame rela+ satisfies bot, functions wit, t,e DLCI( /acket switc,ing occurs at t,e network la+er w,ere t,e transmission unit is t,e packet( 6rame rela+ !frame switc,ing" occurs at t,e data link la+er w,ere t,e transmission unit is t,e frame(

Switc, Switc, Switc, 6rame rela+ network C D Switc, E

!%&4 6;4 !r$.e re)$+ network


Switc,es in t,e frame rela+ network ,a.e onl+ two functions( &,en a frame is recei.ed# t,e switc, c,ecks it for errors using t,e 6CS field w,ic, is a C>C( If t,e frame is intact# t,e switc, t,en compares t,e DLCI tan entr+ in a switc,ing table( T,e table tells t,e switc, w,ic, outgoing port corresponds to t,at DLCI and t,erefore to t,e correct /=C( T,e switc, t,en sends t,e frame out t,roug, t,at port( If an error is found in t,e frame# t,e switc, discards it( T,e sender does not need to know w,ere or w,en a frame is discarded or lost# onl+ t,at a frame ,as not arri.ed at its destination( $t t,e t,e transport la+er c,ecks t,e integrit+ of t,e transmission( If# somet,ing is missing# it re:uests t,at segments retransmission( T,e 8ob of a switc, in frame rela+ is to c,eck but not to correct errors# and to route frames along predetermined pat,s( $n issue in frame rela+ is congestion control( ecause t,e standard eliminates flow control# t,e switc,es and destination can become congested wit, data( Congestion not onl+ dela+s traffic but# w,en ,ea.+ enoug,# can cause a node to fail( 6rame rela+ pro.ides wa+s to lessen t,e probabilit+ of its occurrence( $n+time a switc, in permanent .irtual circuit encounters congestion# it warns its downstream switc,es and destination b+ turning on t,e 6ECN !6orward E2plicit Congestion Notification" bit b+ setting it to 7( T,is bit tells downstream de.ices t,at congestion ,as begun and t,at t,e+ ma+ e2pect some frames to be discarded( T,e in turn# can set t,e ECN bit ! ackward E2plicit Congestion Notification" to warn upstream switc,es and t,e sender t,at t,e link is congested and to send frames more slowl+( 6rame rela+ can be implemented as a &$N backbone to connect a number of L$Ns using T-7 links( To do so re:uires t,e addition of interface de.ices called frame rela+ assembler5disassemblers !6>$Ds"( T,is simple assembles and disassembles packets coming from ot,er protocols to allow t,em to be carried b+ frame rela+ frames(


ISDN is an e2ample of a circuit-switc,ed network and is an communications standard t,at pro.ides uni.ersal end-to-end digital lines( $n ISDN allows users to send data# .oice# image# facsimile# and so on t,e same wires and to ,a.e read+ access to digital ser.ices( T,e purpose of t,e ISDN is to pro.ide full+ integrated digital ser.ices to users( T,ese ser.ices fall into t,ree categories9 earer ser.ices Teleser.ices Supplementar+ ser.ices


earer ser.ices pro.ide t,e means to transfer information !.oice# data and .ideo" between users wit,out t,e network manipulating t,e content of t,at information( T,e network does not need to process t,e information and t,ere face does not c,ange t,e content( T,e+ can be pro.ided using circuit-switc,ed# packet-switc,ed# frame-rela+ or cell - rela+ networks( Te)eser-%ces9 In teleser.icing# t,e network ma+ c,ange or process t,e contents of t,e data( Teleser.ices rel+ on t,e facilities of t,e bearer ser.ices and are designed to accommodate comple2 user needs wit,out t,e user , to be aware of t,e details of t,e process( Teleser.ices include Telep,ones# telete2# telefa2# .ideote2# tele2 and teleconferencing( S"pp)e.ent$r+ Ser-%ces: Supplementar+ ser.ices are t,ose ser.ices t,at pro.ide additional functionalit+ to t,e bearer ser.ices and teleser.ices( E2amples of t,ese ser.ices are re.erse c,arging# call waiting# and message ,andling(

/o%ce Co.."n%c$t%ons o-er $n$)o& Networks9 Initiall+ telecommunications networks were entirel+ analog and were reser.ed for t,e transmission of analog information in t,e form of .oice( T,e local loops connecting subscriber4s ,and set to t,e telep,one compan+ central office were also analog( /o%ce $n' D$t$ Co.."n%c$t%on o-er An$)o& Networks9 &it, t,e ad.ent of digital processing# subscribers needed to e2c,ange data as well as .oice( %odems were de.eloped to allow digital e2c,anges e2isting analog lines( An$)o& $n' D%&%t$) Ser-%ces to S"*scr%*ers9 To reduce cost and impro.e performance# t,e telep,one companies graduall+ began to add digital tec,nologies w,ile continuing t,eir analog ser.ices to t,eir customers( Inte&r$te' D%&%t$) Network 7IDN89 Ne2t# customers began to re:uire access to a .ariet+ of networks# suc, as packet switc,ed networks and circuit-switc,ed networks( To meet t,ese needs# t,e telep,one companies created integrated digital networks !IDNs"( $n IDN is a combination of networks a.ailable for different purposes( $ccess to t,ese networks is b+ digital pipesB w,ic, are time-multiple2ed c,annels s,aring .er+ ,ig,-speed pat,s( Customers can use t,eir local loops to transmit bot, .oice and data to t,eir telep,one compan+4s central office( T,e office t,en directs t,ese calls to t,e appropriate digital networks .ia t,e


digital pipes( %a8orit+ of subscribers toda+ continue to use analog local loops# alt,oug, digital local loop ser.ices suc, as switc,ed5*A# DDS# and DSS are a.ailable(

Sw%tc#e'1<= Ser-%ce: Switc,ed5*A is t,e digital .ersion of an analog switc,ed line( It is a switc,ed digital t,at allows data rates of upto *A kbps( To communicate t,roug, t,is bot, parties must subscribe( $ caller wit, normal telep,one cannot connect to a telep,one or computer wit, switc,ed5*A e.en if using a modem( Instead of modems# t,e subscribers re:uire anot,er called Digital <nit !DS<"( T,e DS< c,anges t,e rate of t,e digital data created b+ t,e subscriber4s to *A kbps and encodes it in t,e format used b+ t,e pro.ider( D%&%t$) D$t$ Ser-%ce 7DDS89 DDS uses a digital leased line( T,e ma2imum speed a.ailable DDS is t,e same as switc,ed5*A( ; t,e subscriber can c,oose among fire actual rates 9)(@# @(F# G(A#7G() or *A Like switc,ed5*A# DDS re:uires t,e use of a DS<( T,e DS< for t,is is c,eaper t,an t,at re:uired for switc,ed5*A# because it does not need a dial pad !since it uses a leased line and not switc,ed facilit+"( D%&%t$) S%&n$) 7DS8 Ser-%ce: DS is a ,ierarc,+ of digital TD% signals w,ere eac, le.el supports different data rates( T lines !T-7 to T-@" are t,e implementation of DS ser.ices( T-lines ,a.e alread+ been discussed in Lesson -III( Inte&r$te' Ser-%ces D%&%t$) Network 7ISDN89 T,e ISDN integrates customer ser.ices wit, t,e IDN( To recei.e t,e ma2imum benefit from t,e integrated digital networks# t,e ne2t step is to replace t,e analog local loops wit, digital subscriber loops( =oice transmission can be digiti-ed at t,e source# t,ereb+ t,e final need for analog carriers( It t,en becomes possible to send data# .oice# image# facsimile# and so on an+ digital network( &it, ISDN all customer ser.ices will become digital rat,er t,an analog# and t,e fle2ibilit+ offered b+ t,e new


tec,nolog+ will allow customer ser.ices to be made a.ailable on demand( ISDN will allow all communications in a ,ome or building to occur .ia a single interface(

&,en t,e ISDN was originall+ designed# data rates of A@ kbps to 7(*@@ %bps were sufficient to ,andle all e2isting transmission needs( $s applications using t,e telecommunications networks ad.anced# t,ese rates pro.ed inade:uate to support man+ applications( In addition# t,e original bandwidt,s pro.ed too narrow to carr+ t,e large numbers of concurrent signals produced b+ a growing industr+ of digital pro.iders( To pro.ide for t,e needs of t,e ne2t generation of tec,nolog+# an e2tension of ISDN# called broadband ISDN ! -ISDN" is under stud+( -ISDN pro.ides subscribers to t,e network wit, data rates in t,e range of ADD %bps( -ISDN is based on t,e use of fiber-optic cable at all le.els of telecommunications# -ISDN offers two ser.ices9 a" Interacti.e9 two-wa+ ser.ices b" Distributi.e9 one-wa+ from pro.ider to subscriber


$T% is a cell rela+ tec,nolog+ w,ic, w,en combined wit, -ISDN will allow ,ig,-speed interconnection of all t,e world4s networks t,ereb+ pro.iding .ideo on demand# ,ig, speed computing etc( Some of t,e ob8ecti.es5design goals of $T% are9 7( )( Optimi-e t,e use of ,ig, data-rate transmission media suc, as optical fiber S+stem t,at can interface wit, e2isting s+stems suc, as .arious packet networks# and to pro.ide wide area between t,em wit,out lowering t,eir effecti.eness or re:uiring t,eir replacement( Design t,at can be implemented ine2pensi.el+ so t,at cost would not be a barrier to adoption( S+stem must be able to work wit, and support t,e e2isting telecommunications ,ierarc,+ !local loops# local pro.iders# long - distance carriers etc("

?( @(


*( A(

S+stem must be connection-oriented to ensure accurate and predictable %o.e as man+ of t,e functions to ,ardware as possible !for speed" and eliminate as man+ software functions as possible(

T,e $T% data packet is called a cell and is composed of *? b+tes !* b+tes of ,eader and @F b+te of pa+load"( Cell switc,ing is ,ig,l+ fle2ible and can ,andle bot, constant rate traffic !audio and .ideo" and .ariable rate traffic !data" easil+( ecause eac, cell is t,e same si-e and all are relati.el+ small# dela+ and ot,er problems associated wit, multiple2ing different si-ed packets are a.oided( 6or tele.ision distribution w,ere broadcasting is essential# cell switc,ing pro.ides ad.antage in contrast to circuit switc,ing# w,ic, cannot be used for broadcasting( $T% networks are connection- oriented( %aking a call re:uires first sending a message to set up t,e connection( $fter t,at# subse:uent cells all follow t,e same pat, to t,e destination( Cell is not guaranteed# but t,eir order is( $ cell network is based on permanent .irtual circuit !/=C" routing( $ =irtual /at, Identifier !=/I" specifies t,e pat, a cell s,ould take( $T% can ,andle or minimi-e t,e se.erit+ of a" Out of se:uence packets b" Dela+ time between packets of a message c" it errors In t,e term $T%# $s+nc,ronous means t,at t,e cells are independent of eac, ot,er wit, potentiall+ different gaps between t,em( T,e cells are transmitted onl+ w,en t,ere is data(

Co.p$r%son o, Ser-%ces:
$n important consideration wort, e2ploring is t,at w,+ so man+ incompatible and o.erlapping ser.ices e2ist# including DLD # S%DS# '()*# frame rela+# ISDN# $T% and more( T,e underl+ing reason is t,e 7GF@ decision to break up $T I T and foster competition in t,e telecommunications industr+( Different companies wit, different interests and tec,nologies are now free to offer w, ser.ices t,e+ t,ink t,ere is a demand for# and man+ of t,em are doing t,is( DLD is an unswitc,ed %$N tec,nolog+ t,at allows *? b+te cells !@@ are pa+load" to be sent down long wires wit,in a cit+( S%DS is a switc,ed datagram tec,nolog+ for sending datagrams an+w,ere in a network( '()* is an older connectionoriented networking tec,nolog+ for transmitting small .ariable si-ed packets at A@ Mbps(


6rame rela+ is a t,at pro.ides .irtual leased lines( 6inall+# $T% is designed to replace t,e entire circuit switc,ed telep,one s+stem wit, cell switc,ing and be able to ,andle data and tele.ision as well( Some differences between t,ese competitors are summari-ed below9

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN N Issue DLD S%DS '()* 6rame-rela+ $T% OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OConnection-oriented +es no +es +es +es Normal Speed !%bps" @* @* DA@ 7(* 7** Switc,ed no +es +es no +es 6i2ed-si2 pa+load +es no no no no %a2(pa+load @@ G7FF 7)F 7ADD .ariable /ermanent =CS no no +es +es +es %ulticasting no +es no no +es OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO !%&4 6<4 D%,,erent network%n& ser-%ces4

SUMMARE: 7( )( $ computer network is an interconnected collection of autonomous s+stems( T,e interconnections are used for communication of data and information( $ line configuration defines t,e relations,ip of communication de.ices to a communications pat,wa+( In a point-to-point configuration# two and onl+ two de.ices are connected b+ a dedicated link( In a multipoint !broadcast" line configuration man+ de.ices ma+ s,are a link( Topolog+ refers to t,e p,+sical or logical arrangement of a network( De.ices ma+ be arranged in a mes,# star# tree# bus# ring or ,+brid topolog+( Computer Networks ma+ be categori-ed according to transmission tec,nolog+ used and according to scale(

?( @(



$ccording to transmission tec,nolog+ used# a computer network ma+ be categori-ed as broadcast or store-and-forward !point-to-point"( $ network can be categori-ed as a Local $rea Network !L$N"# a %etropolitan $rea Network !%$N"# or a &ide $rea Network !&$N" according to scale( $ L$N is a data communication s+stem wit,in a building# room# or campus# or nearb+ buildings( $ %$N is a data communication s+stem co.ering an area t,e si-e of a town or cit+( $ &$N is a data communication s+stem spanning states# countries# or t,e w,ole world( $n internet is a network of networks( DLD is used in %$Ns( It uses two unidirectional buses on w,ic, data tra.el in opposite directions( DLD # S%DS# '()*# 6rame->ela+# ISDN and $T% are .arious e2amples of data communication ser.ices(

A( C( F( G( 7D( 77(

7( &,at is a computer networkP ;ow will +ou classif+ .arious networks according to transmission tec,nolog+ and scaleP )( Distinguis, between point-to-point and broadcast networksP ?( Distinguis, between L$N# %$N and &$NP @( &,at do +ou mean b+ t,e term topolog+P &,at are t,e common topologies followed in L$Ns and &$NsP *( &,at are some of t,e factors t,at determine w,et,er a communication s+stem is a L$N# %$N or &$NP A( &,at are t,e .arious components of a local area networkP


G( 7D(

&,at are t,e .arious components used in a wide area networkP Compare '()*# S%DS and frame rela+(

77( &,at are t,e ad.antages of $T% ot,er ser.icesP