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A FOCUS ON:

ENVIRONMENTAL
POLLUTION
&
IT’s IMPACT ON HUMAN
BEINGS
By Bandana Sahu.

INTRODUCTION:
Environmental pollution is one of the serious problems in most of the mega cities of the
world, especially in developing countries, which not only experiences a rapid growth of
population due to increasing rate of rural urban migration but also industrialization which is
accompanied by air,water and vehicular pollution.
DEFINITION:
Environment pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological
materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the
natural environment, into the atmosphere.
The phenomenal increase in the population during the last 50 years has led to rapid
industrialization and high rate of urbanization. The unprecedented increase in industrialization,
the higher rate of urban growth, and the massive number of people living in megacities have led
to a serious deterioration of the quality of life of urban people. One of the important contributing
factors is the pollution of the physical environment. This paper focuses on the various aspects of
environmental degradation--its sources, contents, effects, and consequences--in Bombay, India.
Environmental pollution in Bombay is very critical, causing a number of health problems. An
increasing number of people are reported to have become victims of asthma, emphysema,
headaches, colds, coughs, irritation of the eyes and nose, and arrays of respiratory illnesses.
Incidence of morbidity and mortality due to environmental pollution is likewise reported to be
increasing in the city. It is recommended that industrial cities like Bombay adopt appropriate
measures to combat this growing problem. Some of these measures are highlighted
TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:
There are three types of environmental pollution:
1. AIR POLLUTION
2. WATER POLLUTION
3. SOIL POLLUTION
4. NOISE POLLUTION

1. AIR POLLUTION:
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials
that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural
environment, into the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support
life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized
as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.
Causes of air pollution:
The most well-known and pervasive causes of air pollution are man-made. The burning
of petroleum products is a very common cause of air pollution, especially in metropolitan areas.
This pollution comes from chemical factors present when these fuels combust. When
hydrocarbons such as gasoline are burned, they produce carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Incomplete combustion leads to carbon monoxide also being created as a byproduct.
Indoor pollutants include tobacco smoke; radon, an invisible radioactive gas.

• Chemicals released from synthetic carpets and furniture, pesticides, and household
cleaners.

• Indoor air levels of many pollutants may be 2 to 5 times higher than outdoor levels which
is harmful to us.

• Inefficient or improperly vented heaters.


Impact on environment:
1. Causes diseases like asthma & cancer
2. Harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems
3. Causes acid rain and snow harmful both man, animal and water and plants
4. The oxides combine with water vapour in the air to form acids, which return to the
ground as acid rain.
5. Forest Destruction
6. Smog, a mixture of smoke (particulates) and fog, irritates the eyes, throat, and lungs and
also damages plants.
7. Ozone Layer Depletion
8. Bhopal-India Gas Tragedy
9. Asthma

2. WATER POLLUTION:
Defn: The surface water some times contains high concentration of suspended solid
organic and inorganic materials, bacteria, viruses and protozoa and other living beings.
They make the water unfit for domestic and industrial; purpose and causes water
pollution
Causes of water pollution:
• Pollutants from industrial sources may pour out from the outfall pipes of factories.

• Cities and other residential communities contribute mostly sewage in water pollution.

• Pollutants from such agricultural sources as farms, poultry farms contribute animal
wastes, and agricultural chemicals.

• Petroleum Products

• Pesticides and Herbicides

• Heavy Metals

• Hazardous Wastes

• Excess Organic Matter

• Sediment

• Infectious Organisms

• Thermal Pollution
Impact on environment: The various pollutants that causes physical, chemical and biological
changes in water are
1 .zinc and lead pollutant is fatal for organism.
2. presence of organic residue in water causes adverse effect on organism.
3. the contaminated water with oxides of nitrogenif combines with the hemoglobin impairs the
oxygen transportation system of the blood.
3. SOIL POLLUTION
1. Soil pollution is a build-up of toxic chemical compounds, and pathogens (disease-
causing organisms).
2. Soil pollution has seriously degraded soil quality, and enhanced erosion.
3. Fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides destroy useful organisms such as bacteria,
fungi, and other micro-organisms.
4. NOISE POLLUTION
Causes of noise pollution:

• Automobiles, trucks, and aircraft. Construction equipment, farm machines, and


machinery inside factories.

• Some home appliances, shop tools, and lawn-mowers fire-crackers, and some toys.

• High volume music

• The engines of ships and off-shore oil exploration and drilling are also noisy.
Impacts:
• Exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or
damaging to the ears.
DIAGRAM SHOWING NOISE LEVELS

A COMPARATIVE MAP OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION BETn MAN MACHINE:


STRATEGIS TO CONTROL ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION:

• Re-using paper and much domestic waste.

• Not using cups and plates made of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

• Educating rag-pickers who are the carriers of pollution-causing products


AFFORESTATION
• Planting new trees and saplings.
• Controlling the rate of deforestation in our home gardens and schools.
• Protecting forests by creating awareness.
• Promoting wild life sanctuaries.
• Donating money for maintenance of parks, orchards and other natural resources.
• Presenting our show case at various places to create awareness on evil effects of
environment pollution.
• Using flower pots and earthen pots for growing plants and flowers in case we don’t
have garden in our homes.

• Not encouraging purchase of goods made of wood.

BANNING POLYTHENES
• Say no to polythene-the enemy of our environment.
• Raising campaigns against the use of Polythene

• Using other alternative sources like paper bags or other degradable material instead
of polythene
CHANGE IN ATTITUDE TOWARDS OUR ENVIRONMENT
• Promoting flora and fauna in our vicinity
• Minimizing pollution by home appliances.

• Getting our vehicles/mopeds regularly checked so that their emission must be in the
permissible limits and they should be non-polluting vehicles.
• Avoid burning fossil fuels or other fuels.
COMBATING NOISE POLLUTION

• Avoiding high-sound music and sound.

• Avoiding continuous persistent blaring of our vehicle horns while driving.

• Creating awareness regarding the hazards of Noise Pollution.

• Discourage DJ Culture, dance and higher decibel creating music partie


COMBATING WATER POLLUTION

• Keep the water masses near our home like rivers, ponds, lakes clean.

• Avoid throwing any garbage like polybags, etc. into the river water.

• Wage a campaign for cleaning of river water near our habitat.

• Proper sewage system


CONCLUSION:
So far as we discussed above the merits and demerits, causes and effects, we should
aware about the changes in environment, its impact on the environment, mainly on the human
beings and living creature, and we the humans should try to stop the pollutions as well as to save
earth.