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Finite Element Methods Kent L. Lawrence
Finite Element Methods
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INTRODUCTION
FEM - A widely used method for
obtaining numerical solutions to
engineering problems of many
types.
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Developed primarily in 1950s
by air frame manufacturers.

Growth has paralleled that of
digital computers.
FEM
Software
ANSYS
MSC NASTRAN
ABAQUS
AUTODESK
SIMULATION
NISA
etc.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_
finite_element_software_packages
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FEM ELEMENT LIBRARY
(Building Blocks)
Structural Elements
Trusses
Beams
Plates (Shells)

Continuum
Elements
Tetrahedra
Hexahedra (Bricks)
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STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
* Static Response
Deflection & Stress
Buckling
Nonlinear Behavior
Thermal Stress
* Dynamic Response
Natural Frequencies
Harmonic Response
Transient Response
Random Response
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OTHER FIELD PROBLEMS

* Heat Transfer
* Fluid Flow
* Electromagnetics
* Torsion
* Seepage

Multiphysics Analysis
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* Easily Automated

* In Wide Use

* Treats - Irregular Shapes,
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METHOD

* A portion (element) is analyzed to
determine I/O relationships.

* Math model is built from math
description of elements. Like
Circuit analysis

* Contrast with finite difference. Apply
differences to whole region.
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TYPICAL
FEM
ELEMENT
LIBRARY
Truss &
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EXAMPLES
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TRANSMISSION TOWER
(ANSYS)
3D Truss
Elements
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BIKE FRAME
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FEM Model of Frame (ANSYS)
2DBeam
Elements
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RETAINING RING (ANSYS)
Plane Stress
Triangular
Elements
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GEAR STRESSES (ABAQUS)
Plane Stress
Elements
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HYPERSONIC VEHICLE
(NASTRAN)
Plate (Shell)
Elements
6 dof/node
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BIKE FRAME (ALGOR)
Plate (Shell)
Elements
6 dof/node
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CONNECTOR (ANSYS)
Tetrahedral
Solids
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BAR (ANSYS)
Hexahedral
(Brick)
Solids
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CONNECTING ROD (COMCO)
Brick
Elements
Variable
Polynominal,
3 dof/node
The FEM Process
Preprocessor
Build the Model
Equation Solution
Solve the Equations
Post Processor
View & Evaluate the Solution

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ANSYS is installed in the CAD lab &
will be used in this course.
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ANSYS Modes
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ANSYS Classic (APDL)

ANSYS Workbench - WB Flow

Workbench (Preprocessor) >

APDL (Analysis) >

Workbench (Postprocessor)
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APDL Stand-alone
Modes
Batch - Input from a text file.

Combination - Batch + Interactive.
APDL Modeling
XYZ Axes

Nodes
n, x, y, z

FEM elements

Material & Geom
Properties

Element
Connections

Boundary Conds

/FILNAM,truss2
/title Truss Sample Problem #2
/prep7
n, 1, 0.0, 0.0 ! Node 1 is located at (0.0, 0.0)
n, 2, 10.5, 0.0
n, 3, 0.0, 20.0
n, 4, 10.5, 20.0
n, 5, 10.5, 30.0
n, 6, 20.0, 20.0

mp, ex, 1, 3.e7 ! Material Property, Elastic modulus no. 1
mp, prxy, 1, 0.3
mp, ex, 2, 1.e7
mp, prxy, 2, 0.3

r, 1, 0.5 ! 'Real Constant' number 1 is 0.5 (Cross sectional area)
r, 2, 0.375 ! Second cross sectional area !
! Set real & material properties for elements defined next.

real, 1
mat, 1
en, 1, 1, 2 ! Element Number 1 connects nodes 1 & 2
en, 2, 1, 3
en, 3, 1, 4
en, 4, 2, 4
en, 5, 3, 4

real, 2 ! Switch to second set of real & material properties
mat, 2
en, 6, 3, 5
en, 7, 4, 5
en, 8, 5, 6
en, 9, 4, 6

d, 1, ux, 0. ! Displacement at node 1 in x-dir is zero
d, 1, uy, 0. ! Displacement at node 1 in x-dir is -0.125
d, 2, uy, 0.

f, 6, fy, -1000. ! Force at node 6 in y-direction
RESULTS
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APDL
Cylinder with Internal Pressure
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Sx Plot
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APDL
Resources
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Lesson 1 - Trusses
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Lesson 2 - Plane
Stress/Strain
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Lesson 3 - Axisymmetric
Probs
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Lesson 4 - 3D Problems
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Lesson 5 - Beams
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Lesson 6 - Plates
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Lesson 7 - Heat Transfer
and Thermal Stress
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Lesson 8 p Method
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Web Sites
http://ansys.net/

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/

http://mae.uta.edu/~lawrence/
ansys/ansys_examples.htm
ANSYS Workbench
Interface
Workbench Flow
Workbench
(Preprocessor)
APDL
(Solution)
Workbench
(Post Processor)
(www.psdgraphics.com)
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Workbench
Resources
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Chapters 1-3
cover Solid Modeling
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Chapter 4
Simulation I
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Chapter 5
Simulation II
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Chapter 6
Wizards & Tools
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Chapter 7
Heat Transfer &
Thermal Stress
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Chapter 8
Surface & Line Models
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Chapter 9
Natural Frequencies
Chapter 10
Nonlinear Problems
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Finite Element
Applications
with ANSYS
WB 14, H-H
Lee, SDC
Publications,
2012
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Lee - Contents
Introduction
Sketching
2D Simulations
3D Solid Modeling
3D Simulations
Surface Models
Line Models
Optimization
Meshing
Buckling and Stress
Stiffening
Modal Analyses
Structural Dynamics
Nonlinear Simulations
Nonlinear Materials
Explicit Dynamics
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NOTATION
MATRIX
STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS
ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRICES
ASSEMBLY OF ELEMENT MATRICES
SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS
POST PROCESSING
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RODS
BEAMS
PLANE STRESS / STRAIN
AXISYMMETRIC PROBLEMS
SOLIDS
PLATES
THERMAL & OTHER FIELD
ELEMENT DEVELOPMENT
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Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
u
w
v
u
Nodes
Elements
x
z
y
u
w
v
u
Nodes
Elements
x
z
y
NOTATION
GLOBAL
COORD
SYSTEM
x
u
y
u
z
u
x
u
y
u
z
u
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ELEMENT STIFFNESS
{ } | |{ } d k r =
stiffness
displacements
{ } | |{ } D K R =
R
D
R
D
R
D
Linear
R
D
Linear
GLOBAL STIFFNESS
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TRUSS ELEMENT
1
r
1
d
2
r
2
d
E A,
x
L
1
r
1
d
2
r
2
d
E A,
x
L
1
a
2
b
1
a
2
b
P
P
P
P
1D ELEMENT
)
`

=
)
`

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
d
d
k k
k k
r
r
Element node notation >
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SOLID MECHANICS
PP
AE
PL
= o
DIRECT APPROACH
RELATIONSHIP
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LIST-SERV

me6310@mae.uta.edu

http://mae.uta.edu/~lawrence

Also Materials on Mavspace
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Some FEM Images
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Impeller
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Contact Problem
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Component
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Manifold
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Biomechanics
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Valve Spring
Compressor
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Ship Structure
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ElectroMagnetics
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ElectroMagnetics
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Multiphysics
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etc, etc.