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THE UNIVERSITY

OF ILLINOIS

LIBRARY

HIM 1 -

BOTANICAL SERIES

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893

VOLUME XVI

THE GENUS BIDENS

PART II

~~7~

THE LIBRARY OF THE

OCT8-1937

UNIVERSITY OF iLLiNOIS

BY

EARL EDWARD SHERFF

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY

B. E. DAHLGREN

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY

EDITOR

PUBLICATION 389

CHICAGO, U.S.A.

SEPTEMBER 21, 1937

Natural History

BOTANICAL SERIES

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893

VOLUME XVI

THE GENUS BIDENS

THE LIBRARY OF THE

QCT8-1937

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

BY

EARL EDWARD SHERFF

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY

B. E. DAHLGREN

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY

EDITOR

PUBLICATION 389

CHICAGO, U.S.A.

SEPTEMBER 21, 1937

FEINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS

580,5

^

THE GENUS BIDENS

EARL EDWARD SHERFF

102. Bidens acuticaulis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 59: 301. 1915.

PI. CIV, figs. j-r.

Herba annua, tenerrima, 4-9 dm. alta; caule acute angulato,

^ramoso; ramis adscendentibus, acutissime angulatis et fere suba-

\_latis, remote pubescentibus.

Folia petiolata petiolis 2-10 mm.

*j longis, petiolo adjecto 1-4 cm. longa, pinnata vel irregulariter bipin-

^.nata; foliolis (et lobis) linearibus, 0.5-1 mm. latis. Capitula multa,

terminalia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 3-4 mm. alta et 2.5-3.5 mm.

lata (fructificantia demum 1-1.2 cm. alta et 4-5 mm. lata). Involu-

crum basi pubescens; bracteis exterioribus linearibus, plus minusve

pubescentibus, 3-4 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 1.5-3 mm.

longis.

Flores ligulati

circ. 4, parvi, subflavidi vel fere albi, 2-

(4-) striati, 3-5

mm. longi.

Achaenia anguste linearia, subnigra,

plano-convexa, remotissime pubescentia, margine adscendenti-

ciliata, apice erecto-hispida et biaristata, corpore 6-12 mm. longa et

0.5-0.9 mm. lata, aristis retrorsum hamosis 1.5-2 mm. longis.

Type specimen : Collected by John Gossweiler, No. 4052, in herb-

grown woods, Kassuango-Kuiriri, Angola, April 4, 1906 (Brit.,

2 sheets).

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Kassuango-

Kuiriri, Angola.

Specimens examined: Gossweiler 4052 (type, Brit., 2 sheets).

EXPLANATION OF PLATE CIV, figs, j-r

Bidens acuticaulis: j, flowering and fruiting lateral branch of

specimen, X0.68; k, separate leaf, Xl.02; I, portion of an extremely sharp-angled branch, X3.4; ra, exterior involucral bract, X6.79;

n, interior involucral bract, X6.79; o, ray corolla, X6.79; p, palea,

X2.04; q, disc floret, X6.79; r, achene, X2.72; all from 2nd type

sheet

103. Bidens oligocarpa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 206. 1931.

PI. LXXXII, figs. j-l.

Herba annua, erecta, gracilis, 4-6 dm. alta, caule ramisque acriter

tetragonis et sparsissime hispidis. Folia petiolata petiolis tenuibus

347

1 056908

348 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI

ciliatis usque ad 1.5 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto 4-8 cm. longa,

pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis ovatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, valde membranaceis, acriter serratis dentibus indurato-apiculatis, faciebus sparsim minuteque adpresso-hispidis, marginibus ciliatis, terminali

usque ad 2 cm. lato et apice acuminate. Capitula pauca, ramos

(pedunculos) tenuissimos usque ad 8 cm. longos terminantia, radiata,

pansa ad anthesin circ. 1.2-1.6 cm. lata et 5-7 mm. alta. Involucri

subglabri bracteae exteriores 5-7, tenuissime iineares, hispido-

ciliatae, supra moderate dilatatae, apice acerrimae, 1.5-2.3 mm. longae; interiores late lanceolatae vel oblongo-ovatae, apice pubes- centes, 3-3.5 mm. longae. Flores ligulati 4-5, rosacei, ligula oblongi

vel anguste obovati, apice obtuso obsolete denticulati, 7-9 mm.

longi. Achaenia circ. 6-8, linearia, obcompresso-tetragona, omnino

circ. 8- (unica facie 2-) sulcata, atra, superne sensim angustata,

exalata, plus minusve erecto-hispida setis e faciebus ipsis vel e

papillis ortis, corpore 6-10.5 mm. longa et 0.7-0.9 mm. lata, apice

biaristata aristis retrorsum hamosis, 0.4-1 mm. longis.

Type specimen: Collected by C. E. Lloyd, No. 409, State of Sonora,

Mexico, 1890 (Gray).

Distribution: State of Sonora, Mexico.

Specimens examined: Lloyd 409 (type, Gray).

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXII, FIGS, j-l

Bidens oligocarpa: j, cauline leaf, X0.65; k (flowering), I (fruit-

ing), heads, X 0.65; all from type.

104. Bidens amphicarpa Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88: 290. 1929.

PI. LXXXII, figs. a-i.

Herba annua, gracilis, ramosa, 1-6 dm. alta; caule quadrangulato

Folia

tenuiter petiolata petiolis usque ad 2 cm. longis, petiolo adjecto

usque ad 5 cm. longa, pinnatim 3-5-partita; foliolis valde mem-

branaceis, glabratis vel sparsim adpresso-hispidis, ciliatis et ple- rumque minutissime atro-marginatis, unico latere grosse 1-4-serratis

dentibus acerrime apiculatis, lateralibus ovatis, terminali lanceo-

late vel fere lineari. Capitula in pedunculis tenuissimis usque ad

ac saepe purpurascenti, nunc pubescenti nunc glabrato.

1 dm. longis ramos terminantibus disposita, radiata, pansa ad anthe-

Involucri brac-

teae exteriores 5-8, tenuiter Iineares, basi extrinsecus marginaliter-

que superne tantum marginaliter hispidae, apice acerrime mucro-

sin tantum circ. 6-7 mm. alta et 8-10 mm. lata.

natae, demum circ. 4 mm. longae, bracteis interioribus lanceolatis

Field Museum of Natural History

Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate LXXXIX

BIDENS BIGELOVII Gray (figs, a-fc)

BIDENS BIPINNATA L. (figs, l-s)

THE GENUS BIDENS

349

atro-brunneis vel atro-purpurascentibus sed marginibus albido-

diaphanis apice ciliatis plerumque subaequales.

Flores ligulati

circ. 5, ligula oblanceolati, 3-5 striis percursi, subflavidi vel sub-

rosacei, apice saepe 2- (3-) dentati, 5-6 mm. longi; tubulosi 8-14.

Achaenia exteriora subplana, unica facie circ. 4-sulcata, infra parce

supra valde erecto-setosa, badia vel rubro-straminea, corpore 5-8

mm. longa, interiora tereti-quadrangulata, omnino 8-sulcata, maxima

ex parte atra sed apice brunneo-straminea, erecto-setosa (interdum

valde perspicueque tuberculato-setosa), elongato-linearia et supra

saepe cervicem formantia, corpore demum 9-15 mm. longa; omnia

recta vel subrecta, 2-3-aristata aristis tenuibus retrorsum hamosis, 2.5-4 mm. longis, demum saepe caducis.

Type specimen: Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee, Sierra de

la Laguna, Lower California, January 23, 1899 (Calif.).

Distribution: Known only from Lower (Baja) California.

Specimens examined : Brandegee, Sierra de la Laguna, January 23,

1890

1892

(type, Calif.); idem, Sierra de San Francisquito, March 28,

(Field).

Differs from glabrous or subglabrous forms of the similarly

amphicarpous Bidens Anthriscoides DC. in the dissection and outline

of the leaflets, in its proportionately much longer external involucral bracts, 1 and in its straighter achenes. The general aspect is some- what like that in stunted, slender forms of B. pilosa var. bimucronata

f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff, but the very narrow external bracts and the

dimensions of the flowering and fruiting heads (the latter with

fewer achenes) distinguish it from that form.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXII, FIGS, a-i

Bidens amphicarpa: a, flowering and fruiting branch, X0.65;

6, c, exterior involucral bracts, X5.22; d, interior involucral bract,

X5.22; e, ray corolla, X5.22;/, palea, X5.22; g, disc floret, X5.22;

h (outer but not outermost), i (inner), achenes, X2.61; all from type.

105. Bidens oligantha Brandegee, Zoe 5: 224. 1905.

PL LXXXIII, figs. a-h.

Herba erecta, annua, 2-3 dm. alta; caule parce puberulento,

simplici vel supra subramoso. Folia membranacea, breviter petiolata

petiolis 2-8 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto plerumque 1-3 cm. longa,

1 In B. Anthriscoides DC. the outer bracts are only about one-half or three-

fifths the length of the inner ones, notwithstanding DeCandolle's original descrip-

tion ("invol.

.inter se subaequalibus": Prodr. 5: 601. 1836).

350 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI

lamina glabrata, trifida vel tripartita; foliolo terminal! lineari-

lanceolato, acuminate, plus minusve serrato, 1.5-2 cm. longo, latera-

libus ovato-acuminatis, serratis vel inciso-serratis, 5-8 mm. longis.

Capitula pauca, tenuissime pedunculata pedunculis 6-10 cm. longis,

radiata, pauciflora (floribus tubulosis circ. 6-12), pansa ad anthesin

5 mm. lata et

4 mm. alta.

Involucri bracteae exteriores

5,

lineares, perspicue ciliatae, apice acres, circ. 3 mm. longae, inte-

rioribus ovato-lanceolatis late diaphano-marginatis interdum fere

aequales. Flores ligulati circ. 4-5, albidi vel subrosacei, purpureo- striati, circ. 3 mm. longi, triangulato-obovati. Achaenia pauca,

recurvata, tenuiter linearia, subplana, nigra, glabra vel ad angulos

valde tuberculato-hispida, biaristata (vel interdum exaristata ex

Brandeg.), aristis (retrorsum hamosis hamis perpaucis vel demum

calvis) circ. 1 mm. longis; pauca crassiuscula supra et corpore circ.

5 mm. longa, reliqua attenuata supra (et plerumque corpore 7-10

mm. longa! Brandeg. 5 mm. dixit inaccurate!).

Type specimen: Collected by Townsend S. Brandegee at Cofra-

dia (vicinity of Culiacan), State of Sinaloa, Mexico, October 21,

1904 (Calif.).

Distribution: Known only from type locality in the State of

Sinaloa, Mexico.

Specimens examined :Brandegee, Cofradia, October 21, 1904 (type,

Calif.: cotypes, Field; Gray).

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIII, FIGS, d-k

Bidens oligantha: a, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.68;

6, exterior involucral bract, X4.77; c, interior involucral bract,

X4.77; d, ray corolla, X4.77; e, palea, X4.77; /, disc floret, X4.77;

g (outer), h (inner), achenes, X2.72; all from cotype, in Hb. Gray.

106. Bidens Andrei Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61: 495. 1916.

PI. LXXXIV, figs. k-s.

Herba (ad basim suffrutescens?), 1-2 m. alta, glabrata, caule

tetragono et striato; ramis tetragonis, striatis, (superioribus) irregu-

lariter arcuatis et in nonnullos ramulos (vel pedunculos) divisis.

Folia petiolata petiolis 0.3-2 cm. longis basi connatis, petiolo adjecto 2.5-7 cm. longa, bi- vel tri-(vel quadri-) pinnata, supra minute et

non dense adpresso-hispida; ultimis segmentis linearibus, integris

vel lobulatis, indurato-apiculatis. Capitula multa, tenuiter pedun-

culata pedunculis 4-12 cm. longis, radiata, pansa ad anthesin tan-

turn 5-6.5 mm. lata et circ. 4 mm. alta, demum (in fructu) usque ad

1 cm. alta. Involucrum basi plus minusve hispidum, bracteis demum

Field Museum of Natural History

a

b

BIDENS LEPTOCEPHALA Sherfl

Botany. Vol. XVI, Plate XC

d

THE GENUS BIDENS

351

valde et perspicue reflexis; exterioribus (circ. 6) linearibus, apicu-

latis, subsparsim pubescentibus, tantum 1-2 mm. longis; interioribus

lanceolatis, membranaceis, 2-3 mm. longis, margine diaphanis.

Flores ligulati (6 vel pauciores) ligula lanceolati, 4-5-striati, apice

integri, 3-4 mm. longi, in specimine sicco subalbi. Achaenia tenuis-

sime attenuato-linearia, tetragona, ad apicem brunnea, alibi atra,

supra sparsim erecto-hispida, corpore 0.5-1 cm. longa et tantum

0.3-0.6 mm. lata, biaristata aristis glabris vel retrorsum hamosis,

usque ad 1.6 mm. longis.

Type specimen: Collected by Edouard Francois Andre, No. 2878,

at altitude of 1,250 meters, Rio Juanambu, Colombia, April 28,

1876 (Gray).

Distribution: Known only from type locality, Rio Juanambu,

Colombia.

Specimens examined: Andre 2878 (type, Gray: cotype, Kew).

The type specimen was restudied in 1922 and again in 1925.

The 20-30 areolae on the old disks become prominent as the invo-

lucres reflex. There are 37 heads on the type. The plant appears to

be entirely herbaceous, but the label says "suffrutesc.," hence the

lower part of the plant (not present on the sheet) may have been

woody. The species stands very close to B. pilosa var. alausensis f .

scandicina (H.B.K.) Sherff, from which it appears to differ in its

taller stature, more acutely tetragonal stems, longer internodes,

finally much reflexed involucres, and, most of all, its very minute

flowering heads, these measuring only about 4 mm. high and equally wide. 1

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIV, FIGS. k-S

Bidens Andrei: k, flowering and fruiting specimen, X0.65; I,

top of peduncle showing areolate receptacle and involucre reflexed

in age, X9.16; m, portion of leaf showing pubescence, X5.23; n,

exterior involucral bract, X5.23; o, interior involucral bract, X5.23;

p, ray corolla, X5.23; q, palea, X5.23; r, disc floret, X5.23; s, achene, X3.92; all from type.

107. Bidens Anthriscoides DC. Prodr. 5: 600. 1836; cf. Sherff,

Bot. Gaz. 61: 497. 1916.

Folia tripartite

Folia bipinnata

PI. LXXXIII, figs. i-q.

B. Anthriscoides sensu stricto.

var. /3. decomposita.

1 It may be observed that in the somewhat comparable case of B. ramosissima

Sherff the finally reflexed involucres and the minute size of the flowering heads

were later concluded to be only subformal variations of B. pilosa var. bimucronata

f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff.

352 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI

Annua, erecta vel suberecta, ramosa, tota dense pubescenti-

hirta vel etiam glabriuscula, 3-5 dm. alta; caule ramisque acriter

tetragonis. Folia tenuiter petiolata petiolis 0.5-3 cm. longis, petiolo

adjecto 3.5-9 cm. longa, membranacea, ciliata, tripartita, infimorum

foliolis lateralibus ovatis acutis subaequalibus medio vix dissimi-

libus, mediorum superiorumque foliolis lateralibus ovatis medio

duplo longiore petiolulato lanceolato utrinque attenuate, omnibus

serratis. Capitula ramulos terminantia, radiata, pansa ad anthesin

8-11 mm. lata et 5-9 mm. alta, tenuiter pedunculata pedunculis 1-8 cm. longis. Involucrum tomentosulum vel breviter hispidulum;

bracteis exterioribus 6-8, adpressis vel subsquarrosis, linearibus,

apice acerrime indurato-mucronulatis, tantum 1.5-3 mm. longis et

non interiores lanceolatas subaequantibus (DeCandolleus invol. squa-

mis disco et inter se subaequalibus dixit per errorem!); interiori-

bus 4-5 mm. longis. Flores ligulati 3 vel 4, parvi, ligula obovato- elliptici, leviter vel valde rosacei (exsiccati saepe subflavidi), apice

truncate vel emarginato obtuse (saepius tri-) dentati, circ. 5 mm.

longi. Achaenia pauca, 3-12 in unico capitulo; exteriora linearia

vel lineari-fusiformia, valde obcompressa, flavido-brunnea vel rufo-

badia, conspicue tuberculato-setulosa, corpore 6-7 mm. longa;

interiora tenuissime elongato-linearia, supra attenuata sed non vero rostrata, subrecta vel saepius recurvata, atra, plus minusve tetra-

gona, tuberculis saepe flavidis tuberculato-setulosa vel saepe una

facie glabrata, corpore 9-21 mm. longa; omnia superne demum late

distantia, apice breviter biaristata; aristis stramineis, retrorsum

hamosis, 0.2-3 mm. longis.

Type specimen: Collected by Jean Luis Berlandier, No. 1010,

Cordillera de Guchilaque (near Cuernavaca, State of Morelos), Mexico, October, 1827 (Del.). 1 Distribution: Southwestern Mexico.

Specimens examined: Berlandier 1010 (type, Del., 3 sheets:

cotypes, Brit.; Flor.; Par.); idem 1152, Cordillera de Guchilaque,

Mexico, October, 1827 (Del., 2 sheets; Flor., aristis saepe brevibus

Pringle 11822 pro parte, ravine near

vel obsoletis; Par.); C. G.

Guadalajara, Jalisco, October 17, 1903 (Field).

As stated before (Sherff, loc. cit.), examination of cotype material in London (Brit.) and Paris (Par.) shows the species to have radiate heads, not discoid as described by DeCandolle, exterior involucral bracts much shorter than the interior, not subequal, and some of the

1 No. 1010 is the first cited specimen and hence may pass as the type.

De

Candolle founded the species upon Berlandier 's Nos. 1010 and 1152, both from

the same locality. The specimens are identical.

THE GENUS BIDENS

353

achenes reaching a total length of 2.1 cm. The type and cotype

specimens are of the very pubescent form and have tripartite leaves.

Bidens Anthriscoides var. 0. decomposita Sherff,

Bot. Gaz. 80: 380. 1925.

A specie foliis bipinnatis (segmentis ultimis oblongo-ovatis, cal-

loso-apiculatis) differt.

Type specimen: Collected by Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, No. 11822

pro parte, ravine (barranca) near Guadalajara, State of Jalisco,

Mexico, October 17, 1903 (Kew).

Distribution: Known only from type locality, near Guadalajara,

State of Jalisco, Mexico.

Specimens examined : Pringle 11822 pro parte (type, Kew: cotypes,

Berl.; Gray; U.S.).

Pringle 11822 in the Herbarium of Field Museum has the leaves tripartite and matches the type material of B. Anthriscoides DC.

(Berlandier 1010, Del.; Brit.; Par.) fairly well except in being gla-

brate. Elsewhere, the specimens of Pringle 11822 are seen to have

delicately bipinnate leaves, similar to those of B. pilosa var. bimu-

cronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. Through this form, apparently best regarded as a variety, B. Anthriscoides DC. is found to be rather

closely related to a form (the B. inermis Wats.) of B. pilosa var.

bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff. 1

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXXXIII, FIGS, i-q

Bidens Anthriscoides: i (lower), j (upper), portions of flowering

and fruiting specimen, X0.68; k, exterior involucral bract, X4.77;

/, interior involucral bract, X4.77; ra, ray floret, X4.77; n, palea, X4.77; o, disc floret, X4.77; p (outer), q (inner), achenes, X2.72;

all from Berlandier 1010 (type collection) i, j, mainly from sheet in Hb. Brit., but partly from sheets in Hb. Par.; k, I, n-q, from sheet

in Hb. Brit.; ra, from sheet in Hb. Par.

108. Bidens Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz.

61:501.1916. PI. LXXXV.

Cosmos Chrysanthemifolius H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 4: 188 (239)

and pi. 382. 1820.

Cosmea Chrysanthemifolia (H.B.K.) Spreng. Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 3: 615.

1826.

Cosmos Chrysanthemoides H.B.K. ex DC. Prodr. 5: 607. 1836.

1 The var. decomposita is not to be confused with the var. angustiloba DC., a

plant referable to B. duranginensis Sherff (q.v.).

354 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI

Cosmea Chrysanthemoides H.B.K. ex Heynhold, Nomencl. 222. 1840.

Kunthii Schz. Bip. in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 308.

Bidens

1852-1857.

Bidens parvulifolia Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 490. 1913.

Herba ut videtur interdum perennis, breviter et dense pilosa vel

maxima ex parte glabrata; caule subsimplici, adscendenti vel plus

minusve repenti, tetragono, 1.5-4 dm. longo.

Folia petiolata

petiolis ciliatis pilosiusculisque 4-13 mm. longis, petiolo adjecto

1-2.5 cm. longa, variabilia; mine pinnato-quinquepartita, circumam-

bitu ovato-triangularia, foliolis oppositis, duobus inferioribus tri- vel

quinquefidis,

tribus superioribus

trifidis,

segmentis obovato-

cuneatis et quibusdam apice bi- vel trilobis lobis acutis; nunc etiam

fere omnia indivisa, ovata, acuta vel subacuminata, serrata. Capi-

tula terminalia, solitaria vel subsolitaria, longe tenuiterque pedun-

culata pedunculis 5-17 cm. longis et plerumque glaberrimis, erecta, radiata, pansa ad anthesin 2-3.3 cm. lata et circ. 6-8 mm. alta.

Involucrum basi hispidum vel omnino glabrum; bracteis exterioribus

7 vel 8, linearibus vel superne saepe subdilatatis, saepe subcarnosis,

apice plerumque obtusis, margine costaque mediana raro paucis

pilis instructis, 2.5-3.5 mm. longis; interioribus lanceolatis, 5-6 mm.

longis. Flores ligulati 5-8, rosacei (vel in speciminibus exsiccatis

saepe subflavidis), ligula oblongo-elliptici vel oblanceolati, apice obsolete denticulati, 1-1.5 cm. longi. Achaenia linearia et inferne

subattenuata, obcompresso-tetragona, glabra, nigra, corpore 4.5-7

mm. longa, biaristata; aristis aurantiaco-flavidis, tenuibus, supra

retrorsum hamosis, 1.2-1.8 mm. longis.

Type specimen: Collected by Alexander Humboldt and Aime

Bonpland, 1799-1804, the locality uncertain; thought by Kunth to have come perhaps from Mexico, but it is known at present only

from Guatemala (Par.).

Distribution: Known only from Department of Amatitlan,

Guatemala. Specimens examined: Heyde & Lux 6162, alt. 900 meters, Frai-

janes, September, 1893 (Berl.; Boiss.; Brit.; Field; Kew; U.S.; nom.

vernac., mosote); iidem 6163, Guatemala (Field, type of Bidens

parvulifolia Sherff) ; iidem 6173, alt. 900 meters, Fraijanes, September,

1893 (Berl.; Brit.; Boiss.; Field; Kew); Humboldt & Bonpland, loco

ignoto (type, Par.); W. A. Kellerman 6112, alt. 2,490 meters, crater

of Volcan de Pacaya, January 6, 1907 (Field) ; Scherzer, alt. 2,700-

3,300 meters, Volcan de Pacaya, August, 1854 (Mus. V., sub nom. Bidente pacayae Schz. Bip.).

Field Museum of Natural History

Botany, Vol. XVI, Plate XCI

BIDENS ENGLERI O. E. Schulz (figs, a-/)

BIDENS CYLINDRICA Sherff (figs, g-l)

OF 'THE

THE GENUS BIDENS

355

This species was stated definitely by DeCandolle (loc. cit.) to

come from Mexico, but Kunth (H.B.K. loc. cit.) was uncertain as to

its native country.

It is known definitely only from Guatemala.

DeCandolle commented upon the closer affinity of the achenes with those of Bidens than with those of Cosmos. Whether he altered the specific name through intent or through error, I am unable to say.

1

But later, Schultz Bipontinus (Seemann, loc. cit.), who frankly declared his belief that Cosmos was not a valid genus, used this

altered name in citing it as a basis for his Bidens Kunthii, which

latter name, according to the International Rules, cannot stand.

Asa Gray (Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 16. 1884) strongly suspected that this plant was merely Bidens humilis H.B.K. and suggested a

reexamination of the type material. Kunth (H.B.K. loc. cit.) had

described the color of the ligules as "violacea, basim versus sulphurea."

This description is borne out, not only by the coloring in the plate

cited (that is, in copies of Kunth's work having the plates colored,

as in John Crerar Library, Chicago), but by the type specimen in

Paris, clearly the one from which the plate was made. This speci-

men, though faded as to its rays, shows at least that the proximal

ends of the rays were colored differently from the remaining portions,

which latter seem surely to have been some shade of red.

More recently, there has been collected in the Department of

Amatitlan, Guatemala, fine material, Heyde & Lux 6173, which

belongs here. Singularly enough, it had been determined by John Donnell Smith as Bidens humilis (cf. Gray, loc. cit.), but the roseate

rays and more or less Cosmos-like aspect are very distinct. The color

of the rays in the dry condition varies from a pronounced roseate

to a faded yellowish color, rather than showing a distinct sulphureous

color definitely located toward the base as described by Kunth.

Still further material from the same small district in Guatemala,

W. A. Kellerman 6112, has been collected and fortunately is in a

more mature condition. The ripe achenes match the ovary figured

by Kunth and show that there is not the slightest tendency to

become rostrate as in most species of Cosmos.

An examination of the original description of Bidens parvulifolia

(Sherff, loc. cit.) shows that the second cited specimen, Heyde &

1 In his Prodromus Herbarium DeCandolle had mistaken a single large speci-

men of Bidens pilosa var. bimucronata f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff for this species. The

original label had said "Bidens Cavanilles" and from the peculiar fades of the

plant, the writing, etc., it is clearly one of the original specimens of Bidens odorata

Cav. that had been sent out by Cavanilles. On the cover, DeCandolle originally

had written "B. Chrysanthemoides? H.B.K." but later had changed the "B." to "C."

356 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XVI

Lux 6162, seen in the United States National Herbarium, was

obtained by the same collectors at the same altitude, locality, and

time as Heyde

& Lux 6173.

The dried ligules were yellowish,

the leaves were pubescent, and all but the top pair were simple.

Since then I have found other specimens (Heyde & Lux 6162) show-

ing numerous intergradations between the simple, pubescent leaves

and the compound, mainly glabrous leaves; also, variations to a

roseate color are shown in the rays.

Thus Bidens parvulifolia,

incredible as