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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

CHAPTER 3 : CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS


A RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS (RAM) AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS (RMM)
Learning Out !"e# You should be able to: state the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale, state the meaning of relative molecular mass based on carbon-12 scale, state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for determining relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass, calculate the relative molecular mass of substances.

A ti$it% & (refer text book pg 28 )


Re'ati$e at!"i "a## !( an e'e"ent ) Ar = The average mass of an atom of the element 1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12 Example: Ar of =12 Ar of !=1" Ar of #g=2$ 1% The &elat've atom'c mass of an element 's (((((((((((((((((((((((%%% (((((((((((((% 2% )hen compare )'th 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon * 12%

arbon-12 's chosen beca+se 't 's a (((((((((% an, can be eas'l- han,le,%

.% /'n, the relat've atom'c masses of these elements% Element alc'+m0 a 1o,'+m0 2a 3ron0 /e opper0 + arbon0 6-,rogen0 6 5otass'+m0 7 4'th'+m0 4' 9rom'ne0 9r &elat've Atom'c #ass Element Argon0 Ar 1'lver0 Ag aes'+m0 s 4ea,0 5b hlor'ne0 l /lo+r'ne0 / Al+m'n'+m0 Al 8'nc0 8n 6el'+m0 6e &elat've Atom'c #ass

A ti$it% * (refer text book pg 2: )


Re'ati$e "!'e u'ar "a## !( a #u+#tan e) Mr = The Average mass of a molec+le of the s+bstance 1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Calculating Relative molecular mass,Mr #r= The s+m of Ar of all atoms present 'n one molec+le Example: Molecular formula 2 Hydrogen atoms

#r of ;ater0 62! = 2(1) < 1" = 18 Relative atomic mass for Oxygen

Relative atomic mass for Hydrogen #r of arbon ,'ox',e0

!2 = 12 < 2(1") = $$

/or 'on'c s+bstance 0 Re'ati$e (!r"u'a "a## ) Fr = The s+m of Ar of all atoms present 'n the form+la Example: /r of #agnes'+m ox',e0 #g! = 2$ < 1" = $= /r of 1o,'+m chlor',e0 2a l = 2. < .>%> = >8%>

All Ar, Mr and Fr have no unit

1% The relat've molec+lar mass of a molec+le 's (((((((((((((((((( (((((((((((((((((((((% )hen compare, )'th 1/12 of the mass of one atom of ((((((((((((((((( 2% alc+late the relat've molec+lar masses of the s+bstances 'n the table belo)% 1+bstance 6-,rogen gas 5ropane Ethanol 9rom'ne gas #ethane ?l+cose Ammon'a @&elat've atom'c mass : 601A .%
2

#olec+lar form+la 62 .68 6>!6 9r2 6$ "612!"

&elat've molec+lar mass0 #r 2(1) = 2

26. 012A !01"A 9r08= A 201$ B

alc+late the relat've form+la masses of the follo)'ng 'on'c compo+n,s 'n the table% 1+bstance 5otass'+m ox',e Al+m'n'+m s+lphate ompo+n, form+la 72! Al2(1!$). &elat've form+la mass0 /r 2(.:) < 1" = :$ 2(2C)<.@.2<$(1")B=.$2

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


8'nc n'trate Al+m'n'+m n'trate alc'+m carbonate alc'+m h-,rox',e 6-,rate, copper(33) s+lphate 6-,rate, so,'+m carbonate 1o,'+m h-,rogen s+lphate Al+m'n'+m chlor',e opper(33) s+lphate 8'nc carbonate 5otass'+m carbonate

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


8n(2!.)2 Al(2!.). a !. a(!6)2 +1!$%>62! "$ < .2 < $(1") < >@2(1) < 1"B=2>=

2a2 !.%1=62!

2a61!$

Al l. +1!$ 8n !. 72 !.

@&elat've atom'c mass: !01"A 012A 601A 70.: A +0"$ A 8n0 ">A l0 .>%> A Al0 2C 10.2 A a0 $=A 2a02.A 20 1$B

, THE MOLE AND THE NUM,ER OF PARTICLES


Learning Out !"e# You should be able to: define a mole as the amount of matter that contains as many particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of 12C, state the meaning of Avogadro constant, relate the number of particles in one mole of a substance with the Avogadro constant, solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles to the number of particles of a given substance and vice versa.

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 A ti$it% 3 (refer text book pg .= )

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

1% To ,escr'be the amo+nt of atoms0 'ons or molec+les 0 mole 's +se,% 2% A mole 's an amo+nt of s+bstance that conta'ns as man- part'cles as the ((((((%% (((((((((((((((((((((((%% 'n exactl- 12g of carbon-12% .% A mole 's an amo+nt of s+bstance )h'ch conta'ns a constant n+mber of part'cles atoms0 'ons0 molec+les )h'ch 's "%=2 x 1=2. $% The n+mber "%=2 x 1=2. 's calle, (((((((((((((( (2A) >% 3n other )or,s: 1 mol of atom'c s+bstance conta'ns (((((((((((% atoms 1 mol of molec+lar s+bstance conta'ns (((((((((((% molec+les 1 mol of 'on'c s+bstance conta'ns (( (((((((((((%% form+la +n'ts

"% &elat'onsh'p bet)een n+mber of moles an, n+mber of part'cles (atom/'on/molec+les): x Avoga,ro onstant n+mber of moles voga,ro onstant 2+mber of moles =%> mol of carbon atoms =%2 moles of h-,rogen gas ( 62) 2+mber of part'cles (((((((((((((( atoms of carbon (') ('') 2 mol of carbon ,'ox',e molec+les ((((((((((%%molec+les of h-,rogen gas (((((((((((%Atoms of h-,rogen n+mber of part'cles A

((((((x 1= 2. molec+les of carbon ,'ox',e gas conta'ns : ((((((% atoms of an,

(((((((% atoms of !

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


=%==C mol of calc'+m 'ons ((((((((((% mol of )ater =%$ mol of oDone gas ( !.)

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


((((((((( calc'+m 'ons "%=2 x 1= 2> molec+les of )ater (((((((%x 1= 2. molec+les of oDone0 conta'ns : ((((((((( atoms of !x-gen%

C%

omplete these sentences % a) 1 mol of calc'+m conta'ns ((((((((((((((((%% atoms b) 2 mol of 'ron conta'ns ((((((((((((((((((%% atoms

c) 2 mol of magnes'+m ox',e0 (#g!) conta'ns ((((((((((((((((%% 'ons ,) 2 mol of so,'+m carbonate0 (2a2 !.) conta'ns (((((((((((((((% e) . mol of carbon ,'ox',e0 ( !2) conta'ns ((((((((((((((%% molec+les f) =%> mol opper (33) n'trate0 +(2!.)2 conta'ns (((((((((((((%% +2< 'ons

an, (((((((((((((((((((% 2!.- 'ons

C NUM,ER OF MOLES AND MASS OF SU,STANCES


Learning Out !"e# You should be able to: state the meaning of molar mass, relate molar mass to the Avogadro constant, relate molar mass of a substance to its relative atomic mass or relative molecular mass, solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles of a given substance to its mass and vice versa.

A ti$it% - (refer text book pg .. )


1% The molar mass of a s+bstance = The molar mass of EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE mole of the s+bstance% = = The mass of (2A) n+mber of part'cles The mass of EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE part'cles

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


x #olar mass

"um#er of moles

#olar mass

Mass in g

2%

alc+lat'ng the #ass from a n+mber of #oles 2+mber of moles = % mass of the s+bstance % #ass of 1 mole of the s+bstance

T.ere(!re : #ass of s+bstance Example 1 : = 2+mber of moles x #ass of 1 mole

;hat 's the mass of 2 moles of carbon F #ass = = 2 x 2$g 12

Example 2 : ;hat 's the mass of 2 moles of 62! F #ass = = .% 2 ."g x @ 2(1) < 1" B

alc+late the masses of these s+bstances b) 1= moles of 'o,'ne atoms #ass =

a) 2 moles of al+m'n'+m atoms #ass =

c) . moles of l'th'+m atoms #ass = e) =%1 moles of so,'+m #ass = g) 1 mole of carbon ,'ox',e ( !2) #ass =

,) =%> moles of ox-gen gas (!2) #ass = f) 2 moles of chlor'ne molec+les ( l2) #ass =

h) . moles of n'tr'c ac',0 ( 62!. ) #ass =

')

2 moles of calc'+m carbonate ( a !. ) #ass =

G)

=%2> moles of calc'+m chlor',e ( a l2 ) #ass =

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


k) =%2> moles of so,'+m h-,rox',e (2a!6) #ass = m) =%> moles of potass'+m manganate (H33) (7#n!$) #ass =

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


l) =%2> moles of so,'+m carbonate (2a2 !.) #ass =

n) =%2> moles of h-,rate, magnes'+m s+lphate (#g1!$%C62!) #ass =

A ti$it% /
$% alc+late the 2+mber of #oles from a g'ven #ass !2

Example : 6o) man- moles are there 'n 88g of 2+mber of moles = 88 $$ a) 2g of hel'+m atoms 2+mber of moles = = 2 moles

b) "g of carbon atoms 2+mber of moles =

c) 1"g of hel'+m atoms 2+mber of moles =

,) $g of s+lph+r atoms 2+mber of moles =

e) $g of ox-gen molec+les (!2) 2+mber of moles =

f) 21.g of chlor'ne molec+les ( l2) 2+mber of moles =

g) =%>"g of n'trogen molec+les (22) 2+mber of moles =

h) 2>$g of 'o,'ne molec+les (32) 2+mber of moles =

') 88g of carbon ,'ox',e ( !2) 2+mber of moles =

G) .%1g of s+lph+r ,'ox',e (1!2) 2+mber of moles =

k) >"=g of potass'+m h-,rox',e (7!6) 2+mber of moles =

l) .:2g of s+lph+r'c ac', (621!$) 2+mber of moles =

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


m) 1C=g of ammon'a (26.) 2+mber of moles =

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


n) 12=g of magnes'+m ox',e (#g!) 2+mber of moles =

o) $g of so,'+m h-,rox',e (2a!6) 2+mber of moles =

p) C.g of h-,rogen chor',e (6 l) 2+mber of moles =

I) 1>%8g of potass'+m manganate (H33) 7#n!$ 2+mber of moles =

r) 8g of ammon'+m n'trate (26$2!.) 2+mber of moles =

s) =%C8g of al+m'n'+m h-,rox',e Al(!6). 2+mber of moles =

t) =%:2g of ethanol ( 2+mber of moles =

6>!6)

A ti$it% 0
>% omplete the follo)'ng table% hem'cal form+lae + #olar mass &A#= "$ alc+late (a)#ass of 1 mol = (((((g (b) #ass of 2 mol = ((((% g (c)#ass of J mol = ((((%g (,)#ass of .%=1x1=2. + atoms = 1o,'+m h-,rox',e 2a!6 &/#= $= (a) #ass of . mol of so,'+m h-,rox',e = (b) 2+mber of moles of so,'+m h-,rox',e 'n 2= g =

Element/compo+n, opper

8'nc n'trate

8n(2!.)2

&/# =

a) 2+mber of moles 'n .C%8 g of D'nc n'trate :

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 D

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

NUM,ER OF MOLES AND VOLUME OF 1AS


Learning Outcomes You should be able to: state the meaning of molar volume of a gas, relate molar volume of a gas to the Avogadro constant, ma e generali!ation on the molar volume of a gas at a given temperature and pressure, calculate the volume of gases at "#$ or room conditions from the number of moles and vice versa, solve numerical problems involving number of particles, number of moles, mass of substances and volume of gases at "#$ or room conditions.

A ti$it% 2 (refer text book pg ."0 .C )


1% The "!'ar $!'u"e of a gas 's ,ef'ne, as the (((((((((((((((((((% (((((((((((((((((((((((% 2% !ne mole of an- gas al)a-s has the ((((((((((((((((( +n,er the same temperat+re an, press+re% .% The molar vol+me of an- gas 's *- 3"3 at (((((((((((((((((( **4- 3"3 at (((((((((((((((((% or

Example : 1 mol of ox-gen gas0 1 mol of ammon'a gas0 1 mol hel'+m gas an, 1 mol s+lph+r ,'ox',e gas occ+p'es the same vol+me of 2$ ,m. at room con,'t'on x 22%$ / 2$ ,m. x 22%$/2$ ,m.

"um#er of moles of gas

'olume of gas
22%$/2$ ,m.

$%

alc+late the $!'u"e !( ga# 'n the follo)'ng n+mbers of moles at 1T5 !2 gas 22%$ ,m.

Example : /'n, the vol+me of 1 mole of Hol+me = = =

n+mber of moles x 1 x 22%$ ,m. 22%$ ,m.

&

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


a) . moles of ox-gen Hol+me =

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


b) 2 moles of Hol+me = 6$

c) =%. moles of Argon Hol+me =

,) =%2 moles of 1!. Hol+me =

e) =%1 moles of 22 Hol+me =

f) 1%> mol of 22 Hol+me =

>%

omplete the ,'agram belo) % (&efer to 5age ..0.$ K .8- hem'str- textbook)

'olume of gas )dm3*

Mass in gram A ti$it% 5


S!'$e t.e#e nu"eri a' 6r!+'e"# 1%

"um#er of moles

"o of +articles

;hat 's the vol+me of =%. mole of s+lph+r ,'ox',e gas at 1T5F @#olar vol+me: 22%$ ,m. mol-1 at 1T5B

(Ans: "%C2 ,m.) 2% /'n, the n+mber of moles of ox-gen gas conta'ne, 'n a sample of 12= cm. of the gas at room con,'t'ons% @#olar vol+me: 2$ ,m. mol-1 at room con,'t'onsB

(Ans: =%==> mol)

1(

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


.%

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

alc+late the n+mber of )ater molec+les 'n := g of )ater0 62!% @&elat've atom'c mass: 60 1A !0 1"% Avoga,ro constant0 %A: "%=2 x 1=2. mol-1B

(AnsA .%=1x 1=2$ molec+les)

$%

;hat 's the vol+me of 2$ g methane 0 6$ at 1T5F @&elat've atom'c mass: 60 1A 0 12% #olar vol+me: 22%$ ,m. mol-1 at 1T5B

(Ans: ..%" ,m.)

>%

6o) man- al+m'n'+m 'ons are there 'n 2=%$ g of al+m'n'+m ox',e0 Al2!.F @&elat've atom'c mass: !0 1"A Al0 2C% Avoga,ro constant0 %A: "%=2 x 1=2. mol-

(2 x =%2 x "%=2 x1=2.)

"%

alc+late the n+mber of h-,rogen molec+les conta'ne, 'n " ,m. of h-,rogen gas at room con,'t'ons% @#olar vol+me: 2$ ,m. mol-1 at room con,'t'ons Avoga,ro constant0 %A: "%=2 x 1=2. mol-1B

(Ans: 1%>=>x1=2. molec+les)

11

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


C%

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

/'n, the vol+me of n'trogen 'n cm. at 1T5 that cons'sts of 2%$=8 x 1=2. n'trogen molec+les% @#olar vol+me: 22%$ ,m. mol-1 at 1T5% Avoga,ro constant0 %A: "%=2 x 1=2. mol-1B

(Ans: 8%:" ,m. )

E CHEMICAL FORMULAE
Learning Out !"e#
You should be able to state the meaning of chemical formula state the meaning of empirical formula state the meaning of molecular formula determine empirical and molecular formula of substances compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula solve numerical problems involving empirical and molecular formula. write ionic formula of ions construct chemical formulaf ionic compounds state names of chemical compounds using &'$AC nomenclature. use symbols and chemical formula for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry.

ACTIVIT7 8 (&efer text book pg $=) 1) A Chemical formula - A representat'on of a chem'cal s+bstance +s'ng letters for ((((((((((((((( an, s+bscr'pts to sho) the n+mbers of each t-pe of ((((((((%% that are present 'n the s+bstance% The letter 6 sho)s (((((% (((((%

H2

1+bscr'pt sho)s 2 h',rogen atoms 'n a molec+le

2)

omplete th's table hem'cal s+btance hem'cal form+lae ;ater (((((%% 2 atoms of 6 comb'ne )'th 1 atom of ! 2otes

12

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


(((%% 5ropane
.

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


26. ((% atoms of 6 comb'ne )'th 1 atom of 2

68

((%% atoms of 6

comb'ne )'th ((% atoms of

#agnes'+m ox',e (((((%% ((((((%% 621!$ (((((((((((((((((% ((((((((((((((((( omplete the follo)'ng: (((%% rat'o of atoms of each (((%

.)% There are t)o t-pes of chem'cal form+lae% LL (mpirical )ormula LL *olecular )ormula 'n the compo+n,%

The s'mplest ((((

The act+al ((((( of atoms of each ((((( that are present 'n a molec+le of the compo+n,

&emember: (+ample: (')

#olec+lar form+la = (Emp'r'cal form+la)n

ompo+n, * Ethene #olec+lar form+la - C 2 H 4

('')

ompo+n, * ?l+cose #olec+lar form+la - C ! H 12


!

Emp'r'cal form+la - %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% A ti$it% &9 1 /'n, the emp'r'cal form+la of a compo+n, Example of calc+lat'on:

Emp'r'cal form+la - %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

a) ;hen &&48/ g of metal , oxide 's re,+ce, b- h-,rogen0 &943/ g of "eta' : 's pro,+ce,% /'n, the emp'r'cal form+la of metal M ox',e @ &A#A M02=CA !01" B Element #ass of element(g) 2+mber of moles of atoms &at'o of moles 1'mplest rat'o of moles Emp'r'cal form+la : (((( b) A certa'n compo+n, conta'ns the follo)'ng compos't'on: 2a 1>%2.O0 9r >2%:8O 0 ! .1%C:O0 @ &A# : !0 1"A 2a0 2.A 9r08=B (Ass+me that 1==g of s+bstance 's +se,) Element #ass of element(g) 2a 1>%2. 9r >2%:8 ! .1%C: M 1=%.> 1=%.>N2=C ! 11%:>-1=%.> (11%:>-1=%.>)N1"

13

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


2+mber of moles atoms &at'o of moles 1'mplest rat'o of moles 1>%2. N2.

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


>2%:8N8= .1%C:N1"

Emp'r'cal form+la:: ((((((((((((((((((% c) omplete the table belo)% ompo+n, ;ater arbon P'ox',e 1+lph+r'c Ac', Ethene 9enDene ?l+cose #olec+lar /orm+la 62! !2 621!$ 26$ "6" "612!" Emp'r'cal form+la !2 62 Hal+e of n

,) 2%>2g of a h-,rocarbon conta'ns 2%1" g of carbon% The relat've molec+lar mass of the h-,rocarbon 's 8$% @&A# 601A '% 012B /'n, the emp'r'cal form+la of the h-,rocarbon

''%

/'n, the molec+lar form+la of the carbon%

A ti$it% &&

:C.e"i a' F!r"u'a (!r i!ni /orm+la

!"6!un3#: An'on /lo+r',e 'on hlor',e 'on 9rom',e 'on 3o,',e 'on 6-,rox',e 'on /orm+la

omplete the table belo) : at'on 6-,rogen 'on 4'th'+m 'on 1o,'+m 'on 5otass'+m 'on #agnes'+m 'on

H+

14

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


alc'+m 'on 9ar'+m 'on opper(33) 'on 3ron(33) 'on 3ron (333) 'on 4ea, (33) 'on 8'nc 'on hrom'+m (333) 'on Al+m'n'+m 'on Ammon'+m 'on A$ti$it% &* a)

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


Ca 2+ !a 2+
2'trate 'on #anganate(H33) 'on Ethanoate 'on 1+lphate 'on 1+lph',e 'on arbonate 'on P'chromate (H3) 'on

CH 3C
2

" 2

Cr2

2 $

Al 3+
hromate (H3) 'on

3 4

hem'cal form+la of an 'on'c compo+n, compr's'ng of the 'ons Mm< an, Qn- 's constr+cte, b- exchang'ng the charges of each element% The form+la obta'ne, )'ll MnQm Example : 1o,'+m ox',e 2a< <1 !2-2 +2< <2 opper (33) n'trate 2!.-1

2 = 2a2! b) (')

1 = ('')

2 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 5otass'+m carbonate

onstr+ct a chem'cal form+la for each of the follo)'ng 'on'c compo+n,s: #agnes'+m chlor',e

(''')

alc'+m s+lphate

('v)

opper (33) ox',e

(v)

1'lver n'trate

(v')

8'nc n'trate

(v'') Al+m'n'+m ox',e

(v''') 3ron(33) h-,rox',e

('x)

4ea,(33) s+lph',e

(x)

hrom'+m(333) s+lphate

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Learning Out !"e# You should be able to 1. state the meaning of chemical e-uation identify the reactants and products of a chemical e-uation 2. write and balance chemical e-uations .. interpret chemical e-uations -uantitatively and -ualitatively /. solve numerical problems using chemical e-uations 0. identify positive scientific attitudes and values practiced by scientist in doing research 1. 2ustify the need to practice positive scientific attitudes and good values in doing researsh 3. use chemical e-uations for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry.

A ti$it% &3 (refer text book pg $8) Example: (s) <


2

(g) C

(g)

&eactant

pro,+ct

1) Qua'itati$e aspect of chem'cal eI+at'on: a) Arro) 'n the eI+at'on the )a- the react'on 's occ+rr'ng b) 1+bstances on the left-han, s',e ((((((((%%

c) 1+bstances on the r'ght-han, s',e ((((((((( ,) 1tate of each s+bstance (((: (s)0 (((((((l)0 gas (((%an, aI+eo+s sol+t'on ((((((% 2) Quantitati$e aspect of chem'cal eI+at'ons oeff'c'ents 'n a balance, eI+at'on the exact proport'ons of reactants an, pro,+cts 'n eI+at'on% Example: 2 H 2 (g) <
2

(g)

2 H2

(l) 1 molec+le (1 mol) of


2

(3nterpret'ng): 2 molec+les (2 mol) of H 2 react )'th molec+les(2 mol) of )ater

to pro,+ce, 2

omplete the follo)'ng )or, eI+at'ons an, )r'te 'n chem'cal eI+at'on a) 1o,'+m (((( b) arbon (((% c) 1+lph+r < chlor'ne ((((((((((%% 2a l arbon ,'ox',e ((((((((%% (((((((((((

< ((((( < < < (((%% (((( ox-gen

1!

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010


(((%% ,) 8'nc (((( < (((%%

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


((((((((((%% ((((((((((((%% ((((((((((((%%

< ox-gen < !2

.) ;r'te a balance, eI+at'on for each of the follo)'ng react'ons an, 'nterpret the eI+at'ons I+ant'tat'vel-% (a)% arbon monox',e gas < ox-gen gas carbon ,'ox',e gas ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( 3nterpret'ng: ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( (b)% 6-,rogen gas < n'trogen gas ammon'a gas (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((% 3nterpret'ng: ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((%% (c)% Al+m'n'+m < 3ron (333) ox',e al+m'n'+m ox',e < 3ron (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((% 3nterpret'ng: (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((%

A ti$it% &LL 2+mer'cal 5roblems 3nvolv'ng hem'cal EI+at'ons 6-,rogen perox',e ,ecomposes accor,'ng to the follo)'ng eI+at'on: 2 H2
2

(l ) 2 H 2

(l) <
2

(g)

1)% alc+late the $!'u"e !( !;%gen ga#0

meas+re, at 1T5 that can be obta'ne, from the


2

,ecompos't'on of .$ g of h-,rogen perox',e0 H 2

@&elat've atom'c mass : 60 1 A !0 1"% #olar vol+me : 22%$ dm 3 mol 1 at 1T5B

1$

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

(Ans: 11%2 ,m.)

2)%1'lver carbonate Ag2 !. breaks ,o)n eas'l- )hen heate, to pro,+ce s'lver metal 2 Ag2 !.(l) @&elat've atom'c mass: $ A$ (s) < 2 C 0 12 A !0 1" A Ag0 1=8B
2

(g) <

/'n, the "a## !( #i'$er ar+!nate that 's reI+'re, to pro,+ce 1= g of s'lver

(Ans : 12%CCg)

.)% 1" g of copper (33) ox',e0 Cu

's reacte, )'th excess methane0 CH 4 % Rs'ng the eI+at'on belo)0 f'n,

the mass of copper that 's pro,+ce,% @&elat've atom'c mass : +0 "$ A !0 1"B $ Cu (s) < CH 4 (g) $ Cu (s) < C
2

(g) < 2 H 2

(l4

(Ans : 12%8 g)

1%

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


3

$)% A st+,ent heats 2= g of calc'+m carbonate CaC eI+at'on belo):


CaC
3

strongl-% 3t ,ecomposes accor,'ng to the

(s)

Ca

(s) < C

(g)%

(a)% 3f the carbon ,'ox',e pro,+ce, 's collecte, at room con,'t'ons0 )hat 's 'ts vol+meF

(b)%

alc+late the mass of calc'+m ox',e0 Ca @&elat've atom'c mass: 0 12 A !0 1"A 2$ ,m. mol 1 at room con,'t'onsB

pro,+ce,%

a0 $=% #olar vol+me :

(Ans : (a)% $%8 ,m . (b) 11%2 g)

1&