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September 2007

ITMA Munich 2007


Textile Business
PM Pretreatment
Clariant Pretreatment
handbook of Pretreatment 0hem|stry
Desizing
Desizing
Pretreatment Handbook
Pretreatment
Exactly your chemistry
2
DESIZING of fabrics of cellulosic fibres
and their blends with synthetic fibres
usingthe BACTOSOL enzymes and the
Hostapal wettingagents/detergents
Thanks to their complete range of chemical products
for the textile industryand the synergismbetween
sizing products and the pretreatment of textiles,
Clariant presents here a comprehensive surveyof the
techniques for desizing fabrics with the most suitable
products for total elimination of natural and synthetic
sizes to the benefit of all who handle textiles.
3
Definition Definition
The purpose of desizing is to eliminate sizing products in order to ensure the success of scour boiling and bleaching and the
production of faultless dyeings. Before starting this process it is advisable to determine the type of the sizes so as to facilitate their
removal. Clariants MINILAB can easily be made available for rapid identification of the sizing products such as starch and PVA
(polyvinyl alcohol). For a precise qualitative and quantitative analysis, extraction in the Soxhlet together with infrared curves and
chromatograms are required.
The Mi nil ab fromClariant: this mobile laboratoryis indispensable for monitoring
the good quality of the pretreatment of textiles. It is possible not only to identify
the sizes on the goods but also to analyse the residues of alkali, acid, peroxide,
iron, the pH of the fabric and many other parameters. It is accompanied by a
comprehensive manual describingits use.
The preparation of threads for weaving
involves covering the warp threads with
a size with specific properties (see
table). A fibre is easier to weave if its
pilosity is reduced: its resistance to
rubbing is significantly improved. Sizing
therefore improves the weavability of
warp threads by reducing thread-thread
and thread-metal friction.
Back to sizi ng
Mai n characteri stics of sizes
Requirements in sizingandsubsequent process steps
The efficiency of a size is measured by the weaving yield. Clariant offers a complete range of sizes under the designations ARKOFIL,
VINAROL andTYLOSE.
For highquality desizing it is essential to knowthe chemical and physical properties of the sizes in order to apply a process which will ensure
their total elimination.
Sizing requirements:
reductionof friction
goodfilmformation
no skin formation
water solubility(coldor hot water,
hardwater)
non-foaming(in the bath or on
rollers)
lowcosts
Needs of subsequent processes:
highweavingefficiency
stabilitytoelectrolytes andalkaline
solutions
readilyremovable (desizing)
compatibilitywithother process steps
(e.g. singeing/ thermofixation)
ecological compatibility
identifiable on the fibre
4
The chemical identity of sizes
The products for sizing are generally natural polymers (starch) as is or
modified (CMS) as well as synthetic polymers and copolymers (PVA, PAC,
PES, etc.). It goes without sayingthat the fabric can contain a single size or a
mixture of different sizes depending on the type and structure of the textile
substrate, alongside waxes, fats andlubricatingparaffin.
Abbreviations of sizes:
CMS = CarboxyMethylStarch
CMC = CarboxyMethylCellulose
PVA = PolyVinylAlcohol
PAC = PolyAcrylate
PES = PolyEster
Pol yvi nyl alcohol: PVA - partially or totally hydrolized
Polymerisation of the vinyl monomer, through synthesis of polyvinyl acetate can
produce partiallyor totally hydrolizedPVAs. PVA exists in two spatial forms: isotactic or
syndiotactic conformations.
PVA is i dentifi abl e by its deep bluish violet colouration with the iodine reactant and the boric reactant. It is el i mi nable, after swelling, with the
Hostapal or Imerol surfactants. This synthetic size is highlysensitive to alkalis, electrolytes andabove all to theheat treatment of singeing.
Starch: the two components of starch - amylopectinand amylose
branchedchains
-1,4-glycosidic linkages
-1,6-glycosidic branchingpoints
1,000to 7,000 repeatingunits (or evenmore)
amyl opecti n linear chain
-1,4-glycosidic linkage
100- 1,500repeatingunits
amylose
The most widely used chemical
modification is carboxymethylation to
improve elimination of the starch
(CMS)
Starch is a macromolecular polysaccharide which is i denti fi abl e by its bluish violet colouration with
the iodine reactant in the Minilab and is el imi nable with alpha-amylase enzymes such as Bactosol
MTN or HTN.
5
Other sizes: fattysubstances and additives
To improve sliding of the fibres and reduce abrasion oils, fats and paraffins as well as other
products such as antistatic agents, fungicides, etc. are applied during sizing. These substances
are generallyhydrophobic andinsoluble inwater. Theycanbe eliminatedduringdesizingthanks to
the emulsifyingpower of the Imerol or Hostapal surfactants.
Carboxymethylcell ulose: CMC - a derivative of cellulose
linear chain, nobranching
-1,4-glycosidic linkage
1,000- 7,000repeatingunits
Cell ul ose
To obtain CMC, a well swollen cellulose is alkalized and then etherified with sodium chloroacetate. CMCs are i dentifi abl e indirectly with
uranyl nitrate or with acridine orange and el imi nable either enzymatically with cellulases such as Bactosol CA or by hot washing in the
presence of Hostapal or Imerol surfactants.
Y =H, CH
3
X =COOM, CN, OH, COMH
2
, COOR
M =H
+
, Na
+
, NH
4
+
, K
+
, Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
Pol yacryl ates: PAC - a product of acrylic synthesis
There are several PACs prepared from acrylic acids, methacrylic
acids or acrylic esters. The most commonly used acrylate salts are:
ammonium, sodium, potassium and calcium. PACs are strong
electrolytes and are therefore readily soluble in a neutral or alkaline
medium. PACs are indirectly i denti fi abl e with ninhydrin and
el imi nable by washing in the presence of Hostapal or Imerol
surfactants.
Pol yester: PES - synthesis by polycondensation
PES is obtained by the polycondensation of
polyglycols with aliphatic or aromatic acids
containing hydrophilic groups such as
sulphate, phosphate, carboxylate, etc. Their
main disadvantage is their sensitivity to
alkalis and electrolytes. They are
i denti fi abl e with Astrazon Red F-3BL and
el imi nable by the Imerol or Hostapal
surfactants as well as our Si rrix
sequestrants.
6
Standard solutions:
Solution 1.3 g iodine
+ 2.4 g potassiumiodide
in 1 l water
Solution 0.13 g iodine
+ 2.6 g potassiumiodide
+ 4 g boric acid
in 100 ml water
Solution 11.88 g potassium
dichromate in 50 ml water
+ 25 ml sulphuric acid conc.
Solution 30 g sodiumhydroxide in 70
ml water
Solution uranyl nitrate 4%
(aqueous solution)
Eli mi nation - sensi tivity of sizes
A desizing recipe can be optimized for a single known
size (ideal case) or for a mixture of unknown sizes
(frequent case). The golden rule in case of doubt as to
the nature of the size is to adapt a desizing recipe
capable of eliminating the most difficult size; if
necessary, enzymatic desizing for bioconversion of the
insoluble starchintowater-soluble glucose.
A systematic, progressive procedure makes it possible to
identifystarch, polyvinyl acetate, PVA andCMC sizes with 5
different reactants. The method is not direct and
intermediate extractions are necessary.
It goes without saying that in cases of doubt it is possible to
use more sophisticated analytical methods such as
extraction in the Soxhlet, infrared, chromatography, as well
as the information in the Minilabmanual fromClariant.
enzymatic elimination sensitivity to pH
-amylases cellulases
washing > 80C
alkaline acid
Starch
CMS
( )

CMC
PVA
PAC
PES
7
Iodine test for starch - TEGEWA Violet Scale
Total Optimum desizing
Thanks to the blue scale it is easy to identify and quantify residues of starch on the fabric. The iodine reactant (Minilab) produces a more or less
intense bluishviolet colourationdependingon the residual quantityof starchysizes. A quantitative approximation is associated: rating 9represents a
quantityof starchless than0.04%, rating 1 more than2.5%starch. Rating 5, less than0.2%, is acceptable for dyeing. PVA canalso be identifiedby a
touchof boric acidin an iodine medium. Colourationis dark blue.
Caution - probl ems :
To ensure the success of all the operations following desizing such as bleaching, dyeing or printing, it is important that the material is completely
clear of sizes. The most significant results of poor desizing are lower degrees of whiteness, insufficient absorbency, spots, reserves, unlevelness,
moir of dyeings, too harshhandle leadingtobreaks. The origins canbe classifiedin 2 groups:
Group1; pretreatment probems: overdryingof sizedwarpthreads, highcontent of waxes andlubricants whichare difficult to emulsify, highcontent of
sizes.
Group 2; process problems: poor wetting out and low pickup, too short swelling of the sizes, bath containing enzyme poisons, insufficient final
washing.
Grey cotton
Desized with
Bactosol MTN
Rati ng 1 Rati ng 9
2006 Internal, Eric Argast, PG Pretreatment
Bactosol PHC liq. hc
2006 Internal, Eric Argast, PG Pretreatment
The Cross-Country alpha-amylase
Spec|f|c act|on on starch
no s|de effects
A|| temperatures
ph 5.0 to .0
|odegradab|e
Thanks to its wide pH and
temperature action range, the
actoso| Ph0 ||qu|d hc
perfectly removes starch with
each desizing process.
2006 Internal, Eric Argast, PG Pretreatment
Bactosol PHC
Pad Batch Desizing
Recipe
Hostapal MRZ liq. conc
Bactosol PHC liquid hc
Sirrix ANTOX liq.
Bath pH
Impregnationtemperature
Batchingtime
4 ml/l
1-2 ml/l
2-3 ml/l
5-6
20-30C (cold)
or
60-80C (warm)
>4 h
Usually, the pad batch desizing
is preceded with a singeing.
A very strong and efficient subsequent
washing is needed in order to eliminate
the degraded sizes.
0rey fabr|c
|mpregnat|on
batch|ng
s|nge|ng
wash|ng
2006 Internal, Eric Argast, PG Pretreatment
Bactosol PHC
Injecta desizing (Benninger)
|njecta modu|e before
Pad Steam b|each|ng
|njecta modu| before
Pad atch b|each|ng
Recipe
Hostapal MRZ liq.
Sirrix ANTOX liq.
Bactosol PHC liquid hc
BathpH
Bathtemperature
4ml/l
1ml/l
1 ml/l
5-6
80C
washing
b|each|ng
Injecta
Impacta
steaming
des|z|ng
impregnation
Injecta
desizing
ColdPadBatch
bleaching
impregnation washing
2006 Internal, Eric Argast, PG Pretreatment
Bactosol PHC
Pad Steam desizing
Recipe
Hostapal MRZ liq.
Bactosol PHC liquid hc
Sirrix ANTOX liq.
Bath pH
Bath temperature
Steamingtime
Steamingtemperature
4 ml/l
1 ml/l
2 ml/l
5-6
60-80C
1-3 min
100C
Fast swelling of sizes with the high
temperature
Bioconversion of starch into water-
soluble sugars
A strong final washing eliminates sugars
from the fabric
impregnation
Grey fabric
steaming
singeing
Your umbrella against iron
ANT0X Process
Pinholes: consequence of
Catalytic damages
P|nho|es observed
w|th a stereo-|oupe:
|ron d|rect |dent|f|cat|on
w|th the Pruss|an |ue test:
Result strongly positive: molecular and
ionic iron are strongly present on the
fabric
A short guide to
Sirrix ANTOX liq.
0ef|n|t|on
Anti-Oxycelluloseagent which removes
iron contamination and destroys natural
pigments of cotton for a reliable and better
bleaching without catalytical damage risk
(pinholes).
Act|ons
Extraction and complexationof Iron,
Calcium and Magnesium, destruction of
pigments from the raw cotton during the
enzymatic desizing and the bleaching
processes.
App||cat|ons
Better protection against pinholes
in desizing
Better whiteness
in bleaching
Complexing Science
Vethod
The fabric is soaked in the solution at room
temperature, e.g. in a petri dish, for 10-15 minutes,
rinsed with demineralizedwater and dried
Fe pos|t|ve
Blue staining on the fabric, according to the
reaction below:
3 K4[Fe(CN)6] + 4 FeCl3 = K4[Fe(CN)6] 3 + 12 KCl
(Prussian Blue)
Pruss|an b|ue test
Without
protection
Classic
sequestrant
S|rr|x ANT0X
|ron rod test
So|ut|on:
1g potassium hexa-cyanoferrate(II) trihydrate=
K4[Fe(CN)6], 3H2O to dissolve in 100 ml 1N HCl.
Then add 50 ml ethanol absolute.
Complexing behaviour
0 g/l
2 g/l
Catalytic damages Prevention
Prevent|ve 0urat|ve
ANTOX Process
With Sirrix ANTOX
ANTOX-Desizing
ANTOX-Scouring
ANTOX-Bleaching
Mechanism
Iron passivation/
Complexation
Acidic process
With Sirrix NE / Sirrix ANTOX
Acid Demineralization
- Pad Batch, 4 hours, 20-40C
- J- and U-Box, 5-20 min, 20-60C
- Shock, 1-2 min, 60-80C
Mechanism
Iron ionization / complexation
Fe + 3H
+
Fe
3+
Insoluble soluble
Enzymat|c des|z|ng
3-4 ml/kg Hostapal MRZ liq.
1-2 ml/kg Bactosol PHC liq. hc
1-4 ml/kg Sirrix ANTOXliq.
Few seconds at 70-80C
Perox|de b|each|ng
2 ml/kg Hostapal MRZ liq.
4 ml/kg Stabilizer FCBliq.
20 ml/kg NaOH 48B
30 ml/kg H
2
O
2
50%
1-4 ml/kg Sirrix ANTOXliq.
Steaming: 15 min at 100C
Neutra||zat|on | Perox|de k|||er
1 ml/kg Sirrix NE liq.
1 ml/kg Acetic Acid
0.5 ml/kg Bactosol SAPliq. conc.
Washboxat 40C
Application
ANTOX -MATRIX
ANT0X 0es|z|ng
Vore protect|on
0 2 4
0
2
4
ml/l
ml/l
A
N
T
0
X

|
e
a
c
h
|
n
g

e
t
t
e
r
b
|
e
a
c
h
|
n
g
e
f
f
e
c
t
1.3 3.3 4.1
5.3 9.1 10.4
5.1 11.4 15.1
wh|teness 0|E
Scour Boiling
Scour Boiling
Pretreatment Handbook
Exactly your chemistry
Pretreatment
2
Definition Definition
Alkaline scour boiling is a cleaning process for cellulosic fibres using large quantities of caustic soda
at high temperature as well as special chemical products to remove the natural impurities in cotton
and other cellulosic fibres, free themfromtroubling substances and make themabsorbent. At the
same time vegetable contamination swells perfectly and is softened for rapid decoloration during
bleaching. Alkaline scour boiling is an intermediate process after enzymatic desizing and before
peroxide bleaching.
Even if the quantity of impurities is not so high it is essential to eliminate thembecause of their
negative effect in subsequent finishing processes. Fats and waxes prevent penetration of the water-
soluble dye and mineral substances can cause precipitation of the dye or during bleaching in the
presence of iron annoying catalytic damage. It is also essential to eliminate vegetable residues as
well as the proteins andother substances present inthe fibre.
The qualityof scour boilingis measured above all by the absorbency; without absorbency there is no
dyeingandno print.
Hydrophobic : propertyof a greyfabric to repel water because it
contains the natural cottonwaxes and fats which
have to be saponified.
Hydrophilic : propertyof a scour boiledfabric to absorb water.
The caustic soda saponifies the hydrophobic fats
tosoap. The textile material canbe dyed.
3
fibres
substances
cotton linen hemp ramie jute
cellulose 82.7 62.4 67.0 68.8 64.4
hemicellulose 5.0 17.2 16.1 13.1 12.0
pectins 0.7 2.3 0.8 1.9 0.3
lignins 0 2.5 3.3 0.6 11.8
solubles
substances
1.0 3.9 2.1 5.3 1.2
fats 0.6 1.7 0.7 0.3 0.3
Percentage of Whole fibre Primary wall
Cellulose 88.0 96.0 52
Pectin 0.7 1.2 12
Waxes 0.4 1.0 7
Proteins 1.1 1.9 12
Minerals 0.7 1.6 3
Other organic compounds 0.5 1.0 14
Mature cotton bloom
Composition of Composition of cotton cotton
and and other other cellulosic fibres cellulosic fibres
The tables belowshowthe chemical composition of these natural fibres for
better targetingof the substances andimpurities to be removed.
Apart fromcotton (Gossypium), the Liberian fibres such
as linen, hemp and ramie also require intensive scour
boilingto achieve goodabsorbency.
4
Mineral composition of cellulosic textile fibres
in ppm Ca Mg Fe
CottonEgypt 425 352 29
CottonTurkey 910 485 63
CottonChina 514 502 68
CottonPakistan 550 480 65
CottonIndia 625 580 55
CottonBrazil (GO) 1024 625 238
CottonBrazil (MS) 2425 1085 208
CottonUSA 728 352 71
Linen fromNormandy 3412 328 92
Depending on the geographical origin of the cotton its mineral composition
canvary considerably. The tables belowshowsome values of residual ash
of different cottons as well as the detailedcomposition of 2 cottons.
The residual ash content gives a good indication of the degree of mineral
contamination in the natural fibre andit is also interesting to knowthe ppm
content of calci um, magnesi um and i ron (see table). The earth alkalis Ca
and Mg cause problems in dyeing, while iron is extremely dangerous in
bleaching. It goes without sayingthat goodscour boilingdrasticallyreduces
the amounts of theseminerals.
The miner als
Ash content of different quali ti es of cotton
Analysi s of two di fferent qual iti es of cotton
Dharwar : 4.16% Broach : 3.14 %
Dhollerah : 6.22% Domrawottee : 2.52 %
Sea Islands : 1.25% Egypt : 1.73 %
Peru : 1.68% Pernambuco : 1.60%
Bengal : 3.98% USA : 1.52 %
Bombay Punjab
% %
Ashcontent of the dryfibre: 3.99 1.85
Composition of the ash:
SiO
2
: 15.56 14.40
Al
2
O
3
: 10.80 12.87
CaO : 9.75 10.65
MgO : 1.87 4.36
K
2
O : 27.32 26.03
Na
2
O : 4.51 8.40
Fe
2
O
3
: 5.89 1.92
SO
3
: 1.96 2.52
P
2
O
5
: 3.26 4.46
CO
2
: 12.19 8.03
Cl : 6.55 3.84
others : 0.34 2.52
5
- Wetti ng out
The wettingout properties are the ability to eliminate surface tensions very
rapidly enabling the water or aqueous solution to penetrate rapidly to the
heart of the fibre. The wetting effect depends on the pH as well as the
temperature of the bath. It is measured in seconds with round swatches of
greycotton(hydrophobic) anda progressive concentration of wettingagent.
Below: Wetti ng test PM 7101.
- Stabi li ty to causti c soda and scope of appli cati on
0- 2B NaOH : surfactants for discontinuous processes or desizing;
anionic or nonionic.
0- 8B NaOH : surfactants for continuous anddiscontinuous
processes, desizing, scour boilingandbleaching;
anionic or nonionic.
0- 18B NaOH : surfactants for concentratedscour boilingwithall-in
reinforcement bath; anionic.
18- 32B NaOH : surfactants for mercerizingandcausticizing; anionic
Other properti es of surfactants
1
10
100
1 10 2 4 8
Wetting ti me i n seconds
Verygood
wetting agent
bad
wetting agent
g/l product
6
Wetti ng test Tampex
low surfactant fair surfactant goodsurfactant Hostapal MRN
- Detergent power
The detergent power is the ability to remove a standard fatty
contamination on an EMPA standardized reference wool
fabric. The Wool washing test PM 7102 is carried out in a
neutral and a weakly alkaline (carbonate) medium with
progressive concentrations of surfactant and with mechanical
action.
The wetting power can also be demonstrated with the
Tampex test whichshows the abilityof the wettingagent (in a
coloured solution) to penetrate a pile of round swatches of
grey cotton in 60 seconds contact. The more swatches are
wet out (coloured), the moreefficient is the wettingagent.
low surfactant fair surfactant Hostapal MRN
7
Example: Removal of mi neral oil wi th Hostapal MRN li q. conc.
Oil /Water
not miscible
Oil /Water
emul si fi ed
without with
Humectol LYS
All types of mineral oils and other lubricating agents can be emulsified
perfectlythanks to the surfactant qualities of Humectol LYS.
This is particularly advantageous when scouring fabrics containing
elastomeric fibres (Lycra, Dorlastan, etc.).
A good detergent also enables the removal of mineral oils, their emulsions as well as their oil/water dispersions. An
example of contamination of a fabric bymineral weavingoils and their removal withHostapal MRN liq. conc. is shown
below.
8
- Absorbency
Absorbencyis the most important parameter of the pretreatment of cellulosic fibres, without which it would be
impossible to dye or print.
The surfactant in combinationwithcaustic soda makes it possible to obtain
a certain absorbencywhichdepends on several factors:
theconcentration of caustic soda
scour boilingtemperature
scour boilingtime
type of textile material
- Foam formati on
One of the intrinsic properties of surfactants is the formation
of foam in aqueous solution. Depending on the chemical
composition of the surfactant, its concentration, the pH and
temperature of the bath, this foam can be more or less
abundant. As a rule this surface foam causes considerable
problems in textile applications, e.g. in jets or in impregnation
baths. The addition of an antifoamor deaeratingagent avoids
these problems. It goes without saying that the antifoamused
must be free fromsilicone (risk of spots) or a rubber solvent
(attack on the rollers).
It is necessary to distinguish between true absorbency", i.e. quantitative saponification of the hydrophobic
waxes/fats and "pseudo-absorbency" when the surfactant remains on the surface of the fibres and provides
false absorbency. This pseudo-absorbencycan easilydisappear in subsequent washingoff in coldwater of the
nonionic residues or during subsequent mercerization. This pseudo-absorbency is extremely troublesome for
fabrics whichareto receive fluorocarbonor water-repellent finishes.
The capillaritytest or droptest are easymethods of visualizinggoodor poor absorbency.
severe
foaming
weak
foaming
9
Capil l arity test wi th
Solar Turquoise Blue GLL-160%
on cotton yarn
on fabri c
no
absorbency
good
absorbency
verygood
absorbency
low
absorbency
medium
absorbency
good
absorbency
low
absorbency
good
absorbency
verygood
absorbency
>180 sec. 25 sec. 1 sec.
4 18 46 mm
0 40 80 mm
Penetrati ng drop test
10
1-hydroxyethane 1-1
diphosphonic acid
(HEDP)
Hexamethylene
diamine tetramethyl
phosphonicacid
(HMDTMP)
Diethylene triamine
pentamethyl phosphonic
acid(DTPMP)
Ethylene diamine
tetramethyl phosphonic
acid(EDTMP)
Nitrilotrimethylene
phosphonicacid(AMP)
Organic sequestrants
During alkaline scour boiling it is essential to remove the natural
minerals in the cottonat the same time as the waxes to ensure good
bleaching effects. The only way to remove these metallic salts and
oxides is to use organic sequestrants. One speaks of complexing,
sequestering, chelatingor maskingthe metals.
- Chemi stry of sequestrants
The oldest sequestrants used for processing textiles are EDTA, DTPA,
gluconic and glucoheptonic acids. The new modern sequestrants are based
on methylene phosphoni c (MP) acids such as EDTMP, DTPMP, HEDP,
AMP, HMDTMP, which are more stable and more active in an alkaline and
oxidizingmedium.
11
The word "chelate" comes from the Greek
"chele" which means a crab's claw. This
describes a spatial structure composed of
an organic or inorganic complexing agent
and a metal ion imprisoned in this structure.
All sequestrants and chelating agents are
complexing agents. Sequestration is the
ability to form a soluble metal complex. A
chelating agent is a chemical entity able to
inactivate a metal ion by complexing it and
imprisoning it in a closed rigid structure.
Ligands are the groups which ensure
immediatesurroundingof a cation.
The stability of a complex is defined by the
pK value (cologarithmic value). If the pK is
lower than 2 the complex is not stable. The
higher the pK, the more stable the complex
is. This is the way Si rrix DNA forms
inactive, harmless complexes with the
calcium, magnesium, iron and copper ions,
thus avoiding all their problems.
n - m
m n -
n - m m -n
ML
M L
K
ML M L
Example of pK Ca Mg Fe Cu
L = Ligand
M = Metallic cation
K = dissociationconstant of the
metal - Sirrix DNA complex
pK = - log K
Gluconic acid
Glucoheptonicacid
DTPA
EDTA
NTA
ATMP
EDTMP
DTPMP
STP
1.2
1.2
10.9
10.7
6.41
6.68
9.33
7.11
5.36
0.7
0.7
9.3
8.7
5.41
6.49
8.63
6.40
5.81
37.2
37.2
27.5
25.1
15.87
26.9
19.6

39
39

18.7
12.7
13
18.95
19.47
8.70
DTPA =diethylene triamine pentacetic acid
EDTA =ethylene diamine tetracetic acid
NTA =nitrilo-triacetic acid
ATMP =amino-trimethylene phosphonic acid
DTPMP =diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic) acid
EDTMP =ethylene diamine tetra (methylene phosphonic) acid
STP =sodiumtripolyphosphate
- Di ssoci ation constant (pK) of a complex
In order to obtain an idea of the profile of a sequestrant there are various
tests to showspecific properties of these special chemicals.
Opposite the demineralizing action of Si rrix DNA during alkaline scour
boiling.
Example: Scour boilingof cottonwool for pharmacopoeia.
Recipe:
40 g/l NaOH solid
1 g/l Hostapal MRN liq. conc.
2 g/l SirrixDNA liq.
2h at 130C
Results :
Mineral content before
and after scour boiling
12
- Inhi bi ti ng effect on calci um
Test: Add a complexing agent to a bath containing 25e calcium, 25e magnesium, 20 g/l
sodiumcarbonate, 20 g/l potassiumsulphate, 20g/l potassiumchloride. Adjust the bath to
pH 11 with NaOH and hold at the boil for 1 hour, then filter off hot. The tendency to form
calciumand magnesiumprocipitates is very high in an alkaline mediumat 100C.
0 1 2 g/l sequestrant
- Anti precipitant effect
The organic sequestrant can avoid any insoluble precipitation by chelating (masking)
metallic cations.
Avoiding the precipitation of copper hydroxide Cu(OH)
2
when adding caustic soda to the
cupric solution containingSi rrix DNA is illustratedhere.
wi thout
sequestrant
wi th Si rrix DNA
Poor sequestrationof calcium
Goodsequestrationof calcium
withSi rrix DNA l iq.
Test with bl ack fi lter paper
13
- Inhi bi ti ng effect on i ron
Test: Add a complexing agent to an
alkaline bath at pH 11 containing 30 mg/l
Fe III chloride and 5 g/l sodiumcarbonate
and hold at the boil for 30 minutes, then
filter off hot. The tendency to form
insoluble hydroxide and iron carbonate
precipitates is veryhigh.
- Di spersi ng effect of sequestrants
Certain mineral substances and others in
the fibre or the bath can disturb dyeingand
precipitate dyes such as Indanthrene
Blue BC.
The illustration shows the dispersing
power of complexing agents in a bath
containing 0.1g/l Indanthrene Blue BC, 10
g/l sodium hydrosulphite, 50 ml/l NaOH
38B and 2 g/l sodiumcarbonate after 1
hour at 60C. The filtration is shown to
demonstrate the efficiency of the
dispersingpower of asequestrant.
0 1 2 g/l sequestrant
Poor dispersingeffect
Gooddispersing
effect of
Si rrix DNA l iq.
0 1 2 g/l sequestrant
Poor sequestrationof iron
Goodsequestrationof ironwith
Si rrix DNA l iq.
14
The thresholdeffect is definedas the abilitytoavoidaforeseeable insoluble
precipitation by a substoichiometric addition of sequestrant. The
precipitation-inhibiting effect is quantifiable by the molecular ratio between
the cation and the precipitating anion. For example, for a stoechiometric
ratio of 1:1 for CaCO
3
, Si rrix DNA makes it possible to avoid precipitation
of carbonate even at a ratio of 1000:1. This property is fundamental for
avoiding calcium deposits in steamers and keeping bleaching liquors
stable. The mechanismis explained by the disturbance and slowing down
of the crystal structuring.
- Threshol d effect
- Demetal l izi ng effect on a dye
Certain brilliant dyes (e.g. phthalocyanines)
contain metals in their chemical composition.
The metal is bound by semipolar bonds to the
organic molecule. The brilliance of the dye can
disappear if a sequestrant complexes the
bound metal. The shade can change
completely by demetallization. Special
sequestrants are used in dyeing which do not
change the metallic constitution of the dye.
0 1 2 g/l sequestrant
Destructive
effect on the dye
No effect
on thedye
Bleaching
Bleaching
Pretreatment Handbook
Pretreatment
Exactly your chemistry
2
Definition Definition
The last phase of purification of cotton, bl eaching, is the most visible. After this treatment the natural yellowish
and brownishpigments andthe vegetable impurities in the cotton disappear. The bleaching reactiontakes place
as follows: a strongoxidizingagent, hydrogenperoxide, destroys the chromophoric groups of the natural dyes in
the cotton. Decolorationtakes place andthe material looks whiter. This bleachingof cottonis made more difficult
by the presence of seeds and vegetable residues whichare darker in colourationthan the cottonitself; intensive
bleaching would still be necessary to eliminate these disturbing vegetable fragments. Compared to the other
bleachingagents used(sodiumhypochlorite, sodiumchlorite, sodiumpermanganate, etc.) hydrogen peroxide is
the most efficient and, at the same time, the onewhichpollutes the environment least.
Mechanisms Mechanisms
1. The symmetrical molecule of hydrogenperoxide H-O-O-H is activatedbytheaddition of caustic soda whichcauses heterolytic splittingwithformation
of the peroxo-anion
-
O
2
H responsible for bleaching:
H-O-O-H +
-
OH
-
O
2
H +H
2
O
2. Hydrogenperoxide canbe definedas a weak acidcharacterizedbythe dissociation constant Ka
H-O-O-H H
+
+H-O-O
-
Acid constant K
a
=2.5
.
10
-12
The peroxo-anion formedcanproduce an oxidizingor reducingreactiondependingonthe medium.
3. Oxidizingreaction: H
2
O
2
+
-
OH O
2
+H
2
O +e
-
(E =-0.08 V)
4. Reducingreaction:
H
2
O
2
O
2
+2H
+
+2 e
-
(E =+0.7 V)
Hydrogen peroxide (H
2
O
2
) was discovered by Louis-J acques Thnard in 1818. This symmetrical molecule is
shaped like a dihedron with the base composed of two oxygen atoms O-O, to each end of which a hydrogen
atomis attached at an angle of 96. The intramolecular vibrations illustratedhere correspond to the oscillations
of the atoms around their point of equilibrium, similar to that of a mass hanging froma spring, which is the
chemical bond.
This extremely reactive molecule produces carrier types of an unbound electron called free oxygen radicals
(HO ; O
2
-
). This property is utilized for desinfecting purposes (against viruses, bacteria, fungi) as well as for
bleachinghair or fibres such as cotton, linen, viscose, wool andsilk.
3
The peroxo-anion formedcanreact in3 possible ways duringbleaching:
- oxidationof the natural dyes in thecotton; thechromophoric groupis oxidizedand becomes colourless
- formation of molecular oxygen; this is a loss of oxidizing agent resulting in a reduction in the degree of whiteness obtained by the bleaching
process
-
O
2
H HO
-
+1/2 O
2
-
O
2
H
C C C C
HO OH
(coloured) (colourless)
- oxidation of the cellulose, loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP). This oxidation is identifiable with the Fehling reagent. The alcohol function of
the cellulose (-CH
2
OH) oxidizes into aldehyde (-CHO), acid (-COOH), monoketone (=CO), etc. and ends with rupture of the cellulosic cycle. The
degradation is measurablebydeterminingthe initial DP (DPi) andthe final DP (DPf) by viscometry. The degradation factor S(Eisenhut) shows the
degree of degradation of the cellulosic chain.
1
2000 2000
log
2 log
1
i f
DP DP
S
Eisenhut factor S
0.01 - 0.2
0.21 - 0.3
0.31 - 0.5
0.51 - 0.75
>0.75
target bleachedcotton S<0.4
Comment
verygood, undamaged
good, very carefully bleached
satisfactory
slightly damaged
badlydamaged
4
Stabilization Stabilization of of hydrogen hydrogen peroxide peroxide
Stabilizer SIFA Stabilizer SIFA
The bleaching process is a complex reaction mechanism because
hydrogen peroxide has to be activated and stabilized at the same time.
Caustic soda activates H
2
O
2
and favours the formation of hydroxo-
peroxide ions. The stabilizer orients the peroxo-anions towards oxidation
of the natural colouredpigments in the cottonandat the same time avoids
or limits side reactions suchas the formation of molecular oxygen (loss of
whiteness) or the oxidationof the cellulose (loss of DP). Stabi li zer SIFA,
a unique, totally organic macromolecule, achieves perfect stabilization of
the hydrogenperoxide without anysignificativedamage.
Hydrogen peroxide is a real danger for the textile substrate. If the oxidizing
molecule is wrongly oriented and inspite of the formation of an inoffensive
molecule of water in the final phase, the textile substrate can suffer
irreversible damage: loss of DP, no resistance to tearing, catalytic
perforation due to heavy metals, rust spots, poor and heterogenic degrees
of whiteness. A single molecule, Stabi li zer SIFA is able to conquer the
undesirable effects of H
2
O
2
and ensure a superior quality of bleaching. The
followingshows the mainproperties of Stabi li zer SIFA.
5
Perfect stabi l izati on of H
2
O
2
Evenin a stronglyreinforcedbath Stabilizer SIFA prevents premature uncontrolleddecompositionof the hydrogenperoxide.
Hi gher and progressi ve degrees of whiteness
More than95%of the peroxo-anions aredirectedtowards oxidationof the pigments ensuringsuperoxidationof the natural dyes in the cotton.
Extreme whiteness is theresult. Thehigher the quantityof stabilizer, the moreperoxo-anions there will bein the reactionmediumand the higher
will be the whiteness.
Synergi sm with fl uorescent brighteners
Duringsimultaneous bleachingandbrightening, Stabilizer SIFA increases the absorption of UV radiationbythe fibre leadingto asynergismof
whiteness unattainable byother stabilizers. Highdegrees of whiteness are ensuredin this manner.
The temperature, a posi ti ve medi um for Stabil izer SIFA
The whiteningeffect of Stabilizer SIFA is greatlyincreasedif bleachingtakes place at hightemperature (90-100C) withprolongedsteaming. The
more extreme the bleachingconditions are, the more unique Stabilizer SIFA will be:
Cold padbatch technique : lowperformance, identical to others
Padsteam, short steaming, 1-2min : identical to other stabilizers
Combi-Steam, steamingfor 7-12min : distinctlybetter thanothers
Combi-Steam, J -Box, U-Box 20-40min : uniqueandsuperior stabilizer
Replaces sodi um sil icate
All the results showclearlythat themineral molecule of sodiumsilicate is inferior to the effects and advantages of Stabilizer SIFA. Furthermore
deposits andprecipitations are completelyavoidedwithStabilizer SIFA.
Prevents catal yti c damage
Thanks to its special macromolecular chainandits poles whichattract the poisons, all harmful catalysts suchas Fe, CuandMn cations are
emprisonnedandinactivatedin the trap-like structure of Stabilizer SIFA. Bleachingcanbecarriedout in complete security.
Action profi le of Stabil izer SIFA
6
Stabili zer SIFA - Advantages
Increase in the degree of whiteness
Example:
Pad steambleach
Material :
Co wovenfabric, desizedandscour boiled
Hot peroxi de bleach
Peroxide bleachingliquor contains
100 mgFe III ions
Residual peroxide content in %
after 6h
Excell ent anticatal ytic action
Perfect stabil izi ng acti on i n
peroxide bleachi ng li quors
Test:
Bleachingliquor reinforced4 times
With-
out
With
SIFA
7
Synergetic effect with fl uorescent brighteners
Degree of whiteness wi thout fluorescent brightener Degree of whiteness wi th fluorescent brightener
Conven-
tional
stabi -
l izer SIFA
Conven-
tional
stabi -
l izer SIFA
8
Fi ghting Fi ghting the the catal ysts catal ysts
The presence of catalysts in the bleaching bath (metal particles or
cations) leads to a rapid exothermic reaction and then a total
degradation of the oxidizing agent. These elements are true
bleachingpoisons andcan leadto the severest damage:
Formation of holes where metal particles are enclosed in the
fabric.
Formation of oxycellulosecombined withsevere loss in DP value.
Loss in degree of whiteness due to the loss of hydrogen peroxide.
These catalysts can be sequestered and inactivated with Si rrix
DNA in ion form. In metallic form, the metal must first be ionised
by a treatment withSi rrix DNA in order tosequester it.
Si rrix DNA exhibits an exceptional anti-catalytic behaviour.
This table clearly shows the elements which can cause catalytic
degradationof hydrogenperoxide.
In the texile industry the following metal
catalysts are the main ones encountered:
iron(most important damagingelement)
copper (fromviscose manufacture)
manganese (oftentogether withiron)
Onlytraces of other metals are found.
It is possible to check the presence of iron on
textile fabrics withthe PrussianBlue test.
9
Sirrix DNA against iron contamination Sirrix DNA against iron contamination
Incertain areas of the world, cotton contains large quantities of iron which cause considerable problems in hydrogen peroxide bleaching.
The iron is very difficult to remove because it is chemically fixed to the fibre. Accidental iron contamination during weaving frequently
occurs.
To avoid perforation of the textile material by the iron catalyst, the fabric is pretreated with the protonic complex Si rrix DNA to provide
maximumsecurityinperoxide bleaching.
Test: AddSi rrix DNA to an alkaline bath at pH 11 containing 30 mg/l Fe III chloride
and 5g/l sodiumcarbonate and holdat the boil for 30 minutes, then filter off hot. The
tendency to forminsoluble hydroxide and iron carbonate precipitates is very high.
Si rrix DNA quantitatively complexes the iron ions in a hot alkaline medium. In this
way the iron is sequesteredandinactivatedcompletely.
Prussian Blue test
Solution: 1gpotassiumhexa-cyanoferrate (II) trihydrate =K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
], 3H2O
todissolve in 100ml 1N HCl. Thenadd50ml ethanol absolute.
Method: The fabric is soakedin the solution at roomtemperature, e.g. ina
petri dish, for 10-15minutes, rinsedwith demineralizedwater and
dried
Fe positive: Blue staining on the fabric, according to the reaction below:
3K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
] +4 FeCl
3
=K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
+12KCl
(Prussian Blue)
Identi fi cati on of i ron on the substrate
Without protection Classic sequestrant Si rrix DNA
Iron compl exation
Without protection Classic sequestrant Si rrix DNA
A free catalytic cation like Fe
3+
in the bleach liquor causes exothermic decomposition
which increases the temperature of the bath, forms considerable foamand finally
precipitates insoluble ferric hydroxide. Si rrix DNA imprisons the destructive Fe
3+
cation and inactivates it completely. The bleach liquor is stabilized and maintains its
full activity.
If the bath is contaminated with iron ions
(from the soda or the water) the
decomposition reactions of H2O2 by the
radicals is rapid and violent and all the
peroxide can disappear within a short time
(see graph). The strong anticatalytic effect of
Si rrix DNA makes it possible to block,
sequester and inactivate the destructive iron
ions, thus ensuring a protected bleaching
process.
Anticatalytic effect and bl eaching assi stant
10
An anticorrosive effect
A piece of bleached cotton jersey is rolled round an iron rod and then
placed in a beaker containing water with or without sequestrant. The
illustration shows the formation of ferric oxide (rust) after 48 h in contact
with the water. Thanks to its anticorrosive action Si rrix DNA alone
prevents any formation of rust on the fabric, thus avoiding later catalytic
damage.
In the lab it is difficult to imitate catalytic damage
because rust formation must occur before catalytic
attack by iron. The formation of rust takes place
accordingto the following formula:
Pad Batch demineral ization
Material: LinenandcottoncontaminedwithFe, Cu, Znandagainst Ca, Mg
Chemicals: 5-15 ml/l Si rrix DNA l iquid
3-6ml/l Hostapal MRN liquidconc.
Procedure: - padcold
- batch4-6 h at roomtemperature
- scour thoroughly
Other sequestrant Without protection Sirrix DNA
The "iron rod" test
Formation of rust
Fe + 1/2 O
2
FeO
2Fe + 3/2 O
2
Fe
2
O
3
This corresponds to an iron pipe which begins to decompose after a few
weeks in a damp atmosphere. The rust formation goes through the
following phases: adsorption of oxygen fromthe air on the surface of the
metal - migration of the iron atoms with oxide formation on the surface
which leads to holes in the crystal grating of the metal - migration of iron
atoms fromdeeper layers - further rust formation on the surface. In this way
the original compact crystalline structuregradually dissolves.
11
Stabilizer Stabilizer Trilogy Trilogy
The range of stabilizers for hydrogen peroxide consists of 3
basic products: Stabi li zer SIFA, Stabi li zer SOF and Stabi li zer
2000. It goes without saying that all 3 stabilizers function
perfectly under all conditions and in all bleaching processes,
however selection according to the criteria Effi ci ency,
Economy and Ecology is preferable.
Bleachingprocesses:
coldpadbatch Stabilizer SOF
discontinuous Stabilizer SOF
immersion Stabilizer SOF
padshort steam, 1-2min Stabilizer SOF
Combi-Steam, 5-20min Stabilizer SIFA
U-Box, J -Box, L-Box, 20-90min Stabilizer SIFA
padroll Stabilizer SIFA
combinedwithbrighteneres Stabilizer SIFA
ecological constraints Stabilizer 2000
Preferred appl icati on
12
28
18
74
7
79
60
5
14
34
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 1 2 3 4
Hostapal MRN
Hostapal MRZ
Imerol PCJ
20
84
11
54 54
6
44
24
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 1 2 3
10
4
Hostapal MRN
Hostapal MRZ
Imerol PCJ
Surfactant Surfactant Trilogy Trilogy
The surfactants for bleaching must be good wetti ng
agents so that the fabric picks up the maximum
amount of chemical liquor as well as good detergents
in order to confer good absorbency to ensure perfect
subsequent dyeing. The basic range contains three
surfactants which are suitable for bleaching cellulosic
fibres:
Hostapal MRN li quid conc. : nonionic, stable to 9B, biodegradable
Hostapal MRZ li quid : nonionic, stable to 9B, biodegradable
Imerol PCJ : nonionic, stable to 9B, biodegradable
Scope of appl icati on :
coldpadbatch bleaching
padsteambleachingwithseparate
meteringpumps
padsteambleachingwithmaximumpickup
and separate meteringpumps
discontinuous bleachingon the jet and
overflowwithhighturbulence
Hostapal MRN
Hostapal MRN or Hostapal MRZ
Hostapal MRZ
Imerol PCJ
Comparative proper ti es of the 3 sur factants:
neutral and al kali ne wetti ng out with 2B NaOH
neutral
alkaline
Wettingtime in seconds
Surfactant (g/l) Surfactant (g/l)
13
Penetr ati on power
(Tampex test)
Foam formati on
(Ross-Mil es test)
Detergent power
(EMPA test)
Imerol PCJ
Hostapal
MRZ
Hostapal
MRN
PCJ MRZ MRN
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 ml/l
PCJ
MRZ
MRN
14
Continuous bl eachi ng processes:
There are different types of continuous bleaching ranges adapted to the textile article to be treated, the volume of production
concerned, the desired effects, the available space, the possible treatment combinations and above all with the design and
specific mechanical functions of each machine manufacturer.
One of the most modern ranges is as follows:
singeing at the entrance to the machine
desizing
intermediate scouring
wet-on-wet impregnation with maximumpickup for bleaching
combi-steamsteaming either under tension (1-2 min) or on a Roller-belt for a longer period
open-width washing at the exit of the steamer
drying on heated cylinders.
The The di fferent di fferent bl eaching bl eaching processes processes (1) (1)
15
Si ngei ng module: this must be adapted and synchronized with the
rest of therange; this demands highfabric speed to avoidburning
Desizi ng modul e: after rapid impregnation the fabric passes, in the
case of Benninger, into the Injecta module for rapid swelling of the PVA
and other synthetic sizes as well as for rapid enzymatic bioconversion of
the starchbyBactosol HTN.
Impregnation module: after brief intermediate scouring on the
Extracta, the material is impregnated wet-on-wet with maximumpickup
on the way to the Impacta module. The bath is fed by metering pumps
and a computer ensures the exact amounts (in ml/kg) of the chemical
products
Steami ng modul e: in the Reacta compartment at 100C, the hydrogen
peroxide is activated by the caustic soda and stabilized by Stabi li zer
SIFA to remove natural pigments andbleachthe cottonwithout degrading
it. The Combi-Steamcomprises a short passage under tension (1-2 min)
followed by a passage on Roller-belt for a longer period (up to 60 min).
The steaming conditions in saturated steam are constant to ensure a
superior final qualityof bleaching.
Prescouri ng modul e: at the exit of the steamer this special Fortracta
module ensures rapid extraction of the degradedimpurities carried by the
fabric. The aim is to reduce the degree of contamination rapidly before
proper scouring.
Scouri ng module: thanks to the specially designed passage of the
fabric in the Extracta as well as the use of countercurrent and a reduced
consumption of water per kilo of fabric, it is possible to obtain a very high
degree of scouringwhileeconomizingin water andenergy.
Drying module: the fabric passes over a battery of drying cylinders
which ensure low residual humidity. Overdrying is not recommended as
this canleadto yellowingof the fabric anda reductionin its absorbency.
Singeing Desizing Impre-
gnation
Steaming Washing Drying
16
Classical wet-on-wet impregnation
avoids intermediate drying and the
major risks involved such as lower
absorbency, lower degree of
whiteness and insolubility of residual
contamination.
To ensure good uniformity of
bleaching and good reproducibility
strict control of the concentrations of
the chemicals such as caustic soda,
hydrogen peroxide and the other
chemicals is essential. With large
volume impregnation troughs (500-
2000 litres) it is not possible to
maintain all the concentrations of the
products constant in spite of
intermediate titration without using
highly concentrated reinforcing baths
which are on the threshold of
instability.
Thanks to the new wet-on-wet impregnation
modules with a maximumpickup of 150% and a
bath volume reduced to 10-100 litres fed by
separate metering pumps it is easier to achieve
homogeneity and consistency of the quality of
bleaching. This application byaddition of the bath
replaces the old technique of replacing the bath
with its many variables and imprecision. There
are other advantages of this technique such as
titration not required, less risk of breaks and
markinginthe steamer thanks to the highpickup.
All the new continuous bleaching ranges today
are equipped with an impregnation module for
maximumpickup with separate metering pumps;
a monitoring computer allows adaptation within
seconds for each recipe and each fabric. The
products are metered in mg/kg fabric. Titration is
superfluous. This new technique has the
advantages of effici ency (no scour boiling
required, one single stage), ecology (less
chemical load in the wastewater) and high
reli abi l ity.
Continuous Continuous bl eaching bl eaching wi th wi th maximum maximum pi ckup pi ckup
17
Maxi mal add-on technique :
18
Maxi mal add-on modules :
Better impregnation with controlledliquor pick-up
BEN-IMPACTA
(Benninger)
Controlledliquor application
Penetrationinsteadof addition
Exact quantityof chemicals on
the fabric
Water within the fabric
is replaced bychemicals
1. 2-roller nip; adjustable 0.3-3 kN
2. Divider insert
3. Circulation pump
4. Horizontal liquor flow
5. Vertical liquor flow
6. Chemical feed
1. Feed pump
2. Flowmeter
3. Control valve
4. Level measurement
5. Speed measurement
7. BEN-IMPACTA
Fabric entry
Pick-up: 500-600g water
Fabric exit
Pick-up: 900-1200gliquor with
chemicals
Chemi cal s met er ing stati on
Input
Fabric weight
Recipe
5 kN
19
Maxi mal add-on modules :
1 Fabric
2 Replenishing liquor
3 Flow/ cleaning
4 Addition liquor (10l)
5 Metal chassis
6 Compressible pipe (air)
7 Water-tight lip
1 Desizedfabric, hot
2 Rowatexrollers
3 Liquor feedline
4 Guidedbath return
5 Preciseregulation of pick-up
6 Liquor held in nip(8l)
Fl ex-Nip
(Ksters)
Opti max
(Menzel )
20
threedifferent methods for saturation of the fabric
equal chemical distribution over the whole fabric width
through overflowcascade
equalizingroller to support even chemical pick-up
driven fabric transport roller to minimize tension
extremelylowbath content
no filtration required
no reinforcement up of the bath required
preselectionof recipeonthe PLC
process controlledforced dosingof the chemicals
promotional to fabric weight
automatic adjustment to speedandpick-upof the fabric
automatic supervision of chemical flow
Dosing system GOLLER-EXTRACTA
Dip-Sat Vario
(Gol ler)
21
Steamers have different profiles dependingon the quality of the
material to be treated, the size of production, the length of
steaming according to the chemical process applied, etc. On a
modular basis these steamers can be combined la carte
accordingto the desiredapplication.
To avoid breaks and irreversible folds during
steaming the fabric enters the steamer in rope
form specially for sensitive articles. The
optimum passage for each type of article is
automaticallyadjustedat the touchof a button.
The rollers have a larger diameter to protect
the material better against folds. The rollers
are very close in the Roller-Belt. The steamer
is guaranteedwithout air withsaturatedsteam.
The REACTA Combi -Steam:
Rapidsteamer; 25-200 mcapacity
Steamer with simple roller bed; 3-40 mindwell time
Combi-steamer with simple roller bed; 3-40 min dwell time
Combi-steamer with double roller bed; 5-50min dwell time
22
Open width washers:
The purpose of washing is to eliminate the maximumof the impurities as quickly as possible with as little water as possible. Vertical
passage of the fabric in the water canbe single or double with or without a pressingroller. The lengthof the passage of the material in
an open widthwasher canvarybetween 30and15meters. At the exit of the washer a squeezing roller eliminates the majority of the
water. The addition of 3-4 Extracta washing compartments is enough to eliminate difficult substances such as caustic soda. The
washingcapacityof a washer canbe measuredby its suitabilityfor eliminatingcaustic soda. Residual caustic soda is measuredon the
fabric but also in the washbath. In certaincases where treatment has been stronglyalkaline it is advisable to applya final neutralization
treatment withSi rrix DNA.
DA-6C
without intermediate squeezing
30 mcapacity
DA-4
with intermediate squeezing
18 mcapacity
EA-7C
without intermediate squeezing
21 mcapacity
EA-5
with intermediate squeezing
15 mcapacity
E-5
with intermediate squeezing
15 mcapacity
E-7C
without intermediate squeezing
21 mcapacity
D-4
with intermediate squeezing
18 mcapacity
D-6C
without intermediate squeezing
30 mcapacity
23
Exampl es of continuous bleaching ranges
There are manycombinations of steamers froma simple steamer for shock bleachingfor
one minute up to scour boiling/bleaching in a single stage for 60 minutes. The choice of
machine depends on the specific conditions of the textile processor: the type of articles,
production, available budget, destination of the fabric and the available space, etc.
Complete ranges caneasilyexceed100meters in length.
24
Benni nger ranges
Reagents/water fabric
steam
PREYET-module
Vacuum-module Vacuum-module
short steamer washi ng
PREYET-
module
washi ng/
desizing
INJECTA IMPACTA
Steaming
Desizing Washing Impregnation Washing after steaming Neutr alizing
25
Ksters ranges
Pretreatment Ranges wi th FLEXNIP-Appli cation System
safer : higher liquor quantityandsubsequent lowered chemical
concentration
more protective : single-stepprocess bydispensinga separate scouring
stage andthereforeless fibredamage
more stable : reinforcement factors :
FLEXNIP 1:1,2 - 1:1,5
vat 1:3 - 1:5
Si ngl e-step Bleachi ng range with
Mander-Washing Machines
more uniform : pure liquor addition without any liquor
exchangeandtherefore constant chemical concentration
l ess pol luti on : less caustic soda usein contrast to a
usual scouringstepandfar less residual drainingliquor
more savi ngs : less investment in machinery, lower
energy consumption;
easyoperation (omissionof titration)
si ngei ng
dry-vacuum
(li nt)
washi ng/
desizi ng
EVAC-
module
washi ng
Fl exni p-
i mpregnati on
washi ng
Steamer
EVAC-
module
26
Liquor temperature :
Combi-
Steam
Chemical
treatment
SUPER-SAT
Impregnating
Rinsing 60C / 40C
Neutralizing
after washing
Babcock range
Gol ler range
Washing
Bleaching
Washingafter bleaching
DIP-SAT
Impregnation
27
Gol ler range
Desizing Bleaching Washingafter bleaching
Brugman range
Brubo-Sat Pretreatments :
Enzymatic desizing
(washi ng range)
2-4ml/l Bactosol

HTN
1-2ml/l Hostapal

MRZ
temp: 70-90C
time : 0,5-2 min
Protonic demi neral i zation
(washi ng range)
2-4ml/l Sirrix

DNA
1-2ml/l Plexophor

ECO
1-2ml/l Hostapal MRZ
temp: 50-70C
time : 0,5-2 min
Usual Washes
(washi ng range)
1-2ml/l Hostapal MRZ
1-2ml/l Plexophor ECO
pH : 7-10
temp: 70-90C
time : 0,5-2 min
Al kal ine scouring
(steam range)
1-2ml/l Hostapal MRZ
4-8ml/l Sirrix CRC
20-60 g/l NaOH solid
steam: 1-20min
Peroxi de bl eachi ng
(steam range)
6-8ml/l Stabilizer SIFA
1-2ml/l Hostapal MRZ
20-60 ml/l NaOH 50%
20-60 ml/l H
2
O
2
50%
steam: 1-20min
Fi nal neutrali zati on
2-4ml/l SirrixNE
1-3ml/l Bactosol SAP
temp: 20-50C
time : fewseconds
Brugman's solution to the state of the art processing
technology is the Brubo-Sat concept, comprising of the
chemical applicator, dosingsystemandsteamer.
Brubo-Matic pre-washunits
Unipad Squeezing unit
Brubo-Sat maxadd-on system(120-150%)
Brubo-Sat steamer
Brubo-Matic washingunits
Brubo-Sat :
Si ngle stage bl eachi ng
DIP-SAT
Impregnation
28
MENZEL - single-step bl eachi ng range wi th Opti max add-on system
1Hot fabric
2High hydro extractingwith Rowatex-Cylinders
3Liquor supply(preadjusted)
4Guide for surplus-liquor
5Exact and reproducible Pick-Up
by pressure-adjustment for maximal Add-On
6Liquor tank with minimal volume
Higher operatingreliability thanks to more stable, concentratedfeedliquors; no titrating
necessary.
Higher absorbencyandmaximumwhiteness alongwith veryminimal cellulosic fibre
damage.
Expansion of article assortment through higher uniformityof the liquor application.
Less danger of crosswisecreases in thesteamer thanks to higher liquor application.
Less consumption of energy, water andchemicals andtherefore lower costs.
Less processingtimebyeliminationof the scour boilingstep.
Minimal residual liquor amounts andtherefore less waste-water andenvironmental
pollution.
Bl eaching at 150% with Clari ant reci pe :
Fabric : 100% Cotton
Steamingtime : 20 min
Optimax-impregnation with:
6ml/l Hostapal MRZliquid
8ml/l Stabilizer SIFA liquid
2ml/l Sirrix AK liquid
40ml/l NaOH 36B
40 ml/l H
2
O
2
50%
OPTIMAX : A one-stage bl eaching system
wi th hi gh l iquor appli cation
29
Bleachi ng ranges for cotton tubular kni ts
This Brckner range ensures demineralizationof contaminatedcottons at the entrance to the machine evenbefore
bleaching. This treatment with Si rrix DNA for 15 min at 75C drastically reduces the calcium, magnesiumand
particularly the iron content. The fabric is then scoured and impregnated for pad steambleaching for 20 min at
100C. The range can be used for whites for subsequent dyeing in which case the residual peroxide must be
removed with Bactosol ARL during the washing/neutralization operation. The same range can be used for full
whites in whichcase a fluorescent brightener suchas Leucophor BMF is addedto the bleaching liquor. At the end
of the washingrangea softener canbe applied.
Impregnation Storage U-Box Rinsing Impregnati on Steami ng Ri nsi ng 90/90/90/90/60/60/40 C
Protonic treatment
4-8ml/l Sirrix DNA liq.
3-4ml/l Imerol PCJ liq.
0.5ml/l Hostapal NAN liq.
15minat 75C
Peroxi de bl eachi ng
4-8ml/l Stabilizer SIFA liq.
15-25ml/l NaOH 36B
25-35 ml/l H
2
O
2
50%
6-8ml/l Leucophor BMF liq.
0.5ml/l Hostapal NAN liq.
Steaming: 20min at 100C
Neutral izi ng/Peroxi de ki ll er
0.8% SirrixNE liq.
0.5% Bactosol ARL liq.
WashboxNo. 5 at 60C
Softeni ng at 40C
2% Ceralube SVN liq.
30
Bleachi ng ranges in rope form (MCS)
This range can be used for treating cotton knits in tubular formor open. The WR concept fromMCS is modular. The machine can be
constructedwith 8, 12or 16 tubes. The WR 12tubes can be usedfor wettingout (the first 2tubes), bleaching(the next 4tubes), rinsing
(4tubes) and neutralization/softening (the last 2 tubes). For highwhites or contaminated fabrics it is possible to prebleach with sodium
hypochlorite or carry out demineralization with Si rri x DNA. The WR pretreatment systemoffers definite advantages with a simple
production cycle.
31
Complete pretreatment with the WR system from MCS:
1= Entrance to the machine
2= Impregnationsaturator
- either for a hypochloritebleach
2g/l active chlorine
4ml/l Hostapal MRZ liquid
- or for demineralizationwithSirrixDNA
10 ml/l Sirrix DNA liquid
4ml/l Hostapal MRZ liquid
3= J -Box, dwell cold for 10-15 minutes
4= WR 4tubes for scouring
5= WR 12 tubes for pretreatment
tubes 1to 2: wettingout with
2ml/l Hostapal MRZliquid
tubes 3to 6: peroxide bleach: 20minutes at 90C
1ml/l Hostapal MRZ liquid
4ml/l Stabilizer SOF liquid
15ml/l NaOH 36B
25 ml/l H
2
O
2
35%
tubes 7to 10: hot washingoff
tubes 11 to 12: neutralizationwith
1-3ml/l SirrixNE liquid
1-3ml/l Bactosol ARL liquid
or softeningwithCeralube SVN liquid
32
Semi -conti nuous bl eachi ng processes:
In the semi-continuous technique we differentiate between cold pad batch and hot pad roll processes. The difference between
these two processes is the temperature and the type of batching. In the pad batch process the rolled material is rotated at
roomtemperature carefully covered with plastic filmto avoid drying. In the pad roll process the impregnated and padded
material is rolled in a hot chamber (90-100C) for 1-2 hours. The quality of rinsing/washing off after bleaching is decisive for
highdegrees of whiteness and goodabsorbency.
The The di fferent di fferent bl eaching bl eaching processes processes (2) (2)
Cold pad batch bleachi ng
Coldbleachingis oftencarriedout in the textile industrybecause it offers
the followinginterestingadvantages:
simple, inexpensive installation
reducedconsumptionof energy, reactionat roomtemperature
direct application ongreyfabric straight after singeing
adequate degree of whiteness and absorbencyfor various dyeing
processes.
The applicationitself is simple :
singeing
coldimpregnation
paddingat 80-100% pickup
rollingonrollers, a plastic filmprotects against drying
batchingat roomtemperature for 16-24hours with
continuous rotation
intensive washingon an open-widthwasher.
Example of application :
Cold impregnation, pickupca.80%, batching
at roomtemperature for 16-24 h
Intensive washing: 1st and2ndbathwith
1ml/l Hostapal MRN +
1ml/l SirrixAK at 95C, thenwashingoff and,
if necessary, neutralizationwithSirrix NE in
the final bath.
without persulphate withpersulphate
Exampleof aclassical recipe without silicate/ withsilicate/
Hostapal MRN liquidconc.
Stabilizer SOF liquid
Sodiumsilicate38B
SirrixAK liquid
NaOH 36B
H2O235%
Sodiumpersulphate
SandozinNAN liquid
5ml/l
7ml/l
-
-
80ml/l
70ml/l
-
1ml/l
5ml/l
5ml/l
10ml/l
3ml/l
80ml/l
70ml/l
4g/l
1ml/l
greyfabric impregnation washing batching
singeing
33
Product factor
(ml/l)
degree of
whiteness
absorbency DP values residual size
content
Stabilizer SOF 3 6 9
Hostapal MRN liq. 2 4 8
SodiumSilicate38B 5 10 20
NaOH 36B 40 80 120
H2O235% 20 50 100
SodiumPersulphate(g/l) 2 4 8
Batching(h) 12 24 48
Concentrations:
weak-medium-strong Influence positive unchanged negative neutral
Infl uenci ng parameters: see table
The table shows the influence of eachproduct in the recipe andthe effect of varyingits
concentration, weak-medium-strong.
Stabi li zer SOF : too lowa concentration does not stabilize H
2
O
2
sufficiently, too higha concentration blocks the bleachingreaction
opti mum : 6 ml /l
Hostapal MRN conc. : the higher the concentration, thebetter will be the efficiencyof extraction
opti mum : 4 ml /l
Sodium si li cate 38B : without sodiumsilicate a lower degree of bleachingmust beexpectedas well as visible vegetable residues
opti mum : 10 ml /l
Causti c soda 36B : too lowa concentration does not activate the H
2
O
2
sufficientlyandthe degree of whiteness is lower; withtoo higha
concentration there is a risk of loweringthedegree of polymerization(DP)
opti mum : 80 ml /l
Hydrogen peroxi de 35% : above 80 ml/l the degree of whiteness does not increasesignificantly
Sodium persul phate : this oxidizer improves the desizingeffect andthe degree of whiteness
opti mum : 4 g/l
The optimumbatching time is ca. 24 hours. At the end of the reaction spotting with titanyl chloride must remain yellowish which indicates good
stabilizationof the residual hydrogenperoxide.
Hostapal NAN, a highly active deaerating agent, can be added if excessive foamis formed due to the high speed of the fabric fromsingeing to
impregnation.
34
Recipes enzymatic shock
desizing
coldpadbatch
bleaching
Hostapal MRZ liquid
Plexophor ECO liquid
Bactosol HTN liq.conc.
Stabilizer SOF liquid
NaOH 36B
H2O2 35%
Bathtemperature
Batchingtime
4ml/l
1ml/l
1ml/l

80C

4ml/l

6ml/l
60ml/l
60ml/l
20C
16-24h
Cold pad batch bl eachi ng wi th previ ous desizi ng on the same range
Module 1: Injecta desizing andwet-on-wet impregnationfor bleaching
Module 2: Injecta desizing andImpacta for cold wet-on-wet bleaching
greyfabric
impregnation
washing w/w-impregnation
for CPB bleaching
batching
Injecta
desizing
greyfabric
impregnation
washing
batching
IMPACTA
CPB bleaching
INJ ECTA
desizing
Enzymaticshock desizing eliminates sizes whichare
sensitive to alkali (PVA) andmakes it possible to
greatlyreduce theamounts of bleachingagents which
ensures a higher final quality.
35
In the cold bleaching process rotation of the roll
throughout batching is highly important. A certain
amount of foam formation can be observed at the
edges of the roll. This foamshows that activation of
the hydrogen peroxide by the caustic soda is taking
place andthat the bleachingprocess is progressing
Practical remarks
Pad Batch/Pad Steam combi nati on:
53
Cold pad batch bleaching
is oftenonlythe first stage
because after the 24 h
batching the prebleached
fabric can be given a pad
steamscour boil ready for
dyeing or given a Combi-
Steam rebleach for high
whites.
as desired. If the foamdisappears after only2-3 hours, this indicates that
stabilization is not optimal and that the bleaching result will be
unsatisfactory. In the ideal case, the controlled formation of foam
remains until the end of batching. This, of course, only applies when no
antifoams have been added. Whichever the case, the residual peroxide
is determinedat the endof batchingbymeans of the titanyl chloride test.
A positive result, yellowish colouration, shows that, thanks to the good
stabilization, the fabric still contains hydrogen peroxide which will be
beneficial duringsubsequent washingoff.
36
The The di fferent di fferent bl eaching bl eaching processes processes (3) (3)
Di scontinuous bl eachi ng processes or treatment i n a ful l bath:
Discontinuous bleaching means that a certain quantity of material is submitted to an oxidizing chemical process
for a certain length of time at a well defined liquor ratio (volume of water in relation to the weight of the material);
long liquor ratio (20:1 - 50:1), short liquor ratio (2:1 - 6:1). As regards the transport or circulation, either the
material moves (the bath stands still) or the bath circulates (the material stands still). As a rule, bleaching is
followed immediately by dyeing on the same machine, after intermediate washing if necessary. The aim of
discontinuous treatment is to pass through the pretreatment/bleaching phase as quickly as possible in order to
free the machine for dyeing. One of the certain advantages is that batches of different weights can be treated on
small, medium or large machines. A discontinuous machine offers considerable flexibility compared to a
continuous machine.
The followingmachines canbe used(see also diagrams andphotos):
Jet/Overfl ow: short liquor ratio where the material circulates at high speed. The chemical products applied must
not produce anyfoamat all otherwise transport of the material will be hindered.
Ji g: short liquor ratio. The material is rolled up and then unrolled while passing through the chemical bath. In this
way it passes through the bath many times. Part of the material remains in the air (cooling). Today, the newjigs
are equipped with vacuumor submerged suction to obtain better levelness of the effects. It goes without saying
that this type of machine is not ideal for final washing.
Beam dyei ng machi ne: here the material stands still and the bath circulates throughthe material fromthe inside
tothe outside. Perfect wettingout guarantees goodlevelness of the effects.
Package dyei ng machi ne: the bath circulates fromthe inside to the outside of the bobbin as well as fromthe
outside to the inside. The alternation frequency is defined. Perfect wetting out guarantees good levelness of the
effects.
Winch: long liquor ratio (20:1 - 50:1). The material circulates slowly in this machine. Foamis not particularly
disturbing. In some cases the formationof foammakes it possibleto use shorter liquor ratios (Sancowadprocess).
37
A versatil e product
Si rrix 2UD l iquid is distinguished by its very strong action over an
extremely wide pH spectrum. The product exercises its high,
characteristic action under strongly acid to highly alkaline conditions.
These properties are reversible, making it a true product with variable
geometry.
Imerol PCJ Liquid
... removes contaminants fromtextilegood- for good!
excellent scouring agent with rapid wetting action
and high cleaningpower
removes mineral oil contamination and sizing
agents and imparts excellent cleanliness and good
absorbency to the material
exhibits goodcompatibilitywith all enzymes
good pH stability and therefore a wide application
spectrum, e.g. in scour boiling, bleaching, protonic
treatments, biowashing, etc.
stable in liquors with up to 40 g/l caustic soda solid
(ca. 6B)
minimal foaming
ecological as it is free from APEO, nitrogen and
phosphorus
Imerol PCJ l iquid offers all the advantages of
efficiency, economyandbiodegradability.
Contaminants sent i nto orbi te
Imerol PCJ
... andoffers these major advantages :
38
Stabil izer SOF li qui d
A specific stabilizer for silicate-free, alkaline peroxide bleaching of
cotton andits component infibreblends.
Stabi li zer SOF li qui d with its excellent properties is suitable for use in
the silicate-free, alkaline peroxide bleaching of cellulosic fibres and their
blends. Stabi li zer SOF li qui d is distinguishedbyits exceptional efficacy
at lowapplication amounts.
sodium silicate is completely
replaced
even with low amounts a high
degree of whiteness can be
achieved
complexes heavy metal ions and
thus prevents catalytic damages
is stable to up to 70 g/l caustic
soda (ca. 10B)
is non-foaming
universally applicable for
continuous and discontinuous
processes as well as the cold pad
batch process
is biodegradable
Stabi li zer SOF l i qui d provides all theadvantages for efficient, economic peroxide bleaching
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
20 min
10 min
10 min
Imerol* PCJ Liquid
Sirrix2UD Liquid
Caustic soda
Stabilizer SOF Liquid
Hydrogenperoxide
1. Protonic
treatment
2. Bleaching
3. Rinsing
5. Dyeing
4. Enzymatic
anti-peroxide
treatment
Bactosol ARL Liquid
Water consumption: 27l/kg
min
C
100 kg cotton j ersey, li quor ratio 9:1
The most important advantages are:
39
Humectol LYS
Elimination of oilingagents fromtextiles containing elastomeric fibres before or after thermofixation.
Properti es of Humectol LYS :
Extraction of oils, anti-redeposition, avoids spots and stripiness,
improves handle and lustre, reproducible results, ecological profile,
suitable for all techniques.
Bactosol ARL
The di fferent types of elastomeric fibres
simple
covering
tangled
byAir J et
corespun core-
twisted
without with
Humectol LYS
Oil/Water
not miscible
Oil/Water
emulsified
bi opol i sh t est:
fi bri l s r ecovery aft er tr eatment
" Inf luence of pH" " Inf luence of Temper ature"
A new hybrid catalase enzyme specifically for removing
hydrogen peroxide as water and oxygen with a wide scope
of application: flexible pH (4-10), flexible temperature (20-
60C) and flexible application (discontinuous - continuous).
This revolutionary treatment is ecofriendlybecause it avoids
using reducing substances (sulfur) without affecting the fibre
or dye. The advantage are: better levelingproperties and no
critical shade changes, rapid kinetics, shorter treatments
time, minimal water consumption. Enzymatic treatment with
Bactosol ARL unites advantages of economy, ecology,
security and rapidity. a modern and innovative product for
today's textile industry.
Bactosol CA
Bactosol CA is a biocatalyst based on a selection of enzymes with specific action on cellulosic substrates. Under the highlyintense mechanical action
in the Air J et 2000 at veryshort liquor ratiothis enzyme enables the elimination of disturbing surfacefibrils on cotton knit goods, theproductionof peach-
skin effects on Tencel as a better handleoncellulosic textiles without damagingthe fibre in anyway.
wit h Bactosol CA (pH 5, 60C, 30 mi n) wit hout enzyme
40
Diffrents Jets / Overfl ow
Example : SATURNO (Brazzoli )
Therefore, the processing of today's fashionable articles such as cotton/lycra and polyester/cotton are
particularly suitedfor Saturno HF.
The operating temperatures that can be reachedwiththis sturdy pressure machine design is 140C.
The production of the Saturno HTF can be supplied in several versions from1 to 6 channels, with a
loading capacity of 150 Kgfor 1-channel through900 Kgfor 6-channels.
Eachchannel has it own independent internal reel, with a specifiedspeed. Increased loading capacity
canbe achieved by coupling two machines of the same size.
The Saturno HTF model is normally supplied with a filter and an additional tank, in the automatic
version it can be integrated with dosing pumps, liter counter, seam detector, level and temperature
controls, colour kitchen and controlledautomaticallybya microprocessor, to give constant high quality
dyeing.
In the Saturno HTF model, as in the other models, the overflow systemcan be integrated with a
further "turbo" systemjet. This increases the circulation speed of the material and increases the dye
penetration, especially in close weave cloths.
Brazzoli S.p.A. has designed
and manufactured the Saturno
HTF, a high temperature,
pressure overflow dyeing
machine for processing in the
rope from, both woven and
knitted fabrics composed of
natural, synthetic and blended
fibres.
The special section if the internal tank holding the
fabrics allows forward feeding of the fabric with no
problems or tangles. The pure Overflow Dyeing
Principle allows the Saturno HTF to precess the fabric
under conditions of no tension and no pilling in the
fabric.
1 Overflow
2 Turbo
3 Turboandoverflow pump
4 Overflowregulationvalve
5 Turbo regulation valve
6 Reel with big diameter
7 Basket
8 Filter withhighfiltering
surface
41
Example : AirJet-2000 (LAIP)
Temperature : 140C
Pressure : 3 bar
Li quor ratio : 2:1 - 3:1
Maxi mum speed : 600 m/mi n
Maxi mum capaci ty : 200 kg per tube - base 300 gr/mtli n
The AirJ et 2000 is a machine for dyeing knitted and woven fabric in rope
format a very lowliquor ratio. The babric is circulated by air froma special
rectangular shaped thrust nozzle which facilitates fabric opening, thus
avoidingtwistingwhich leads tocreases andcrow's feet.
A special non-motorized reel presents the fabric at the entrance of the
nozzle wihout traction or tension on the fabric itself. This special reel avoids
the abrasion andpolishingproblems generally due to the difference in speed
between the reel andthe fabric.
A pl ai ter situated at the exit of the nozzle ensures perfect loading inside the
holding chamber by eliminating any possible knots. An ideally situated
system of spri nkl ers enables uniform dyeing of the fabric and perfect
cleaningof the insideof the machine itself.
The AirJ et 2000 is the ideal machine for processing highly sensitive fabric
where there is a danger of polishing, fibrillation andfriction such as Lyocell+,
Tencel+, Modal, Microfibres, Cupro, Polynosics and similar substrates.
Special softwares enables programmingof all the machine anddyeingcycle
parameters.
42
Example : Rapi d Suau-2000 FLB (ATYC)
Low l iquor rati o
Because of its inclinedstorage chamber 2 and a rapidtransfer
of dye liquor back to the pump4.
Troubl e free operating condi ti ons
The design features of the machines allowfabric speeds upto
600mts/min 3 and its unique Inteli gent Regulati on device 6
(patentd) makes all machinesettings totally automatic.
Following the history of new
machinery developments, ATYC
are once again on the forefront of
the newtechnologyin launchingthe
F-FL series with Intell igent
regul ation and the following
advantages.
Versatil i ty
Using the double Overflow/booster
system1 (patented), independantly
adjustable, giving the facility to
process all kinds of fabrics.
Fabri c rel axati on
The storage chamber 2 is
longitudinally inclined avoiding
compactingof the fabric.
Rapid dye cycl es and maxi mum
l oads al so on l ightweight fabri cs
Due to the double transport tubes 5,
fabric speeds, up to 600 mts/min 3,
8 liquor exchanges per minute 4
and inclined storge chamber 2.
Si mple operati on
Loading/unloading at floor level without using platforms and
circulation of the fabric can be seen through the inspection
window 7.
Long l i fe
The machine is constructed entirely in stainless steel AISI-
316.
Intell igent Regul ation is patentedbyATYC
Dyeing after
bl eachi ng
43
The most economical way to produce
hi gh quali ty whites
The patented Scholl Bleachstar

eliminates crease marks and gives


consistently better shrinkage values than
traditional, continuous bleaching systems.
The Bleachstar

is not only a high quality


batch bleaching system, but can also be
usedas a dyeing machine. With the use of
the Scholl Counterflow Recycling System,
bleaching costs can be reduced up to
40%. The newest advancement in the
Bleachstar system is reuse of the bleach
bath. Bleach batching liquor can now be
reused up to 10 times with no loss in
quality. Chemical costs are reduced up to
30%.
Example : Bleachstar (Scholl )
Functional diagramof the machine workingwith Overflow
and Turbo principle simultaneously
Example : Tur boFl ow (Brazzoli )
Bl eachstar

A Overflow
B Turbo
C Overflowpump
D Turbo pump
E Turbo regulationservodrivedvalve
F Reel with big diameter
G Basket
H Filter with high filteringsurface
I By-pass valve
44 0
20
40
60
80
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
30
Standard scouri ng process
20
5
10
5
20
1.0 g/l Imerol PCJ Liquid
2.0 g/l Sirrix 2UDLiquid
2 g/l Soda Ash
0.1-0.4 g/l Sirrix NE
(pH 6.5-7)
Dyeing !
mi n
C
mi n
C
20
30
10
20
1.0 g/l Imerol PCJ Liquid
2.0 g/l Sirrix 2UDLiquid
1.2 g/l NaOH Flakes
2.0 ml/l Hydrogen Peroxide 50%
0.15 g/l Bactosol
ARL conc.
Dyeing ! 0.1-0.4 g/l Sirrix NE
(pH 6.5-7)
One bath-two stage
peroxide bl eaching process
(for normal soi led goods)
30
20
10
20
mi n
C
5
5
0.75 g/l Imerol PCJ Liq.
2.0 g/l Sirrix DNA Liquid
0.5 ml/l Imerol PCJ Liquid
0.5 ml/l Stabilizer SOF Liquid
2.0 ml/l Hydrogen Peroxide 50%
1.2 g/l NaOH Flakes
0.15 g/l Bactosol
ARL conc.
0.1-0.4 g/l Sirrix NE
(pH 6.5-7)
Dyeing !
Two bath peroxide
bl eachi ng process
(for heavil y soi led goods)
45
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105
This HS process for ultra-rapid pretreatment/bleaching and dyeing includes protonic demineralization with Si rrix 2UD, biopolishing of
the fabric with Bactosol CA, elimination of residual hydrogen peroxide with Bactosol ARL which enables problem-free dyeing with the
new class of reactive dyes, Drimarene HF dyes. Theadvantages are: rapidprocess, savings of water andenergy, high degree of safety
andtotal reproducibility of the shades.
Two bath bl eaching/brightening process for maxi mum degree of whi teness
High Speed (HS)-Process; Mega-Combi
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Imerol PCJ
Sirrix2UD
mi n
C
45
20
10
20
0.75 g/l Imerol PCJ
2.0 g/l Sirrix DNA Liquid
(5 g/l Arostit BLN gran)
mi n
C
10 5
Soda ash
Peroxide
Overflow
pH 5 with Sirrix 2UD
Bactosol CA
Bactosol ARL Drimaren HF
Alkali
Salt Ladiquest 1097
Dosing Migration
0.5 ml/l Imerol PCJ Liquid
5.0 ml/l Hydrogen Peroxide 50%
0.6%Leucophor BSB
1.2 g/l NOH Flakes
0.5 ml/l Stabilizer SOF
0.1-0.4 ml/l SirrixNE
(pH 6.5-7)
2-3%Destofil LC
or Ceralube J W
46
Different package machines
Example: Beam dyei ng machi ne (ICBT)
A wide range of beam dyeing machines makes it
possible to select the machine suitable for the required
production.
Width from800to 4200 mm.
Single or double width.
Capacity from25 to 1200kg.
In beamdyeing machines the bath is circulated through a perforated beam
aroundwhich is rolledthe fabric to be dyed. These machines canbe usedup to
145C.
Example: Package dyei ng machi ne (ICBT)
Pretreatment/bleachi ng of cross-wound
packages, compl ete cycl e:
bobbins of cotton
DemineralizationwithSirrixDNA
2ml/l Sirrix DNA liq.
3ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
20minat 70C
rinse, then
Alkaline scour boiling
20ml/l NaOH 36B
1ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
1ml/l Sirrix DNA liq.
40minat 110C
rinse, then
Peroxide bleaching
6ml/l H
2
O
2
35%
3ml/l NaOH 36B
1ml/l Stabilizer SOF liq.
1ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
40minat 110C,
rinse, then antiperoxide treatment
withBactosol ARL
47
Different j igs
Example: Turbo-Ji gg (TVE-ESCALE) with submerged suction
Traditionally, jigs base their working system on
passing the fabric through a chemical bath. Turbo-
Ji gg

uses a new concept that passes the liquid


through the fabric. Better penetration of the fabric
fibers results in a higher qualityproduct andreduces
the number of cycles required to finish the
impregnation androlling-upprocess.
Example: Vacu-Ji gger (Henri ksen)
Pretreatment/bleachi ng on the ji g,
complete cycl e:
greycottonfabric
Enzymaticdesizing
3ml/l Bactosol MTN liq.
3ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
pH 6withSirrix2UD
4-6passages at 65C
rinse, then
Alkaline scour boiling
15-30ml/l NaOH 36B
2ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
1ml/l Sirrix DNA liq.
4-6passages at 90-95C
rinse, then
Peroxide bleaching
8-15ml/l H2
O
2
35%
4-8ml/l NaOH 36B
1ml/l Stabilizer SOF liq.
1ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
4-6passages at 90-95C
rinse thenantiperoxide treatment
withBactosol ARL
The fabric speed is adjusted in order
to obtain a uniform centrifugal
acceleration during the treatment
period. This constant centrifugal
acceleration allows uniform bath
transfer onto thefabric.
Vacuum suction and
el imi nati on of the
contami nated water
Ri nsi ng ramp
Sprayi ng with water
The Turbo-Ji gg

model uses two suction tubes submerged in the


washingdrum. They are connected to a group of filters and an innovative
suction pump which passes the bath through the fabric during the
impregnation process.
48
Twi n Jig (Ksters)
Processing Centre for Pretreatment,
Dyeing and Speci al Treatments
The jigger is one of the oldest andmost universal machines in textile finishing. Although
attempts are constantly being made to improve the machine, the principle of operation
has remained unchanged for many years. The persistent tendency towards small lots
and the specific qualities of certain fabrics haveledtocomeback of the J igger.
Ksters set out to develop a J igger concept which would meet all demands of modern
production as regards reproducibility, profitableness andenvironmental compatibility.
49
Bl eaching/opti cal bri ghtening of 100%
cotton kni t goods on the winch:
Protonic treatment
2ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
1ml/l Sirrix DNA liq.
15minat 60C
rinse, then
Bleaching/optical brightening
6ml/l H
2
O
2
35%
3ml/l NaOH 36B
1ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
0.5ml/l Stabilizer SOF liq.
0.8% Leucophor BSB liq.
50minat 90C
rinse, soften
Wi nch
Winch
Haspel fl ow B (Brckner)
Mercerizing
Mercerizing
Pretreatment Handbook
Exactly your chemistry
Pretreatment
untreated treated
2
Definition Definition
Mercerization is a strongly alkaline process with irreversible alteration of the physical characteristics
andappearance of cellulosic fibres byswelling. During mercerization or causticizing the cottonfabric,
knit or thread is submitted to a treatment with concentrated caustic soda between 18 and 32B
NaOH.
The interaction between the caustic soda and cellulose creates a series of physico-chemical
modifications to the cellulosic fibre and modifies its properties entirely.
The main modifications are:
destruction of the cuticle
the microscopic cross-sectionshows swellingof the cellulose
thelumen disappears
the fibres twist into spiral coils
thefibres are shortenedby20-25%
the macromolecular structure of the cellulose is modified
thecrystalline zones of the cellulose are orientedalongthe axis of the fibre
Depending on the concentration of the alkali we differentiate an additive reaction (formula 1) and a substitutive reaction (formula 2)
withformation of sodiumcellulosate.
increase of the internal surfaceof thefibre
increase in the reactivityof the cellulose
better suitabilityfor finishingtreatments
better resistance to chemical products, microorganisms, sunlight, etc.
significant increase in dyeingaffinitybyupto 25%
better tensilestrength
better dimensional stability
Mechanisms Mechanisms
(1) CEL-OH + NaOH CEL-OH , NaOH addition
(2) CEL-OH + NaOH CEL-ONa + H
2
O substitution
Duringcaustizingthe two formulae coexist :
(3) CEL-OH , NaOH CEL-ONa + H
2
O
The baryta index indicates the degree of mercerization. This index expresses the ratio between the absorption of Ba(OH)
2
(bariumor
baryta hydroxide) by a mercerized cotton and that absorbed by an unmercerized cotton. The index of a mercerized cotton sample can
varyfrom115 to 165dependingon thedegreeof mercerization. A barytaindexabove150indicates that mercerizationis complete.
3
Example of titrationof Ba(OH)
2
and determinationof thebaryta index:
10ml Ba(OH)
2
solution, reference solution requires 24.3ml HCl 0.1N for neutralisation
10ml Ba(OH)
2
solution, anunknownsample requires 19.58 ml HCl 0.1N
10ml Ba(OH)
2
solution, a standardunmercerizedcottonrequires 21.20 ml HCl 0.1N
The baryta indexis calculatedfor the unknownsample as follows :
152 100
20 . 21 30 . 24
58 . 19 30 . 24 it is essential to repeat the measurements 3
times to obtainameanbaryta index
4
Advantages Advantages of of mercerizing mercerizing
Dyeing affinity
Brilliant colours
Tinctorial strength
More homogeneous
tone-in-tone shades
Dimensional stability
Dynamometric resistance
Tensile strength
Suitability for finishing
Brilliance
Handle
Coverage of
dead/immature cotton
Regular geometryof the
structure
Mercerization
Dyeing /
Printing
Finishing
Appearance
Example:
Dyeingaffinity
5
Infl uenci ng parameter s
Influencingparameters are:
The ori gi n of the cotton. Dependingon the originof the cottonthe mercerizing
effects maybe more or less pronounced.
The concentrati on of caustic soda or alkali. The best effects are obtainedwith
a caustic soda concentration of 28to 32Bor 270 to 330g/l NaOH solid.
The temperature. The lower the temperature, the greater the brilliance
because maximumswelling of the cellulose takes place between 12 and 15C. A
cooling systemis adapted to keepthe alkaline bath at a lowtemperature. Modern
machines are equipped with impregnation between 50 and 60C. The cellulose
swells more rapidly than at 15C and the dyeing affinity is at a maximum. On the
old machines for cold mercerization (15C) the fabric speed was 20-30 m/min
comparedto 100 m/min on the newhot mercerizingmachines.
The ti me. Complete swellingof the cellulose takes place in 30-60s withNaOH.
Withliquidammonia the time is reducedto between15and20s. On principle, the
more rapidly the cellulose is impregnated with lye, the more rapid will be the
swelling, which is the reason for adding a mercerizing wetting agent such as
MERCEROL QW-LF. The relationship between time and temperature is decisive
for swelling.
The tensi on over the widthandlength of the fabric. Stabilizationis essential to
obtain the maximumeffect and rinsing must be carried out under tension. In this
waythe reorientationof the molecular chains makes it possible to obtainmaximum
dimensional stabilityandbrilliance.
Example:
better dimensional stability
better stabilityto washing
better appearance
6
Comparison of the effects wi th col d and
hot merceri zi ng
Mercerizingcanbe carriedout at various points duringthe pretreatment cycleof the cottonfabric:
On grey materi al . The only advantage is that the fabric is dry on entering the lye which avoids the variations in concentration of the wet-on-wet
technique. On the other hand the disadvantages areconsiderable: contamination of the lye bythe desizing agents, singeing dust, natural impurities in the
cotton, etc. This lye is no longer suitable for recycling. Danger in the case of sizing withPVA. Cotton knit goods and yarncanbe mercerized in the grey
state.
On desi zed material . Thesituation is better thanongreyfabric as far as contamination of the lye is concerned. It is essential that all sizes, particularly
PVA sizes, are removed. In time this lye is also contaminatedbythe natural impurities in the cotton.
On scour boi led materi al . This is a suitable point for mercerizing. It is necessary to rinse the fabric well to eliminate the alkali so as to avoid
differences inthe NaOH concentration duringmercerizing. By mercerizingscour boiledcottonit is possible to avoidthe problems of mercerizingbleached
fabric suchas loss of thedegreeof whiteness andreductionof absorbency.
On bleached materi al. Todaythis is the best point for mercerizing cotton fabrics. The dyeingaffinityandbrilliance will be at a maximum. The lye will
be very clean for problem-free recycling. Mercerizing bleached goods allows better coverage of breaks, folds andphysical faults caused by passage on
the Roller-Belt duringpadsteamperoxide bleaching.
On dyed material . The purpose is to increase the tensile strength of the fabric and make it more suitable for finishing processes including synthetic
resinfinishing. It is obvious that the dye must be stable to concentratedcaustic soda.
When to mercerize ?
Effects Mercerizing cold hot
DP greyfabric
bleachedfabric
idem
idem
idem
idem
Tensilestrength greyfabric
bleachedfabric
idem
idem
idem
idem
Dyeingaffinity greyfabric
bleachedfabric
<
>
>
<
Brilliance greyfabric
bleachedfabric
<
<
>
>
Dimensional
stability
greyfabric
bleachedfabric
<
<
>
>
Handle greyfabric
bleachedfabric
>
idem
<
idem
Suitability for
resinfinishing
greyfabric
bleachedfabric
<
idem
>
idem
7
MERCEROL QW MERCEROL QW- -LF: LF:
the the mercerizing mercerizing wetting wetting agent agent
The role of the wettingagent is extremelyimportant duringmercerizing in a stronglyalkaline medium. It increases the speedof penetration of the lye into
the deep layers of the textile substrate to allowrapidswellingof the cellulose.
Without the wettingagent mercerizationis onlysuperficial andperipheral (researchedfor fabrics intendedfor washedout fabrics anddenim).
The performance of thewettingagent is judgedby:
thewettingpower between18and32B NaOH
theshrinkingeffect of the fibre between18and32B NaHO
the foamingbehaviour between18and32B NaHO
thebiodegradability
theecological profile: absence of solvent, cresol andother toxic substances
Thanks to its goodsolubility, its stronganionic character and its wide region of activity between 18
and 32B NaOH, Mercerol QW-LF is suitable for mercerizingbecause of the followingproperties
increases thebrilliance
confers a supple, full handle
causes highinitial andfinal shrinkage
ensures a regular appearance of the material
promotes absorption of dye
guarantees impeccable results both on hightwist yarns andtightly woven fabrics thanks to
the penetratedwettingout of the material.
8
Shrinking burette 50 ml / Test
Shrinkageaction
Shrinking burette with a cooling
jacket and rotating thermostat.
Steel weight with hole, =8 mm,
l=30mm, weight approx. 11g
Stop-watch
shrinkage %
10
2 mm in shrinking
These values shouldbe enteredfor each concentration
as a function of time. From the shrinkage curve thus
obtained a strengthrelationis deductedafter :
15seconds (initial shrinkage)
90seconds (final shrinkage).
Apparatus :
Material :
Concentration of
lye :
Additives :
Temperature :
Procedure :
Evaluation :
intoa percentage of the
total length of yarneight
Greycottonmixedshock-stableyarn, ungassed
26and 30B
3 - 5 - 7 g/l wetting agent. These amounts should be
variedaccordingto the efficiencyof theproduct.
18C
The test solutions should be poured into the burette
and the thermostat set for 5 minutes. Shouldany error
occur in the volume, this should be corrected by filling
up to a mark corresponding to a depth of immersion of
50 cm. Then a sample of yarn approximately 120 cm
long should be threaded into the steel weight and both
ends of the yarn fixedwith a clipin such a waythat the
lower end of the steel weight stands at 0 on the mm-
division of the shrinkingscale. Then the steel weight is
allowed to fall into the lye and the stop-watch
immediately set working. The shrinking values in mm
should be read after 5 - 10 - 15 - 30 - 45 - 60 - 90
seconds.
The shrinking values read in mmshould be converted
into a percentage of the total length of yarn by the
following formula :
9
Shrinkage test
Neither of the two methods for testing wetting effect described in TM
7101can be used in the case of mercerizing wetting agents, since the
viscosityof the solution makes the immersion of the fabrics impossible.
Testing in this case is bythe l aying on method.
Raw cotton fabric according to DIN 53 901. As
described in TM 7101, circular discs of 3.5 mm
diameter to correspond to an area of approximately 10
cm
2
shouldbecut fromthis fabric.
The solutions used to measure shrinking effect should
be poured into aPetri dish. The testing of wetting effect
shouldfollowimmediately by layingon the fabric-discs.
The time that elapses until the liquid level has closed
over the fabric shouldbemeasured.
The wetting times determined in seconds should be
entered on log/log paper, as described in TM 7101.
Strength evaluation should be carried out for an
average wettingtime of 15seconds.
Material :
Procedure :
Evaluation :
Wetti ng test
Mercerol QW-LF
Competitor 1
Competitor 2
shrinkage in sec. (for 50% shrink) at 26B NaOH shrinkage in sec. (for 50% shrink) at 30B NaOH
wetting timein sec. at 26B NaOH
wetting timein sec. at 30B NaOH
10
Foami ng behaviour
Testing should be in accordance with TM7105 in comparison with the
products mentioned there, the foaming behaviour of which should be
taken as a reference point.
Concentration of lye : 26and30B NaOH
Concentration of surfactant : 5g/l
Test temperature : 18C
Foamingbehaviour and foamstabilityshould be written down in the test
report :
Product does not foam
foams a little
foams moderately
foams strongly
foams verystrongly
Foampersists
slowlysubsides
quicklysubsides
Gas washingbottle with integratedfilter plate
Volume: 500ml
Overflow
Foam
Liquor
Filter plate
foamin cmat 26B NaOH
foamin cmat 30B NaOH
MERCEROL QW-LF Competitor 1 Competitor 2
MERCEROL QW-LF Competitor 1 Competitor 2
11
Impregnat ion React i on Stabi li zat i on
Stabi li zat i on
Neut ral i zati on and washi ng
Neut ral i zati on and washi ng
Chai nl ess pr inci pl e Chai nl ess pr inci pl e Chai n pri nciple
Doubl e Impregnat i on
The first mercerizing trials were carried out in 1850 by J ohn Mercer who
had noticed the change in chemical properties of cotton submittedto high
concentrations of caustic soda of about 300 g/l NaOH solid; in particular,
swelling of the cellulose, considerable shrinking of the textile substrate
and the release of heat as well as better dyeingaffinity, better dimensional
stabilityandgreater brilliance.
Machi nes and Machi nes and mercerizing mercerizing technology technology
The profile of a mercerizing machine is directly connected to the formof
the substrate, i.e. woven, knit (tubular or knit) or yarn. The machine is built
for true mercerizing with 250-350 g/l NaOH solid for better brilliance and
dimensional stability or for simple improvement of dyeing affinity with
concentrations of 170-200g/l NaOH solidbycausticizing.
Profil e of a mercerizi ng machi ne for woven fabr ic; type DIMENSA (Benninger)
The classical functional parts andzones of a mercerizingmachine for wovenfabric are:
the impregnationzone withconcentratedlye for wet-on-wet or wet-on-dryapplication
the reactionzonewhere swellingof the cellulose starts
the stabilizationzone under tension where thelye is dilutedby countercurrent from28B to 8B
the washingzone and the neutralizationzone.
Install ati on for l ight woven fabri cs which are easy to i mpregnate
12
Step 1 : Intensi ve impregnation in hot l ye
A small controllable liquor content is used in the intensive
impregnation compartment. The process lye is continually circulated
and the temperature andconcentration monitored. The automatic lye
control permits the addition of fresh lye, water or recoveredlye of 20
to40Bfromrecycling.
Reaction heat is emitted when mixing the process lye. In hot
mercerizing this is utilized, while in cold mercerizing it causes an
energy consuminglye coolingprocess. If difficult blended fabrics are
tobemercerized, in whichthe fibres couldbe damagedwith a longer
time at high temperatures, for instance with a PES percentage of
over 50%, cooling rolls can be mounted at the infeed to the reaction
zone in order to cool the fabric immediately after impregnation.
Squeezing to a lower lye content is possible with hot mercerizing.
The lower lye consumption provides savings in water and steamat
lye extraction.
BEN-Di mensa advantages :
four tuned steps guarantee optimum resul ts
The versatility of the BEN-DIMENSA permits every textile result
concerning the mercerizing effect. This is achieved by objective
selection of the process parameters suchas :
Lye temperature
Lye concentration
Lye reaction time
Fabric lengthwiseandcrosswisetension
The thus optimizedprocess provides the best mercerizingeffect with
savings in lye, water and steam. In comparison with other
mercerizing ranges the small lye volume permits very fast changes
in concentration and, therefore, short production interruptions. And
no lye losses occur at changes. Changeover to a lower lye
concentration for caustification processes therefore does not result in
biglosses.
Savi ngs of lye, washi ng water and steam are money for your
account.
1. Feed of fresh lye in any
concentration (raw lye, lye fromthe
condensation unit)
2. Feed of diluent (water, weak lye in
anyconcentration)
3. Process lye
4. Control for lye concentration
5. Control for lye amount
6. Control for lye temperature
A Processor
B Impregnation
C Stock tank
DHeating
E Measuring vessel concentration
F Temperature feeler
G Level measuring sonde
Automatic strong lye control
13
Step 2 : The reacti on takes pl ace duri ng the dwell ti me
Insteadof 45-50 seconds as with coldmercerizing, the same effect can be
obtained in only 25-30 seconds with hot mercerizing. In order to keep
width contraction as low as possible, the fabric is kept under constant
tension duringthe reaction phase.
No sel vedge to middle differences occur with the BEN-DIMENSA
The reaction takes place in the entire zone from impregnation to the
stenter frame. Theproven Benninger chainless principlewith positive cloth
guidance is applied in this section of the machine. The cloth is constantly
incontact with therolls. The impregnation compartment onlyis flooded.
On the BEN-DIMENSA MC the fabric is pinned to the integrated stenter
frame at the endof thereaction compartment.
On the BEN-MINI MERC there is no reaction
compartment and the fabric is pinned to the stenter
frame immediately after impregnating. At the speeds
usual with this type of machine the dwelling time in the
stenter zone suffices.
Lye extraction begins
in the stenter frame
On the BEN-DIMENSA ML the dwelling zone consists only of the
chainless impregnation andreaction compartments.
14
Step 3 : The BEN-DIMENSA memori zes the fabri c dimensions
The uniformly applied lye is now to be removed. On the BEN-DIMENSA MS and the BEN-
MINI MERC hot weak lye is first sprayed onto the fabric. In this manner the shrinking forces
are partially decreased. In this condition the fabric can be stretched to the desired width
with comparatively little force. Selvedge to middle differences are prevented or
compensated bya special selvedge lye extraction process.
In the stenter frame an increase in the fabric width can also be achieved very well.
Longitudinally the needle chain permits stretching by increasing the speed, or shrinking
through fabric overfeed. With knits, an overfeed of up to 20% can be employed, which
means that longitudinal stretch is compensated for in the best possible manner. The needle
chain leaves no marks in the selvedge and guides the fabric surely, even under the extreme
conditions of high width tension and high shrinking forces.
Lye extraction on the stenter frame does not suffice to prevent subsequent shrinkage in the
washing machine. When washing with free shrinkage, the opened spiral coils in the cotton
fibres are partially closed causing irreversible dimensional changes. In order to suppress
this effect and to carry-out further lye extraction before entry into the washing compartment,
Benninger has a further zone with permanent positive guidance after the stenter frame.
Only completely opened spiral windings in the cotton fibre lead to the acknowledged
improvement in dimensional stability, tenacity, lustre, etc. At the end of the stabilizing
operation the caustic soda concentration has been so far reduced that no further permanent
changes occur. The molecular changes in the morphological structure in warp and weft at
the end of the stabilizing zone are memorized. In subsequent finishing operations such as
stentering, dyeing and washing the dimensions are not irreversiblyinfluenced.
Step 4 : Washing and neutral izi ng wi th a concentrati on control l ed water supply
Any residual alkali is now washed out in the washing machine. With fabrics and
longitudinally stable knitted goods the BEN-EXTRACTA is used. The top roll drive with
press rolls prevents longitudinal distortion and width contraction.
Mahlo system for " on l ine" measuri ng of the pH after washi ng off after mercerizing
The CHEMCON CMC rapid measuringmethodfor the pH value andconductivity in continuous washing processes
Continuous recordingof the pH value and conductivity onthe runninggoods
No impairment of thesubstrate
Improvement of the finishingquality
Optimization of process flow
Steamis blownonto the
runninggoods andsuctioned
off. The condensate is
analyzed. The measured
values andtheir relation to
eachother provide an
indication as to the finishing
result.
Automati on of measuri ng and control systems
The amount of washing water is economical and objectively controlled by measuring the
weak lye concentration at the fabric infeed in the stabilizing zone (stenter frame or chainless
stabilizing compartment). Exact neutralization of the fabric is ensured through automatic pH
control.
water-steam mix
Ext ract
Cal cul ati on
uni t
pH...
... S/cm
15
Core-neutral izing of the fi bres with Si rri x NE
Most pretreatment processes are carried out in an alkaline medium, e.g.
scour boiling, mercerizingand bleaching. Neutralization of the soda bythe
protonic complex Si rrix NE makes it possible to eliminate all traces of
alkali, even those lodged in the core of the fibres. Often the operation is
controlledbya ph-METER. In this waythe last or last-but-one rinsing bath
in a pretreatment range is heldat a constant pH of 4 or 5withSi rri x NE to
neutralizethe textile material toa pH between7 and8.
Strong acids like hydrochloridric or sulfuric acid are not recommended
because there is a risk of degradation of the fibre (hydrocellulose) should
the machine stop. Weak acids like acetic or formic acid are frequently
used and neutralize the caustic soda on the surface, But often traces of
alkali are blocked in the core of the fibre. After drying or prolonged
batching soda migrates to the surface and causes yellowing of bleached
or brightenedfibres. Si rrix NE, thanks to its special composition with high
ionic mobility, totally dislodges the soda fromthe microscopic cavities of
the fibres andthus preserves thefinal whiteness of the cotton.
Wi th Acetic Acid
Wi th Sirri x NE l iq.
Neutralized surface
NaOH
Acetate blocking
buffer zone
Neutralized core
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 50 100 150
Sirri x NE l iq.
Volume NaOH 1N (ml )
pH For 1 Li ter sol ution 10 ml /l Sirrix NE li q.
16
Profi t from the advantages of BEN-DIMENSA
Widt h gai n and hi gh di mensional st abi l i ty are compat ible on the BEN-DIMENSA
You achieve a bigger finished width. In spite of that, the quality standard of the shrinkage
value is not impaired. On the contrary, through the width stretching in the stentering frame
and the subsequent excellent stabilizing, a distinctly better stabilized width is achieved than
on conventional mercerizing machines. The relationship of finished width to shrinkage in the
weft direction is clearlyimproved
Const ant warp densi ty over the whol e f abri c wi dth
An increase number of ends in the selvedge zone leads to pattern
distortion in yarn dyed fabrics, and in dyed fabrics to side-to-centre
shading. With the BEN-DIMENSA denser selvedges are avoided. In
spite of the gain in width the mas per unit area does not
proportionally diminish as mainly the denser selvedge are
equalized.
Traditional mercerizing results with selvedge
thickening and deviations in weight per unit area.
BEN-DIMENSA corrects irregularities caused by
processing and increases the stabilized fabric width.
The BEN-DIMENSA fulfi ls
textil e producers' wishes
Merceri zi ng and Neutrali zi ng on Di mensa-Machi ne
17
BEN-DIMENSA MS 4
Combination of chainless systemand stenter
frame for speeds of 20-100 m/min for woven
chainless intensive impregnation compartment
chainless reaction zone
stenter frame
chainless stabilizing compartment
washing and neutralizing zone
BEN-DIMENSA ML 3
Chainless systemfor speeds of 20-150 m/min
chainless intensive impregnation unit
chainless reaction zone
chainless stabilizing compartment
washing and neutralizing zone
BEN-DIMENSA MS 1
Combination of chainless systemand stenter
frame for speeds of 20-100 m/min
washing and neutralizing of a separate
washing machine
BEN-DIMENSA KNIT
Small machine for knit goods for speeds
of 2-20 m/min
Speeds :
- Ben-Dimensa MS 4 20-100m/min
- Ben-Dimensa ML 3 20-150m/min
- Ben-Dimensa MS 20-100m/min
- Ben-Dimensa Knit 2-20m/min
Fabric content of modules :
- Impregnation compartment 7.5m
- Reactioncompartment 5.8-8.5m
- Stabilizingcompartment 8.5m
Techni cal Data :
Useful width UW (increments 200mm) 1600-3400
Overall width UW +1850mm
Maximumheight (fabric infeed) 3000 mm
18
Merceri zing machi ne EcoMer ce (Kuesters)
EcoMerce is an advanceddevelopment of the wet mercerizingprocess for
caustic treatment of cotton blends at various caustic concentrations.
Faster diffusion of caustic into the fibres and superior mercerizing results
are the main characteristics of the Ecomerce process.
Following a prewashing process, the Flexnip application unit, already
proven on countless pretreatment and dyeing ranges, is used to apply
caustic evenly to the fabric in a specific concentration and quality to
ensure the required concentration within the fibres after a short diffusion
phase. After only a short dwell in the diffusion zone, a maximumfabric
swelling effect is achieved. The fabric is then guided through a stretching
zone with length and width stretching units. in the following stabilizing
section, the caustic soda is washedout in order to stabilize the newfabric
dimensions.
The application of caustic of a higher concentration than usual causes an
immediateswellingof the fibres, resultingin less caustic soda requirement
per kilo of fabric, compared with existing methods of operations (see
Diagram)
ECOMERCE
New merceri zi ng technology with caustic soda addi ti on
and a defi ned extension i n width and l ength
1. Flexnip(addition of caustic soda)
2. Diffusion compartment
3. Squeezingrollers
4. Length stretching zone
5. Width stretching zone
6. Stabilization compartment
Balance concentration (~300g NaOH / L)
Add-on mercerizing EcoMerce (60-70C)
Hot mercerizing (60-70C)
Cold mercerizing (15-20C)
M
e
rc
e
r
iz
in
g
-
e
ffe
c
t
Time (sec)
EcoMerce versus conventional mercerizing
19
EcoMerce
mercerizing
machine
Stretching process
in weftdirection Fabric width
Ecomerce continuous chainless mercerizing range with roller stretching unit
Roller stretching unit
Pin wheel stretching unit
A Stretching process
in warp direction
B Stretching process
in weftdirection
Width after stretching zone
Initial width
Ecomerce continuous chainless mercerizing range with pin wheel stretching unit
Fabric length
Initial width
Width after stretching zone
Initial length
Length after stretching zone
Differential drive
Tension control Targetvalue Actual value
Stretching process
in warp direction
20
EcoMerce; Di ffusion Compartment
Suitable for the Flexnip add-on mercerization
process, hot or cold mercerization with additionally
floodedcaustic troughs
Driven stainless steel bottom roller, with grooved
surface, top rolers with soft rubber covering
Caustic soda circuit with mixing trough, circuit
pump, heat exchanger,
jet pipes, concentration control
Closedstainless steel housing, modular systems
Techni cal Data
Workingwidth 900 ... 3400mm
Fabric speed max. 120m/min
Intensive stabilization: meander shaped liquor feedin cross and counter
flow
subdivision in individual baths with rinsingliquor circuit
Cascade-type arrangement of thesections
Closed steam-proof housing out of stainless steel with direct heating,
modular system
Driven bottomrollers, stainless steel with fine-groovedsurface
Toprollers, stainless steel, with soft rubber coveringas jockeyroller
Rinsing liquor concentration control for connection to caustic recovery
unit, optional
Techni cal Data
Workingwidth 900 ... 3400mm
Fabric speed max. 120m/min
Diffusioncompartment(2modules);
high efficiency squeezingunits
Highefficiencysqueezingunits
Stabilizing module High efficiencysqueezing units
EcoMerce; Stabi li zi ng Secti on
21
EcoMerce Pi n Wheel Stretching Uni t
For defined warp and weft stretching
Combined length and width stretching zone between
diffusionandstabilization
Techni cal Data
working width 900 ... 3400 mm
max stretch in
widthdirection 150 mm
max. stretch in depending on cloth
warpdirection tension and material
Stretching process
inwarp direction
Stretching process
inweftdirection
Initial width
Width after
stretching zone
Length stretching zone with drive and web tension measuring unit for
reproducible stretchingin warpdirection
Width stretching zone with web tension measuring unit, 2 pairs of pin
wheels, automatic pinning, fabric width control and monitoring of pin
position for reproducible stretchingin weft direction
Feeding of lowconcentrated caustic to initiate the stabilization process
on the pinnedfabric, caustic circuit with pumpandcollectingtank.
22
Merceri zing wi th l iquid ammonia
The liquidammonia process is a unique process usingthe NH
3
molecule at -33C.
This process has become irreplaceable for 100% cotton for non-ironshirts. Summer clothing
of 100% cellulosic fibres is appreciated for its wearing comfort and easy care. The same
applies to home wear. Workwear of 100%cotton treated with liquid ammonia is becoming
increasinglypopular for demanding end uses (hospitals, kitchens, ships) and the easier care
offered (reduced wear and tear, drying tunnel without ironing). Combined with a flame-
retardant finish, liquidammonia treatment is suitable for protectiveclothing.
Processes
In the SANFOR-SET process the NH
3
is appliedcontinuously to the cotton andthe ammonia
is eliminated by evaporation during passage over a hot cylinder. This process is called the
dry NH
3
process. In the recent BEAU-FIXE process fromVERAMTEX, the NH
3
is removed
fromthe fabric by washing. The totally sealed machine recovers and recycles the ammonia.
There is no risk of ppmof NH
3
in the surroundingair. Swelling of the cellulose takes place in
10-15seconds in the Beau-Fixe process.
The important parameters of the Beau-Fixe process:
a constant temperature of -33C; the boilingtemperature of NH
3
a stable concentration of 100% NH3 liquid
demineralizedwater without additives
complete reactionwithinafewseconds
23
The Beau-Fi xe process advantages
Natural and practi cal
The particular qualities of natural fibres are
emphasized. 100% natural fibres can be
employedwithout their traditional drawbacks.
Di mensi onal stabi li ty
Dimensional stability is greatlyimproved(*)
Dry crease recovery
All the advantage of clothing which does not
crease during wear (*)
Col our fastness
Dye affinity is increased and colour fastness to
light and washingis improved
Luxury
Products are lustrous and have a more
luxurious appearance. The handle is softer and
more lively.
Machine washing
Fabrics are stronger andeasier to care for. They
dry more quickly. Machine washing of linen has
become possible.
Easy-care or non-i ron
The crease recovery obtained enables
workwear garments to be processed in tunnel
finishing. It eliminates or greatly reduces the
needfor home ironing(*)
Better quali ty
The improvement in mechanical properties
increases wear life andresistance toabrasion.
(*) Effects reinforced dueto synergybetween theBeau-Fixe
treatment andan appropriate resin treatment.
24
Processe and Machine
A qui ntessenti al ly ecological process
A necessary intermediate in the development of
livingtissue, ammonia is a product widely preset
in nature. It is completely eliminated from the
textile material after treatment. It is then
recovered, purified and recycled back into
processingwithout causingpollution to either air
or water.
A versatil e process
Cotton, linen, ramie, regenerated cellulose.
Beau-Fixe is the only process for treatment of
both knitted andwoven fabrics.
Qui ck service
Collection and return of goods in 7 days within
1.000kmof Brussel
an experi enced team
Our team can advise you on adapting your
finishingprocessingto the newfibre properties.
A Dippingin liquidammonia at
33C
B Rinsing in purewater
C Drying
D Recovery, purification and
recyclingthe ammonia
1 Liquidammonia at -33C
2 Ammonia vapor
3 Pure water
4 Ammonia solution
5 Water recoveredandrecycled
An efficient process that transforms
the fibre in less than 10 seconds.
25
Appl icati ons
Combi ne the comfort of usi ng natural fabrics
wi th the easy mai ntenance of syntheti cs.
Most of our work consists of treating fabric for
shirts.
The treatment is generally followed by a resin
treatment in order to obtain the best crease-
recovery results. Without ammonia treatment,
the fabric wouldtear or wear veryquickly.
Dyed or undyed fabri c ?
The treatment is applied to all fabrics, whether
they are yarn dyed, white or white-to-be-dyed.
The best phase to the textile production line in
which to applythe Beau-Fixe treatment depends
on the results desired andonthe types of fabric.
Workwear
Here, too, the Beau-Fixe + cross-linking
combination yields excellent results. It becomes
possible to obtain 100%-cotton articles that can
be maintainedwith tunnel-finish.
Vel vet
The fabric keeps its beauty longer and washing
does not flatten thenap.
Cotton
Most consumers are very fond of linen but are
quicklyfrustratedbyhowdifficult it is to maintain
and by its extreme tendency to crease. This
leads some people to claimthat "linen is worn
creased". And while some consumers are
snobbish about their wrinkled linen clothing,
most avoid linen because they find it simply
creases too much.
With the Beau-Fixe treatment, we obtain linen
that is easy to maintain, thus opening up new
market opportunities for this fibre. The
combination of a locally produced, enjoyable-to-
wear natural fibre with an ecological
maintenance treatment opens up newhorizons.
The fabric's handle is particularly improved with
Beau-Fixe.
We believe very strongly in the future of this
fibre. We are even attempting to involve
designers in researching this new material and
in improving its image. A whole world of new
possibilities for linen !
Li nen
26
This newfibre, derivedfromwood pulp, is also a
"green" fibre: the manufacturing process is very
clean and the finished product is extremely
pleasant to the touch.
The Beau-Fixe treatment has the same effect as
on cotton: improvement in strength, in touch,
and in crease-resistance. Crease-resistance is
further improvedbysubsequent resin treatment.
The treatment also has effects specific to
Lyocell: i t el imi nates sti ffness when the
fabric i s wet and it stops fibrillation. the first
point facilitates the task of the finisher, who
often works with wet fabric and who can now
avoid crackiness and wrinkles, the bothersome
effects of which are well known.
Washing i s also more effective; the fabric
l asts appreciabl y l onger. We washed a
workwear fabric 100times at 90C ! The results
are available on request (see the web site
www.veramtex.com)
Softness in the wet state is equallyimportant for
comfort, in places where perspiration could be a
problem, for example.
Fibrillation is also a well-known characteristic,
which gives fabric a "peachskin"touch.
This is sometimes a desired effect, but it is
produced in an uncontrolled way. Traditional
treatment with enzymes is often verycostly
Lyocell
The trousers belowwere washed 20 ti me. The
difference in treated/untreated appearance is
clear: the treated-fabric leg is smoother, less
discolouredandlonger than the untreatedfabric.
Beau-Fixe is a treatment that replaces
mercerization to advantage, with effects that
surpass those obtained with mercerization.
Denim
27
Kni twear
When certain precautions are taken (see
below), it is also possible to treat knitwear. The
result is better elasticity, a more pleasant touch,
and reducedsnarling.
Jersey
J ersey must be tube-treated to avoid having the
selvedges roll.
Heavier knits, such as i nterl ock and ri b fabric,
maybe treated open width.
Other pl ant fi bres, such as hemp and rami e
The Beau-Fixe treatment invariably results in
surprisingly advantageous effects. We have
therefore always been interested in testing the
use of the treatment for improvement of other
plant fibres, such as hemp andramie.
Techni cal fabrics
Thanks to the Beau-Fixe treatment, it is possible
to give plant-fibre fabrics unusually high
resistance-to-abrasion and quick-drying
properties, which in turn make it easier to meet
particular requirements.
New developments for wool and aramids
Preliminary tests on wool showan improvement
in handle and a reduction in pilling. Recent
university studies reveal that ammonia enables
further treatment of aramides (glue, dye, etc.)
Others
28
Merceri zing Merceri zing cotton cotton knit knit goods goods
Mercerizingwoven fabrics does not pose too many technical problems but this is not true for
knit goods. In the mid-70s mercerized cotton knit goods were produced almost exclusively
with mercerized yarns. The rapiddevelopment of high quality cotton jerseyclothing made an
adaptation of the mercerizing method essential. Mercerized yarns produce a highly brilliant
cotton which is readily dyeable but it is extremely expensive and poses certain technical
problems, such as the differences in tension between the inside and outside yarns when
drawing out the hanks during mercerization which in turn cause unlevelness. Furthermore,
mercerizationof the yarns does not improve the dimensional stability of the finished piece of
jersey.
In contrast to the relatively stable woven fabrics, elastic cotton knit goods shrink far more
during swelling in the caustic soda and cannot be kept under constant tension on the guide
rollers of the machine. The material shrinks more in the crosswise direction at the edges than
in the middle and the resulting mercerizing differences automatically cause problems in
dyeing. For tubular knit goods special mercerizing machines were developed to reduce the
technical problems to a minimum.
Major probl em when mercerizi ng cotton kni t goods
Selvedge densification
Selvedge densification
caustification
compartment
stabilization
compartment
29
DORNIER - Mercerizi ng range for tubular kni t goods
The numerous continuously operating DORNIER mercerizing machines
all fulfill the exacting demands placed on them with regards to quality,
output andease of operation.
With this machine all types of knittedfabrics such as single jersey, fine rib
and piqu in cotton or cotton blends can be mercerized. A distinct
imrpovement in quality is given, not only to high quality goods in fine
combedcotton, but also to mediumqualities in short staple cotton yarns.
High class underwear has joined outwear and sportswear as the main
articles for processing.
The DORNIER system - patented ,motorized, automatically adjustable
circular expander in the stabilizing-, washing- and reaction sections
guarantees economic mercerization of tubular knit fabrics in all these
areas.
The essential technical features of the circular expander systemare:
Reproductible values through controlled tension during the whole
treatment.
In the tubular state otpimum length and width control are ensured for
every diameter.
Uniformity of stitches and wales over the whole fabric length and width.
Therebyprevention of build-ups andselvedge runoffs when dyeing.
Full mercerization, free fromselvedgemarks andstitch distortion.
Uniform fabric appearance, weight, shrinkage as well as improved
dimensional stability andafast, high lustre.
A = NaOH - impregnating and reacting section
B = stabilizing section
C = washing section
D= neutralizing section
30
DORNIER - Mercerizi ng range for tubular kni t goods
Techni cal detail s
Circular expander with pressure compensation and rolling friction. Thus
a higher spreading tension with almost constant traction force, i.e.
longitudinal tension can be achieved.
Drastically reduced setting-up times due to motorical adjustment of
circular andflat tube expanders, evenduring slowrun of machine.
Crease-free fabric run through the circular expander in the impregnating
and the washingsections.
Self-cleaningfilter for lye and washingwater.
Constant water consumption, although the amount of water applied to
the fabric has been substantially increased by recycling. This increases
the stabilizing effect.
A Lyepreparation tank
B Agitator
C Filter box (NaOH)
D Filter box (H
2
O)
F Tank, upper
G Tank, lower
H Washingtower
I Coolingsection
K Meteringpump
L Density andliquidlevel control
M Washingtrough
P Automatic temperature control
R Pump (NaOH) 1
S Pump (NaOH) 2
Heat exchangers guarantee uniform, exact temperatures
in the individual washingtowers.
Heat recoverysystemfor waste water.
All drives, roller bearings and upper traction rolls located outside of the
wet area.
Three-phase current drives guarantee a perfect andcontrolledfabric run.
Modern frequency convectors, controlled by the dancer rolls, ensure
careful fabric treatment.
The sealed machine housings, with integrated exhaust flap, are made
fromlye and acid proof steel.
Provisionfor mounting a turntable anduntwister at the fabric infeed.
Caustic soda
Steam
Wetting agent
Fresh water
Wash water
31
DORNIER - The expandable and combinable machine concept
DORNIER supplies compact ranges with all the auxiliaries necessary for
automatic operation.
Based on the concept of the tubular mercerizing machine we have now
designed a combined mercerizing - bleaching range. This consists
basically of the impregnating-, reaction- and washing sections of the
mercerizing machine and is complemented with a preheating- and
dwelling zone for the bleaching unit. The impregnation and washing
sections are usedin both processes.
The machine sections can be arranged one after the other, or in a
compact layout, so that existing mercerizing facilities can be extended to
form combined mercerizing-bleaching ranges without any trouble
whatsoever.
Standstill times in mercerizing can thus be utilized for bleaching. This
concept guarantees full exploration of the machine in an extremely
economic manner.
Further expansion to include a circular squeezer and drier in our sales
program is under discussion. This project illuminates the fact that
DORNIER is striving to create a machine programfor tubular knit goods
finishingfromone andthesame supplier.
Recipes for cotton-knitwear
Mercerizing step Bleaching step
26BNaOH
6ml/l Mercerol QW-LF liq.
2ml/l Sirrix DNA liq.
6ml/l Hostapal MRZliq.
8ml/l Stabilizer SIFA liq.
30ml/l NaOH 48B
40ml/l H2O2 50%
32
Bleaching machine for tubular knit
goods with impregnating- preheating-
anddwellingzoneas well as washing
sections.
Combined mercerizing- and
bleaching range consisting of:
impregnating-, reaction- and washing
sections for mercerization or,
impregnating section, heating and
dwelling zone as well as washing
sections for bleaching.
Combined mercerizing- and
bleaching range in compact layout,
consisting of: impregnating, reaction
and washingsections for mercerizing
or, impregnating section, heating-
anddwellingzoneas well as washing
sections for bleaching.