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Admittance Matrix 1.0 Introduction (Section 9.1) Current injections at a bus are analogous to power injections.

The student may have already been introduced to them in the form of current sources at a node. Current injections may be either positive (into the bus) or negative (out of the bus). Unlike current flowing through a branch (and thus is a branch quantity) a current injection is a nodal quantity. The admittance matri! a fundamental network analysis tool that we shall use heavily relates current injections at a bus to the bus voltages. Thus the admittance matri! relates nodal quantities. "e motivate these ideas by introducing a simple e!ample. #igure $ shows a network represented in a hybrid fashion using one%line diagram representation for the nodes (buses $%&) and
$

circuit representation for the branches connecting the nodes and the branches to ground. The branches connecting the nodes represent lines. The branches to ground represent any shunt elements at the buses including the charging capacitance at either end of the line. 'll branches are denoted with their admittance values yij for a branch connecting bus i to bus j and y i for a shunt element at bus i. The current injections at each bus i are denoted by (i.
$

y$)
*

&

($ y$* y$ y* (*

y)& y*) y) ()

(& y&

Fig. 1 +irchoff,s Current -aw (+C-) requires that each of the current injections be equal to the sum of the currents flowing out of the bus
*

and into the lines connecting the bus to other buses or to the ground. Therefore recalling .hm,s -aw (/012/0y the current injected into bus $ may be written as3 ($/(0$%0*)y$* 4 (0$%0))y$) 4 0$y$ ($) To be complete we may also consider that bus $ is 5connected6 to bus & through an infinite impedance which implies that the corresponding admittance y$& is 2ero. The advantage to doing this is that it allows us to consider that bus $ could be connected to any bus in the network. Then we have3
($/(0$%0*)y$* 4 (0$%0))y$) 4 (0$%0&)y$& 4 0$y$ (*)

7ote that the current contribution of the term containing y$& is 2ero since y$& is 2ero. 8earranging eq. (*) we have3

($/ 0$( y$ 4 y$* 4 y$) 4 y$&) 4 0*(%y$*)4 0)(%y$)) 4 0&(%y$&)

())

9imilarly we may develop the current injections at buses * ) and & as3 (*/ 0$(%y*$) 4 0*( y* 4 y*$ 4 y*) 4 y*&) 4 0)(%y*)) 4 0&(%y*&) ()/ 0$(%y)$)4 0*(%y)*) 4 0)( y) 4 y)$ 4 y)* 4 y)&) 4 0&(%y)&) (&/ 0$(%y&$)4 0*(%y&*) 4 0)(%y)&) 4 0&( y& 4 y&$ 4 y&* 4 y&)) (&) (:) (;)

where we recogni2e that the admittance of the circuit from bus k to bus i is the same as the admittance from bus i to bus k i.e. yki/yik #rom eqs. ()%;) we see that the current injections are linear functions of the nodal voltages. Therefore we may write these equations in a more compact form using matrices according to3
&

I $ y$ + y$* + y$) + y$& I y *$ * = I) y )$ y &$ I&

y$* y * + y *$ + y *) + y *& y )* y &*

y$) y *) y ) + y )$ + y )* + y )& y &)

V$ V * V) y )& y & + y &$ + y &* + y &) V&

y$& y *&

(<) The matri! containing the network admittances in eq. (<) is the admittance matri! also known as the =%bus and denoted as3
y$ + y$* + y$) + y$& y *$ Y= y )$ y &$ y$* y * + y *$ + y *) + y *& y )* y &* y$) y *) y ) + y )$ + y )* + y )& y &) y$& y *& y )& y & + y &$ + y &* + y &)

(>) ?enoting the element in row i column j as =ij we rewrite eq. (>) as3
Y$$ Y Y = *$ Y)$ Y&$ Y$* Y** Y)* Y&* Y$) Y*) Y)) Y&) Y$& Y*& Y)& Y&&

(@)

where the terms =ij are not admittances but rather elements of the admittance matri!. Therefore eq. (<) becomes3
I $ Y$$ I Y * = *$ I ) Y)$ I & Y&$ Y$* Y** Y)* Y&* Y$) Y*) Y)) Y&) Y$& V$ Y*& V * Y)& V) Y&& V &

($A)

By defining the vectors 0 and ( we may write eq. ($A) in compact form according to3
V$ V V = * V) V& I$ I I = * I) I&
I =Y V

($$) "e make several observations about the admittance matri! given in eqs. ($A) and ($$). These observations hold true for any linear network of any si2e. $. The matri! is symmetric i.e. =ij/=ji. *. ' diagonal element =ii is obtained as the sum of admittances for all branches connected to bus i including the shunt
;

y branch i.e. where we emphasi2e once again that yik is non%2ero only when there e!ists a physical connection between buses i and k. ). The off%diagonal elements are the negative of the admittances connecting buses i and j i.e. =ij/%yji. These observations enable us to formulate the admittance matri! very quickly from the network based on visual inspection. The following e!ample will clarify.
Yii = y i +
k =$ k i ik

Example: Consider the network given in #ig. * where the numbers indicate admittances.
<

$%j& * *%j&

) *%j)

&

($ (*
jA.*

(&
jA.&

*%j: jA.)

jA.$

()

Fig. 2 The admittance inspection as3


Y$$ Y Y = *$ Y)$ Y&$ Y$* Y** Y)* Y&* Y$) Y*) Y)) Y&)

matri!

is

given
* + j ) * j * .; A A

by

Y$& ) j <.@ * + j & $ + j & Y*& = * + j & & j>.> * + j : Y)& $ + j & * + j : : j$$.< Y&& A A * + j)

>