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A Solar Flux Atlas for the Visible and Near Infrared.

L. Wallace and K. Hinkle, National Optical Astronomy Observatory*, W. C. Livingston and S. P. Davis, National Solar Observatory*.

Introduction.

Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault and Testerman (1984) have already produced a solar flux atlas for the visi- ble and near-infrared region using very high quality Brault NSO (National Solar Observatory) FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) spectra (Davis, Abrams and Brault, 2001). We have produced a different version which we present here. Most importantly, it includes corrections for discrete terrestrial absorptions mostly due to H 2 O and O 2 . This atlas also includes spectral plots with line identifications and ASCII files containing corrected and uncorrected spectra.

In order to observe disk-integrated sunlight, a very few NSO FTS solar spectra were taken with the image out of focus. This was achieved by substituting a flat mirror for the telescope image-forming mir- ror. These ‘‘integrated sun’’ spectra are the solar flux spectra we have used here. To obtain spectra of the telluric lines, we started with ratios of solar spectra at different air masses. We then stretched this ratio to match, as best as possible, the telluric lines in the solar flux spectrum, and then used the ratio to divide them out. In addition to producing digital files containing the corrected solar flux spectra, we have produced plots with line identifications which are minor updates of material we have assembled and used before.

The Spectra.

There are two groups of particularly useful integrated sun spectra for the visible and near infrared in the NSO archives. The first, from 1981, by Brault and Testerman, was used for the Kurucz et al. flux atlas. The second, from 1989, by Mitchell and Plymate, we believe was intended for use in a paper by Mitchell and Livingston (1991). We have reviewed these and made telluric corrections on both. Much better results were found for the second group. Since this second set offered the potential for a simple, better, correction for telluric lines, it received more attention than the first.

There is, of course, some intrinsic variation in the solar flux spectrum through the solar cycle (e.g., Livingston, Wallace and White 1988, Mitchell and Livingston 1991) but that effect is too small to be of concern in the present work.

*The National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the National Solar Observatory are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

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Correction for Telluric Lines.

The primary discrete terrestrial absorbers in this region, H 2 O and O 2 , are illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 is the telluric spectrum derived for the correction of the integrated sun spectra used here. Two

weaker bands of

19,800 cm 1 (5050 A). It is apparent from Figure 1 that telluric lines have a substantial effect on a large part of the visible and near infrared spectrum. Note that in Fig. 1, of the observed spectrum was substi- tuted for the derived telluric spectrum in telluric line centers when the derived ratio was excessively noisy.

Our basic scheme for removing the telluric lines when working with center disk spectra is to ratio two solar spectra at air masses differing by the order of unity, stretch the ratio to match the telluric lines of the spectrum with the smallest air mass, then divide by the stretched ratio. This only works because of the almost complete resolution of the features. The most prominent defects in the process are increased noise. The S/N is lowest in the centers of strong lines and is reflected in the inability to get good correc- tions in the centers of these lines.

We have used this approach with the archival integrated sun spectra but could not generally obtain satisfactory results, there being substantial differences in the Doppler shifts of the solar lines in the two spectra ratioed to obtain a transmission spectrum and much noise due to excessive stretching of the ratio of spectra differing only by small amounts in air mass. This lead us to the modified scheme of using ratios of center disk spectra to obtain the transmission spectrum, and then applying that transmission spectrum to the integrated sun spectrum. We have measured the zero levels relative to the continua with black lines in the 7600 A A-band and the H 2 O bands near 10500 cm 1 and found them in the spectra we have used here to be less than 0.25 % off zero, and therefore inconsequential.

O (Camy-Peyret et al. 1985) are also apparent in the atlas panels centered about

H 2

o

o

The H 2 O absorption is highly time-variable whereas O 2 is not. Because of this, the best overall cancellation of both H 2 O and O 2 comes with spectra obtained over a short time span, and we were not generally able to find such spectra in the archives. Two successive spectra on the same day differing by one half to one air mass are the best. As a result of this further complication, we had to pick over the ‘‘integrated sun’’ spectra very carefully in order to find reasonably correctable spectra which were obtained close together in time and preferably with the FTS in the same configuration to avoid interpola- tion onto a common dispersion scale. This greatly restricted the number of useful integrated sun spectra.

Table 1. Reduction Summary.

Primary

Spectrum

Resolving

Power

Secondary

Spectra

Atlas

Region (cm 1 )

Doppler

Correction

Region

1

1989/10/13#8

676,000

1983/06/26

10,800-13,500

1.00000185

 

#1&2

2

1989/10/13#7

698,000

1983/06/26

13,500-17,500

1.00000119

 

#1&2

3

1989/10/01#4

432,000

1983/06/26

17,500-22,500

1.00000046

 

#1&2

4

1989/10/01#7

559,000

none

22,500-24,900

1.00000100

5

1989/10/01#5&6,

494,000

none

24,900-30,700

1.00000093

 

10/13#5&6,&

494,000

10/14#15&16

494,000

none

6

1981/06/22#6

348,000

30,700-33,800

0.99999873

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Spectra Selection and Processing.

The spectra selected and processed are listed in Table 1.

The primary spectra, all integrated sun, are illustrated in a highly compressed form with no contin- uum correction in Figure 2. We have given them the file names of the date they were taken plus the spectrum number for that date. Those from October 1989 are by Mitchell and Plymate and that for June 1981 is by Brault and Testerman. All of the spectra used here are in the NSO archives. The available integrated sun spectra each cover a few thousand wavenumbers with the result that six primary spectra are needed to cover the full near infrared and visible band.

For region 1, we tried first to use two integrated sun spectra, 1989/10/13#8 at air mass 1.5 and 1989/10/01#10 at air mass 3.2, both with the same FTS configuration and filters. Ratioing, stretching and dividing, as described in previous paragraphs, plus continuum adjustment by fitting parabolas through the high points, yielded the results. However, the results were noisy and numerous "s" structures in the transmission spectrum appeared due to the Doppler shift between the solar lines when the telluric lines were matched up. Much experimentation led us to the ratio of center disk spectra 1983/06/26#1 at air mass 10.8 and #2 at air mass 5.4, at a different FTS configuration from the primary, solar flux, spectrum. This required interpolation onto a common frequency scale of these two spectra and the primary. Different stretching was needed for H 2 O and O 2 regions, but the two are well separated so the switching from one to the other was not a problem. Throughout this, and the other regions, we have inserted gaps at the centers of the strong telluric lines where the correction fails.

For region 2, the reasonable combination of integrated sun spectra 1989/10/13#7 at air mass 1.4 with 1989/10/01#9 at air mass 1.8 was useless because the two show essentially identical H 2 O. Much

experimentation led us to the use of the same two center disk spectra as in region 1, 1983/06/26#1 and

As in region 1, different stretching was needed for H 2 O and O 2 and because of the overlap of the

#2.

H 2 O and O 2 , as indicated in Figure 1, much switching between the two stretching modes was required. This generally worked quite well but some failures are apparent, notably at the O 2 lines at 14,426.8 and 14,428.7 cm 1 .

Instead,

we used the same two center disc spectra for the transmission as in regions 1 and 2. This region does have the simplification that it has H 2 O but no significant O 2 .

Reductions for regions 4 and 6, requiring neither H 2 O nor O 2 corrections, were only a matter of continuum fitting through the high points. Region 5 was similar except that six spectra were added together to increase the S/N.

For region 3, we again could not get reasonable results with integrated sun spectra only.

Results.

The results of the reductions for the six regions are in files ‘‘sptr.regN’’ where N=1 to 6. The first three files have five columns: frequency in wavenumbers, corrected flux spectrum, derived transmission function, observed flux spectrum, and air wavelength. The last three have three columns: frequency in wavenumbers, observed flux spectrum and air wavelength. The air wavelength is wavelength in standard air calculated from the vacuum frequency ( Edl´en 1966). These files are currently stored in http://diglib.nso.edu/solar_flux_atlas/.

We have determined small multiplicative frequency corrections for the reduced spectra in the ‘‘sptr.regN’’ files using the Fe I lines of Nave, Johansson, Learner, Thorne and Brault (1994) as stan- dards. These correction factors are listed in Table 1 and have been applied in the atlas plots.

From these files we have produced a series of plots at a scale of 50 cm 1 per panel. Where telluric

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lines are apparent, we plot the corrected flux spectrum in one panel and in a second, the telluric transmis- sion spectrum used for the correction and the observed flux spectrum, the latter shifted down by 0.1. Where the telluric lines are not apparent, only the observed flux spectrum is given.

Table 2. Extent of Labeled Molecular Features.

Molecular

Molecular

Vibrational

Frequency

Wavelength

 

o

CN Red

CN Red A

2

2

Π-X Σ

1-0

10,801-10,938

9140-9255

Label

Transition

Band

Region (cm 1 )

Region ( A)

 

4-2

11,236-12,078

8277-8897

3-1

11,046-12,393

8067-9050

2-0

11,156-12,699

7873-8961

6-3

12,757-13,407

7457-7837

5-2

12,757-13,678

7309-7837

4-1

12,867-14,061

7110-7770

3-0

13,026-14,392

6946-7675

C 2 Swan

C 2 Swan A 3 Π-X 3 Π

0-1

17,740-18,320

5457-5636

0-0

19,361-20,526

4870-5164

1-1

19,516-20,045

4987-5123

MgH A

CH A

MgH A 2 Π-X 2 Σ

1-0

21,109-21,587

4631-4736

0-0

19,189-19,646

5089-5210

CH A 2 -X 2 Π

0-1

20,232-20,851

4795-4941

2-2

22,772-23,587

4238-4390

1-1

22,739-23,794

4202-4396

0-0

22,721-24,091

4150-4400

CN Vlt

CN Violet B 2 Σ-X 2 Σ

0-1

23,713-23,983

4169-4216

1-2

23,826-23,978

4169-4196

2-3

23,916-23,981

4169-4180

0-0

25,743-26,717

3742-3883

1-1

25,823-26,582

3761-3871

2-2

25,886-26,648

3752-3862

CH B

MgH B

NH

OH

CH C

CH B 2 Σ-X 2 Π

MgH B 2 Σ-X 2 Σ NH A 3 Π-X 3 Σ

OH A 2 Σ-X 2 Π

CH C 2 Σ-X 2 Π

3-3

25,935-26,455

3779-3855

1-1

24,267-24,824

4027-4120

0-0

24,586-25,821

3872-4066

1-0

27,029-27,562

3627-3699

1-1

28,759-30,225

3307-3476

0-0

29,087-30,470

3281-3437

2-2

30,565-31,336

3190-3271

1-1

30,432-32,147

3110-3285

0-0

30,487-32,632

3064-3279

3-2

32,985-33,552

2980-3031

1-0

33,409-33,783

2959-2992

1-1

31,096-31,827

3141-3215

0-0

31,137-32,341

3091-3211

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Identifications.

A) the identificalions were taken from Wallace,

Hinkle and Livingston (1993); for 13,500 to 28,000 cm 1 (3570 to 7405 A) we used Wallace, Hinkle and

For the near infrared through 13,500 cm 1 (7405

o

o

A) we used Hinkle, Wallace, Valenti

and Ayres (2005). We have also made considerable use of the older studies by Moore, Minnaert and Houtgast (1966) and Pierce and Breckinridge (1973).

Because of lack of space in the plots we have had to truncate the molecular labels to only the molecule and in most cases used an abbreviation for the transition, e.g., ‘‘CN Red’’ for CN Red A 2 Π- X 2 Σ and dropped vibrational and rotational assignments completely. For clarification and guidance we have added Table 2 which gives frequency and wavelength limits on the bands included in the plots. These limits only apply to the labeling and not to the inherent extent of the bands.

References to individual atoms and molecules, taken largely from our previous work, are as fol-

Livingston (1998); and for 28,000 to 33,800 cm 1 (2958 to 3570

o

lows.

 

H

- Garcia and Mack (1965).

Li

I - Brault and M¨uller (1975).

C

I - Johansson (1966).

N

I - Eriksson (1958) with Moore (1959).

O

I - Eriksson and Isberg (1963b and 1967).

Na I - Risberg (1956).

Mg I - Risberg (1965) and Swensson and Risberg (1966).

Mg II - Risberg (1955) and Risberg (1965).

Al I - Eriksson and Isberg (1963a).

Si I - Radziemski and Andrew (1965), with Lambert and Warner (1968) and Swensson et al.

(1970).

Si

II - Shenstone (1961).

S

I - Kaufman and Martin (1993).

K

I - Risberg (1956).

Ca I - Risberg (1968), with Mitchell and Mohler (1965) and Moore (1972).

Ca II - Edl´en and Risberg (1956).

Sc I - Ben Ahmed and Verges as reported by Kaufman and Sugar (1988).

Sc II - Johansson and Litz´en (1980).

Ti

I - Forsberg (1991) and Phelps (1982).

Ti

II - Huldt, Johansson, Litzen and Wyart (1982), with Moore (1972).

V

I - Davis and Andrew (1978).

V

II - Meggers and Moore (1940).

Cr I - Wallace, Hinkle and Livingston (1998) used Kiess (1953) as their primary source but replaced Kiess’s material where possible with measures of NSO archival hollow-cathode spectra obtained by Brault and Forsberg to improve the accuracy. The improved measures are what we have used here but a complete, published, remeasurement and analysis is needed.

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Cr II - As with Cr I, we have used Kiess(1951) as the primary source, but replaced his line posi-

tions with calculated positions from the energy levels given by Sugar and Corliss (1985) which were derived from unpublished line measurements by S. Johansson.

Mn I - Catal´an, Meggers and Garcia-Riquelme (1964).

Mn II - Iglesias and Velasco (1964), as quoted by Kelly (1979), plus Phelps (1982).

Fe I - Primarily Nave et al. (1994a) augmented with Nave and Johansson (1993) and Nave et al.

(1994b), and extended with Russell and Moore (1944), Kiess, Rubin and Moore (1961)and Phelps (1982). Here we have 4,906 lines labeled as Fe I.

Fe

II - Dobbie (1938), Johansson (1978) and Moore (1972).

Co

I - Pickering and Thorne (1996).

Co

II - Pickering, Raasen, Uylings and Johansson (1998).

Ni

I - Litz´en, Brault and Thorne (1993) and Phelps (1982).

Ni

II - Shenstone (1970).

Cu

I - Shenstone (1948).

Zn

I - Hetzler, Boreman and Burns (1935).

Ge

I - Andrew and Meissner (1959).

Rb

I - Johansson (1961).

Sr

I and II - Moore (1972).

Y

I - Meggers and Russell (1929) and Phelps (1982).

Y

II - Nilsson, Johansson and Kurucz (1991).

Zr I - Kiess and Kiess (1931) and Phelps (1982).

Zr II - Kiess and Kiess (1930) and Phelps (1982).

Nb I and II - Humphreys and Meggers (1945).

Mo I and II - Moore (1972) and Phelps (1982).

Ru

I - Kessler (1959).

Ru

II - Shenstone and Meggers (1958).

Rh

I - Molnar and Hitchcock (1940).

Rh

II - Moore (1972).

Pd

I - Moore (1972).

Ag

I - Hetzler, Boreman and Burns (1935).

Cd

I - Hetzler, Boreman and Burns (1935).

Sn

I - Meggers (1940).

Sb

I - Meggers and Humphreys (1942).

Ba

I - Russell and Moore (1955).

Ba

II - Moore (1972).

La

II - Russell and Meggers (1932).

Ce

II - Corliss (1973).

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Nd II - Albertson, Harrison and McNally (1942) and Meggers, Corliss and Scribner (1975).

Sm II - King (1935) and Albertson (1936).

Eu II - King (1939) and Moore (1972).

Gd II - King (1943).

Dy II - King, Conway, Worden and Moore (1970).

Tm I and II - Meggers, Corliss and Scribner (1975).

Yb I and II - Meggers and Corliss (1966).

Lu II - Meggers and Scribner (1937).

Hf II and W I - Meggers, Corliss and Scribner (1975).

Os I, Ir I, Pt I and Au I - Moore (1972).

MgH (A 2 Π-x 2 Σ) - Balfour and Cartwright (1976).

C 2 Swan (d 3 Π-a 3 Π) - Prasad and Bernath (1994) and Phillips and Davis (1968).

CH (A 2 -X 2 Π) - Zachwieja (1995), Bernath et al.

(1991), Kiess and Broida (1956) and Ger¨o

(1941).

CH (B 2 Σ-X 2 Π) - K¸epa et al. (1996), Bernath et al. (1991), and Ger¨o (1941).

CH (C 2 Σ-X 2 Π) - Heimer (1932) and Moore amd Broida (1959).

CN Red (A 2 Π-X 2 Σ) - Davis and Phillips (1963).

CN Violet (B 2 Σ-X 2 Σ) - Rehfuss et al. (1992), Prasad et al. (1992), Engleman (1974) and Brault (unpublished).

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Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1963. Dobbie, J. C., The Spectrum of Fe II, Ann. Solar Phys. Obs., Cambridge, 5, 1-58, 1938. Edl´en, B., The Refractive Index of Air, Metrologia, 2, 71-80, 1966. Edl´en, B., and P. Risberg, The Spectrum of Singly-Ionized Calcium, Ca II, Ark. Fys., 10, 553-566, 1956. Engleman, R., Jr., The v=0 and +1 Sequence Bands of the CN Violet System Observed During the Flash Photolysis of BrCN, J. Molec. Spectr., 49, 106-116, 1974. Eriksson, K. B. S., Revised Energy Levels for the Neutral Nitrogen Atom, Ark. Fys., 13, 429-438, 1958. Eriksson, K. B. S., and H. B. S. Isberg, The Spectrum of Atomic Aluminum, Al I, Ark. Fys., 23, 527-541,

1963a.

Eriksson, K. B. S., and H. B. S. Isberg, O I Quintet and Triplet Terms Below the Ionization Limit, Ark. Fys., 24, 549-558, 1963b. Forsberg, P., The Spectrum and Term System of Neutral Titanium, Ti I, Phys. Scr., 44, 446-476, 1991. Garcia, J. D., and J. E. Mack, Energy Level and Line Tables for One-Electron Atomic Spectra, J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 55, 654-685, 1965. Ger¨o, L. Vervollst¨andigung der Analyse der CH-Banden, Zeit. Phys., 118, 27-36, 1941. Heimer, T., Untersuchung uber¨ die Kohlenwasserstoffbande λ 3143, Zeit. Phys., 78, 771-780, 1932. Hetzler, C. W., R. W. Boreman, and K. Burns, The Spectrum of the Zinc Arc in Vacuum, Phys. Rev., 48, 656-659, 1935.

Hinkle, H., L. Wallace, J. Valenti and T. Ayres, Ultraviolet Atlas of the Arcturus Spectrum, 1150-3800 A, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2005. Huldt, S., S. Johansson, U. Litzen and J.-F. Wyart, The Spectrum and Term System of Singly Ionized Titanium, Ti II, Phys. Scr., 25, 401-412, 1982. Humphreys, C. J., and W. F. Meggers, Term Analyses of the First Two Spectra of Columbium, J. Res. Nat. Bureau Stand., 34, 477-585, 1945. Iglesias, L., and R. Velasco, Instituto de Optica Daza de Valdes de Madrid, Publ. No. 23, 1964. Johansson, I., Spectra of the Alkali Metals in the Lead-Sulfide Region, Ark. Fys., 20, 135-146, 1961. Johansson, L., Spectrum and Term System of the Neutral Carbon Atom, Ark. Fys., 31, 201-235, 1966. Johansson, S., Spectrum and Term System of Fe II, Physica Scripta, 18, 217-265, 1978. Johansson, S., and U. Litzen, The Spectrum of Singly Ionized Scandium, Sc II, Phys. Scr., 22, 49-60,

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1980.

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N. S. O. Technical Report #11-001 Published 2011, by National Solar Observatory, P. O. Box 26732, Tucson AZ 85726