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LIBRARY

^ Diversity oi California'

IRVINE,

ITALY

BY

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT

WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS

By WILFRED C. LAY, Ph.D.

ILLUSTRATED

NEW YORK

PETER FENELON COLLIER

MDCCCXCVIIl

.

'

A 3.

according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871,

BY B. B. RUSSELL,

the Offine of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

OorrBiaKT BT DODD, MEAL), AMD COKPAKT, 1881,

PEEFAOE.

TH! anaals of the world contain no other such narrative as that

of Italy. Legendary Rome, the frenzied strife with Carthage, the

wild career of Hannibal, the lifelong struggles of Pompey and Csar, the culmination of the empire into universal sovereignty, the rise of

Christianity, the crumbling temples of Paganism, the sweep of Moslem

armies, the surging billows of barbaric invasion, the fall of imperial

Rome, the gloom and chaos of the dark ages, the struggle of the great

monarchies of Europe to grasp the fragments of the empire, the

amazing campaigns of Napoleon L, the triumph of the allies, the new

dismemberment of Italy, the campaigns of Magenta and Solferino, and

the recent re-establishment of Rome as the capital of re-united

Italy,

all these conspire in furnishing historical records, which, in

interest and instruction, are without a parallel.

The materials from which to gather information upon these points

are inexhaustible.

Those upon which the author has mainly relied

are the works of Niebuhr, Arnold, Schmidt, Livy, Tacitus, Plutarch,

Guicciardini, Sforzozi, Botta, Luigi Bosri, Sismondi, Percival, Spauld-

ing, Gibbon, Robertson, Thiers, Alison, Julie de Marguerites, together

with reviews and encyclopedias upon important characters and events.

The author has spared no pains to attain all possible accuracy, hav- ing devoted to the most important events here recorded the studies

of many years. Where there has been disorepaocy of authorities, oe

has adopted that statement, which, after toe moft careful eonsidwra-

tion, has appeared to him beat authenticated.

5

6

PREFACE.

The one great truth taught in all these annals is, that there is n

hope for the world but in the religion of the Bible. A change in the

form of government is of but little avail, so long as the people remain

ignorant and corrupt. Probably, in all governments, the rulers pretty fairly represent the average intelligence and integrity of the people.

A true republic cannot exist where the people are degraded. It is

of but little avail to batter down an old despotism, unless there is

sufficient enlightenment to rear upon its ruins a better edifice.

The question, whether united Italy shall be prosperous and happy, is one to be decided in the hearts of the Italian people. Italy has

deposed its old tyrannic rulers, and has introduced principles of civil

and religious liberty hitherto unknown in that fair but ill-fated land ;

but if there be not found among the masses of the people that intel-

ligence and moral worth which are essential to free institutions, then

the light we now behold gleaming over the Alps and the Apennines will prove but the flash of the midnight storm, not the dawn of open-

ing day. The men who are now doing the most for the welfare of the world

are those who are striving, by all the varied instrumentalities of life, to make men better ; to awaken in the human heart the consciousness

that God is our common Father, and that all we are brethren.

He

only is the true philanthropist who offers the unceasing prayer, with

corresponding exertions, " Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, as

in heaven, so in earth."

iVia HAVKB, Cow*., fehrnuy, 1871.

JOHN S. C. ABBOTT,

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

LEGENDARY ROME.

FROM 700 B. o. TO 493 B. 0.

PAM

tarn ITALIAN PENINSULA. UNCERTAIN HISTORY. LEGEND OF TKOT. TIM FLIGHT

OF ^NEAB. LANDING IN ITALY. WARS WITH NATIVE TRIBES. ALBA LONGA.

THB RAP or

THE STOBY or BOMULUS AND BEMUS. THE FOUNDATION OF BOME.

THE SABINES. CONTINUED CONQUESTS. TRANSLATION or ROMULUS. THEHOEATII

AND CUBIATIL CONQUEST OF ALBA LONGA, ACCESSION OF TARQUIHIUS. SERVIUS

TULLIUS. His DEMOCRATIC SWAY. ACCESSION CF TARQUINIUS SUPEBBUS. TH BOOKS OF THE SIBYL. THE STORY OF LUOEETIA. BAXISHMENT OF TARQUIN.

EEIGN OF THJC CONSULS. INSURRECTION OF THE COMMONS

It

CHAPTER II.

THE PRETORSHIP, DECEMVIBATE, AND CONSULATE.

FROM 493 B. a TO 438 B. o.

STORY OF COBIOLANUS. APPOINTMENT OF A DICTATOR.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF CCTOIN-

NATUS. WAB WITH THE JiyUlANS AND YOLSCIAN8. TuE SOLDIERS REFUSE TO

FIGUT. INFAMOUS CONDUCT OF THE NOBLES. APPIUS CLAUDIUS. VIRGINIA CLAIMED AS A FUGITIVE SLAVE. SLAIN BY UEB FATHER. INSURRECTION or THE

SON OF Ci-

OINNATUS. ClNCINNATUS CHOSEN CONSUL. CHANGE IN HIS CHABACTEB. AVEN- TINK HILL TAKEN BY THE COMMONS. IMPEACHMENT OF APPIUS CLAUDIUS. THB POPULAR CAUSE TRIUMPHANT. THE DECEMVIRS EEJECTED AND EXPELLED. IN- TRODUCTION OF THE CONSULATE.

PEOPLE. ITS SUCCESS. CONSPIRACY OF THE YOUNG NOBLES. K

&SO,

CHAPTER III.

CONFLICTS AT HOME AND WARS ABROAD

FROM 433 B. c. TO 818 B. o.

PCWSB OF AN ARISTOCRACY. DEMANDS OF THE PLEBEIANS. STRUGGLE OF THB PATBICIANS AGAINST POPULAB EIGHTS. THE OFFICE OF CENSOR. ITS DESPOT- ISM. INVASION OF THE GAULS. DEFEAT OF THE ROMAN ARMY. SACK OF BOMB. SIEGE OF THE CAPITOL. TERMS OF PEACE. MANLITJS. His PHTLANTHBOPY AND

CONDEMNATION. DESPOTISM OF CAMILLUS. CONQUEST OF THE PRIVERNATIANB^ WAR wrrn THE SAMNITES. DISASTKK AT THE CAUDINE FORKS MAGNANIMITY or

PONTIUS. CHARACTERISTIC ROMAN PRIDE ANP

2

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

BOMB, 6BEECE, AND CABTHAQB

FROM 818 B. o. TO 241 B. o

PAC

Tarn DISASTER OF THE CAUDINB FORKS AVENGED. PASTIES IN ROME. DEMOCRACY

OF APPIUS CLAUDIUS. IGNOBLE TREATMENT or PONTIUS. BTATB OF THB WORLD AT THIS TIME. COALITION AGAINST BOMB. THE GREEKS JOIN THE COALITION.

PYRRHUS LANDS ON THB ITALIAN PENINSULA. PBOOBKSS OF THB WAR. EXPUL-

SION OF THB GREEKS. INVASION OF SICILY. WAB WITH CABTUAGE. INVASION

OF AFRICA. STORY OF BseuLus. VIOTOBIES AND DEFEATS. BOMB TRIUMPHANT.

SICILY ANNEXED TO BOMB

T4

CHAPTER V.

THE PASSAGE OF THE ALPS BY HANNIBAL.

FROM 241 B. o. TO 217 B. a

INVASION OF SPAIN BY CARTHAGE. WAR BBNEWBD BETWEEN BOMB AND CA-

THAGK. NEW GAULISH INVASION. ANNIHILATION OF THB GAULISH ARMY. CONQUEST OF CISALPINE GAUL. HANNIBAL CROSSES THE BHONR. PASSAGE OF IBM

ALPS. INVASION OF ITALY. BATTLES ON THE TICINO AND THE Po. DISCOMFI-

TURE OF THE BOMANS. HANNIBAL BNTEBS TCSOANY. GREAT BATTLE OF THBABY-

MBNE. ANNIHILATION OF THE BOMAN ABM Y. COMMEMORATED BY BYBON

CHAPTER VI.

THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS OF HANNIBAL.

FROM 217 B. o. TO 204 B. o.

DEVASTATING MARCH OF HANNIBAL. COMPOSITION OF HIS ARMY. TERROR BOMK. WINTER QUABTEBS IN APULIA. DISSENSIONS IN THE BOMAN ARMY. THB

BATTLE OF CANNJL ANNIHILATION OF TUB BOMAN ARMY. INCREASING PERIL OF

HANNIBAL. BETREAT FROM TIFATA. MARCH UPON BOMB. SIEGE OF CAPUA. SLAVERY OF CAPTIVES. THE MARCH OF HASDEUBAL. PASSAGE OF THE ALPS.

NEW VICTORIES OF HANNIBAL. DEATH OF HASDBUBAL AND DESTRUCTION or HIS ARMY. THE HEAD OF HASDRUBAL. EXULTATION IN BOMB. DESPAIR or

HASNIBAL

110

CHAPTER VII.

FOREIGN CONQUESTS AND INTERNAL FEUDB.

FROM 204 B. o. TO 121 B. o.

SOIPIO. His CHARACTER AND CAREER. TUB CONQUEST OF SPAIN. QUELLING THB

MUTINY. MILITARY PROWESS OF HANNIBAL. HE RETIRES FROM ITALY. SOIPIO INVADES AFRICA. DESTRUCTION OF THE CARTHAGINIAN ARMY. TBUCB AND HUMILIATION OF CARTHAGE. LANDING OF HANNIBAL IN AFRICA. BATTLE or ZAJIA. CLOSE OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR. CONQUEST or GREECE. INVASION or SYEIA. THIBD PUNIO WAR. DESTRUCTION or CARTHAOV. THE NUMIDIAN WAB,

BARBARIAN INVASION. THE PLEBEIAN AND PATRICIAN CONFLICT. GRACCHUS

AHDOOTAVIUB

,

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII. THE SOCIAL WAB.

FUOM 121 E. o. TO 82 B. o.

M

>>*BUPTION or THS NOBLES. RESTLESSNESS OF

DEM AGOOISM or

MAKIUB. SERVILE INSURRECTION IN SICILY. HKROISM OF EUNUS. MISERIES or

THE SERVILE WARS. SUMPTUARY LAWS. STRUGGLE FOB RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP. COMMENCEMENT OF THE SOCIAL WAR. CONTEMPLATED REORGANIZATION OF

ITALY. SYLLA. WAR WITH MITHBIDATES. INTERNAL DISSENSIONS AT BOMB. CIVIL WAR IN THE STREETS. VIBRATION OF THE PENDULUM OF PARTIES. CINNA.

THE RALLYING OF THE PEOPLE. MABIUS RECALLED. SCENES OF ANABOHY. DEATH OF MARIUS. RETURN OF SYLLA. POMPBY ENTEBS TH ARENA. BATTLES

AND ASSASSINATIONS

THE PEOPLE.

CHAPTER IX.

SYLLA AND CATILINE.

FROM 82 B. c. TO 59 B. o.

BATTLE UNDEB THE WALLS. TRIUMPH OF SYLLA. CAIUS JULIUS OSSAR DEATH

or MABIUS. MASSACRE AT PRJSNESTE. MISSION OF POMPEY. ABDICATION or SYLLA. His DEATU. POLICY OF LEPIDUS. TRIUMPH OF THE ARISTOCRACY. CJSSAR A RANSOMED SLAVE. HE ESPOUSES THE POPULAR CAUSE. CHARACTER

or POMPEY. SPARTACUS AND HIS BAND. His DEFEAT AND DEATH. THE SLAVB

TRADE. ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTE. POMPBY CRUSHES THE PIRATES. TUB CON- PIRACY OF CATILINE

i

118

CHAPTER X.

C.SBAR AND POMPET

FROM 59 B. c. TO 50 a. o.

CATO. RETUBN OF POMI-EY TO ROME.- -CLODIUS AND THE MYSTIC RITES. DIVOBOB OF POMPEIA. ANECDOTES OF. CAESAR. THE TRIUMVIRATE. POLICY OF CICERO. POPULAR MEASURES OF CJSSAB. DIVISION OF THE SPOILS OF OFFICE. PROSECU-

TION OF CICERO. His BANISHMENT AND RECALL. DEMOCRATIC TRIUMPHS. DO-

MESTIC GRIEFS. BLOODY FRAY. TUMULT IN ROME. DICTATORSHIP OF POMPEY. ORGANIZATION OF A ROMAN COURT. ANECDOTE OF CJCSAK. His AMBITIOUS

DESIGNS. SICKNESS OF POMPEY. POLITICAL CONTESTS IN ROME. OPEN WAB

BETEEAT OF POMPEY AND FLIGHT TO GREECE.

CHAPTER XI.

191

T ; B BTBUGQLE AND FALL OF POMPEY

FROM 50 B c. TO 48 B. o.

BGE or BBUNDUBIUM. FLIGHT OF POMPBY. CESAR'S MEASURES IN ROME, H

EXPEDITION TO SPAIN. THE WAR AND FINAL CONQUEST. C^SAR RETURNS TO

BBUNDUBIUM. CROSSES TO GREECE IN PURSUIT OF POMPEY.

WAR. POMPEY'S VICTORY AT DYRACHIUM. RETREAT OF CJSSAR. BATTLE or PHARSALIA.~UTTER RUIN OF POMPEY. His FLIGHT. JOINS CORNELIA AND BIB

VICISSITUDES OF THB

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.

THB TEIUMPH OF CLESAB AND THE FATE OF POMPET.

FROM 48 B. a TO 44 B. a

N

OT or CJBBAB. PURSUIT OK POMPBY. THE EGYPTIAN WAR. CAESAR AJfD CLEOPATRA. CAPTURE or PHAROS. POPULARITY OF CJSSAB. Loss or TUB ALEX-

ANDRIAN LIBRARY. BRIEF CONFLICT WTH THK KINO OF PONTUS. QUELLING THE MUTINY. CATO'B EFFORTS IN AFRICA. THB AFRICAN WAR. DEFEAT AND DBATH OF SCIPIO. SUICIDE OF CATO. TUB SPANISH WAR. DEATH OF POMPBY'S SON.

His TRIUMPH. His ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURE* AND

OMAR'S BETURN TO BOMB.

CHAKAOTEB. CHARACTER OF CICERO

'

CHAPTER XIII.

ASSASSINATION OF J& S A B.

FROM 44 B. c. TO 42 B. o.

\ AND CABSIBS. THE CONSPIRACY. THB SCENE OF ASSASSINATION. CONDUOT OF THE CONSPIRATORS. INDIGNATION OF THE PEOPLE. FLIGHT OF TUB COKSPIBA-

TOES FROM KOME. MEASURES OF MARO ANTONY. CAIUS OCTAVIUS. INTERVIEW

WITH CICERO COLLISION WITH ANTONY. KALLYINO OF THE ARISTOCRATS. Civil WAR. FALSE POSITION OF OCTAVIUS. PHILIPPICS OF CICERO. DEFEAT or

ANTONY. ESCAPE BEYOND THE ALPS. OCTAVIUS CESAR'S MARCH CPOM

TRIUMPH OF THE PLEBEIAN CAUSE. THB NATURE OF THB CONFLICT.

CHAPTER XIV.

OCTAVIUS 0-(E8AB.

FROM 42 B. o. TO 82 B. o.

FATE OF DECIMUS BRUTUS. MASS ACRES IN ROME. DEATH OF CIOEEO. ANECDOTES. THE TEIUMYIRATE. WAR IN MACEDONIA. BUIN OF THE PATBIOIAN CAUSE.

SUIOIDB OF CA88IU8 AND B".UTU8. TRIUMPH OP TUB TRIUMVIRATE. OPPRESSION

OF THE PEOPLE AND DISCONTENT IN BOMB. PROFLIGACY OF OCTATIUS OESAE.

DOWNFALL OF LEPIDUS. DRUSILLA. DIVORCE OF ANTONY'S WIFE. ANTONY AND

CLEOPATRA. WAR BETWEEN OCTAVIUS AND ANTONY. MUSTERING OF THE FORCES.

-ANTONY AND HIS BRIDAL

CHAPTER XV.

02BSAB AUGUSTUS AND MABO ANTONY.

FROM 82 B. o. TO 10

B. o.

BATTLE OF AOTIUM. FLIGHT OF CLBOPATBA. ENTIRE VICTORY or OOTAVIUB. THB

PTBSUTT TO ALEXANDRIA. SUICIDE OF ANTONY. GUILE OF CLEOPATRA.

ENDEAVORS TO WIN OOTAvius. DESPAIR AND SUICIDE OF CLEOPATRA. Tw-

UVPHANT BBTURN OF OOTAVIUS TO BOME. His WISE MEASURES. THE TITLE OF

HUB

AUGUSTUS CONFERRED. STATE OF THB BOMAN EMPIKE. ITALY, OAI-L, BRITAIN.

PAIN, AFRICA, SYWA, ASIA MINOR, GREECE. THK DEFLATIONS OF CIVIL WAK

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVI.

TIBERIUS OJ38AR, CALIGULA, AND CLAUDIUS.

Xlli

FBOM 10 B.

o. TO A. D. 51.

FA1

EJ*jr AL DIVISION OF WEALTH. SLAVERY. THE JEWS. TIBEKIUB C JAR. DEATH

OF CVSSAS AUGUSTUS. TYRANNY OP TIBERIUS. His RETREAT TO CAPR. DEATH

OF GERMANIOUB. EDICT AGAINST THE PLAY-ACTORS. TESTIMONY OF TACITUS.

TERRIBLE ACCIDENT. CALIGULA. DEATH OF TIBERIUS. CRUCIFIXION OF OUK

SAVIOUK. EEIGN OF CALIGULA. Ills CRUELTY AND MADNESS. ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA. ACCESSION OF CLAUDIUS. ANECDOTES. DKATH OF CLAUDIUS.

ACCESSION OF NERO. His CHARACTER

296

CHAPTER XVII.

NERO

FROM A. D. 51 TO A. D. 67.

STRIFE BETWEEN NERO AND HK MOTHER. MURDER OF BRITANNIOUS. ATTEMPT TO

MURDER AGBIPPINA HER ESCAPE. EFFECTUAL PLAN FOR HER MURDER. RE-

MARK OF TACITUS. WAR IN BRITAIN. HORRIBLE LAW OF SLAVERY. ITS EXE-

CUTION. REPUDIATION AND DEATH OF OCTAVIA. THE FESTIVAL NERO SETS

FIRE TO ROME. THE CHRISTIANS FALSELY ACCUSED. THEIR PERSECUTION. TUB INSURRECTION OF GALBA. TERROR OF NERO. HE COMMITS SUICIDE. GALBA

CHOSEN EMPEROR. His ASSASSINATION

.-

816

CHAPTER XVIII.

EMPERORS, QOOD AND BAD.

FBOM A. D. 61 TO A. D. 180.

OTHO AND VITBLLUS. THB CONFLICT. THB TRIUMPH OF VESPASIAN TITUS D*. TROYS JERUSALEM. His ACCESSION TO THE THRONE. SUCCESSION OF DOMITIAN.

ADORNMENT OF THE CAPITOL. His DEPRAVITY AND DEATH. THE CROWN CON-

FERRED ON NEBVA. TBAJAN, ASSOCIATE EMPEROR. REIGN OF TRAJAN KB COLUMN. CORRESPONDENCE WITH PLINY. CONQUESTS OF TRAJAN. REIGN or

ADRIAN. ANTONINUS Pius. His NOBLE CHARACTER. MARCUS AURELTU*. TBBUS, HIS COLLEAGUE. DEATH OF AUBBUUS

CHAPTER XIX.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE DECLINE AND FALL.

FROM A. D. 180 TO A. D. 2-35.

MARCUS AURELIUS. PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY. COMMODUS. His DEATH. COM-

MENCEMENT OF THB DECLINE AND FALL. THE PRETORIAN GUARD. ITS CHARAC-

TER AND INFLUENCE. THE THRONE SOLD AT AUCTION. JULIAN. THE RIVAL EMFERIRS. TRIUMPH OF SEVERUS. His PERFIDY REIGN OF CARACALLA AND GBTA. MURDER cr GETA. ASSASSINATION OF CARACALLA. MACRINUB. HA

SHORT REIGN AND DEATH. ELAGABALUS. BOTH PONTIFF AND EMPEROB. Hm EXTRAORDINARY DEPRAVITY. ANECDOTES OF M AXIMIN

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XX.

RAPID ST1D8 OF DECLINE

FBOM A. D. 286 TO A. D. 288.

tt

rHis REIGN AND DEATH. REVOLT IN AFBIOA. THB GOBDIANB. Tarn TWO EMPEBORS. BALBINUS AND MAZIMUS. ANARCHY IN HOME. MUEDEB or TOi

EMFKROBS. PIIILIP MARINUS AND DECIUS. DESIGNATION OF CJESAR. HJCEEDI- TAEY DESCENT. THE GOTHIC INVASION. VALEBIAN AND (TALLIES us. TEEEIBLB

FATE or VALEBIAN. ACCESSION OF CLAUDIUS. IMMENSE ARMY or THE GOTHS. VICTORIES OF CLAUDIUS. CIIABAOTEB AND FATE OF ZBNOBIA. AUEELIAN. IN-

T*BBUM. TACITUS. His DEATH. PBOBUB.CABUB. His MAEOH TO PERSIA,

AND DKATB

I

 

CHAPTER XXI.

DIVISIONS OF THE EMPIRE.

 
 

FROM A

D. 288 TO A. D. 880.

OABINUS AND NUMKBIAN. ANECDOTE OF DIOCLETIAN. His ACCESSION SASAOIOQ,

 

ABBANGEMKNTS. THE FOUR EMPEBOES. WAES OF TUB BABBABIANS. TUB Two

NEW CAPITALS, MILAN AND NIOOMEDIA.

DECADENCE or HOME. ABDICATION OF

DIOCLETIAN. His RETIREMENT AND DEATH. CONSTANTIUS AND CONSTANTINB.

 

THE OVEETHEOW OF MAXENTIUS, MAXIMIN, AND LICINIUS. CONSTANTLNB BOLE

 

EMPEROR. TEIUMPU OF CHRISTIANITY OTEB PKRSECUTION. CONSTANTINE ADOPTS CHEISTIANITY. BYZANTIUM CHAHSED TO CONSTANTINOPLE. THE GBOWTH AND

BPLKNDOB or THE CITY

 

CHAPTER XXII

THE EMPIRE DISMEMBERED.

 
 

FBOM A. D. 880 TO A. D. 875.

OONSTANTINK TH G BEAT.

DIVERSITY OF VlEWS RESPECTING HlM. THE TfiAOEDT

 

OF CEISPUB AND FAUBTA. DEATH OF CONSTANTINK. TBIPLK DIVISION OF THB EM-

PIBE. TBIUMPH OF CONSTANTIUS OVEB HIS BROTIIEES. STRUGGLE WITH MAGNEN- TIUS. FATAL BATTLE OF MUESA. FATE OF GALLUS. ACCESSION AND APOSTAOY OF JULIAN. His SOHOLAELY CHAEAOTKB. DEVELOPMENTS OF ENEEGY. HIB WAR

IN GAUL. SELECTION OF PARIS FOE HIS CAPITAL. His MELANCHOLY DEATH.

 

RETREAT OF THE ARMY.

CHOICE OF VALENTINIAN. VALENB HIS ASSOCIATE.

ACCUMULATING WABS. DEATH OF VALENTINIAN

 

I

 

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE DYNASTY OF THE GOTHS.

 
 

FBOM A. D. 875 TO A. D. 1085.

THB MARCH or THE HUNS. FLIGHT OF THE GOTHS TO ITALY. ENKBGY or YALKHB. INGLORIOUS REIGN OF GRATJAN. THE REIGN OF THEODOSIUS. GOTHIC INVA-

 

SIONS. ALAEIO. ROMS BESIEGED. THE CONQUEST OF ROME. CAPTURE OF SICILY. 43AGAOITY OF ADOLPHUS. lilllEF DOMINION OF THE EA8TEEN EMPIRE OVEE Till

WEST. THE RAVAGES OF ATTILA. ANARCHY IN ITALY. KEPOS, ORESTES, AND

ODOACEB. INVASION OF THEODOBIO. JUSTINIAN AT CONSTANTINOPLE. THX CA-

BEEB or BELISAKIUS. CHARLEMAGNE AND His EMPIEE. THB REIGN OF THB

DOTES. SUBJECTION TO THEGBBMAN EMPKKOB

--.

i

CON1 E NTS.

XT

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC B.

FROM A. D. 1088 TO A, D. 128.

PAGl D ACHSTBNTS or THE CHURCH. HILDEBRAND. HtrMiLiATiON OF THB EMPEROR

HENRY IV. DOMINION OF THE GERMAN EMPIBK OVER ITALY. WAR BETWEEN THE EMPEROR AND LOMBARDT. SOUTHERN ITALY. OBOANIZATION OF THE KINO- DOM OF NAPLES. THB NORMAN EMIGRATION. THB VENETIAN REPUBLIC. ITS

BIBB AKD VICISSITUDES. ITALIAN CHARACTER. THE CRUSADES. CONFLICT BE-

TWEEN HONORIUS III. AND FREDERIC II. ANARCHY IN ROME. CONQUEST OP THB KINGDOM OF NAPLES BY CHARLES OF ANJOU. FLORENCE. ITS CONFLICTS 48

CHAPTER XXV. ITALIAN ANARCHY.

FROM A. D. 12C6 TO A. D. 1400.

Tmm GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINES. TRAGIC FATE OF BONTFAZIO AND IMALDA. EX-

TENT OF THE PAPAL STATES. THE SICILIAN VESPERS. CONFLICT BETWEEN GENOA

AND PISA. RUIN OF PISA. STATE OF FLORENCE. OF SICILY. THE PAPAL COCTIT

REMOVED TO AVIGNON. THE ROMANCE OF ANDREW AND JOANNA. CONFLICT FOB THE THRONE OF NAPLES. GENERAL VIEW OF ITALY. VENICE AND GENOA. THB ANTAGONISTIC POPES. THEIR WARS. ACCESSION OF LADIBLAUS TO THB THBONB or NAPLES. CRUEL FATE OF CONSTANCE

CHAPTER XXVI.

FRAGMENTARY ITALY

FROM A. D. 1400 TO A. D. 1600.

DAWK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. SCHISM IN THE CHURCH. THE THREE POPES.

THE GREAT COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE. "Gooo OLD TIMES." BEATRICE TBNDA.

THE DUKES OF SAVOY. THE HOUBB OF MBDICI. EUROPB MENACED BY THB TURKS. THE GREAT EUROPEAN MONARCHIES. FRAGMENTARY ITALY. LEO X.

FRENCH CONQUESTS. SPANISH CONQUESTS. THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. MASTER

or ITALY. PAPAL STRUGGLES. FATB OF FLORENCE. THE DUCHY OF PARMA

or TUSCANY

4T1

CHAPTER XXVII.

ITALY AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

FBOM A. D. 1600 TO A. D. 1T96.

Tn DDOHY OF TUSCANY. VENICE. STATE OF ITALY IN THK SEVENTEENTH Cnr-

TtTBY. THE DUCHIES OF PARMA AND MODENA. RISE AND AGGBANDIZBMENT OF

THB DUKES OF SAVOY. STRUGGLES IN GENOA* WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION. REPOSE IN ITALY. PEACE OF Aix LA CHAPELLE. NAPLES UNDER SPANISH INFLUENCE. THE PAPAL POWER. ITALY AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVO- LUTION. SARDINIA, TUSCANY, MODENA, GENOA, LOMBABDY, VENICE. WAB

AGAINST FRANCE. NAPOLEON IN ITALY. His VICTORIES AND HIS POLICY

XVi

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

NAPOLEON IN ITALT.

FBOH A. D. 1796 TO A. D. 1809.

ri

ITALT ra 1T96. MEASURES OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. MESSAGE TO THB POPB. THB CISALPINE REPUBLIC. TROUBLES IN GENOA. STATB OF SOUTHERN ITALY. CAP-

TIVITY OF Pius VI. PIEDMONT ANNEXED TO FRANCE. ATROCITIES OF LORD NBL-

SON. NAPOLEON'S RETURN FEOH EGYPT. CAMPAIGN OF MARENGO. LETTER TO

IBB EllPEBOR OF AUSTRIA. LETTER TO THE KlNG feF ENGLAND. IMPERIAL FRANCE,

THE KINGDOM OF ITALY. THE BOURBONS OF NAPLES DETHRONED. POPE

Prim VIL A CAPTIVE. NAPOLEON'S DESIGNS FOR ITALY

I

CHAPTER XXIX.

ITALY UNDER NAPOLEON, AND UNDER THE AU8TRIAN8.

FROM A. D. 1809 TO A. D. 1848.

KBINCB MBASUEES IN ITALY. CONDITION OF SICILY. OF SARDINIA. Or NAPLM. JOSEPH BONAPARTE. MURAT. THE STATES OF THE CHURCH. THE KINGDOM or ITALY. EUGSNE BEAUHARNAIS. ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA UPON NAPOLEON. THE FALL OF NAPOLBON. ITS EFFECTS UPON ITALY. THE AUSTRIAN .SWAY is ITALY. EXECUTION OF MURAT. INSURRECTIONS. ENERGY OF AUSTRIA. STRUG-

GLES OF THE YEAR 1820. REVOLUTION OF 1880. RUIN OF THE ITALIAN PATRIOTS. ACCESSION OF Louis NAPOLEOK. REVIVAL OF THE ITALIAN STRUGGLE

CHAPTER X XX.

AUSTRIAN TRIUMPHS AND D I 8 O M F I T U R E.

FROM A. D. 1848 TO A. D. 1860.

CONFLICT BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND SARDINIA. AUSTRIA TRIUMPHANT.

CONCENTRA-

TION OF THE PATRIOTS IN ROME. RUIN OF THE POPULAR PARTY iw PIEDMONT. HEROISM OF GARIBALDL RENEWAL OF THE WAR BETWEEN SARDINIA AND AUS- TRIA. INTERVENTION OF FRANCE. PROCLAMATIONS. BATTLES OF MONTEBELLO, i'ALKSTRO, AND MAGENTA SARDINIA AND LOMBARDY REGAINED. PRESENT BTATB

or ITALY.

CHAPTER XXXI.

FRENCH INTERVENTION 1

.

FROM A. D. 1860 TO A. D. 1870.

BIRTH AKD EXIT.*- BISTORT OF THE POPE.

His SPIRIT OF REFORM.

ASSASSI-

333

INTEBVENTION OF AUSTRIA, NAPLES, AND SPAIN. RECKLESSNESS OF THE IN-

SURGBKTS. FREKCH IKTEHVENTION. THE MODERATE REPUBLICANS AND THB KBDS. VIEWS OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT. THE CAPTOKE OF ROME. IN- eURRBCTION IV F ARIS. DISAPPOINTMENT OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT ftt

CONTENTS.

rvii

CHAPTER XXXII.

ITALIAN UNITY.

PAH

STRIKING VIEWS OF NAPOLEON I. OBJECT OP THE CONGRESS or VIENNA. THE

CARBONARI. LETTER TO TUB POPE. Louis NAPOLEON IN ITALY. His NAR- ROW ESCAPE. LETTER FROM MR. MORSE. INSURRECTIONS QUELLED. MA- GENTA AND SOLFEBINO. PEACE OF VILLAFEANCA. VENETIA NOT LIBERATED;

AND WHY.

ITALIANS.

VIEWS OF M. THIERS.

FIDELITY OF LOUIS NAPOLEON TO THE

THE PAPAL STATES.

DIF-

ADDRESS TO THE CORPS LEGISLATIF.

FICULTY OF THE QUESTION. SPEECH OF PHINCI NAPOLEON. VIEWS OF THB EMPEBOB. IMPORTANT LETTER FROM TUB EMPESOK

588

CHAPTER XXXIIL

THE SEIZURE OF ROME.

NICE AND SAVOY. THE DEPUTATION AND THE EMPEBOB. THE STATES OF THS

CHURCH. THE EMBARRASSING QUESTION. PARTIES IN ITALY.

RESULTS OF

MESSAGE TO THE

POPE. THE REPLY. PROCLAMATION OF VICTOB EMANUEL. THE MILITARY MOVEMENT. THE CAPTURE OF ROME. THE LEONINE CITY. REMONSTRANCE

OF THE CATHOLICS

SEDAN.

AGITATION IN ITALY.

DIPLOMATIC MEASUBES.

APPENDIX.

LATER HISTORY.

THE AUTHOR'S DEATH. NEW CHAPTER BY ANOTHER HAND. EFFORTS TO CONCILIATE THE PAPACY. PERPLEXING QUESTIONS. LOYALTY OF THE KING TO FREE INSTITUTIONS. PAPAL GUARANTYS. THE RELIGIOUS

CORPORATIONS. RELIGION AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. DEATH OF VIC- TOR EMANUEL, AND ACCESSION OF HUMBERT IV. DEATH OF Pius IX., AND ACCESSION OF LEO XIH. ATTITUDE OF THE NKW POPE. THE SUF- FRAGE QUESTION. FIRST NATIONAL EXPOSITION. GREAT RELIGIOUS

CHANGES.

DIATH OF GARIBAI.DI

61J

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

ITALY

Frontispiece Destruction of Pompeii

The Bridge and Castle of St. Angelo

General Giuseppe Garibaldi

Victor Emanuel .

CHAPTER I.

LEGENDARY BOMB.

THB ITALIAN PENINSULA.

FEOM 700 B. o. TO 493 R a

UNCERTAIN HISTORY. LEGEND OF TBOY. THB FLIGHT or

JSNEAS. LANDING IN ITALY. WARS WITH NATIVE TRIBES. ALBA LONOA. THB

STORY OF ROMULUS AND REMUS. THE FOUNDATION OF BOM*. THE RAPE OF TH

SABINES. CONTINUED CONQUESTS. TRANSLATION OF ROMULUS. TUB HORATII AND

CURIATII. CONQUEST OF ALBA LONGA. ACCESSION OF TARQUINIUS. SERYIUS TUL-

ACCESSION OF TARQUINIUB SUPERBUS. THE BOOKS

mrs. His DEMOCRATIC SWAT.

OF THE SiBTL. THE &TOEY OF LuORETIA. BANUHMENT OF TARQUIH REION OF

THB CONSULS. INSURRECTION OF THE COMMONS.

fTlHE Italian peninsula extends from the foot of the Alps into

-*- the Mediterranean sea, about seven hundred and fifty miles. Its breadth is very unequal. In the extreme north,

where it is bounded by the circular sweep of the Alps, which

separate the plains of Lombardy from Switzerland and the

Tyrol, the country presents a breadth of one hundred and fifty miles. In the center it is but about ei