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O F F I C I A L P U B L I C AT I O N O F D I V I S I O N 2 9 O F T H E
In This Issue

Exciting e Brochure
losure F Project L
An Historical Review of the
Field of Psychology
Psychotherapy With African-Americans
and Other Americans
2003 Nominations Ballot
31st Mid-Winter Convention Information
& Registration Form

VOLUME 36 NO. 4 FALL 2001
Division of Psychotherapy  2001 Governance Structure
OFFICERS Board of Directors Members-at-Large Alice Rubenstein, Ed.D. , 2001-2003
President Norman Abeles, Ph.D. , 2000-2002 Monroe Psychotherapy Center
Diane J. Willis, Ph.D. Michigan State Univ., 2 Tobey Village Office Park
Child Study Center Dept. of Psychology Pittsford, New York 14534
4520 Ridgeline Drive E. Lansing, MI 48824-1117 Ofc: 716-586-0410 Fax 716-586-2029
Norman, OK 73072 Ofc: 517-355-9564 Fax: 517-353-5437 Email:
Ofc: (405) 364-9091 Fax : 405-271-8835 Email:
E-Mail: APA Council Representatives
Linda F. Campbell, Ph.D., 2001-2003 Mathilda B. Canter, Ph.D., 1999-2001
President-elect University of Georgia 4035 E. McDonald Drive
Robert J. Resnick, Ph.D., 1999-2001 402 Aderhold Hall Phoenix, AZ 85018
Department of Psychology Athens, GA 30602-7142 Ofc/Home: 602-840-2834
Randolph Macon College Ofc: 706-542-8508 Fax:770-594-9441 Fax: 602-840-3648
Ashland, VA 23005 E-Mail: E-Mail:
Ofc: 804-752-3734 Fax:804-270-6557
Email: Ronald E. Fox, Ph.D., 1999-2001
Irene Deitch, Ph.D., 2000-2001
Piedmont MH Care, Inc
College of Staten Island
Secretary 104 S. Estes Drive, Suite 3
57 Butterworth Rd.
Abraham W. Wolf, Ph.D., 2000-2002 Chapel Hill, NC 27514-2866
Staten Island, NY 10301-4543
Metro Health Medical Center Ofc: 919-929-1227 Fax: 919-968-2575
Ofc: 718-982-3771 Fax: 718-273-0990
2500 Metro Health Drive E-Mail:
Cleveland, OH 44109-1998
Jack Wiggins, Jr., Ph.D., 1999-2001
Ofc: 216-778-4637 Fax: 216-778-8412 Nadine J. Kaslow, Ph.D., 2000-2002 15817 East Echo Hills Dr.
E-Mail: Dept. of Psychology & Fountain Hills, AZ 85268
Behavioral Science Ofc: 602-816-4214 Fax: 602-816-4250
Treasurer Emory University – Email:
Leon VandeCreek, Ph.D., 2001–2003 Grady Health System
School of Professional Psychology 80 Butler St., S.E.
Wright State University Atlanta, GA 30335
Dayton, OH 45435 Ofc: 404-616-4757 Fax: 404-616-3241
Ofc: 937-775-3466 Fax: 937-775-3055 Email:
Lisa Porche-Burke, Ph.D., 1999-2001
Past President Phillips Graduate Institute
John C. Norcross, Ph.D 5445 Balboa Blvd.
Department of Psychology Encino, CA 91316
University of Scranton Ofc: 818-386-5650 Fax: 818-386-5699
Scranton, PA 18510-4596 Email:
Ofc:570-941-7638 Fax:570-941-7899

PUBLICATIONS BOARD Psychotherapy Bulletin Membership

Chair: Jackson Rainer Ph.D. Linda F. Campbell, Ph.D. Co-Chair: Craig N. Shealy, Ph.D.
Gardner-Webb University, University of Georgia James Madison University
Dept. of Psychology 402 Aderhold Hall School of Psychology
Box 7251 Athens, GA 30602-7142 Harrisonburg, VA 22807-7401
Boiling Springs, NC 28017 Ofc: 706-542-8508 Fax:770-594-9441 Ofc: (540) 568-6835 Fax: 540-568-3322
Ofc: 704-406-3965 Fax:704-406-4329 E-Mail: E-mail:
Internet Editor & Webmaster Co-Chair: Sam S. Hill, III, Psy.D.
Members: Abraham W. Wolf, Ph.D., 2000-2002 Texas A & M University
Jean Carter, Ph.D. 1999-2005 Metro Health Medical Center 4417 Carlow Circle
Michael J. Lambert, 1997-2003 2500 Metro Health Drive Corpus Christi, TX 78413
Sylvia Shellenberger, Ph.D., 1996-2002 Cleveland, OH 44109-1998 Ofc: 512-994-2394 Fax: 361-851-8620
Alice K. Rubenstein, Ed. D., 2000-2002 Ofc: 216-778-4637 Fax: 216-778-8412 E-Mail:
Abraham W. Wolf, Ph.D., 1996-2002 E-Mail:
Nominations and Elections
Ex-Officio Members: STANDING COMMITTEES Chair: Robert Resnick, Ph.D.
Wade H. Silverman, Ph.D. , 1998-2002 Fellows
Linda F. Campbell, Ph.D., 2000–2002 Chair: Douglas K. Snyder, Ph.D.
Professor and Director of Clinical
EDITORS OF PUBLICATIONS Training Professional Awards
Psychotherapy Journal Department of Psychology Chair: John C. Norcross, Ph.D.
Wade H. Silverman, Ph.D. Texas A&M University
1390 S. Dixie Hwy, Suite 2222 College Station, TX 77843-4235
Coral Gables, FL 33145 Ofc: 979-845-2539 Fax: 979-845-4727 Finance
Ofc: 305-669-3605 Fax: 305-669-3289 Email: Chair: Leon VandeCreek, Ph.D.
Education & Training Diversity Task Force on Children & Adolescents
Chair: Charles J. Gelso, Ph.D. Chair: Jessica Henderson Daniel, Ph.D. Chair: Sheila Eyberg, Ph.D.
University of Maryland – Judge Baker Children’s Center Professor of Clinical & Health
Dept. of Psychology 3 Black Fan Cir. Psychology
College Park, MD 20742-4411 Boston, MA 02115 Box 100165
Ofc: 301-405-5909 Fax: 301-314-9566 Ofc: 617-232-8390 x2102 University of Florida
E-Mail: Fax: 617-232-8399 Gainesville, FL 32610 Federal Express Address
Continuing Education 1600 SW Archer Blvd.
Chair: Jon Perez, Ph.D. Program E-mail
6202 East Cactus Road Co-Chairs: Jan Culbertson, Ph.D. Fax 352-265-0468
Scottsdale, AZ 85254 Susan K. Corrigan, Ph.D. Co-Chair: Beverly Funderburk, Ph.D.
Home: 480-948-2234 Cell: 480-251-2234 Department of Pediatrics University of Oklahoma Health Task Force on Therapeutic
Sciences Center Relationships
Student Development 1100 NE. 13th St. Chair: John C. Norcross, Ph.D.
Chair: Louis Castonguay, Ph.D. Oklahoma City, OK 73117
Penn State University – Dept. of (405) 271-6824, ext. 120
Psychology (Child Study Center)
308 Moore Bldg. (405) 271-4500, ext. 202
University Park, PA 16802 (UAP)
Task Force
Ofc: 814-863-1754 Fax: 814-863-7002 FAX: (405) 271-8835 on Children and Adolescents
Email: e-mail: susan-corri- Committee Continuing
on Diversity EDUCATION Education


Professional Practice Interdivisional Task Force on Coalition on Aging
Chair: Ron Fox, Ph.D. Managed Care Chair: Irene M. Deitch, Ph.D.
Chair: Stanley R. Graham, Ph.D. College of Staten Island
Psychotherapy Research 10 West 10th Street 57 Butterworth Rd.
Chair: Marvin Goldfried, Ph.D. New York, NY 10011 Staten Island, NY 10301-4543
Psychology Department Ofc: 212-989-2391 Fax: 212-979-2415 Ofc: 718-982-3771 Fax: 718-273-0990
State University of NY Stony Brook E-mail: E-Mail:
Stony Brook, NY11794-2500
Ofc: 631-632-7823 Fax:212-988-4495 Interdivisional Task Force on
E-Mail: Parents in Prison
Chair: Diane J. Willis, Ph.D.
Marketing/Outreach Child Study Center
To Be Determined 4520 Ridgeline Drive
Norman, OK 73072
Brochure Project Ofc: (405) 364-9091 Fax : 405-271-8835
Chair: Alice Rubenstein, Ed.D. E-Mail:

Interdivisional Research Marketing /
Task Force on Managed Outreach
Care and Federal
Task Force –
on Aging
The Brochure Interdivisional
Project Task Force on
Mothers and Fathers
in Prison


Central Office, 6557 E. Riverdale Street., Mesa, AZ 85215 3
Ofc: (602) 363-9211, Fax: (480) 854-8966


American Psychological Association Organization

6557 E. Riverdale U.S. Postage
Mesa, AZ 85215 Paid


Utica, NY
Permit No. 83
Published by the
Official Publication of Division 29 of the
PSYCHOTHERAPY American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
Volume 36, Number 4 Fall 2001
6557 E. Riverdale
Mesa, AZ 85215

Linda Campbell, Ph.D. President’s Column ........................................2
Editor’s Column ..............................................4
Students: For Your Eyes Only! ......................6
Medical Psychology
David B. Adams, Ph.D. Feature
An Historical Review of the
Mathilda Canter, Ph.D.
Fieldof Psychology ..........................................9
Call for Award Nominations........................14
Washington Scene
Patrick DeLeon, Ph.D. For The Children............................................16
Practitioner Report The Donald K. Freedheim Student
Ronald F. Levant, Ed.D. Paper Award Winner..................................21
Education and Training Corner Practitioner Report ........................................23
Charles J. Gelso, Ph.D.
2003 Nominations Ballot ..............................25
Professional Liability
Leon VandeCreek, Ph.D.
Back to the Future: Again, The
Mid-Winter 2002 ........................................28
Jack Wiggins, Ph.D. A Time to Reflect and Persevere..................29
Gender Issues
Gary Brooks, Ph.D. Psychotherapy With African-
Americans and Other Americans..................33
For The Children
Sheila Eyberg, Ph.D.
The Brochure Project ....................................40
APA Council of August 2001
Psychotherapy Research
Marvin R. Goldfried, Ph.D. Actions and Reflections ............................43
American Psychological Foundation
Student Corner Randy Gerson Memorial Grant ....................47
Gary Hann
31st Mid-Winter Convention Program
STAFF Schedule & Registration Form..................48
Central Office Administrator APA Membership Application ....................52
Tracey Martin
A Nation United
Diane J. Willis, Ph.D., President

I just returned from a 25-day trip to human soul, as it tells how Little Tree and
Germany and England where I co-taught a his family confronted prejudice and dis-
basic graduate course on “Introduction to crimination. Every student enrolled in the
Human Relations” to men and women in course spoke of the emotions they felt in
our armed forces at Ramstein Air Force reading the book and how meaningful it
Base in Germany and Mildenhall Royal Air was to them. It is a book I think members
Force Base in England. As you can imag- of this Division would enjoy.
ine, the bases were on high alert for terror-
ist activity. The men and women in my I was blessed in these two courses with
courses were captains, general services or mature and dedicated career men and
special operations personnel, pilots, or women who were thinking about their
those who held jobs running the base future once they left the armed services.
postal service, or worked in social and fam- Some want to go into administrative work
ily services. A few were wives of service- or business careers, a few plan to obtain
men. Given the daily threat under which their doctorate, and others want to enter
people of the bases are living since the the counseling field. A few of these men
events of September 11, 2001, and since our and women will see conflict in or over
War on Terrorism began, I could not have Afghanistan and, perhaps, a few will not
been more proud of the men and women return alive. It made my teaching and my
wearing the uniforms of the United States feelings for each and every student partic-
of America. Discussing human relations ularly heartfelt, and it made much of what
(HR) took on a new and different slant, I do back home seem insignificant. I think
given the circumstances of the conflict in not only of our men and women in uni-
which we are engaged. In my course, form and their families, but also about the
besides the basic text on HR, I required the impact of the terrorists’ activities upon the
students to read Siddhartha by Herman innocent children and families in
Hesse, The Myth of Sisyphus by Albert Afghanistan.
Camus, Raising Children in a Socially
Toxic Environment by James Garbarino, This is a war that we will win because we
and The Education of Little Tree by Forrest truly do have the best trained military ser-
Carter. The Hesse and Camus readings vice personnel and the best equipment in
were selected because I wanted the stu- the world, but it is a war that we must win
dents to think about one’s search for mean- in the hearts and minds of men and
ing in life and the “quest to answer the women who see America as evil. It is a war
enigma of our human role on this earth” — against poverty and illiteracy, and a public
that regardless of one’s role (or job), one relations war of words over the airwaves to
can find satisfaction and inner peace. The educate people on the goodness and the
Carter book was selected because I also generosity of people in the United States of
wanted my students to appreciate cultural America. What can we do as members of
issues. This book speaks to the human the Division of Psychotherapy? Some of
spirit and reaches the very depth of the our members have contributed training

manuals on working with children and tor of the Psychotherapy Bulletin, and we
families exposed to trauma. Drs. Jack will share the information with the
Wiggins and Jon Perez have started a list- Division listserve.
serve on our re-emerging Task Force on
Emergency Psychology that members can In the meantime, stay involved in our
access. Dr. Wiggins is working with the Division and APA, be kind to each other,
Department of Defense to review PTSD and reach out to groups who may feel dis-
and other topics. Those of you engaged in enfranchised. We are all Americans and
other activities might let us know by e- we all need each other to make, and keep,
mailing me or Linda Campbell, who is edi- this Nation a Nation united.

Division 29 Members
Remember to assign either part or all of your Apportionment
votes to Division 29! Division 29 lost an APA Council seat
this past year and thus lost one more voice for psychotherapy
and clinical practice. We need to regain that seat to regain our
strength on Council, especially as budgetary and APA policy
issues are discussed and voted upon.


Linda Campbell, Ph.D.

A Salute to APA, Division 29, and

Our Disaster Response Network

The unimaginable happened on Tuesday, The APA Disaster Response Network was
September 11th. The country was in shock, developed in 1992 and has trained over
sorrow, fear, and compassion at the same 2,000 psychologists. Mental health had not
time. Psychologists felt all this plus a desire been included in disaster assistance until
to help those in need. Within two hours of that time. APA was the first mental health
the tragedy, the APA Disaster Response organization to develop a collaborative
Network (DRN), directed by Marguerite agreement with the Red Cross. Since that
Schroeder was in collaboration with the Red time, our DRN members have responded
Cross. Disaster Response members were to many events including the Oklahoma
sent e-mail communiqués through their City bombing, the crash of TWA flight 800
state associations and the wheels began in 1996, the recent school shootings, and
moving. Psychologists, including many the Seattle earthquake earlier this year.
Division 29 members, came from all over
the country to New York to assist in seeing The APA Office of Public Communication
families who lost loved ones and to talk under the direction of Rhea Farberman
with those working at ground zero. APA has also made important contributions
Disaster Response Psychologists worked through public information, interviews,
not only with the Red Cross but with the and public service announcements. A
New York Municipal Labor Council and the national radio feed featuring an interview
New York State Psychological Association with APA President Dr. Norine Johnson
in setting up help centers. Our DRN was recorded and fed to radio stations
members also worked with the New York across the country on September 12th. APA
City Police Department in staffing missing members gave interviews that were quoted
persons hotlines. in The New York Times, Wall Street Journal,
the Washington Post, and USA Today. FOX
Our members in the Washington, D.C. area News directed viewers to the APA web site
were also immediately present to assist at via an on-screen message the weekend
the Pentagon site. DRN members mobilized after the disaster.
to work with families in grief and to assist
the workers in providing food, equipment, The APA Office of Public Communication
and clothing. The APA-DRN set up sites at also created a special section on the stan-
Dulles, Boston’s Logan and Los Angeles dard web page (
airports to help families and friends of which includes many helpful documents
those on the hijacked planes. about dealing with trauma and terrorism
such as managing traumatic stress, reac-
Russ Newman, Ph.D., J.D., APA’s executive tions and guidelines for children following
director for practice said “The DRN brings trauma, and coping with the aftermath.
psychology where it needs to be—into the APA is continuing to address the ongoing
community. The expertise of the DRN effects by developing coping and response
enables us to bring what we know to the materials, posting guidelines for hosting a
community, under difficult circumstances youth forum, and creating a brochure for
and short notice.” “Coping with Terrorism.”

Division 29 members were among the early The work of APA, our leadership and staff,
response psychologists. They mobilized the state associations, and our divisions
resources and came from all across the continues and will continue through the
country to New York and Washington and coming months. The responsiveness,
they worked collaboratively with the other compassion, and tireless efforts of all of
disaster teams. Further, many of our mem- these individuals to help others and be
bers have set up response and educative useful during this time of national tragedy
programs in local communities. Division are profound and will become part of our
29 gives a special salute to the fine work of professional pride and honor.
our members.

The Members and the Board of Directors of Division 29 would like

to acknowledge the hard working members of the 2001-2002 Fellows
Committee of the Division. The work of this committee is time intensive
and laborious, but is critically important to the welfare of the division.
Douglas K. Snyder, Ph.D., Texas A&M University, Chair

Norman Abeles, Ph.D., Michigan State University

Clara Hill, Ph.D., University of Maryland

Gayla Margolin, Ph.D., University of Southern California

Susan McDaniel, Ph.D., University of Rochester

Stanley Messer, Ph.D., Rutgers University

John C. Norcross, Ph.D., University of Scranton





Gary R. Hann, M.S.Ed., Student Liaison


“What do you mean you were at Lake psychology and psychotherapy. Included
Lucern and didn’t go to Jung’s home?” will be Drs. James F.T. Bugental, Albert
“You could have at least looked at the Ellis, Alvin R. Mahler and Rachel Hare-
outside of it,” I said to my mother-in-law Mustin—these luminaries have agreed to
upon her return from a recent trip to sit informally, in addition to their work-
Switzerland. She replies, “Well…I think I shops, and chat with little old you—the
knew it was there, but the guide…” blah, student and aspirant to the throne. Now I
blah, blah. I hear nothing after “well.” I know you’ve all had the opportunity to see
knew where it was heading. Too blasé, that their presentations or read their names in
woman, missing a chance of a lifetime. texts and journals, but we’re talking about
unheard of student access, here, the likes of
How about those folks who passed up which you may never see again! But that’s
chances to meet Freud, Watson, or Skinner? not all, oh no…. In addition to the “living
I bet they’re kicking themselves now! It legends,” students will have the chance to
was 1994 and I was a graduate student in hear from and talk with another esteemed
New York. Taking a break from my studies, cohort of “cutting edge” therapists and
I pick up Time magazine; quickly flip to the psychologists: Drs. Norman Ables
Obituaries section (my favorite part) only (Geriatric Psychotherapy and Assessment),
to find out that Erik Erikson had just James Bray (Psychotherapy in Primary
passed away in Massachusetts. I had only Care Settings), Gary DeNelsky (Tobacco
been a few short hours away from a (for- Addiction), Hanna Levinson (Time-limited
merly) living legend and never knew it. Dynamic Psychotherapy for Personality
How could I have been so careless, Disorders), Don David Lusterman
thoughtless, heartless…(so I have issues— (Divorce Mediation), Francine Shapiro
I’ll seek help). Anyway, I’ve just realized (EMDR), and Jeffery Younggren (Risk
that I’m no different from my mother-in- Management). These are the approaches
law; we both passed up opportunities that and perspectives of tomorrow presented
were gifts that we would have remem- today, and if you miss it, your children will
bered for the rest of our lives. berate and pity you.

PLEASE, LET ME SAVE YOU FROM Yes, There is Such a Thing as a Free
YOURSELF Lunch (well, not quite, but almost)
Why am I telling you all of this? The fact is We all know nothing is completely free, but
that I care about you and me, as burgeon- Division 29, realizing that you, the student,
ing psychologists, and want to save us are the future of our field has made us a
from the “pain.” Just because I’ve squan- sweet little deal by reducing the fee for the
dered opportunity doesn’t mean that you three days of workshops to $125. This
have to. Here’s the deal. On February 22- small fee includes 1) entrance to all work-
24, 2002, a once-in-a-lifetime meeting of shops, 2) a welcoming reception, 3) buffet
living legends will convene to talk about lunches Friday and Saturday (Closest thing

to a “free lunch”), 4) a dessert reception on low the submission guidelines in this issue
Sunday, and of course, 5) the chance of a of the Bulletin. Also, Dr. Robert J.Resnick,
lifetime that I’ve already mentioned. the 1995-6 APA President and 2002
Rooms at the Chaparral Suites Resort in Division 29 President has extended an invi-
Scottsdale, Arizona where the meeting will tation to students to meet with him in an
take place run $169 per night for a single informal setting for a drink (on him). The
(Yikes!—but, there are other hotels in the subject matter is up to you! You’ll just need
area, or bring a buddy, split the cost, and to let me know if you’re coming to this one
make ‘em sleep on the floor).The suite will so we can plan appropriately. You may
sleep 3-4 . The room fee includes a cooked- email me at my address below.
to-order breakfast and transportation to
and from the airport. Hey, you gotta admit, Contact Information:
this whole deal screams ROAD TRIP to Gary Hann, M.S.Ed.
Arizona (who says all the starch has been James Madison University
beaten out of us grad students)!! MCS 7401
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Wait, there’s more!! If you sign up now,
you too can possibly submit your own Don’t miss it!! Think road trip, road
research! Remember the all-important vita, trip, road trip…hope to see you there.
no matter your professional goals. Just fol-


Please fill out this questionnaire below, attach

your resume, and mail immediately to: 29



Diane J.Willis, Ph.D.
President, Division 29
4520 Ridgeline Dr.
Norman, OK 73072 • Families with parents in prison (children, mothers, fathers)
• Children and depression
Name _______________________________ • Smoking cessation & treatment
Work Address ________________________
• Diversity issues
______________________________________ • Education & training issues in
City _________________________________
• Research in psychotherapy
State__________________ ZIP __________
• Aging issues
Telephone ___________________________ • Child abuse: treatment issues
E-mail _______________________________ • Family therapy


2001 Distinguished Psychologist Award

Lenore E. A. Walker, Ed.D.

President Diane Willis, award recipient Lenore Walker, and Past President John Norcross

Dr. Lenore E. A. Walker is professor of psychology at Nova

Southeastern University, principal of Walker and Associates, and
internationally renown for her pioneering efforts in identifying and
treating domestic violence. Her 1979 book – The Battered Woman –
remains a classic. She has testified repeatedly to Congress on family
violence, chaired an APA Board of Director’s Task Force on Child
Abuse Policy and another Task Force on Violence and the Family. For
APA, she has served on the Board of Directors and as President of
Divisions 35, 46, and 42. She has served on the editorial board of
seven journals, and has received a plethora of awards, including, in
1987, the APA Distinguished Professional Contributions to
Psychology. For all these and other lifetime contributions, we present
Lenore with gratitude the 2001 Distinguished Psychologist Award.

An Historical Review of the Field of Psychology — From the Year 2199
by Alvin Mahrer, Ph.D.

Now that I look back, I think it only took this period, the preface said, that profes-
about ten minutes for me completely to sions gave themselves elevated respectabil-
lose my mind. Everything started when I ity by forming guilds and professional
was in a small village in southern India. I associations, giving themselves licenses
stopped at a book stall in the flea market and accreditations, having formal training
and the lady at the book stall handed me a programs and apprenticeships, having
book, saying, “This is for you.” books and journals, annual meetings and
conventions, their own oaths and profes-
THE BOOK WAS PUBLISHED IN 2199. sional codes, their own lobby groups,
boards of examination, professional com-
I looked at the title: An Historical Review of mittees and organizations with officers and
Extinct Professions. The publication date dues. All that sounded remarkably familiar.
was 2199. 2199?! What? How could that
The third section of the book covered pro-
be? The lady looked at me.
fessions that rose and fell during the period
“Chapter 24 is for you.” from 1900 to 2199. There it was, chapter 24,
“The Rise and Fall of the Era of the
I glanced at the table of contents. Chapter Professional Psychotherapists.” I turned to
24 was entitled, “The Rise and Fall of the that chapter and read, “The era of ‘profes-
sional psychotherapists’ formally began in
Era of Professional Psychotherapists.” I
the early 1900s and came to a close during
couldn’t figure out how that lady knew I
the middle 2100s and, like other extinct
was a psychotherapist, and I thought the
professions, believed that it would last
book was just science fiction. 2199? That
almost forever. Two developments and
was ridiculous. So, I found a nearby coffee
advances brought to a close the era of pro-
shop, sat down, and looked at the preface.
fessional psychotherapists.” As I kept read-
ing, I had one reaction and then a second
It said that the author was born in Oslo in
reaction, and then I think I went over the
2138, and had been a professor of history
edge, went bonkers, lost my poor little
since 2180. The thesis of the book was that
mind altogether.
throughout history, each profession
believed it would last almost forever, and As I tell you what I read in that chapter,
that developments and advances rendered see for yourself what your own reactions
each profession extinct. are. My first reaction was normal—I was
amused. This book was pleasant science
According to the preface, the first section fiction. It was probably written a few years
would be an historical review of ancient ago. Would I find out who the real author
professions such as soothsayers and court was?
jesters. The second section would cover
professions that rose and fell in the period It was after reading another page or so that
from 1600 to 1899, and would cover extinct the second reaction clicked in. I started
professions such as coopers and cart- feeling tense, wary, irritated, argumenta-
wrights, lithographers and blacksmiths, tive, defensive. I fell into the trap of the
telegraphers and daguerreotypists, wheel- thesis of the book. I stopped drinking cof-
wrights and phrenologists. It was during fee, gripped the book with both hands, and
started mumbling. There would always be happened in sessions of what had been
a profession of psychotherapy. People will called psychotherapy was that both clients
always need treatment for their mental and psychotherapists were able to have
disorders, pathological problems, their dis- important personal feelings. These could
tresses and troubles. Our noble profession be highly important feeling, personal and
will be here almost forever. Yes, there will be precious feelings. According to this mind-
developments in the field, new and better set, psychotherapy sessions were mainly
methods and theories. Yes, the field will opportunities for both people to have
advance, change, improve. But, these will important personal feelings.
help the field, not lead to its ending, not
extinguish our noble field. The book is Clients went to psychotherapists to be able
wrong! to have their important personal feelings;
psychotherapists were with clients to be
Then, I must have had my third and final able to have their own important personal
reaction. I actually was compelled and feelings. If the client and psychotherapist
fascinated to know how our field would be hit it off, they each were able to have their
brought to a close. What were the two own important personal feelings, and they
developments that ended the era of profes- tended to have more times when they were
sional psychotherapy? I was no longer tense, together with one another. If the client and
wary, irritated, argumentative, defensive. I psychotherapist did not click, if there was
believe I was a true believer in what the no chemistry, if they did not have their
chapter said. I admit that I was out of my own important personal feelings, then they
mind, bonkers. I had lost it. I was crazy. each parted company, they each dropped
The book made sense. out of being with one another, the client
generally looked elsewhere, and the psy-
Here are the two major developments that chotherapist turned to the next client. If
the historical analysis, written in 2199, said they did hit it off from the start, they gen-
would bring the era of professional psy- erally stayed together for as long as they
chotherapy to a close. From now on, I am had the important personal feelings with
quoting from the book: one another, and they stayed together for
better or for worse, depending on the kinds
1. The important personal feelings that of important personal feelings they had in
clients and psychotherapists used to get being with one another.
from being with one another, they could
now get much better from advances What brought the era of psychotherapy to
and developments in technology. a close? One factor was the wonderful
developments and advancements in tech-
During the era of professional psychother- nology. Once a person could have these
apists, the prevailing mind-set was that important personal feelings by means of
clients came to therapy mainly for relief of the technology we have today, that person
their personal problems and distress, and did not have much of a reason for seeking
therapists were there to provide treatment out a psychotherapist, nor did the person
of the mental illness and relief of clients’ have much of a reason for being a psy-
personal problems and distress. Clients chotherapist. Today, a person can go into a
came because they needed treatment; psy- room where he lives, push a few buttons,
chotherapists were there because they pro- and the room becomes a virtual reality
vided treatment. world, with virtual reality scenes and situ-
ations with just the right people, the right
Once the era of professional psychotherapy sounds and smells, the right circum-
began to crumble, a radically different stances, and the person him or herself
mind-set prevailed. The main thing that becomes just the right virtual reality new

person so that the payoff, the ultimate ● I am mentally healthy, an optimal
achievement, is that the person now has all person. Well-adjusted.
the important personal feelings that clients
and psychotherapists used to have, and ● I can tell what is wrong with you. I see
more, far more precious and important into the problem, the inner difficulty, the
personal feelings. disorder.

Here are some of the important personal ● I can understand, I can empathize. I can
feelings a person can get much better from know how you really feel.
technology than from professional psy-
● I can give you help, provide relief from
your suffering. I can heal what troubles
● You are so interested in me, in the essen- you.
tial person that I am, in the real me. You
want to know and understand every- ● What I say is so important. I give you
thing about me! insight and understanding. I can explain
it all for you.
● Being here with you is like sanctuary.
No pressures, No pushes or pulls. You ● I am so wise, so sage. I know the world.
leave me be. I am so safe here with you. I know about life, about pain and
● You do like me. You are so happy to be
with me. I give you pleasure and joy. ● Depend on me. Trust me. Put yourself
in my safe hands. Let me decide every-
● You are so attractive. I am so sexually
thing for you.
aroused when I am with you. Being
with you is safe sex. I could never really
● I give you intimacy and closeness. No
attract someone as attractive as you.
one else could provide such intimacy
● You are my best friend, my confidante. I and closeness.
can say anything to you. I trust you so!
● I give you the gift of happiness, freedom
● I depend on you. I am passive to you. I from pain, reduction of inner strife. With
put myself in your hands. me, you can feel good again, perhaps
better than ever in your life. I offer you
● You are on my side. You are my ally, my joy, salvation, peacefulness.

● You are my rock, my anchor, my solid The era came to an end when the important
ground. I am not fragmented and confused personal feelings that clients and psycho-
and bewildered when I am with you. therapists used to get from being with one
another almost anyone could get much
● You are my hero, my God. I admire you, more fully and richly, easily and efficiently,
look up to you. I worship you. far more cheaply, far more often, and for as
long as the person wanted. When advances
And here are some important feelings a in technology could do a much better job of
person can get much better from technolo- offering these important personal feelings,
gy than from being in the extinct role of the era of psychotherapy was ready to
“psychotherapist”: come to a close.

● I have special knowledge about what There was a second major development
you are really like, your inner world, the that effectively ended the era of professional
world of your insides. psychotherapy.

2. Advances and Developments in Self- made public and were reclaimed as part
change Made Psychotherapy of the self-change movement, the era of
Obsolete. professional psychotherapists lost much of
its steam.
During the late 2000s, there was such an
explosive development in the methods and Virtually every person counted on some
the popularity of self-change that the era of ways of helping to reduce pain, and would
professional psychotherapy ended with a probably welcome better ways. Virtually
whimper. Now that we can look back, every person had some ways of helping to
here are the ways in which advances and feel better, to reduce their pain and unhap-
developments in self-change brought piness, to get over some trouble or worry.
psychotherapy to an end: They did something when they felt awful,
upset, torn apart.
Many of the actual methods that profes-
sional psychotherapists relied on had been All of these people, all over the world,
used for centuries before the era of profes- were the ones that the self-change move-
sional psychotherapy arose, and were ment sought out, talked to, and offered
reclaimed when self-change went through perhaps better ways of doing something to
its explosive developments in the 2000s. It relieve their pain. As increasing millions of
turns out that professional psychotherapy people learned their own self-change
only borrowed such self-change methods methods, the era of professional psy-
as talking out loud to yourself, deep- chotherapy withered and came to a close.
breathing exercises, gradually facing and
doing whatever made you tense and The attainment of elevated states of ecstasy
scared, putting yourself into a hypnotic and joy, and inner states of peacefulness
state, having visual images of past inci- and tranquillity, were central to self-image,
dents, having intense and powerful feel- and declined by professional psychotherapy.
ings, rehearsing and modifying what you The era of professional psychotherapy
will say and do, deliberately having and essentially staked out the morbid, the
exaggerating things about you that are pathological, the painful, as its main terri-
bothersome, deliberately being the other tory. It specialized in treating mental ill-
person or thing that bothers and troubles nesses and pathological problems. It essen-
you, focusing on bodily sensations that are tially declined what had been central to
going on inside, labeling your thoughts self-change for so many centuries. Self-
and ideas as crazy and irrational and delib- change was the field of attaining inner
erately trying to have better and less crazy peacefulness, inner tranquillity, inner har-
thoughts, letting your thoughts and fan- mony. Self-change was the field of attain-
tasies flow freely and without restriction, ing higher and elevated states of ecstasy,
learning to control such bodily events as bliss, freedom, selflessness, joyfulness.
the rate of your heartbeats and the sensa- Professional psychotherapy limited itself
tion of heat or cold in your hands, coming to mental illness and pathological prob-
to understand the way you think and the lems. For virtually everything else that so
beliefs you have, learning to stop before many people valued and yearned for, peo-
you get way out of control, being able to ple turned to self-change.
talk to other parts of yourself, studying
what you are like by examining your Perhaps the greatest breakthrough in the
dreams, and many other methods. field of self-change was the discovery and
development of ways to achieve deep-seat-
People had used these methods for cen- ed qualitative change in the very person
turies before the era of professional psy- that the person was capable of becoming.
chotherapists. When these methods were This was a matter of radical and wholesale
metamorphosis, self-transformation, the cal fact, a waste of time, ridiculous, outra-
becoming of a qualitatively new person. geous, inflammatory, deliberately provoca-
tive, pessimistic, reflecting the radical view
Historically, it was understandable that this of a rouge perspective of the field. The
watershed advancement would come reaction is to dismiss it, ignore it, marginal-
from the growing practice of self-change, ize it, trivalize it, label it and file it away.
because self-transformation had been the
passionate interest of self-change, of east- Ah, and there is a third reaction. Maybe,
ern and existential philosophies, and not just maybe, the historical review strikes
especially of the general field of profes- a little chord. Maybe there is a flow of
sional psychotherapy. The actual soup possibility that it might be time to get
from which self-transformation emerged ready for a sea change, a paradigm shift, a
was the ancient practice of meditation transformational change, in what we now
and the ancient practice of spiritual self- know as the field of psychotherapy.
Those who have this third reaction include
When the field of self-change grew far big- a few who are ready to become the pioneers
ger and stronger, and when there were in guiding the future development in the
remarkable advances in technology’s abili- field, in moving the field toward becoming
ty to provide important personal feelings, what it is capable of becoming. Some may
the era of professional psychotherapy pioneer in the advancement of technology
came to a close. Starting around 1900, it to provide important personal feelings
was a mere blip in history. and experiences. Some may contribute
to the grand advancement of the field of
All of that was from the chapter entitled, self-change. Some may pioneer in other
“The Rise and Fall of the Era of Professional future developments that will replace
Psychotherapists.” These were the two what we know as the field of professional
major developments that brought the era psychotherapy.
to a close. When I put the book down, I
wondered what reactions professional psy- The future of the field awaits your reaction.
chotherapists might have to the possibility What will it be? What will you do?
of the demise of their noble profession,
which they probably believe would last CONCLUSIONS AND INVITATIONS
almost forever. These four conclusions and invitations
hold hands with one another and form a
What Reactions do Professional circle, rather than standing in line, with
Psychotherapists Have to the Likely one following the other:
Demise of the Noble Profession?
1. If you are even a little bit ready to con-
One reaction is polite indifference. The sider that there could be a dramatic,
historical review is an interesting fantasy, radical, qualitative change in the field
fanciful fiction, a playful diversion, not of psychotherapy, play a game in
meant to be taken seriously. which, in less than two hundred years,
the field will be all but unrecognizable.
A second reaction is to argue and attack. It will undergo some explosive trans-
There will be professional psychothera- formations. Some may say that it no
pists in the foreseeable future and beyond. longer exists. Can you let yourself get
Of course, the field will change, advance, into that mindset? Go ahead and try.
develop. That is the nature of the noble sci-
ence and profession of psychotherapy. The 2. If you can play the game, you may
historical review is wrong, misguided, be ready to visualize a world in which
groundless, without solid basis in empiri- dramatic, explosive, radical transfor-
mations have occurred. The field of reserve a little bit of room for the pos-
psychotherapy has been replaced with sibility that there can be dramatic,
a whole new field. There has been a explosive, radical transformation in
catastrophic change in what used to be the entire field of psychotherapy.
the field of psychotherapy. There has
been a metamorphosis. You may not see 4. If there is a glow of readiness in you to
what the new field looks like, but it bears accept these conclusions, then you can
almost no resemblance to what you now become one of the pioneers in the
know as the field of psychotherapy. advancements and developments that
will eventually replace the field of pro-
3. After you play the game, it may just be fessional psychotherapy. If you are
that you can reserve a little bit of room ready, then go ahead, take the next
for the possibility that there can be dra- step. Develop the grand new technol-
matic, explosive, radical transforma- ogy. Develop the field of self-change.
tions in the entire field of psychothera- Develop your own way to help the
py. In order to play the game in the field of psychotherapy become what it
first place, it also helps if you can can become.


The APA Division of Psychotherapy invites nominations for its two
annual awards in 2002.

The Distinguished Psychologist Award

recognizes lifetime contributions to psychotherapy, psychology,
and the Division of Psychotherapy.

The Jack D. Krasner Early Career Award

recognizes promising contributions to psychotherapy,
psychology, and the Division of Psychotherapy by a Division 29
member with 10 or fewer years of post-doctoral experience.

Letters of nomination outlining the nominee’s credentials and

contributions should be forwarded to the Division 29 Past-President:
Diane J. Willis, Ph.D., Child Study Center, 4520 Ridgeline Dr.,
Norman, OK 73072, The applicant’s CV
would also be helpful. Self-nominations are welcomed.

Deadline is January 1, 2002.


2001 Distinguished Psychologist Award

Michael J. Lambert, Ph.D.

Past President John Norcross, award recipient Michael Lambert, and President Diane Willis

Dr. Michael J. Lambert is professor of psychology at Brigham Young

University and an internationally respected psychotherapy
researcher. He has served as Associate Editor of the Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology for 6 years and is on the editorial
board of four other journals. He currently serves on the Publication
Board of the Division of Psychotherapy. His 150 plus articles and
chapters concern the practice and training of psychotherapists. He is
also editor of the new edition of Garfield and Bergin’s landmark
Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change. Among his awards are
the Maeser Research Award, given to the Brigham Young University
faculty member with outstanding research, and Professor of the Year
Award, voted by graduating seniors. And to his list of honors he now
adds the Distinguished Psychologist Award from the Division of

Sheila Eyberg & Beverly Funderburk

This issue provides important information for every clinician who sees children or fami-
lies. Barbara Bonner, Endowed Chair in Pediatrics at the Oklahoma University Medical
Center and Director of the Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, outlines an approach to
evaluating concerns about sexual behavior in children that begins with the important
question of “What is normal sexual behavior in children?” An approach that begins with
sound understanding of normal child development and adds the best available assess-
ment techniques and evidence-based treatments provides an excellent model for us all.

Normal and Abnormal Sexual Behavior in Children

Barbara L. Bonner, PhD
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

INTRODUCTION behavior, that is a main reference for this

Increasing numbers of children are being article. In addition, Friedrich and his col-
referred to psychologists by parents, teach- leagues developed and validated the Child
ers, child welfare personnel, and the courts Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-3), a 38-
for problems with inappropriate or aggres- item questionnaire that describes normal
sive sexual behavior. Referral behaviors and abnormal sexual behavior in children
range from masturbatory behavior, which (Friedrich, 1997). The CSBI-3 has separate
in many cases would be considered normal norms for boys and girls ages 2-12.
or expected sexual behavior, to aggressive
sexual behavior that is highly problematic. This article will discuss sexual behavior in
Several recent articles and books have pre-school and school age children and
focused on problematic sexual behavior in provide guidelines for practitioners to dif-
children (American Academy of Child and ferentiate between behaviors that are
Adolescent Psychiatry, 1999; Araji, 1997; viewed as sexual play and those that are
Burton, Nesmith, & Badten, 1997; Chaffin seen as aggressive and problematic. The
& Bonner, 1998; Jones, 1999; Vizard, normal sexual knowledge and behavior of
Monck, & Misch, 1995). children from birth to two, three to five,
and six to twelve will be described below,
In reviewing the literature, it quickly followed by a description of problematic
becomes evident that the study of sexual sexual behavior and treatment interven-
development in children is quite limited. tions.
Unfortunately, we have learned more
about children’s normal sexual behavior as BIRTH TO TWO YEARS
a result of treating sexually abused chil- It is now generally accepted that the phys-
dren than from research studies focused on iological mechanisms for sexual arousal,
children’s sexual development. Gordon orgasm, and a variety of other sexual
and Schroeder (1995) have compiled an behaviors are present at or before a child’s
overview of normal sexual development, birth. Penile erections in newborn male
including sexual knowledge and sexual babies and vaginal lubrication in infant

females have been documented (Martinson, may masturbate for pleasure and some
1981). During these first two years, children may experience an orgasmic-like response.
begin to develop gender identity and learn
the labels for their body parts, including the AGES SIX TO TWELVE
genitalia. Few parents teach their children This is a broader age range and a time in
the anatomical names for their genitals and which children learn a great deal about sex-
most children of all ages use slang terms ual behavior. By age 12, children typically
such as tee-tee and poop. know about the sexual aspects of pregnan-
cy and the physical changes associated
Young children explore their bodies and with puberty. Girls may begin menstrua-
find the genital areas are pleasurable. They tion and boys may begin to have wet
touch their own and sometimes other chil- dreams by the time they are 12. In some
dren’s private parts in an exploratory man- cases, children participate in sexual educa-
ner. They also enjoy taking their clothes off tion classes at school or through a church,
in public, such as the backyard, and run- synagogue, or community agency, and
ning around nude. All of these behaviors discuss sexuality and sexual behavior with
would fall within what is considered nor- a teacher or other adult. However, children
mal sexual development. are increasingly exposed to explicit adult
sexual behavior through movies, television,
AGES THREE TO FIVE videos, and the internet without adult
It is during these years that gender perma- supervision and discussion.
nence is established and children learn the
gender differences between boys and girls. School age children use sexual language
However, they still have limited specific with their peers, understand the genital
knowledge about pregnancy and childbirth. basis of gender, and are more likely to
Children this age are curious about their masturbate in private. They are learning
genitalia and most children engage in cultural and societal values about sexual
sexual play, such as looking at, touching, and behavior and sexuality, may become
exploring their own and other children’s modest or embarrassed about their bodies,
genitalia. Other sexual behaviors consid- and tend to hide their sexual play or mas-
ered to be normal at this age are exhibiting turbatory behavior from adults. Children
the genitals and mimicking or attempting to this age may fantasize or dream about sex,
have intercourse. These are the years in show an interest in media sex, and have an
which children may be found in a closet or increased knowledge about masturbation
under the bed covers “playing doctor.” and sexual intercourse. They continue to
engage in sexual play with their peers and
It is important to remember that although siblings, which may include kissing, mutu-
young children are engaging in various al touching or masturbation, simulated
sexual behaviors, they clearly lack the cog- intercourse, and “playing doctor.”
nitive ability to understand the sexual
nuances or cultural and societal attitudes CONTINUUM OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
related to their behavior. This early sexual A continuum of sexual behavior in children,
behavior is therefore viewed as more from normal, expected sexual play to
“pleasure” seeking behavior than “sexual” aggressive, problematic sexual behavior,
behavior (Martinson, 1981). has been described (e.g., Hall, Mathews,
Pearce, Sarlo-McGarvey, & Gavin, 1996). At
Children at this age are more likely to some time during the preschool and school
know the anatomical terms for their age years, most children are involved in
genitals but they continue to use slang or some form of what is considered normal
elimination words with their peers. They sexual play. This includes behaviors such

as looking at or touching other children’s propriate, aggressive, or persistent, profes-
sexual parts or being on top of another sional assistance may be needed.
child and simulating sexual intercourse.
Behavior that is viewed as sexual play is TREATMENT APPROACHES
typically exploratory, spontaneous, inter- In 1991, the National Center on Child
mittent, by mutual agreement, and Abuse and Neglect in HHS funded two
between children of similar age, size, and treatment outcome research studies on chil-
developmental level, such as siblings, dren ages 6 to 12 with sexual behavior
peers, or cousins. The sexual play is not problems. One study compared a struc-
accompanied by intense feelings of anger, tured, cognitive-behavior group approach
fear and/or anxiety. for children and their caregivers with a
dynamic play therapy group approach. At
Problematic sexual behavior has clearly the two year follow-up, both approaches
been documented in young children (e.g., had similar rates of recurrence, 13% –15%
Bonner, Walker, & Berliner, 1999). Any sex- (Bonner et al., 1999). The second study
ual behavior that involves force, threats, or compared a modified relapse prevention
aggression falls into this category, such as a group approach for children and caregivers
10-year-old making two preschool children to an experiential group approach (Pithers,
undress and sexually experiment with Gray, Busconi, & Houchens, 1998). Again,
him/her or with each other. Numerous both approaches were found to have simi-
aggressive sexual behaviors have been lar effectiveness over time (Note: The final
reported in school-age children, including reports and treatment manuals for both
forced oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse studies can be obtained from the National
(Bonner et al.,1999). Other problematic Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect
behaviors in children include compulsive at 1-800-394-3366.)
masturbatory behavior that occurs at
school or in other public places, sexual pre- CONCLUSION
occupation, or age-inappropriate knowl- In conclusion, it is now clear that most chil-
edge of sexual behavior. In the late 1980s dren engage in mild forms of sexual play
and early 1990s, professionals thought that and that not all sexual behavior in children
these behaviors were a strong indicator that is problematic. Further, it is now known
a child had been sexually abused. It is now that not all problematic sexual behavior is
recognized that there are many children indicative of a history of sexual abuse.
with aggressive or problematic sexual When inappropriate sexual behavior
behavior who do not have a known or occurs in children, it is recommended that
reported history of being sexually abused, the child or children be well supervised by
(Bonner et al., 1999). adults. If the behavior persists or is highly
aggressive, professional intervention is rec-
SUGGESTIONS FOR PARENTS ommended. Several group treatment
Parents are now more knowledgeable approaches, including cognitive-behav-
about the relationship between child sexu- ioral, dynamic play, modified relapse pre-
al abuse and inappropriate sexual behavior vention, and experiential, have been found
in children. They may have questions effective in reducing children’s inappropri-
about the seriousness of their child’s sexual ate sexual behavior.
behavior. Some suggestions for parents are:
(a) do not overreact as most sexual behav- REFERENCES
ior in children is within the normal range; American Academy of Child & Adolescent
and (b) most children stop the behavior if Psychiatry. (1999). Practice parameters
they are told the rules, mildly restricted, for the assessment and treatment of chil-
well supervised, and praised for appropri- dren and adolescents who are sexually
ate behavior. If the behavior is highly inap- abusive of others. Journal of the American
Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, cent sexual abusers and children with
38(12), 55-76. sexual behavior problems? Child
Araji, S.K. (1997). Sexually aggressive chil- Maltreatment, 3(4), 314-316.
dren: Coming to understand them. Friedrich, W.N.(1997). Child Sexual Behavior
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Inventory. Odessa, Fl: Psychological
Bonner, B.L., Bonner, B.L., Walker, C.E., & Assessment Resources.
Berliner, L. (1999). Children with sexual Gordon, B.N., & Schroeder, C.S. (1995).
behavior problems: Assessment and Sexuality: A developmental approach to
treatment. Final Report, Grant No. 90- problems. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
CA-1469. Washington D.C.: Hall, D., Mathews, F., Pearce, J., Sarlo-
Administration of Children, Youth, and McGarvey, N., & Gavin, D. (1996). The
Families, DHHS. development of sexual behaviour prob-
Bonner, B.L., Walker, C.E., & Berliner, L. lems in children and youth. Toronto:
(1999). Treatment manual for cognitive Central Toronto Youth Services.
behavioral group therapy for children Jones, D.P.H. (1999). Editorial: Children
with sexual behavior problems. Grant with sexual behavior problems. Child
No. 90-CA-1469. Washington D.C.: Abuse and Neglect, 23(6), 597-600.
Administration of Children, Youth, and Martinson, F.M. (1981). Eroticism in
Families, DHHS. infancy and childhood. In L.L.
Bonner, B.L., Walker, C.E., & Berliner, L. Constantine & F.M. Martinson (Eds.),
(1999). Treatment manual for cognitive Children and sex: New findings, new per-
behavioral group treatment for par- spectives (pp. 23-35). Boston: Little,
ents/caregivers of children with sexual Brown.
behavior problems. Grant No. 90-CA- Pithers, W.D., Gray, A., Busconi, A., &
1469. Washington D.C.: Administration Houchens, P. (1998). Children with sex-
of Children, Youth, and Families, DHHS. ual behavior problems: Identification of
Burton, D.L., Nesmith, A.A., & Badten, L. five distinct child types and related
(1997). Clinician’s views on sexually treatment considerations. Child
aggressive children and their families: A Maltreatment, 3(4), 384-406.
theoretical exploration. Child Abuse & Vizard, E., Monck, E., & Misch, P. (1995).
Neglect, 21(2), 157-170. Child and adolescent sex abuse perpe-
Chaffin, M., & Bonner, B.L. (1998). “Don’t trators: A review of the research litera-
shoot, We’re your children:” Have we ture. Journal of Child Psychology and
gone too far in our response to adoles- Psychiatry, 36 (5), 731-756.

Find Division 29 on the Internet. Visit our site at

The Jack D. Krasner Early Career Award

The Krasner Early Career Award recognizes promising contributions to
psychotherapy, psychology, and the Division of Psychotherapy by a Division 29
member with 10 or fewer years of post-doctoral experience

President Diane Willis,

award recipient Jeffrey
Hayes, and Past President
John Norcross

Dr. Louis Castonguay, chair of Student Development,

presents the student awards

Donald K. Freedheim Student Mathilda B. Canter Education and

Development Award Training Award

Diane Willis, award recipient Louis Castonguay, award recipient Mary

Mary Malik, and Louis Castonguay Looman, and Matty Canter


Mary L. Malik & Larry E. Beutler, University of California, Santa Barbara

Dolores Gallagher-Thompson & Larry Thompson, Pacific Graduate School of
Psychology and Palo Alto Medical Center
Shabia Alimohamed, University of California, Santa Barbara

Are all cognitive therapies alike?

A comparison of cognitive and non-cognitive therapy
process and implications for the application of
Empirically Supported Treatments (ESTs)

Central to the Empirically Supported and six non-cognitive (non-CT) therapies.

Therapy (EST) movement has been the We used these data to evaluate two prima-
delivery of therapies by clinicians trained ry assumptions: 1) that manualized treat-
according to one of a increasingly large ments derived from different theoretical
number of training manuals. The growing models should evoke different therapy
use of these manualized treatments has processes in a way consistent with their
been fostered under the assumption that theoretical assumptions, and 2) that manu-
the resulting therapies can be repeatedly alized treatments derived from the same
applied in a uniform manner, even when theoretical model should be more similar
delivered to different patients by different to one another than they are to interven-
therapists at different treatment sites. tions derived from different models.
Studies to date involving manualized treat-
ments have demonstrated that manuals Therapy process was measured by external
representing different theoretical orienta- raters trained in the use of the Systematic
tions evoke different treatment processes Treatment Selection Therapy Process
(e.g., DeRubeis, Hollon, Evans, & Bermis, Rating Scale (TRS). Process measures
1982; Evans, Hollon, DeRubeis, Tuason, involved four dimensions that distinguish
Wiemer, & Auerback, 1983; Luborsky, various treatment models and theories: the
Woody, McLellan, Brien, & Rosenzweig, degree to which the therapy session was
1982) and that following treatment manu- directed by the therapist rather than the
als tends to reduce variability of outcomes client (directiveness), the degree to which
(e.g., Crits-Christoph, Barancackie, et al., the therapist acted to increase the client’s
1991). However, the assumption that theo- emotional arousal during the therapy ses-
retically similar manualized interventions sion (emotional arousal), the extent to
resemble one another more than the resem- which the therapist worked by focusing on
blance between theoretically different behaviors rather than by fostering insight
manuals has not yet been tested. (behavior vs. insight focus), and the level
of the therapeutic alliance (alliance). Based
In this study, we tested some of these on the expectations of treatment manual-
assumptions underlying the use of manu- ization, we hypothesized that the CTs
alized treatments by comparing archival would be more directive, less arousing,
process data from a large multisite study and more behavior-focused than the non-
(N = 235) involving three cognitive (CT) CTs. We also hypothesized that the CTs

would be more homogenous with respect quite similar manualized treatments.
to therapy process than the non-CTs. Further research is needed comparing
repeated applications of putatively equiva-
Our first hypothesis was supported by our lent manualized treatments before assum-
data, and the CTs were found to be signifi- ing that equivalent interventions have been
cantly more directive, more emotionally administered to all.
arousing, and more behavior-focused than
the non-CTs. However, our second hypoth- REFERENCES
esis was only partially supported. Crits-Christoph, P., Baranackie, K., Durcias,
Although the non-CTs as a group were J. S., Beck, A. T., Carroll, K., Perry, K.,
found to be significantly more variable Luborsky, L., McLellan, A. T., Woody, G.
than the CTs along two dimensions of E., Thompson, L., Gallagher, D., & Zitrin,
process (directiveness and emotional C. (1991). Meta-analysis of therapist
arousal), no significant differences in vari- effects in psychotherapy outcome stud-
ability were found with respect to the ies. Psychotherapy Research, 1, 81–91.
degree of behavior focus. In addition, we DeRubeis, R., Hollon, S., Evans, M. &
found significant differences among the Bermis, K. (1982). Can psychotherapies
CTs with respect to these process dimen- for depression be discriminated? A sys-
sions, suggesting considerable variation in tematic investigation of cognitive thera-
therapy process among these three differ- py and interpersonal therapy. Journal of
ent applications of CT. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50,
Our results are tempered by several Evans, M., Hollon, S., DeRubeis, R.,
caveats, the foremost of which is that each Tuason, V.B., Wiemer, M. & Auerback, A.
of the three CTs involved a different modal- (1983, July). Development of a system for
ity (individual vs. couples vs. group). Thus, rating psychotherapies for depression.
some of this observed process variation Paper presented at the 14th annual meet-
may be due to the effects of modality. ing of the Society of Psychotherapy
However, the amount of process variation Research, Sheffield, England.
observed in the context of the rigorous Luborsky, L., Woody, G.E., McLellan, A.T.,
therapist training, manualization, and O’Brien, C.P., & Rosenzweig, J. (1982). Can
adherence checks employed in these stud- independent judges recognize different
ies suggests that it may be premature to psychotherapies? An experience with
assume the equivalence of even carefully manual-guided therapies. Journal of Con-
administered versions of what should be sulting and Clinical Psychology, 30, 49-62.


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6557 E. Riverdale will be published at no charge as space
Mesa, AZ 85215 allows.

APA Recording Secretary
Ronald F. Levant

Psychology is definitely on the move. I The importance of such events lies not only
have reported in recent columns that I have in the fact that psychology becomes more
observed signs of a new spirit of optimism, visible to the high level public official, but
perhaps even a renaissance in psychology. also in the opportunities to build a rela-
The Annual Convention in San Francisco tionship in which we are increasingly
was no exception. This very high-spirited called upon for information and expertise
event was distinguished by the decision of deemed helpful to that official.
United States Surgeon General David
Satcher, M.D. to use the occasion of our The Convention offered a wonderful array
convention to present his most recent of choices of programs and social events,
report on mental health, this one focusing plus all of the attractions of that beautiful
on mental health care for ethnic minorities. city by the bay—San Francisco. I had the
honor of chairing one of the new experi-
One of the most important lessons that I mental programs for President Norine
have learned over the years is how vital it Johnson’s miniconvention on “Pioneering
is for psychologists to participate in the and Reinventing: Innovative Practices for
public policy process—to be at the table the 21st Century from a Diversity of
where important policy decisions are made Perspectives and Backgrounds.” This pro-
and to speak to policy makers at every gram used a new model called the “pod,”
available opportunity. This lesson was which is sort of a hybrid between a poster
perhaps most strongly reinforced by my session and a symposium. It is an interac-
participation in the White House Summit tive group, in which presenters post the
Meeting on Children’s Mental Health host- highlights of their work on poster boards,
ed by former First Lady Hilary Rodham give 5 minute overviews and then engage
Clinton and in the resulting Surgeon in a very rich dialogue with the audience
General’s conference on Children’s Mental for over an hour. There are some issues that
Health, public policy events in which need to be resolved, such as noise from
psychology’s voice was clearly heard. adjacent pods, but overall this format
offered a much higher level of group inter-
Opportunities for psychologists to interact action than other models, and will likely be
with such high-level officials seem to be continued when the convention changes
increasing. For example, this is not the first next year.
time that the Surgeon General has come to
APA meetings. Further, during Pat The meeting of the Council of Repre-
Deleon’s Presidency, we were honored sentatives was quite lively, and resulted in
with the presence of both HHS Secretary a number of significant actions. One action
Donna Shalala and Education Secretary that I would like to highlight was the pas-
Richard Riley at APA meetings during the sage by Council of the modified Wildcard
year. And this year the Association of Plan, which (if approved by the member-
Veteran’s Administration Psychology ship) will result in the seating of all affiliat-
Leaders brought Anthony Principi, ed state, provincial and territorial psycho-
Secretary of the Veterans Administration, logical associations (SPPA’s) and APA divi-
to their meeting as the keynote speaker. sions. For 50 years (Since APA was re-orga-
nized in the late 1940’s) SPPA’s have been seat based on the percent of the apportion-
poorly represented on Council. This is ment vote that they got will get those seats.
unfortunate because even the smallest Second, any remaining seats will be
jurisdiction can have a major precedent- assigned to those units which came closest
setting impact on professional psychology to getting a next seat, based on the percent
(witness Guam’s passage of prescriptive of the apportionment vote that they
authority legislation). Hence, many leaders received. This is admittedly a complicated
in the practitioner community have been process, which resulted in quite a bit of dis-
working for over a decade to find a way to cussion on Council. Fortunately, Dr. Leona
seat all SPPA’s. Several years ago we devel- Aiken, representing the Division of
oped the Wildcard Plan through a process Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics,
of interest-based bargaining among all came to our aid and developed an under-
major APA constituencies (using the exper- standable step-by-step algorithm for
tise of APA Past President Ron Fox and explaining how seats are allocated.
CEO Ray Fowler), which resulted in the
seating of all divisions and most SPPA’s As always, I welcome your thoughts on
(Peterson & Levant, 2000). this column. You can most easily contact
me via email:
During his presidency, spurred on by such
advocates as Ruth Paige, Pat DeLeon REFERENCE
started an initiative to seat all remaining Peterson, M. & Levant, R (2000). Resolving
SPPA’s. This resulted in the establishment conflict in the American Psychological
of the Task Force on Council Repre- Association: A historical note on the
sentation 2 (TFCR2), Co-Chaired by Ron use of mediation methods. American
Levant and Ruth Paige, with representa- Psychologist, 55, 957-959.
tives from all of the major constituencies in
APA, and with Ron Fox reprising his role
as the interest-based bargaining consultant BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
and APA CEO Ray Fowler acting again as a Ronald F. Levant, Ed.D., A.B.P.P., is
resource to develop the mechanics of the Recording Secretary of the American
plan. TFCR2 developed the modified Psychological Association. He was the
Wildcard plan, which will cap Council at Chair of the APA Committee for the
162 seats and preserve the one-person one Advancement of Professional Practice
vote1 principle of the apportionment ballot (CAPP) from 1993-95, a member of the
(developed by the Albee Commission in Board of Directors of Division 29 (1991-94),
the 1960‘s). It will create two pools of seats, a member of the APA Board of Directors
one for divisions, and one for states, based (1995-97), and APA Recording Secretary
on the proportion of the apportionment (1998-2000). He is Dean, Center for
vote that each group gets. Then, each unit Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern
will get one seat. Remaining seats in each University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
pool will be distributed in two steps. First,
units that qualify for a second, third, etc. 1
Actually: one person, ten votes.

Dear Division 29 Colleague:

The best talent in the American Psychological Association belongs to the Division of
Psychotherapy (29), and we hope to draw from that pool to serve in the governance structure.
It is time for us to put our combined talents to work for the advancement of psychotherapy.


President-elect (1)
Member-at-large (2)
Secretary (1)
All persons elected will begin their terms on January 2, 2003.

The Division’s eligibility criteria are:

1. Candidates for office must be Members or Fellows of the division.
2. No member many be an incumbent of more than one elective office.
3. A member may only hold the same elective office for two successive terms.
4. Incumbent members of the Board of Directors are eligible to run for some position
on the Board only during their last year of service or upon resignation from their
existing office prior to accepting the nomination. A letter of resignation must be
sent to the President, with a copy to the Nominations and Elections Chair.

Simply return the attached nomination ballot in the mail. The deadline for receipt of
all nominations ballots is December 31, 2001. We cannot accept faxed copies. Original
signatures must accompany ballot.


If you would like to discuss your own interest or any recommendations for identifying
talent in our division, please feel free to contact Dr. Patricia Bricklin, via the Division central
office, 6557 E. Riverdale St., Mesa, AZ 85215, or e-mail

Diane J. Willis, Ph.D. Robert J. Resnick, Ph.D. Patricia Bricklin, Ph.D.
President President-elect Chair, Nominations
and Elections Committee

Nomination Ballot
President-elect Members-at-large Secretary
_______________________ _______________________ _______________________
_______________________ _______________________ _______________________
_______________________ _______________________ _______________________
_______________________ _______________________ _______________________

Indicate your nominees, and mail now! In order for your ballot to be counted, you must
put your signature in the upper left hand corner of the reverse side where indicated.

Name (Printed)



Fold Here.


Central Office
6557 E. Riverdale St.
Mesa, AZ 85215

Fold Here.
The Division 29 Executive Committee and
Board of Directors Meetings

Alice Rubenstein, Susan Corrigan, Sheila

Eyberg, Wade Silverman, John Norcross

Linda Campbell, Matty Canter, Abe Wolf,

Tracey Martin, Lee VandeCreek, Diane Willis,
Wade Silverman and John Norcross

Gary Hann, Lee VandeCreek, Doug Snyder, Art Kovacs, Matty Canter, Ron Fox
Jon Perez, James Bray and Gary Hann

Robert J. Resnick, Ph.D., President-elect

As we go “back to the future,” the Division Disaster Survivors) The “legends” will
of Psychotherapy will return to a clinically present three-hour workshops and “cut-
oriented meeting in a resort hotel that fea- ting edge” will present three hour work-
tures small workshops and promotes a shops. On Saturday there will also be a six
social intimacy with places where friends hour workshop, the highly acclaimed and
and colleagues can congregate in a pleas- valued, Risk Management workshop by
ant ambience. Dr. Jeffery Younggren, co-sponsored by the
American Psychological Association
Reserve the dates now: February 22- Insurance Trust (TRUST). Psychologists
24,2002. The Place: Chaparral Suites insured by the TRUST who complete this
Resort, Scottsdale, Arizona. The hotel cost workshop receive 15% discount in their lia-
is $169 single, $179 double room. Each bility premium for two years. And, there
room is a suite, with a cooked-to-order will be a poster session one evening, in
breakfast in the dining room. The room conjuction with a Division 29 reception.
costs also include complimentary trans-
portation to and from the airport and a The registration fee is $200 for the weekend
guest reception each evening. The theme: (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday morning)
Back to the Future— Living Legends and which includes all the workshops, continu-
Cutting Edge Therapies. The Division of ing education credits for all workshops
Psychotherapy’s living legends presentors attended, welcoming reception on
are: Drs. James F.T. Bugental, Albert Ellis, Thursday evening (with the poster ses-
Alvin R. Mahrer, and Rachel Hare-Mustin.
sion), buffet lunches Friday and Saturday
The cutting edge therapists and therapies
and a coffee and desert reception Saturday
include Drs. Norman Ables (Geriatric
Psychotherapy and Assessement), James evening. One day registrations are avail-
Bray (Psychotherapy in Primary Care able for $125.00 and a special student dis-
Settings, Gary DeNelsky (Tobacco count weekend rate is available as well.
Addiction), Hanna Levinson (Time-limited
Dynamic Psychotherapy for Personality On behalf of the Mid-winter 2002 commit-
Disorders), Don David Lusterman tee (Drs. Ron Fox, John Norcross, Jon
(Divorce Mediation), and Francine Shapiro Perez, Leon Vandecreek, Division
(EMDR). Also, Drs. Norm Abeles President Diane Willis, Jack Wiggins and
(Psychotherapy with Seniors), Nadine our convention chairperson, Dr. Matty
Kaslow (Family Psychotherapy) and Jon Canter), we urge you to join us in “going
Perez (Psychotherapy and Debriefing with back to the future.”

Pat DeLeon, Immediate Past APA President - Division 29

Proclamation 7461 of September 11, 2001— governance, I found considerable pride

“Honoring the Victims of the Incidents on and enthusiasm within the membership
Tuesday, September 11, 2001. By the “grass roots” for the contributions that
President of the United States of America. they, as individuals, have been making to
A Proclamation. As a mark of respect for society. Almost everyone that I talked with
those killed by the heinous acts of violence was very proud to be a psychologist and
perpetrated by faceless cowards upon the felt that they were making a difference in
people and the freedom of the United the daily lives of their patients and their
States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, I local communities. During our recent San
hereby order, by the authority vested in me Francisco annual convention, I was person-
as President of the United States of ally proud and genuinely touched that at
America by the Constitution and the laws the Council of Representatives meeting our
of the United States of America, that the APA President, Norine Johnson, formally
flag of the United States shall be flown at honored those psychologists who had
half-staff at the White House and upon all served in Viet Nam. As former chief U.S.
public buildings and grounds, at all mili- Army psychologist Bob Nichols comment-
tary posts and naval stations, and on all ed to me, “This was long overdue.” Our
naval vessels of the Federal Government in public service colleagues contribute much
the District of Columbia and throughout to the health and well being of our nation
the United States and its Territories and and unfortunately, their often truly cut-
possessions until sunset, Sunday, ting-edge contributions are frequently
September 16, 2001. I also direct that the overlooked or unappreciated by many of
flag shall be flown at half-staff for the same us. Those who are supportive of psycholo-
length of time at all United States gy’s prescriptive authority agenda (RxP-),
embassies, legations, consular offices, and for example, owe much to our military col-
other facilities abroad, including all mili- leagues who have demonstrated once and
tary facilities and naval vessels and sta- for all that psychologists can be trained to
tions. IN WITNESS HEREOF, I have here- effectively and safely prescribe.
unto set my hand this eleventh day of
September, in the year of our Lord two Morgan Sammons is one of ten graduates
thousand one, and of the Independence of of the Department of Defense (DoD) pro-
the United States of America the two hun- gram, which was given life during the
dred and twenty-sixth. [Signed,] George Congressional deliberations on the Fiscal
W. Bush.” Year 1989 Appropriations bill for the
Department of Defense, when the confer-
These are extraordinarily difficult times for ees directed the Department to establish a
our nation as we are vividly reminded that demonstration pilot training project under
it is impossible to predict the future with which military psychologists would be
any sense of confidence. It is also A Time To trained and authorized to issue appropri-
Reflect—Why is it that we, as individuals, ate psychotropic medications under certain
originally decided to become psycholo- circumstances. On June 17, 1994 then APA
gists? During my weekly calls across the President Bob Resnick and I attended the
nation last year as President of APA, to col- graduation ceremonies at the Walter Reed
leagues who have not been personally Army Medical Center of the first two
involved within the Association’s national DoD Psychopharmacology Fellows, U.S.
Navy Commander John Sexton and Lt. Delta. On Wednesday, all entering cars
Commander Morgan Sammons. Numerous were inspected—even by the bomb detec-
subsequent external evaluations of the tion dogs. Things got a bit less intense on
prescribing practices of the DoD Fellows Thursday when the threat level moved to
have been extraordinarily laudatory. For Charlie. Still, we have fully armed soldiers
example, the Department of Psychology at and concrete blockades at all vehicle
Eisenhower Army Medical Center (where entrances. I imagine that the security in our
Debra Dunivin was stationed) conducted a nation’s Capitol must be absolutely
customer satisfaction survey of all patients intense” [Ray Folen].
seen by her, during her first year after
graduation from the training program. The An incredible APA Response: Within the
results indicated: “a high level of overall Practice Directorate, Margie Schroeder has
satisfaction with the services she provided. been the point-person for APA’s Disaster
The most common answer to questions Response Network (DRN). Her report: “As
regarding satisfaction with Dr. Dunivin, you can imagine, the Practice Directorate
desire to work with her in the future, and has been deluged with calls and e-mails
willingness to refer a friend to Dr. Dunivin from APA members asking for resource
is ‘Strongly Agree’. The percentage of those materials and offering to volunteer their
who agree or strongly agree on these three services to help in the aftermath of Tuesday’s
areas are 94%, 88%, and 86%, respectively.” events. In response, and through the com-
We should be very proud of these col- bined efforts of our Disaster Response
leagues who have shaped our profession in Network and the Public Education
a way that no one could have foreseen. Campaign network, the Directorate has
Collectively, they have provided the entire developed materials for APA members
profession with a positive, proactive policy to use in facilitating group discussions
agenda which we definitely need at this with youth about the events of this week.
point in our maturation. In this light, the We decided to focus specifically on youth
efforts over the past several years of Randy reactions to this tragedy for three reasons.
Taylor ( immediate Past-President of First, there are many requests for informa-
Division 18 (Public Service)) and Bob Ax tion coming into APA, State Psychological
(current Division President) to have that Associations, and individual APA mem-
Division systematically work with poten- bers centered around how to talk to youth
tial RxP- training institutions to target the about Tuesday’s events. Second, many
needs (and potential) of all of our public APA members involved in the Warning
service colleagues is extraordinarily signif- Signs component of the Public Education
icant. These are the individuals who pro- Campaign have already developed rela-
vide psychological care to the underserved tionships with their local schools, which
and often uninsured members of our society would enable them to use these materials
and thereby fulfill critical governmental quickly. Third, by facilitating youth
responsibilities. And, we would add— often discussions, psychologists can provide a
under very difficult circumstances. tangible and needed service in their local
communities, without overwhelming
“The first couple of days after the attacks disaster response centers that may
(Tuesday and Wednesday), it took me already have more volunteers than they
approximately four hours to get into work. can work with. Materials for psychologists
In all the years I’ve worked at Tripler Army are available on our website
Medical Center (also the location of []. The web-
the Spark M. Matsunaga Veterans based resources include a cover memo
Administration Medical Center), we have outlining the purpose of the materials, a
never been at Force Protection Condition discussion guide for use by psychologists,

a list of Internet resources as background and at the Pentagon. Psychologists trained
materials, suggested steps for reaching out in critical incident stress debriefing have
to local schools, and ‘Reactions and begun providing services within hours
Guidelines for Children Following of the incidents to survivors, family
Trauma/Disaster.’ For those who are not members, and rescue workers in New
involved in either the DRN or the Public York; New Jersey; Virginia; Western
Education Campaign, the materials sug- Pennsylvania; at the airports in Boston, Los
gest you contact your State Psychological Angeles, San Francisco, Toronto; at the
Association so that they know of your Pentagon; and elsewhere.”
interest in these activities.
APA’s institutional response to the public
“Also, we have received many offers from media requests during the first week
members interested in volunteering with included, 66 inquiries from the media; 264
APA’s Disaster Response Network, which psychologists have spoken to print, radio
works in conjunction with the American and television reporters as a result of these
Red Cross. The APA does not operate an referrals, which according to CEO Ray
independent disaster response initiative. Fowler is unprecedented. APA members
Therefore, those interested in volunteering were quoted in the New York Times, The
should contact your local Red Cross Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post,
Chapter, keeping in mind that one must and USA Today, Friday morning alone. A
hold a current license and that the Red national radio feed featuring an interview
Cross typically requires prior training. with President Norine Johnson was record-
Finally, APA’s website, as well as our ed and fed on Wednesday afternoon. FOX
HelpCenter [], News will be directing viewers to the APA
provides information useful to the general website via an on-scene message through-
public on this topic. The HelpCenter docu- out the weekend. Former APA
ments include ‘Coping with Terrorism’, Congressional Science Fellow, Paul Eckert,
geared specifically towards reactions to informed us that the National Register has
terrorist events and ‘Managing Traumatic established a website listing of 1,000 psy-
Stress’, a general brochure about common chologists wishing to be of assistance. Ray
reactions. further reported that offers of help and
support have been received from around
“The APA State Associations have begun the world, including from colleagues and
collaborative efforts with the Red Cross psychology organizations in Canada,
in 41 states, as have the Provincial Mexico, India, and Belgium. All of us
Psychological Associations in Canada. should be truly proud of the heroic efforts
There has been an outpouring of volun- of our Association and our profession in
teers particularly in New York, New Jersey, response to this national tragedy. Mahalo.

Presidential Address Training for Healthy
Psychological Practice

James Guy, John Norcross, Nadine Kaslow,

Linda Forrest, Karen Saakvitne
Barbara Bonner presents her
research on Children with
Sexual Behavior Problems

Rosalee G. Weiss Lecture

Incorporating Self-Help into Psychotherapy

Janet Wolfe, Ed Zuckerman, Tom Smith, Linda Campbell,

Danny Wedding, John Norcross, Robert Sommers

Honoree and Presenter

James O. Prochaska, Ph.D.

Matty Canter and Irene

Deitch receive recognition
for their years of service
on the Division 29 Board of
Directors from John Norcross

Psychotherapy With African-Americans and Other Americans

Roderick W. Pugh, Ph.D., ABPP

Professor of Psychology, Emeritus
Loyola University of Chicago

Two recent articles in this journal have speaking, our society is in the midst of
joined the ranks of published concerns change at a pace beyond previous experi-
regarding the present readiness of profes- ence. The progressive commingling of peo-
sional psychology to deliver appropriate ples and cultures is, in fact, a global
and adequate services in cross-racial and phenomenon not limited to these United
cross-cultural research, assessment, and States. It rides on the back of persistent
treatment situations. The first article, D. E. technological advancements in verbal
Williams (2001), “Psychotherapy with communication and physical mobility.
African Americans,” appeared in the Winter Eventually all peoples and cultures will be
issue. That was followed by M. G. affected and changed. The resultant conse-
Constantine (2001), “Multicultural research quences will be multidetermined and mul-
in psychotherapy supervision: Current sta- tidirectional. We have become aware of
tus and future directions,” in the Spring being in the midst of a bit of the persistent
issue. Further, APA has by now convened flow of evolutionary social processes
two annual National Multicultural which previously, when the pace was slow-
Conferences and Summits, the first held in er, was not so easily recognized as taking
January, 1999 (Chin, 1999). APA also is cur- place before our very eyes, so to speak.
rently distributing an educational pamphlet Personally, I find this state of affairs both
by M. Feinberg entitled “Racism and challenging and exciting, despite the rele-
Psychology.” All of this is against the back- vant events of September 11, 2001.
drop of Newsweek’s feature article last
September, “The new face of race” Jackson & Jones (2001) recently concluded
(Meacham, 2000), and Time’s feature this that: “For better or worse ‘race’ has perhaps
June, “Welcome to Amexica” (Roche, 2001). been the most ongoing significant factor in
Further, there have been a number of other the history of American Society” (p 1).
scholarly research-oriented articles such as They note that “race” essentially deter-
Sue’s (1999) “Science, ethnicity, and bias: mines our way of being by way of its
Where have we gone wrong?” Then finally influencing our laws and politics, where
in this listing is another by Dumas and we select to live, where we educate our
Rollock, et al. (1999), “Cultural sensitivity: children, where we worship, and how we
Problems and solutions in applied and pre- relate to each other in general. They note as
ventive intervention,” which, in my opinion, well the dependable correlation between
is a standout and a must-read for its useful- racial statistics and inequalities in socio-
ness for both practicing clinicians as well as economic and educational status such that
those primarily involved with research. in 1941, at the start of WWII, approximate-
ly ninety percent of African Americans
Obviously something of considerable “lived in poverty” (p 3). Most importantly,
importance is brewing in our land which they underscore that we are now confront-
Psychology, as a scientific and professional ed with the necessity of relinquishing the
discipline, cannot afford to take lightly. more simplistic black/white view of our
“Racially” speaking and “culturally” population in keeping with today’s reali-

ties. It was not until 1970 that Hispanics ventions which are now of growing impor-
were identified as such in the U.S. census. tance. My career has spanned a little more
But current projections by these authors than fifty years. Officially I am now sup-
and other sources indicate that by the year posed to be retired (!).
2010 Hispanics, Asians, and Native
Americans together will outnumber I am an African American male.
African Americans. Thus the traditional Professionally I identify as an academician
biracial concept of the U.S. population is and dedicated psychotherapist who spe-
even currently no longer applicable. cializes in work with the adult individual.
My motivation for studying psychology
We are now veritably a multiracial and derived from an early and continuing
multicultural society. This spells out the curiosity about human behavior.
circumstances and the challenge of the pre- Participating in the psychotherapeutic
sent and future to which psychology as a endeavor provides not only the rewarding
science and profession must address itself. experience of responding to another who is
The question being asked is: What is our seeking assistance, but additionally it pro-
potential for justifying the support, trust, vides a productive vantage point from
and confidence of today’s multiracial and which to observe, study, and develop
multicultural population in terms of our hypotheses about human behavior, about
theories, our research methods, our educa- the human behavior change process, and
tional initiatives, and our clinical compe- about the potential of the genuine and pos-
tence to serve such a population? itive client-therapist relationship for facili-
tating successful behavior change out-
The attention currently being given to this comes in psychotherapy.
situation, as outlined above, is only a
beginning. Our efforts must be continuous In the role either of instructor or psy-
and progressively refined. As of now the chotherapist I have been actively interested
recruitment and training of psychologists in working with persons regardless of their
drawn from all these populations and cul- racial or cultural identities. Cultures are
tures must have top priority. Our graduate differentiated principally by the social con-
offerings in research methodology, clinical tingencies (interpersonal, verbal, and visu-
practica, and internship training must be al) which characterize them. Work which I
increasingly relevant for the population consider “cross-cultural” involves persons
realities which determine the real life con- who have grown up in circumstances or
texts in which we function. We must also societies characterized by behavioral or
face the fascinating probability that fifty to social contingencies which are foreign to
one hundred years from now that reality me and my experience. Generally, I view
will have again changed. But as of today, work involving the typical European
what can the individual practicing clini- American or “white” person as “cross-
cian make of this whose graduate training racial” more than “cross-cultural.” By the
may have had little or no meaningful focus time an African American in this country
on the delivery of services in cross-racial or has progressed through graduate educa-
cross-cultural settings? Let me review a tion to the doctoral level he or she is quite
few observations from my own clinical familiar with the dominant “culture” in
experiences which I have found of value. this society, has had to adapt to it, and in
The matter of providing psychotherapeutic fact has become a product of it. However,
services in cross-racial or cross-cultural sit- because racism has been such an identify-
uations was essentially not on the table ing feature of our social experience, white
when I was a graduate student. Therefore, persons and black persons who have
I am self-taught with regards to these inter- grown up at the same time, in the same

village or city, and have attended the same client’s presenting anxiety may be reactive
schools will have had some quite different to known or anticipated effects the client’s
individual experiences. Taking this a bit adapting to a new and different culture
further, under these circumstances and may have on relationships with significant
broadly speaking, the white person in our others who continue to live in or adhere to
society generally will not have had as the customs of the native culture.
much exposure to that which is rather spe-
cific to African American “culture” as the First and foremost, in all instances my
black person has had to that which is spe- approach to the client presenting for pro-
cific to the European American “culture.” fessional assistance is characterized by
Rogerian “unconditional positive regard”
When I began a part-time private practice (Rogers, 1961). This concept has been one
in psychotherapy in the late fifties, I let it of Rogers’ most durable and valuable con-
be known that I placed no restrictions on tributions to psychotherapy. Such a level
referrals in terms of racial or cultural of respect for the person of the client
identity, and my office location was chosen (though a person beset with problems) is,
with that in mind. On the other hand, in my experience, a prerequisite in all
because of the realities of our society, I did instances of psychotherapy for progres-
prefer that referred clients know in sively involving the client in a productive
advance that I am an African American working relationship. Further, the impor-
professional. I honored my deceased tance of the therapist’s genuineness or
father, who was unmistakably African “realness” (as contrasted with pretend or
American, by placing his picture on the put-on) cannot be overstated. It is my
wall of my reception room so that any longstanding experience that these two
persons entering, should they not have therapist variables, unconditional positive
known beforehand, would then have an regard and genuineness, over and above
indication, before seeing me for the first the therapist’s particular theoretical orien-
time, that this is the office of an African tation, are highly related to successful
American. treatment outcome. Therapists with these
characteristics may also be more open to
Because cross-racial and cross-cultural themselves and, therefore, better prepared
work has demands of its own beyond those to monitor prejudicial influences which
routinely associated with conducting psy- could derive from cultural preferences and
chotherapy, from my point of view it is biases, which all of us have.
advisable that professionals who lack
interest in cross-racial and cross-cultural In cross cultural psychotherapeutic relation-
work not be in positions that might force ships I find that it is most productive to be
them to attempt it. totally honest and open about one’s limited
knowledge of the client’s native culture, if
My cross cultural experiences in psy- that is the case. I frankly admit to the client
chotherapy have involved an interesting that in this regard our work together will be
spectrum of persons, some in this country an educational experience for me and that
temporarily from Africa, China, and Japan, this will account for requests for clarification
and others who have been U.S. citizen of certain behaviors, events, and experiences
members of the Asian American and which would be unnecessary were our cul-
Hispanic American cultural subgroups. tural backgrounds the same. Fortunately
Additionally, I have worked with members this has always been understood and well
of two different orthodox religious groups. accepted by the client.
Regarding a client’s group affiliation or
identity, a therapist has to be mindful of Now for a bit of a switch. Beyond the fore-
the possibility that at least some of a going, the theoretical principles which
guide my work, broadly speaking, are African American utilization of psy-
derived from behavior analysis. chotherapy from the late forties to the pre-
Ordinarily, such principles are applied sent. My doctoral internship training took
towards understanding how the client’s place roughly between 1947 and 1949 in
past learning history may be contributing the largest Veterans Administration
to current problems in living as they mani- General Medical and Surgical Hospital in
fest themselves in the context of the client’s the V.A. system located just outside
interpersonal contingencies. In that case Chicago. At that time this particular facili-
the client is assisted in understanding the ty treated male veterans only. I was in the
source and nature of the problem, how this first wave of graduate students to benefit
relates to the client’s current role and expe- from the V.A.’s new training program in
riences in his or her interpersonal environ- clinical psychology. In that setting at that
ment, and what alternate behavioral strate- time African American veterans were
gies seem appropriate for the client to learn noticeably more reluctant to participate in
and employ in order to move towards con- either individual or group psychotherapy
structive change, including, if indicated than were the European American veter-
and feasible, a change of some sort in inter- ans. My assumption has been that African
personal environments (see Kohlenberg & American veterans were then much less
Tsai, 1991). secure than other veterans about genuine
self-disclosure which these new treatment
In cross racial or cross cultural work, or in programs encouraged, particularly in a
my case simply work with African predominately white governmental set-
American clients, this assessment may ting. This is easy to understand in that the
occasionally take on added complexity for past learning histories of African
there is an increased probability in such Americans in this country entailed no
instances that the client possibly may be instances that I know of when such behav-
subject to an oppressive set of circumstance ior in such a setting had been either expect-
tied to some social or political system or ed or positively reinforced. In some south-
authority which he or she may have little ern states such behavior might even have
or no immediate possibility of influencing had a tragic ending.
and or leaving. Thus, the need may be to
devise the best possible strategy for the My part-time private practice was estab-
client’s extended survival rather than a lished in 1958. During the first couple of
plan to affect tangible change in the pre- years or so the majority of my referrals
vailing social contingency situation in the were white clients, which was related to
immediate or foreseeable future. It so hap- the fact that my full-time employment was
pens that was the kind of situation that I in an essentially white setting. However,
along with a thousand other African as the civil rights movement began to gath-
American soldiers of the Quartermaster er steam there was a progressive decrease
Corps found ourselves in while serving in the number of white clients seen and a
our country in the then segregated army progressive increase in the number of black
during World War II (see Pugh (1972), Ch. clients seen. That trend continued until
6). The post war Civil Rights movement eventually by the early seventies the over-
was a collective effort on the part of citi- whelming number of clients seen were
zens to achieve corrective action pertaining African American and that continued until
to the long-standing oppressive social and my retirement in 1999. However, there was
political circumstances which that army yet an additional development which I
experience also represented. found especially intriguing: during the last
three to five years of my practice the major-
Finally I would like to offer briefly some ity of my clients were African American
clinical observations about changes in males! This was nothing I had planned
and my view is that it reflected an interest- supervision: Current status and future
ing self-selection on the part of the clients. directions. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 36, 20-
This pertains to an interesting and relevant Crawford, N. S. (2000). Remembering the
hypothesis in terms of the subject of this Holocaust. Monitor on Psychology, 31
article: I have observed that the more I (10), 52-55.
have in common with a client the more Dumas, J.E., Rollock, D., Prinz, R.J., Hops,
assured I feel about my understanding of H., & Blechman,E. A. (1999). Cultural
that client. This refers to the urgency of our sensitivity: Problems and solutions in
recruiting future psychologists from across applied and preventive interventions.
the board of racial and cultural groups in Applied & Preventive Psychology, 8, 175-
this country. Since I am an African 196.
American male I do find it easier to feel Gardner, L. H. (1972). Psychotherapy
secure about my level of understanding of under varying conditions of race. In R.
the African American male client. I am W. Pugh, Psychology and the Black
happy to say that I have worked very well Experience, (pp. 37-53). Monterey, CA:
with a variety of other clients some of Brooks/Cole.
whom have achieved exceptional successes Goldsborough, R. (2001, May 24). Dealing
in their efforts in terms of my observations with hate on the internet. Black Issues in
and experience as a psychotherapist. But Higher Education, 18,36.
as my retirement approached it seems that Holliday, B. G., Director (1999, Feb.).
some special word must have gotten Association Reports: Recruitment, reten-
around among African American males tion and training of psychologists of
who were interested in psychotherapy for color. Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs
themselves. Times do change and, inter- Communique, 10-24.
estingly, patterns of behavior change with Jackson, J. S. & Jones, N. A. (2001). New
them. directions in thinking about race in
America: African Americans in a diversi-
fying nation. African American Research
REFERENCES Perspectives, 7, 1-36.
Abi-Hashem, N. (1997). Reflections on Jackson, L. C. (1999). Ethnocultural resis-
international perspectives in psychology. tance to multicultural training: Students
American Psychologist, 52, 569-570. and faculty. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic
Beutler, L. E. (2000). Dreams and night- Minority Psychology, 5 (1), 27-36.
mares about the next big revolution in Jenkins, A. H. (1982). The Psychology of the
psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Afro-American - A Humanistic Approach.
Research,Practice, Training. 37, 359-363. New York: Pergamon.
[No.4, winter 2000] Kohlenberg, R. J. & Tsai, M. (1991).
Brown, T. (1997, Winter). Hate crimes, Functional analytic psychotherapy: Creating
stress and bigotry in the late twentieth intense and curative therapeutic relation-
century: Where are we headed? African ships. N.Y.: Plenum Press.
American Research Perspectives, Institute Krause, I.-B. (1998). Therapy Across Culture.
for Social Research, Univ. of Michigan, 21- London: Sage.
29. Lax, W. D. (2000). Anthropology for the
Chin, J. L. (1999, July). National family therapist: Reclaiming our roots
Multicultural Conference & Summit. [Review of the book Therapy Across
Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs Culture]. Contemporary Psychology, APA
Communique, 9-10. Review of Books, 45, 691-693.
Constantine, M. G. (2001, Spring). Meacham, J. (2000, Sep. 18). The new face
Multicultural Research in Psychotherapy of Race. Newsweek, 38-41.
Pugh, R. W. (1972). Psychology and the Black
Experience. Monterey, CA, Brooks/Cole. Currently, Al Gore is offering a course
Roche, T. (2001, June 11). Welcome to there!
Amexica: Just another day in Bridge
Town. Time, 157, 51-53 Fortunately Carl R. Rogers was my faculty
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a Person. advisor throughout my graduate educa-
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. tion, first at Ohio State where I did a mas-
Rogler, L. H. (1999). Methodological ter’s, and then at the University of Chicago
sources of cultural insensitivity in mental where I did my doctorate. When I was dis-
health research. American Psychologist, charged from the service after WWII I was
54, 424-433. one of a number of Roger’s students who
Sue, S. (1999). Science, ethnicity, and bias: followed him to Chicago from OSU, so this
Where have we gone wrong? American is how I find myself still in Chicago! My
Psychologist, 54, 1070-1077. work has been highly influenced by my
Sue, S. (2000). The Practice of Psychological training with Rogers; however, for many
Science.American Psychologist, 55, 1510- years now my theoretical preference by
1511. and large consists of the principles of
Williams. D. E. (2001, Winter). behavior analysis as applied in the usual
Psychotherapy with African Americans. circumstances of everyday life.
Psychotherapy Bulletin, 36, 9-12.
On completing my graduate training I was
BIOGRAPHICAL/CAREER SUMMARY offered a staff position at Hines V. A.
Roderick W. Pugh, Ph.D., ABPP Medical Center where I had done my
Professor of Psychology, Emeritus internship. I continued there for seventeen
Loyola University of Chicago years where I primarily coordinated the
clinical psychology internship program
As stated in the accompanying article, I am and progressively developed my own
a retired academician and dedicated psy- skills as a psychotherapist while also care-
chotherapist who has specialized in work fully monitoring the progressive develop-
with the adult. I was fortunate to have ments in the research literature. In 1958 I
developed an interest in and curiosity established a part-time private practice in
about human behavior as a child. psychotherapy.
Consequently, by the time I was in mid-
high school I had decided on psychology In 1966 I joined the faculty of Loyola
as a career, which in 1934 was something University of Chicago’s doctoral clinical pro-
unusual for any kid, and especially an gram where my teaching responsibilities
African American one. I was born in covered the theories and practice of psy-
Richmond, Kentucky, in 1919, but my fam- chotherapy, this while also continuing my
ily relocated to Dayton, Ohio, where I grew own part time practice. A focus throughout
up from age ten. my career has been the development of ten-
able hypotheses about human behavior and
I am very active in the alumni association the human behavior change process. I
of my undergraduate school, Fisk retired from Loyola University in 1989 and
University, Nashville, an Historically Black from my private practice in 1999. However,
College where I spent four of the most as busy as I keep myself doing things like
important years of my life. Later I served this, I really don’t feel retired—but I enjoy
on its Board of Trustees from 1968-1978. every minute of it!

Exciting Changes, Exciting Opportunities
By Kalman M. Heller, Ph.D.

Over the past few years, Divisions 29 and turning our ideas into an actual set of
42 had collaborated in the development of brochures that were available for distribu-
a series of eight brochures for practitioners tion in time for APA.
to use to encourage the public to “Talk to
Someone Who Can Help.” To date, over So what does all this mean to those of you
80,000 brochures have been sold, with who offer psychotherapy services in any
numerous repeat orders. Clearly, psycholo- setting? Brochures are one of the least
gists find the brochures a valuable tool for expensive and most effective means of pro-
educating the public and promoting their moting your services. Whether you are in a
services. However, many of you who work solo practice, group practice, a clinic or
in multidisciplinary practices told us you hospital setting, there is a place on the back
needed brochures that did not promote of the brochures where you can imprint
only psychologists. You requested this in information on how the reader can contact
order not to slight your colleagues from you. Brochures in waiting rooms help
other disciplines. The Division 29 Brochure current patients learn more about your
Project has done just that. We have created services, perhaps even a service that they
an additional generic series of the same didn’t realize you and/or a colleague
brochures by simply substituting terms offered. Often patients will take a brochure
such as “Licensed Mental Health home to a friend in need.
Professional” or “Licensed Therapist” for
“Psychologist.” Now those of you who Psychotherapy is an intangible and hard to
work in multidisciplinary practices can describe service. The fact that it can’t be
also use these very successful brochures. seen or touched before being used is one
key reason for the under-utilization of
AND…we have even more exciting news. therapy. Anything you can do to make
Through the generosity of Celltech your services more tangible helps over-
Pharmaceuticals, The Brochure Project, come people’s anxiety about the risk of the
now under the sole leadership of Division unknown. Brochures help to accomplish
29, developed two new brochures, this goal.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in
Children and Adolescents and The Hidden The role of brochures in promoting your
Problem: ADD/ADHD in Adults. A sample practice is varied and effective. They are an
of each is included in this issue of the excellent handout when you give a presen-
Bulletin and I’m sure you will be tation. People may hold on to them for
impressed with the exceptional quality of years, calling when the need finally arises.
these brochures. Many thanks to the They may also help to spur a phone call
Brochure Project Director, Alice that is already on your voice mail by the
Rubenstein, Publication Coordinator, Abe time you return to your office! Brochures
Wolf, and to authors Robert Resnick and are excellent inclusions in a targeted mail-
Alice (she is a very busy person). Yours ing, giving the recipient something helpful
truly is pleased to have contributed both as and impressive beyond just a letter.
an author and as Marketing Coordinator. Similarly, at the end of a face-to-face meet-
Finally, special thanks to Tracy Martin for ing with a potential new referral source,

handing out a brochure along with your are as much about public information as
business card is going to leave a more they are about practice development. There
lasting impression. Physicians are often is valuable information in each brochure
willing to put a handful on display as are that will raise awareness of readers and
other potential resources, e.g., a local encourage them to seek help when neces-
Children’s Museum, a private preschool or sary. We strongly encourage you to give
day care center, a place of worship, or in serious thought to the value of purchasing
the workplace. Employee Assistance and distributing these brochures. To make
Program professionals often like to be able it easier for you, we not only included an
to hand something tangible to an employee order form in this Bulletin, but we now
in need instead of just giving out a name. A have a website, www.thebrochurepro-
modest investment that has so many uses, where you can explore the content
makes brochures an essential component of the brochures in detail. Please take a look.
to the promotion of any practice. We are certain you will find a brochure that
addresses at least one topic that would
Of equal importance is that these brochures benefit both you and your community.

For more information on

The Brochure Project,
see ad and order form
on page 42!

is pleased to announce exciting changes and additions
The “Talk to Someone Who Can Help” series has been an exceptional success. Over 80,000
have been sold and many psychologists continue to reorder, giving us a clear message that
those who use them value them. And now, in response to the requests from psychologists in
multidisciplinary practices, we have created a generic series. Thus all of the original eight
brochures are currently available in two formats, one using the The Hidden Problem:
ADD/ADHD in Adults
term “Psychologist” and one using either “Licensed Mental
What i s wrong
Health Professional” or “Licensed Therapist.” Now everyone with me?
can use these exciting brochures. Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder in
Children and Adolescents

i m trying a s
But the good news doesn’t stop there. With a generous grant hard a s I can!

from Celltech Pharmaceuticals, we developed two new brochures

(in the generic format only): Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder in Children and Adolescents and The Hidden Problem:
ADD/ADHD in Adults. These expanded, 8-panel brochures are
exceptional additions to the Brochure Project providing valuable
information to the public about this disorder and the role of Talk to someone who can help.

mental health professionals in treating the problem.

Talk to someone who can help.

To make it even easier for you to decide which brochures can help your practice as
well as help educate the community, you can now go to to see each
brochure in more detail.
Aging Today • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Breast Cancer • Heart Disease
Managing Difficult Behavior in Children • Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents
Separation and Divorce • Serious Illness • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in
Children and Adolescents • The Hidden Problem: ADD/ADHD in Adults

ORDER FORM (Please print) Prices & Quantities (PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE)
Please check one of
the boxes below Per 50 Per 50 with Imprint 500 500 with Imprint Please Check One:
Division 29/42
Member ❑ $30 $45 $240 $300 ❑ Psychologist Version

APA Member
(Not member of 29/42) ❑ $40 $55 $265 $325
❑ Mental Health
Professional Version
Non-Psychologist ❑ $45 $60 $290 $350


Name ______________________________________________________ ❑ Check here if you would like an imprint. Indicate how your
information should appear on the brochure:
Address ____________________________________________________ (Print legibly or type)
City ___________________________________ State ________________ ____________________________________________________
Zip _____________ Daytime Phone __________________________ ____________________________________________________
Please indicate the type and number of brochures to be purchased. ____________________________________________________
❑ Separation and Divorce __________________________________
Amount due* $ ____________
❑ Breast Cancer ___________________________________________ Please add 25%to orders
❑ Payment enclosed shipped outside
❑ Heart Disease ___________________________________________
the United States
❑ Aging __________________________________________________
❑ VISA ❑ Mastercard
Card No. ___________________________________________________
❑ Difficult Children _______________________________________
❑ Psychotherapy with Children Expiration Date ____________________________________________
and Adolescents______________________________________ Signature __________________________________________________
❑ Serious Illness ___________________________________________
Please return to: The Brochure Project, 6557 E. Riverdale, Mesa,
❑ Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ___________________ AZ 85215. Call (480) 854-8950 for additional information.

THE BROCHURE PROJECT • The Division of Psychotherapy (29) • American Psychological Association

by Jack G. Wiggins, Ph.D. A Division 29 Council Representative

The tragedies of the attack on the United Council for both financial and political rea-
States dwarf the actions of the APA Council sons. Council approved an Affiliate
in August, making them seem like amoebic Membership category for teachers at 2 year
movements towards perfection and par- colleges. Further action on member reten-
adise. Yet, Council did a yeoman-like job tion and recruitment was postponed until
and President Johnson, in her “stick to the February 2002. Phil Zimbardo is consider-
schedule style,” was firmly in command of ing a proposal to create a Friends of
the proceedings. In the light of recent Psychology “club” for college graduates
events, it is ironic that the item on the who majored in psychology.
Coordination of Trauma Activity within
APA was postponed until August 2003 in The shortened convention for 2002 and the
order develop an interdivisional plan. The formation of “Clusters” of Divisions with
valiant efforts of our Disaster Response similar programming interests was pre-
Network with the Red Cross and State led sented. This proposal met with mixed emo-
Disaster Teams underscore how important tions and got mixed reviews from Council.
this activity is to our nation, our profession It generated many questions and Council
and the association. It is time to re-examine put a review process in place for evaluat-
this issue and Council is doing its job. Jon ing the effects of this “clustering” on the
Perez, Ellin Bloch and Ellen McGrath 2002 convention.
developed a powerful Trauma Response to
Operation Desert Storm for Division 29 Representation to Council is a perennial
and perhaps this needs to be reactivated. hot topic initiated by groups who feel
underrepresented. Council approved a
Council meetings rarely have a central Modified Wildcard Plan to give representa-
theme and this was no exception. There
tion to all states and Divisions while main-
were certain routine items such as
taining the same balance in representation
approval of the 2002 Preliminary Budget
currently present between States and
and housekeeping changes to the associa-
Divisions. It is much too complicated to
tion rules to cope with regulation and tech-
nology developments. There was also explain in space available here. It will be
approval of a Net Worth Allocation Plan to coming to the membership to act upon as a
guide boards and committees to develop Bylaw revision. Your Division 29
financial plans to achieve Council Representatives Ron Fox, Matty Canter
approved goals. This was coupled with the and myself actively supported this plan.
2002-2004 Financial Forecast. Although
APA resources are strained, APA’s financial Another Council action was to approve a
foundation remains sound despite the plan to increase ethnic minorities partici-
downturn in the economy and a small pation on Council by APA reimbursing
reduction in membership. This member- Divisions, State or Provincial Associations
ship reduction is due to the anticipated for representatives who are ethnic minori-
plateauing effect of the growth curve in ties and who are elected during the years
membership during the second half of the 2002 and 2004. This clearly is a part of the
20th century. Membership recruitment and diversity movement within APA. A Bylaw
retention is a major topic of discussion for amendment is necessary for this proposal.

A third Bylaw revision proposal was adopt- from Division 29. It also approved the
ed to remove the restriction for Council to revision of the Distinguished Profession
consider a Petition for a new Division only Contribution Awards.
at its midwinter meeting. The change in
APA election cycles enacted some six years Council politely discussed the Report of
ago have made this midwinter petition the Task Force Envisioning, Identifying
requirement an unnecessary impediment to and Accessing New Professional Roles for
implement a new Division. Council adopted psychologists. It debated at length about
this proposal and referred it to the member- the Death Penalty and passed a substitute
ship for approval. motion which states: “Therefore be it
Council referred a motion to have an resolved that the American Psychological
APAGS representative on the Board of Association calls upon each jurisdiction in
Directors to the B/D. the United States that imposes the capital
punishment not to carry out the death
Council approved the Petition for a penalty until the jurisdiction implements
Proficiency in Psychopharmacology. This policies and procedures that can be shown
will allow the APA College of Professional through psychological and other social sci-
Psychology to certify psychologists who ence research to ameliorate the deficiencies
have completed their training and having identified above.” The deficiencies were
passed its national examination. This is identified by research to in the areas of
expected to be of significant legislative inadequate counsel, investigative services,
importance in seeking prescriptive authori- DNA proof of errors in sentencing, possi-
ty. This action was taken even before Russ ble racist factors, lack of understanding of
Newman presented his update on prescrip- mental illness or mental retardation, etc.
tive authority. Council also recognized
Forensic Psychology as a Specialty and
There was the usual flurry of motions and
renewed the Proficiency of Treatment of
Alcohol and Other Psychoactive Substance frantic appeals for last minute actions but
Disorders. Council also approved the for the most part Council was civil, colle-
Criteria for Practice Guideline Development gial and considered items with reason and
and Education as part of its attention to dispatch. It adjourned on time. Your
scope of practice issues. Council Representatives Matty Canter,
Ron Fox and myself, like other Council
Council approved 137 new Fellows of the members, then quickly scurried to other
Association. There were no new Fellows scheduled engagements at the convention.


Karen Calhoun, Tom Korkovec, Jim Calhoun, Georgia Calhoun, Alan Campbell

Ellen and Kal Heller

Susan Corrigan and

Jan Culbertson

Shelley Riggs, Roberta Nutt, Pat Bricklin

Seaborn Dock, Robin Dock, Carl Settles

Richard O’Leary, Larry Beer, Lisa Firestone

Randy Gerson Memorial Grant
The American Psychological Foundation (APF) announces the Randy Gerson Memorial
Grant to be given in 2002. For the 2002 cycle of the grant, professional academicians or
practitioners are invited to apply. The grant has been created to advance the systemic
understanding of family and/or couple dynamics and/or multi-generational processes.
Work that advances theory, assessment, or clinical practice in these areas shall be consid-
ered eligible for grants through the fund.

Projects using or contributing to the development of Bowen family systems theory will
be given highest priority. Priority also will be given to those projects that serve to
advance Dr. Gerson’s work

Gerson, R. (1995), The family life cycle: Phases, stages and crises. In R. Mikesell, D.
Lusterman, and S. McDaniel (eds.), Integrating Family Therapy, Washington, D.C.: APA
Gerson, R. (1996) Family systems theory and Imago Therapy: A theoretical interpreta-
tion. Journal of Imago Relationship Therapy, 1, 19-41.
Gerson, R., Hoffman, S., Sauls, M., & Ulrici, D. (1993). Family of Origin Frames in
Couples Therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 19, 341-354.
McGoldrick, M., Gerson, R. & Shellenberger, S. (1999). Genograms Assessment and
Intervention. New York: W.W. Norton.

Applicants from a variety of professional or educational settings are encouraged to
apply. Awards will be given in alternate years to students and professionals. The 2002
grant will go to a professional academician or practitioner.


 Statement of the proposed project
 Rationale for how the project meets the goals of the fund
 Budget for the project
 Statement about how the results of the project will be disseminated
(published paper, report, monograph, etc.)
 Personal reference material (vita and two letters of recommendation)

Applicants must submit seven (7) copies of their entire application packets. Send appli-
cation packets by February 1, 2002, to the APF Awards Coordinator (address below).
Applicants will be notified by March, 15, 2002.

Amount of Grant: $5,000.00 Deadline: February 1, 2002


Contact the Awards Coordinator/Gerson, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC
20002-4242. Telephone: (202) 336-5814. Internet:

The APF encourages applications from individuals that represent diversity in race, ethnicity,
gender, age, and sexual orientation.


31st Annual
Mid-Winter Convention
February 22–24, 2002

Chaparral Suites Resort

5001 N. Scottsdale Road
Scottsdale, Arizona

2002 Mid-Winter Committee Members

Matty Canter, Ph.D., Chair
James Bray, Ph.D.
Jon Perez, Ph.D.
Ron Fox, Ph.D.
Robert Resnick, Ph.D.
Walanda Walker Smith, Ph.D.
Jack Wiggins, Ph.D.

2002 Mid-Winter Convention Meeting Registration Form
Detach, complete and return payment in full amount to:
Division of Psychotherapy
2002 Mid Winter
6557 E. Riverdale St.
Mesa, Arizona 85215
(602) 363-9211

Name _____________________________________________ Degree ____________________

Address ______________________________________________________________________
City ____________________________________ State ___________ ZIP__________________
Telephone (________) ___________________________________________________________
Email ________________________________________________________________________

 Enclosed is check/money order for $____________

 Please charge $_______________ to my  VISA  MASTERCARD

Card # ___________________________________________ Exp. Date ___________________

Signature _____________________________________________________________________


 Full Registration  Student Registration

(Friday, Saturday, and Sunday) $125 (Friday, Saturday & Sunday)
Division 29 Member $200 Some scholarships will be available.
Non-members $250
Includes all workshops, continuing education
credits for all workshops attended, welcoming  Spouse/Guest Registration
reception on Thursday evening, Friday reception $75, includes lunches and receptions.
(with the poster session), lunches Friday and $25 for receptions only.
Saturday, and a coffee and dessert reception
Saturday evening. If you would like to join
Name of Spouse/Guest:
Division 29 and get the member registation rate,
please contact the central office for a member- ___________________________________________
ship form, and submit it along with your
registration form. ___________________________________________

 Single Day 29 Members $125

Non-Members $150
choose one  Friday  Saturday REGISTRATION POLICIES
Meeting registration is required for admission to
 Sunday only 29 Members $35 all sessions and receptions. Absolutely no
Non-Members $50 refunds after February 1, 2002. Cancellations
Includes all workshops held on that day only, prior to February 1 will be assessed a $20
continuing education credits for all workshops processing fee. Pre-registration will end on
attended, and any other social events on that day. February 15th. After that, please register on-site

2002 Mid-Winter Convention Schedule of Programs
5:00 pm – Registration 8:00 am – Continental Breakfast and
9:00 pm Conference Center West Foyer 9:00 am Registration
Conference Center West Foyer
8:00 pm Welcoming Reception / No Host Bar 9:00 am – 12:00 pm
Kiva I and II • Updating the Principles and Practice of
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
Many of our speakers and Board members will attend and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
the Welcoming Reception, and we look forward to Albert Ellis, Ph.D.
meeting you there. Mohave I and Kiva I
• Are You Ready for a Wholesale Transformation?
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 22ND Alvin Mahrer, Ph.D.
Mohave II and Kiva II
8:00 am – Continental Breakfast and
9:00 am Registration • American Psychological Association
Conference Center West Foyer Insurance Trust*
Dr. Jeffery Younggren
9:00 am – 12:00 pm Mohave III and Kiva III
• Sex, Lies, and Headaches: Issues of Gender The morning sessions will break
and Power in Therapy at approximately 10:30 am
Rachel Hare-Mustin, Ph.D.
Mohave I and Kiva I 12:00 pm – 1:30 pm Buffet Luncheon
West Patio
• The Actual: Bridge to the Future 1:30 pm – 4:30 pm
James T. Bugental, Ph.D. • From Smoking to Smoking Cessation:
Mohave II and Kiva II Building Your Own Program
Gary DeNelsky, Ph.D.
• Primary Care Psychology: Applications Mohave I and Kiva I
of Psychotherapy
• Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy:
James H. Bray, Ph.D. Making Every Session Count
Mohave III and Kiva III Hanna Levenson, Ph.D.
Mohave II and Kiva II
The morning sessions will break
at approximately 10:30 am • American Psychological Association Insurance
Trust (continuation of the morning session)*
12:00 pm – 1:30 pm Luncheon West Patio Dr. Jeffery Younggren
Mohave III and Kiva III
*Special Note: You must attend both morning and afternoon
1:30 pm-4:30 pm sessions of the Insurance Trust workshop to receive Trust credit.
• Treating Marital Infidelity The afternoon sessions will break
Don-David Lusterman, Ph.D. at approximately 3:00 pm
Mohave I and Kiva I
9:30 pm Coffee and Dessert Reception
• An Overview of Psychotropic Medication Ramada Circle and East Ballroom
with an Antidepressant Emphasis
Mohave II and Kiva II 8:30 – 11:30 am
• Couples and Family Play Therapy
• EMDR and Information Processing: Nadine J. Kaslow, Ph.D., ABPP
Alleviating the Effects of Trauma Mohave I and Kiva I
Francine Shapiro, Ph.D.
• Assessment, Therapy and Ethical
Mohave III and Kiva III
Issues in Working with Older Adults
Norm Abeles, Ph.D.
The afternoon sessions will break Mohave II and Kiva II
at approximately 3:00 pm
• When Terror Strikes: Working with Children,
5:00 – Poster Session with No Host Bar Families, and Communities
6:30 pm Paloma I - III Jon Perez, Ph.D.
Mohave III and Kiva I

Hotel Registration Form
To reserve your room, please complete the Hotel Reservation Form and mail to:

Chaparral Suites Or call (480) 949-1414. Be sure to men-

Attn: RESERVATIONS tion that you are with the Division of
5001 N. Scottsdale Rd. Psychotherapy Mid Winter Convention
Scottsdale, Arizona 85250 to be assured of the convention rates.

Division of Psychotherapy Mid-Winter 2002 Convention

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Address _______________________________________________________________________________

City ______________________________________________ State ___________ ZIP________________

Telephone (________) ___________________________________________________________________

Email _________________________________________________________________________________

Check one:  Single $169 + tax  Double $179 + tax

Arrival Date ____________________________________ Arrival Time _________________________

Departure Date __________________________________ Departure Time ______________________

Chaparral Suites has a free airport shuttle. Call (480) 949-1414 upon arrival

Reservations will not be guaranteed without a credit card.

 Visa  MasterCard  American Express

Card No _______________________________________________ Exp. Date _____________________

Name of cardholder ____________________________________________________________________

Signature ______________________________________________________________________________

The Chaparral Suites Resort

Chaparral Suites Hotel offers 311 two-room choice of two oversized pools, enjoy a whirlpool,
suites designed to make your stay comfortable. or workout in our fitness center.
Each suite has a private bedroom and spacious
living room so you have the space you need to Complimentary amenities at the Chaparral
work or relax. Every suite features many extras Suites Resort include:
such as two vanities, hair dryer, iron/ • Complimentary cooked-to-order breakfast
ironing board, two remote controlled TVs,
• Complimentary evening reception
microwave oven, voice messaging, internet
• Complimentary USA Today
access, in-room movies and coffee makers.
Several options are available for upgraded • Complimentary tennis
suites. • Complimentary use of Exercise Center
• Complimentary airport shuttle service
Step directly from your suite into the Arizona
sunshine, in surroundings of cool fountains, lush Rates at the Chaparral Suites are $169 single,
vegetation and sparking pools. Without leaving $179 double plus tax. For a virtual tour, visit
the grounds, you can play tennis, swim in your