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Biology

Biology NERVOUS SYSTEM P R E P A R E D B Y : M U

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Biology NERVOUS SYSTEM P R E P A R E D B Y : M U

P R E P A R E D

B Y :

M U H A M A D

N A B E E L

U D D I N

Introduction

Introduction  The Nervous system controls:  Sight, hearing, taste, smell, and feeling (sensation)  Voluntary

The Nervous system controls:

Sight, hearing, taste, smell, and feeling (sensation)

Voluntary and involuntary functions, such as movement, balance, and coordination. The nervous system also regulates the actions of most other body systems, such as blood flow and blood pressure.

The ability to think and reason. The nervous system allows you to be conscious and have thoughts,

memories, and language.

Definitions of words

Definitions of words  Stimulus (plural stimuli): detectable change in internal or external environment  Response:

Stimulus (plural stimuli): detectable change in

internal or external environment

Response: reaction of organism to stimuli

Receptors: sense organs or sensory nerve endings, that receive impulse

Effectors: muscle or gland, that responds to impulse received

Table showing the Stimulus that various

Receptors detect

Table showing the Stimulus that various Receptors detect Receptors Stimulus they detect Eye   Nose

Receptors

Stimulus they detect

Eye

 

Nose

 

Ear

 

Tongue

 

Skin

Pressure/Heat/Cold

Stimulus they detect Eye   Nose   Ear   Tongue   Skin Pressure/Heat/Cold
Response of Plants to unilateral light
Response of Plants to unilateral light

Nervous System of Humans

Nervous System of Humans  The nervous system can be divided into two main categories •

The nervous system can be divided into two main categories

1. Central Nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord

2. Peripheral Nervous system (PNS): branches off from CNS

Nervous system

Nervous system  The basic unit or cells that makes up the nervous system are called

The basic unit or cells that makes up the nervous

system are called Neuron (also Neurone)

They are: Cells of the nervous system, called nerve

cells or neurons, that are specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical process

(electrical and chemical method of carrying message)

Neurons- Structure
Neurons- Structure
Annotated diagram of a Neuron
Annotated diagram of a Neuron

Neurons

Neurons  Neurons are specialized cells that conduct nerve impulses. There are three basic types 

Neurons are specialized cells that conduct nerve

impulses. There are three basic types

1. Sensory Neuron: carry impulse from receptors

(sense cells) to CNS

Diagram of a sensory neuron
Diagram of a sensory neuron
 2 Relay/ Intermediate Neuron: found in CNS
 2 Relay/ Intermediate Neuron: found in CNS
Types of Neurons  3. Motor Neuron: carry impulse form CNS to effectors (muscles or
Types of Neurons
 3. Motor Neuron: carry impulse form CNS to
effectors (muscles or gland)

Review

Review  Nervous system receives, interprets and respond to stimulus  Two categories :CNS, PNS 

Nervous system receives, interprets and respond to

stimulus

Two categories :CNS, PNS

Neurons are basic units ; three types

Sensory: receptor to CNS

Intermediate/relay: found in CNS

Motor: CNS to effectors

Reflex action

Reflex action  Quick, automatic and involuntary response  Requires not thought or learning e.g. knee

Quick, automatic and involuntary response

Requires not thought or learning e.g. knee jerk, pupil

reflex or removing hand from a hot plate

Brain is not involved (unless its cranial reflex)

Reflex action

Reflex action

Video- Reflex arc

Video- Reflex arc
Video- Reflex arc
Video- Reflex arc
Video- Reflex arc
Video- Reflex arc
Video- Reflex arc
Video- Reflex arc

Reflex arc video 2

Reflex arc video 2
Reflex arc video 2
Reflex arc video 2

Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters  Neuron carry messages/impulse as both electrical and chemical energy  Along axon- electrical

Neuron carry messages/impulse as both electrical

and chemical energy

Along axon- electrical impulse

At gap (synapse), chemicals called

Neurotransmitters allows impulse to travel across

the synapse

Neurotransmitter at Synapse

Neurotransmitter at Synapse
Neurotransmitter at Synapse

Brain-Structure and Function

Brain-Structure and Function  Cerebrum/Cerebral hemisphere  Controls voluntary actions  Controls memory,

Cerebrum/Cerebral hemisphere

Controls voluntary actions

Controls memory, reasoning, judgment, intelligence, speech, and learning

Brain-Structure and Function

Brain-Structure and Function  Cerebellum  Coordinate body movement (walking, running) posture, and balance 

Cerebellum

Coordinate body movement (walking, running) posture, and balance

Medulla Oblongata

Controls involuntary actions such as breathing rate, heart rate, and regulation of body temperature

Structure of a Human Brain
Structure of a Human Brain

Problems of Nervous system

Problems of Nervous system  1. Stroke: a lack of blood to part of the brain

1. Stroke: a lack of blood to part of the brain

Problems of Nervous system  1. Stroke: a lack of blood to part of the brain

Problems of the Nervous System

Problems of the Nervous System  Parkinson’s disease – death of neurons in a part of

Parkinson’s disease death of neurons in a part of the brain called the midbrain. Symptoms include shaking and problems with movement

– death of neurons in a part of the brain called the midbrain. Symptoms include shaking

Problems of the Nervous System

Problems of the Nervous System  Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of

Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles.

Summary

Summary  The nervous system allows us to receive stimulus, process it, and then respond 

The nervous system allows us to receive stimulus, process it, and then respond

Made up of : CNS and PNS

Basic cells are called Neurons Impulse (messages) are carried by electrical and chemical processes

Cerebellum controls body movement, medulla oblongata

controls body functions and cerebrum controls voluntary

actions

Reflex arc

Problems of Nervous system

Quiz

Quiz  The part of the brain in charge of thinking and memory.  A. cerebrum

The part of the brain in charge of thinking and memory.

A. cerebrum

B. cerebellum C. medulla oblongata

The part of the brain in charge of thinking and memory.  A. cerebrum  B.

Question 2

Question 2  This is made up of the brain and spinal cord.  A. peripheral

This is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

A. peripheral nervous system

B. central nervous system

C. enteric nervous system

Question 3

Question 3  Nerve cell are called  A. cerebrum  B. cerebellum  C. neuron

Nerve cell are called

A. cerebrum

B. cerebellum

C. neuron

Question 4

Question 4  The major organ of the nervous system encased in the skull.  A.

The major organ of the nervous system encased in the skull.

A. neuron B. axon C. brain

Question 5

Question 5  An axon conducts nerve impulses cell body.  A) away from  B)

An axon conducts nerve impulses cell body.

A)away from

B)toward C)both toward and away from

D)around, bypassing

the

Question 6

Question 6  Which of the following is/are type(s) of neurons?  A) sensory  B)

Which of the following is/are type(s) of neurons?

A)sensory

B)motor

C)interneurons D)all of the above

Question 7

Question 7  Which is not the part of the brain?  A.Cerebrum  B.Cerebellum 

Which is not the part of the brain?

A.Cerebrum

B.Cerebellum

C.Medulla D.Spinal Chord

Question 8

Question 8  The three main parts of the neuron are the  A.dendrites, cell body

The three main parts of the neuron are the

A.dendrites, cell body and axon

B.axon, dendrites and synapse.

C.synapse, impulse and cleft.

D.myelin sheath, dendrites and synapse.

Question 9

Question 9  For a student to recall his/her integrated science notes, action must take place

For a student to recall his/her integrated science notes, action must take place in

A. a reflex arc

B. the cerebrum C. the cerebellum

D. the medulla oblongata

action must take place in  A. a reflex arc  B. the cerebrum  C.

Question 10

Question 10  Which of the following shows the correct path of impulse in a reflex

Which of the following shows the correct path of impulse in a reflex arc

A. motor neuronsensory neuronrelay neuron

B. sensory neuronmotor neuronrelay neuron

C. motor neuronrelay neuronsensory neuron

D. sensory neuronrelay neuronmotor neuron

Answer to question 10

Answer to question 10
Answer to question 10
THE END!! Slides prepared by: Muhamad Nabeel Uddin Please check my profile here http://www.scribd.com/nabeel_uddin for

THE END!!

THE END!! Slides prepared by: Muhamad Nabeel Uddin Please check my profile here http://www.scribd.com/nabeel_uddin for

Slides prepared by: Muhamad Nabeel Uddin

Please check my profile here http://www.scribd.com/nabeel_uddin for more CSEC Biology and Integrated Science PowerPoint presentations.