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o

he Truth about the Communist Conspiracy on the Eve of the Naiional Revolution

Comm unism in G erm any


The Truth about the Communist C onspiracy on the Eve of the National Revolution

By Adolf Ehrl

P u b l i s h e d b y ih o G e n e r a l L e a g u e of G e r m a n A n ti - C o m m u n is t A s s o c i a t i o n s

All rights roserved. The illustration on the front page of the cover was designed by Hans Martin Tibor, Leipzig, from original photographs.

Copyright 1933 by Eckart-Verlag, Berlin. Printed by Gebrder Feyl, Berlin, Germany.

W hy A m ericans Should R ead This Book


The question of Communist propaganda and activities is of immediate importance to the American people in view of the con sideration now being given to the question of recognition of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics by the Government of the United States. Here is a challenging book. It should be read by every thoughtful citizen because it presents the history of the life and death struggle Germany has been waging against Communism. It reveals that the subversive methods and the destructive objectives of the Communists in Germany are the same as are employed in the United States by those enemies of civilized nations. This book is not a defense of anti-Semitism nor is it a defense of the principles or measures of the Hitler Government. The bitter opposition of many to some phases of the Nazi domestic program should not blind us to the reality of the Communistic threats. The value of this German expos as an object lesson to other countries has led our committee to place it in the hands of leaders of public opinion throughout the United States. The lessons to be gathered from this book, Communism in Germany, should lead our citizens to demand more effective measures of defense for our system of government, and our moral and social standards.
W
alter

C. C o l e

J o h n R os s D e l a f i e l d R a l p h M . E asley H a m ilto n F ish , J r . E lon H F.


u n tin g to n

H a r r y A. J u n g S a m uel M cR oberts C.

G.

N orman

E llis S e a r l e s W a l t e r S. S t e e l e
ooker

A r ch ib a l d E . S t e v e n s o n John

0 . Johnson

B.

T revor

O r v e l Johnson

J o siah A . V a n O r s d e l

F o r th e A m erican Section of th e In te rn a tio n a l C om m ittee to C om bat th e W o rld M enace of C om m unism .

3 321 0

if e w

S ia te W n l w l t y U b t n f

Conienis
P re fa ce I. THE SYSTEM AND H ISTO R Y OF COMMUNISM

PIN

7
9 -3 0

GERMANY

........................................................................ pp.

T h e arm ed r isin g as the g o a l (p. 9) T h e p u tsc h period , 1918 23 (p. 14) S o v iet M unich (p. 16) T he H am burg R isin g (p. 19) C ultural B o lsh ev ism , 1924 31 (p. 25) T h e n etw ork o f C om m u n ist org a n iza tio n (p. 26) E c c e n tric C ircles (p. 27) T h e arm ed risin g, 1932 3 (p. 29) Irru p tion o f the w o rld r ev o lu tio n (p. 29)

II. CONSPIRACY

.............................................................. pp. 3 1 - 5 8

T h e in v isib le ghetto (p. 31) H o u se sea rch es in the Com m u n ist party and trial alarm (pp. 31 32) Illeg a l p ro ce dure adop ted (p. 33) T h e art o f c on sp irin g (p. 34) Cypher co d es (p. 36) Courier serv ice (p. 40) S ecret b ro a d ca stin g station s (p. 42) B la ck lists (p. 43) "Get ting rid o f the lea d er s (p. 47) In tellig e n c e service in tim es o f c risis (p. 48) T h e illeg a l party organ ization (p. 51) T he O SNA (p. 53) T he A m -organiization (p. 54) T h e in te llig en ce serv ice du rin g the arm ed risin g (p. 55)

III. TREASON

........................................................................ pp. 5 9 - 7 3

T h e C om m u nist In ter n a tio n a le (p. 59) D irectio n s for esp io n a g e (p. 59) W o r k s esp io n a g e (p. 60) T he InoG.P.U. (p. 63) B etra y a l o f m ilita ry secrets (p. 64) S ecret MOPR o r g a n iza tio n (p. 66) T h e freein g o f p o liti cal p riso n ers (p. 66) P assp ort forgin g o ffic e (p. 69) F ro n tier sm u gglin g (p. 72)

IV. HIGH TREASON

........................................................... pp. 7 4 - 9 8

M ilita ry -p o litica l litera tu re (p. 74) E sp ion age in the A rm y (p. 76) S k etc h e s m ade by sp ies (p. 78) S u b ver sion o f Ilie Army and P o lic e (p. 82) Sajbotage o f the m ili tary forces (p. 89) Red p o lice c e lls (p. 91) Cases of Mtibvri'Nive work (p. 93)

V. T H E ARM ED RISING a) M ob ilization T he p r in c ip le s o f an arm ed risin g (p. 99) w e a p o n s (p. 100) T h e ft o f w e a p o n s (p. fou n d (p. 1 0 9 ) T h e ft o f e x p lo siv e s (p. I (p. 114) M ilitary train in g (p. 116)

pp. 9 9 -1 7 6 p.
S m u gglin g o f 1 0 1 ) -W ea p o n s l l ) T h e R .F .B .. R ed A rm y m a n

99

o eu v res (p. 117) O rgan ization (p. 118) Secret R eich C on fe ren ce (p. 122) .Before the start (p. 123) A n ti-F ascist F ig h tin g L eagu e (p. 126) R eady to attack (p. 127) T he D resd en a ffair (p. 128) A larm O rders (p. 129) Red Mass S e lf-P r o tec tio n (p. 130) M ilitary In stru ctio n (p. 132) Sh ootin g p ractice (p. 133) M ob ilization orders (p. 1 3 4 ) C om m u nist Y outh A sso cia tio n (p. 1 3 5 ) T error ist G roups (p. 136) b) M ass T errorism ............................................................................. P137

F ig h tin g in stru ctio n s (p. 137) T erro rist g r o u p s in action (p. 138) T h rea ten in g lette rs (p. 140) L o o tin g (p. 142) P o iso n in g s (p. 143) F e lse n e c k (p. 144) A rrest o f a T errorist Group (p. 144) M urder on the B iilo w P latz (p. 146) T h e M urder o f S.A. m a n T ielsch (p. 147) B om b O utrages (p. 148) B lo o d y S u n d a y in A ltona (p. 148) H am burg and E isle b e n (p. 150) - T errorists (p. 151) M urdered S.A. m en an d Red T errorists (p. 155) - L ist o f N .S.D .A .P . c a s u a ltie s (p. 159) L ist o f p o lice c a su a lties (p. 160) c) T h e F in a l E n c o u n t e r .................................................................. p. 161

T h e lea d er sh ip and the p lan (p. 161) Its e x ec u tio n (p. 162) S treet-fig h tin g (p. 165) D ir ec tio n s for fig h tin g and alarm orders (p. 167) P la n o f action for B erlin (p. 172) - W ran gel Stirasse P o lic e B arracks (p. 172) T o A rm s (p. 172) D estru ctio n o f the K .P.D. (p. 174) VI. T H E TASK ....................................................................................... pp. 177

R en a issa n ce and In su rrection (p. 177) T he N a tio n s and the In tern a tio n a le (p. 178)

Preface
In the follow ing pages we lay b efore the E nglish-speaking public of th e w orld a c h a p te r fro m the recen t h isto ry of G erm any w hich has rig h tly a ttra c te d th e a tte n tio n of all civilized n atio n s. F ro m th e d escrip tio n in th is b ro c h u re th e re ad e r will clearly realize w h a t an im p o rta n t developm ent in w orld h isto ry has occu rred in G erm any. In w as in view of th e key position betw een E a st an d W est occupied by G erm any in the fight w aged by B olshevism ag ain st th e civilized n atio n s th a t th e M oscow T h ird C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le w ished th a t th e decisive b attle in the w orld rev o lu tio n should be fo u g h t on G erm any soil. T h e lastin g m e rit of th e G erm an N ational R evolution w ill be th a t it saved th e w orld fro m B olshevist chaos. T h e rev elatio n s re g a rd in g th e atte m p te d C om m unist in s u rre c tio n on the eve of the N atio n al R evolution will cause a considerable sensation. It m u st th e re fo re be expressly stated th a t the description of th e B olshevistic co n sp iracy , of high treaso n and treaso n to the State, of th e o rganized te rro riz a tio n of th e m asses and of th e plan for a risin g is based exclusively on official m aterial, of w hich the re liab ility is beyond all doubt. T he G eneral L eague of G erm an A nti-C om m unist A ssociations w ill m ak e th e original m aterial availab le fo r seriously in te re ste d stu d en ts of public a ffairs. W e desire to ta k e this o p p o rtu n ity of expressing o u r special th a n k s to all th e officials of th e R eich an d th e F ed eral States w ho have p erm itte d th e a u th o r to exam ine th e p e rtin e n t m aterial. T he p re se n t w ork serves the pu rp o ses of n o thing b u t the search for th e tru th ; it avoids g en eralizatio n s an d exaggerations. T h e idea was to provide a p a m p h le t for the m asses of the population w ritten in an im p a rtia l a n d scien tific spirit w hich will serve as the u n sh a k e able fo u n d a tio n for the ju d g em en t of history. T his p am p h let does not deal w ith the special m a tta rs connected with the bu rn in g of the Ih'lchslug in o rd er n o t to prejudice tin* case.

W e are in fo rm ed th a t it is in ten d ed to publish an official collection of th e ju dgem ents of th e S uprem e C ourt in connection w ith th e C om m unist conspiracy. It is to be h o ped th a t th e General L eague will be able to ex h ib it these d o cum ents in an A nti-C om m u n ist M useum w hich is sh o rtly to be estab lish ed in B erlin. By m eans of th is an d o th er w orks and p u b licatio n s th e General League will be able to enlig h ten th e G erm an n a tio n an d in te rn a tio n a l public o p in io n w ith reg ard to th e re a l aim s a n d doings of the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le and to invite a tte n tio n to th e terrib le danger w hich it re p re se n ts fo r all nations.
General League of German Anti-Communist Associations
Europa House, Berlin

"At the beginning of this y ear there were weeks when we w ere within a hair's breadth of Bolshevist chaos." Chancellor Adolf Hitler
in his Proclamation of ihe l sl September 1933

I. The System and History of Communism in Germany


An a rm e d risin g is n o t one m eth o d am ong others fo r th e seizure of pow ef by the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le b u t the sole an d decisive w eap o n in a struggle fo r th e d ic tato rsh ip of th e p ro le ta ria t. T he p ro g ram m e of the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le w hich w as accepted by th e 6th W o rld C ongress of the K om intern in the y e a r 1928 co n tain s th e follow ing re m a rk s w ith reg a rd to th is:
. . . W h e n the ru lin g c la sse s are d isorgan ized , the m a sses in a state o f r ev o lu tio n a r y ferm en t, w h en th e m id d le c la sse s in c lin e to jo in the p ro leta ria t and th e m a sses h a v e sh o w n th e m se lv es read y to fig h t and m ake sa c r ifice s, it is the task o f th e p ro leta ria n p a rty to lea d the m a sses in a fro n ta l a ttack a g a in st th e b ou rgeois state. T h is w ill b e attain ed by th e p r o p a g a tio n o f g rad u ally in te n sifie d slo g a n s (w o rk m en s c o u n c ils, co n tro l o f p r o d u ctio n b y th e w ork m en , p ea sa n t c o m m itte es fo r the fo r cib le e x p r o p r ia tio n o f th e big la n d o w n ers, d isa r m a m e n t o f th e b o u rg e o isie and arm in g o f the p roletariat, etc.) and b y th e o rgan ization o f m a ss action . Su ch m a ss a c tio n in c lu d e s strikes, strik es in c o n n e c tio n w ith d em o n stra tio n s, strik es in c o n n e c tio n w ith arm ed d em on stration s, and, fin a lly , the g en era l strik e c o m b in e d w ith the arm ed risin g again st the g o v ern m en t au th o rity o f th e b o u rg e o isie. T h is h ig h est form o f th e stru g g le fo llo w s th e rules o f w arfare, and n e c essita te s as a p relim in a ry p la n o f c am p aign an o ffe n siv e ch aracter in the fig h tin g and u n lim ited d e v o tio n and h e r o ism on th e p a r t o f th e p r o leta r ia t.

It is ow ing to th e p ecu liar m ix tu re of b ru ta lity an d cynicism , in sane devotion to the p u rp o se in view an d ruthlessness of B olshevism th a t these p h rases in the C om m unist p rogram m e have been a u th o rita tiv e w o rd by w o rd fo r th e en tire w ork of d isin te g ratio n p u rsu e d by th e G erm an C om m unist P arty . E v e ry th in g u n d e rta k e n by th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty an d its n u m b erless affiliated o rg an izatio n s acq u ired sense an d value exclusively in so fa r as it could serve as a p re p a ra tio n fo r th e arm e d rising. W h e th e r it w as a q uestion of the sexual disin teg ratio n of the young d u rin g the n u d e b a th in g or of espionage in en terprises of m ilita ry im p o rtan ce, w h e th e r the u n em ployed w ere encouraged to fo rm b an d s to rob p rovision stores, o r w h eth er the church w as abused and ren d ered despicable, o r w h eth er subversive p am phlets

(Photo Gross)

(Photo G ir eke)

Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg.

w ere d istrib u te d in the arm y , or w h eth er the peasan ts w ere encouraged to offer resistan ce to com pulsory auctions, it w as alw ays a questio n of p re p a ra to ry m easures fo r the arm ed rising.
T he arm ed r isin g is th e h ig h e st form o f the p o litic a l struggle o f the p roletariat. L en in , o f course, never regard ed the risin g as an iso la ted act u n co n n e cte d w ith the oth er fe a tu re s o f class w arfare. T h e risin g is p rep ared b y the en tire p rev io u s struggle b e tw e en th e cla sses in an y given cou n try and rep resen ts th e organ ic con tin u a tio n o f the latter. T h e entire activ ities o f the rev o lu tio n a r y party, the figh t for p e a c e, a gain st the im p e ria listic in te rv e n tio n in S oviet R ussia, China, etc. (against the com in g im p e ria listic w ar b etw een E u rop e and A m erica, etc.), again st c a p ita listic ra tio n a lisa tio n , for th e raisin g o f w ages, fo r s o c ia l in su ra n ce, for a h igh er stan dard o f life o f the p ro leta ria t as a w h o le , fo r the n a tio n a lisa tio n o f th e soil, the p arliam en tary stru ggle, etc., etc., all th at m ust be regard ed from th e p ersp ectiv e p o in t o f v iew o f the p rep aration and m o b iliz a tio n o f the m a sses for the h ig h est form o f stru ggle at the m o m en t w h en the rev o lu tio n is ripe fo r the r is in g 1) .

A sim ilar opinion w as expressed by the o th e r th eo retical advocate of the arm ed rising, H ans K ippenberger, the w ell-know n m ilita ry lead er of the G erm an C om m unist P a rty .2 )

*) A. Neuberg (Heinz Neumann): Dcr bewafTnete Aufstand, 1928. pp. XVII, 22. 2) Alfred Longer (Hans Kippenberger): ,,l)er Wcg zum Si eg. Die Kunsl d bcwaiTnetcn AufMiuidea. pp. '( and 15.

10

The newspaper Die Rote Front T h e arm ed risin g is th e m o st d ecisive, m ost # acu te and highest form o f cla ss w a rfa re w h ic h the p ro leta ria t m u st ad op t at the su itab le m o m en t in ev ery co u n try in order to o verth row the d o m in a tio n < > l th e b o u rg e o isie and to take the p o w er in to th eir ow n han ds. T h e arm ed risin g is n o t a th in g b y itse lf; it is n ot an act isolated fro m th e rest o f cla ss w a rfa re, but the m o st acu te form and tlx* h ig h e st stage o f a cla ss w a r fa re w h ic h b e c o m es m ore a cu te and in te n se . It is o n ly a sp e c ia l lin k in th e ch ain o f the stru ggles w hich en d in the arm ed risin g. It is n ot in terru p ted by the variou s partial str u g g le s an d p r e lim in a r y stru ggles but prep ared for by them . The arm ed fo r ce s o f the rev o lu tio n do not app ear from n ow h ere by m agic or at the m ere com m an d o f the p arty b lit are co n so lid a te d and h ard en ed in these stru g g les. T h e a rm e d risin g i s th u s 11k * last l in k in I lie ch ain B o l s h e v i z n t i o n ;iml the first l in k in the c h a i n o f c iv i l w a r .

of

The guidin g idea o f tlu* first text II you wish for 1 1it* victory o f thr m in e d ii ing l in n do revolutionary iiiiinh work now" Iuim by

1I

Barricade in the Rostocker Strae, Moabit, Berlin, 1932.

(Photo Scherl)

n o m ea n s go n e ou t o f fa sh io n . stressed in th e n ew e d itio n . 8)

It h as been

even

m ore

p recisely

It fo rm s the tra n sitio n fro m a g ita tio n a l p ro p ag an d a to terrorism . It m u st begin w hen th e ir ow n ra n k s are strongest an d the m asses m o st rip e fo r actio n and, on the o th e r han d , w hen the adversary is w eak est an d th e co nditions are m o st favourable. D isintegration of th e ad v ersary , i. e. of th e w hole of the state o rganizations an d in stitu tio n s, of the political p a rtie s an d fighting associations, of th e n a tu ra l executive organs of th e people an d of the political opin io n s as well as of th e c h a ra c te r of every fellow -citizen are th u s th e firs t step, th e negative p re p a ra tio n fo r the rising. T he p ro p ag atio n of M arxism , of th e w orld revolution, and of th e fu tu re ideal an d th e o rg an izatio n of th e rec ru ited and train e d m asses is th e second step, th e positive p re p a ra tio n fo r the arm ed rising.
It is h a rd ly n e c essa ry to e m p h a siz e that th e a g itation and p rop agan d a at su ch m om en ts is no agita tio n a l p rop agan d a w o r k as su ch b u t th at it m u st b e ad ap ted to the in terests o f th e arm ed stru ggle w ith th e o b ject o f attractin g as la rg e m asses as p o ssib le to a ctive p a r ticip a tio n in the p h y sica l stru ggle and o f cau sin g con fu sio n , v a c illa tio n and d isin tegration in th e o p p o n e n ts ca m p . 4)

All m eans are ju stified th a t lead to th e desired end. E verything is p e rm itte d th a t does no dam age to the P arty . C heating and theft, lying a n d force, ag itatio n a n d incitem en t, espionage and treason,
3) Alfred Langer (Hans Kippenberger): Der Wctf zum Sieg. Die Ivunst des bewaffneten Aufstandes. p. 1. *) Alfred Langer (Huns Kippenberger): Der We# zum Si*g. Die Kunst des bowidrneten Anf.siaiule." p, < i.

12

(Photo Gross)

The damaged Police Headquarters, M ardi 1921.

(Photo Gross)

(A tlantic Photo)

House d.iHuiyed in the Schtzen Strae and Entrance to The Palace, 1919.

13

cow ard ly a tta c k s and m u rd e r are ju st as p racticab le m eans as, on th e o th er han d , m usic h alls and tea parties, ch ild ren s clubs and dem o n stratio n s, re d sp o rt an d th e study of the w orks of M arx an d Engels.
One m u st b e read y to m ak e an y sa c r ifice and even, if n ecessary, to ad op t a ll p o ssib le tricks, d od ges an d ille g a l m eth od s fo r con cea lin g th e truth. .

T his, says L en in 5 ), m u st be done w h en it ap p ears suitable. The objective rem ain s im m ovable, nam ely, th e d ictato rsh ip of the p ro le ta ria t, th a t is to say of the E xecutive C om m ittee of the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le. T he h isto ry of th e C om m unist rev o lu tio n ary m ovem ent in G erm any falls clearly in to th re e p a rts, 1918 1923, 1924 1929, an d 1930 1933.

Disturbances in H am burg 1919 . B ) Lenin:


p. 42.

(Photo Rdch) des Koptimunlsmus.

Der Radikalismus,

die

Kinderkrankheit

Die Rteherrschaft in Mnchen 1919

Karl Radek, Soviet-Propaganda Manager for Germany, Ernst Toller and M inister President Kurt Eisner.

R ed Guards take hostages to prison

(Photo Hoffmann)

.\i\il the vini: captured Red Guards led to judgment,

(I'boto Hoffm

T he firs t p erio d begins w ith th e founding of the S p a rta k u s' League, a t first as a group w ith in th e G erm an In d ep en d en t Social D em ocratic P a rty , to w hich th e d a te 14. 12. 1918 can be assigned, the day of th e p u b licatio n of th e p ro clam atio n an d program m e of th e S p artak u s League by Rosa L u x em burg in th e Rote F a h n e of th a t tim e. In th a t p ro clam atio n th e decisive p a rt played by the a rm e d risin g is described in u n am b ig u o us term s:
T he stru ggle for S o c ia lism is the greatest c iv il w ar in th e h istory o f the wT orld, and th e p ro leta ria n r ev o lu tio n m u st p rep are th e n ecessa ry arm s for th is civ il w ar, learn to u se them , to fig h t and to gain the v ic to r y . )

H ard ly a m o n th elapsed b efore the S p artak u s League raised the b a n n e r of an arm ed risin g in B erlin. T he stree t fighting in J a n u a ry in B erlin w as extrem ely san g u in a ry an d could only be su p p ressed a fte r days of heavy fig h tin g by m ilita ry u n its and artille ry . At th e sam e tim e a Soviet R epublic w as p ro claim ed in B rem en w hile stre et fig h tin g o ccu rred in H am burg and W ilhelm shaven. In F e b ru a ry 1919 Soviet R epublics w ere proclaim ed in B runsw ick an d B aden an d h a d to be suppressed w ith great sacrifice of h u m a n life. T he gen eral strik e an d the a rm e d rising in B erlin a t the b eginning of M arch 1919 an d th e a rm e d revolt at the sam e tim e in th e R u h r D istrict are still g en erally rem em bered. An o u tstan d in g p o sitio n in th e continous series of risings and fig h tin g is occupied by the C om m unist revolution in M unich w here, fro m the 7th A pril to th e 2nd May, 1919, a Soviet R epublic was set u p u n d e r the lead ersh ip of th e sailor Rudolf E glhofer an d the Jew ish Soviet com m issars Levin, L evien an d Axelrod. T here was a g eneral strik e fro m the 14th to the 22nd A pril. U nter the le a d e rsh ip of th e C om m unists, a red arm y w as created and confiscations, ex p ro p riatio n s and a telephone censorship carried out. On th e 1st May began the m a rc h on re d M unich. T he street fig h tin g lasted u n til th e 8th M ay an d even a rtille ry had to be em ployed in o rd e r to overcom e th e resistance of th e C om m unists. T h e n u m b e r of casualties am o u n ted to 927 dead a n d num berless w ounded. On the last day of th e Soviet ru le nine M unich citizens a n d a w om an w ere shot by th e C om m unists as hostages in the c o u rty a rd of th e M unich L uitpold G ym nasium . The C om m anderin-C hief of th e red arm y, E glhofer, lost his life in the fighting. T h e sp iritu a l fa th e r of th e M unich rising, E ugen Levin w as a rre ste d an d shot on the 6th Ju n e, 1919, a fte r a full trial.
) Wus will dcr Spartakuabund? quoted from the lllustricrte Geschiclite der doutachcn Revolution". Internnlionnlor Arbiltor-Verlag, Berlin 1D2D. p. 2< *1.

I(>

v
L evine-N issen .

M. Levien.
(Photo Hoffmann)

The cellar in which the hostages were confined.

I he spot where the hostages were murdered.

(nho, "off'*"'

( Photo Scherl)

Incendiary placard in Falkenberg, Vogtland. Text: If the Reichswehr comes . . . set the following buildings on fire!

T he attem p ts of th e S p a rta k u s L eague w ho organized rev o lu tio n a ry risings w ere co n tin u ed in Leipzig an d H am burg. A y e a r later, in M arch 1920, th e re w as an atte m p te d risin g in the R u h r D istrict w hen a re g u la r red a rm y w as also form ed. In th e follow ing m o n th of th e sam e y ear occu rred th e outrages com m itted by the n o to rio u s te rro ris t M ax Iio lz 7 ) in the V ogtland. N um erous h ouse-burnings, m u rd e rs an d acts of violence w ere co m m itted by Max H olzs b an d s of te rro rists, an d th e risin g could only be quelled a fte r len g th y fig h tin g in w hich tro o p s w ere em ployed. A y ear la te r th e re w ere ag ain serious C om m unist d istu rb an ces in C entral G erm any, H a m b u rg an d th e R u h r D istrict. In the m ean tim e th e econom ic an d fin an cial po sitio n of the W eim ar R epublic becam e w orse ow ing to th e unexam pled inefficiency of its lead ers u n til th e in fla tio n of the currency resu lted in ca ta stro p h e in the a u tu m n of 1923. T he w ave of C om m unist d istu rb an ces an d a tte m p te d risings in creased again on the sam e scale. In Saxony an d T h u rin g ia th e G erm an Com m unist P a rty took p a rt in th e local govern m en ts of the states. At the end of O ctober 1923 an arm ed risin g w as attem p ted in H am burg w hich a t firs t led to th e seizure of n u m ero u s police posts by the te rro ris t groups of th e C om m unist P a rty and once again was only quelled a fte r len g th y fighting. T he H am b u rg risin g deserves special a tte n tio n because it was a u th o rita tiv e in la te r y ears fo r th e th e o ry of the a rm ed rising, fo r th e stra te g y an d tactics of street-fig h ting an d the organizing p rin cip les of th e G erm an C om m unist P arty . T he best-know n C om m unist te rro rists a n d leaders of th e civil w ar, H einz N eum ann alias N euberg, H ans K ip p en b erg er alias A lfred L anger and Hur m eister alias W a lte r Z eutschel, derived th e ir experience and teach in g s fro m th e H am b u rg rising. At th e b eginning of 1933 these teachings w ere to be pul inlo p ractice a n d th e m istak es fo rm e rly com m itted avoided. A cerlain elem en t of trag ic com edy is n o t lacking w hen one le arn s I m m Z eu tsch els ex p ert d escrip tio n how it th e n h ap p en ed th a t the arm ed risin g only b ro k e o u t in H am b u rg w ith o u t being follow ed by olliers elsew here.8)
W h en it b eca m e k n o w n that Ihe S ocia l-D em o cra tic P a rly did not w ish to p la y the gam e o f the C om m u nist P a rty h ead q u arters, T eddy (T h a lm a n n ), in a lit o f p assion , ordered the cou riers to stnrl, w ith Ihe order for a rising. Im m e d ia tely a fter th e co n feren ce o f the factory c o u n c ils the Ooiniiminist P a rty h ea d q u a rters held a m eeting It d iscu ss 7) For pictures of Miix llolz, .sou p. 37'.
) W ti 11 i /
c i i I n c Ii c I

.1 mi

Diemd

der

hnniiiimiisli.se lien

Terrnnir^fiiiisiitlon"

i i1 1 . i , \ 11 1 1m i i> m i o11 1 itnd

i' 1 1 1 1 > 10/11 i 1 '

I '>

fu rth er steps. In their h e a r ts th ey w ere all glad th at the S o cia lD em o cra ts h ad d eclin ed . T h e n su d d en ly T ed d y an n ou n ced th a t he h ad d esp a tch ed the cou riers and th e n e w s w o rk ed lik e a bom b. T h ey all leap t from their seats and gazed at each other in blan k am azem en t. B randler w a s th e first to reco v er h is com p osu re. H e at on ce sen t so m e o f h is m en w h o w ere to stop the couriers. N on e o f th em h ad started e x c e p t th e m an for H am b u rg and th e m an for M ecklenburg. T h eir

H einz Neumann. train m u st h a v e started ju st at the m o m en t w h en the m e sse n g e rs d ash ed o ff. B ut o n ly th e H am burg m an had started. T h e M ecklen bu rg m an h ad drunk a cup o f c o ffe e in th e w a itin g -ro o m w h ile w a itin g to start and had ju st coime o u t on to the p latform w h en th e H am b u rg train w ith w h ic h h e o u g h t to h a v e tra v elled steam ed ou t o f th e station . T he m essen g er se n t after h im m et him ju st as h e w a s sta rin g d isc o n c e rte d ly at th e ta il-lig h ts o f th e train and ask ed h im b r e a th lessly w h ere the H am burg m a n w as. T here he g o e s, he replied.*

It is w o rth no tin g th a t th e ag itatio n fo r a rising in H am b u rg in 1923 w as conducted u n d e r the sam e slogan of a n ti-F a sc ism as in 1932 an d 1933. R ussian Jew s w ere again the leading persons co ncerned in th e p re p a ra tio n of the rising. On this occasion they w ere Sobelsohn alias K arl R adek an d O tto M arquardt, m em b er of th e Soviet C om m ercial M ission in H am burg. T he risin g w as preceded by n u m ero u s strik es an d excesses. T he reason given fo r th e arm ed rising was also stated to be ten years ago the bogy of th e C ounter-R evolution w hich m ight overrun the R epublic. A secret head-com m ittec lo r ru n n in g the rising w as ap p o in te d to w hich 1Ik* well know n com m unist lingo U rbahns belonged.

20

t'etled trees as barricades in the Hamburg-Barmbeck disturbances in 1923.

The o rd er to strik e the firs t blow w as com m unicated to Ihe te rro ris t groups wT ho h a d been alarm ed in the n ight from I lie 22nd to 23rd O ctober. T he su rp rise a ttack s on the o u ter posls o f the H am b u rg police o ccu rred ab o u t 5 a. m. an d these posts w e r e m ostly su rp rised an d occupied, th e w eapons and a m m u n i t i o n falling into the h a n d s of th e attack ers. A single in stan ce w ill give an idea of w h at occurred.
In order to carry o u t th e orders given by th e h e a d s o f the C om m u nist P a rty fo r the startin g o f the figh tin g, m em b ers of the P a rty in th e P r u ssia n co m m u n es o f S tellin g en and L o ck sted t hint h u rried , b y order g iv en du rin g th e nigh t, on the early m orn in g of th e 23rd O ctob er to the p o in ts o f a ssem b ly in d ica ted to them. The L o c k ste d t C om m u nists, w h o h a d a ssem b led n ear the local school, m oved, after w a itin g for an order b rou gh t to th em (by a cyclist, I" th e w a ter to w er in S te llin g e n w h ere th ey jo in e d the Com m unists assem b led there in order to m arch in sm all p arties to I'imsbuttet W h en th ey h a d assem b led again there, the attack b e g an on police post. No. 42 w h ic h lie s c lo se to the fron tier b etw een Prussia uml H am burg. In d oin g th is th e y acted w ith b rutality. T h e two station p o lic e o ffic e r s H alem b a and R oggen b u ck w h o b elon ged to the station and w e re on p atrol w e re attack ed w h en the C om m u nists reached lit* co rn er o f the O ster S trasse and M etfessel Strasse. T hree m en attacked e a ch o f th em o b v io u sly acco rd in g to a pre-arranged p lan . The pollee o ffic e r s w ere se ize d on the righ t and the le ft w h ile a third man a tta ck ed th em from th e front. H alem b a w a s throw n to the ground and receiv ed th ree k n ife w o u n d s on the head, the c h e st and the up per arm. H is sw o rd -b elt wiMi his ibayonet and p istol was torn o f f and one o f his a ssa ila n ts sh o t h im in the chest w ith h is own revolver. H alem ba c o u ld return to du ty after three m o n th 's hospital treatment, but the w o u n d s received by Koggenhuck w e r e so severe that lie h a s beco m e a perm anent invalid and will probably never leave tin* hospital alive.

. I

(Photo O tto Reich)

Street blocked by barricades, Barmbeck, 1923. T h e o ffic ia ls in the p o lice p osts w ere c o m p lete ly su rp rised, so that the rin glead ers w ere able to seize the p o lice p o st w ith o u t d iffic u lty . It h as b een p roved th at th e rin glead ers lea rn t at la test at th e p oin t o f a ssem b ly at the S te llin g e n w ater to w er th at it w a s a q u estio n o f an attack on p o lice p o st No. 42 at E im sb ttel, and thu s o f action again st the a u th ority o f th e sta te . (P o lice report.)

T he severest fig h tin g o ccu rred su bsequently to this in the H am b u rg su b u rb of B arm beck w hich was com pletely in the h a n d s of th e in su rg en ts w ho h a d erected b a rric ad es there. A sh o rt ex tra ct fro m th e police re p o rt m u st also suffice in this case:
In order to break d o w n th is organ ized and very strong resista n c e in B arm b eck , u n ifo rm lea d er sh ip w ith p ow erfu l fo rces w a s n ecessa ry . A bout 10 a. an. P o lic e M ajor H arten stein w a s put iin com m an d o f the in su rgen t d istrict o f B arm beck . H e h a d at h is d isp o sa l th e d e ta c h m en ts 'already there and fu rth er the 7th section n ext for duty, the 1st free h arbou r p o lic e p ost, 50 m en o f th e p erm a n en t se c tio n a n d 3 ar m ou red cars w h ic h w ere later su p p lem en ted by th e 2 arm ou red cars from E im sb ttel after th e y coidd be sp ared there. T h e o r g a n ize d e m p lo y m e n t o f the fo rces at th e d isp o sa l o f P o lic e M ajor H arten stein w as co n sid era b ly h am p ered and p artly ren dered im p o ssib le b y th e fa c t the th ese fo r ce s w ere alread y fired u p on and in v o lv ed in fig h tin g o n th eir w a y to th e p o in t o f a ssem b ly (they w ere ordered to p o lic e p o st N o. 46). T he in su rgen ts p u t up p o w e r fu l resistan ce from roofs, a ttic w in d o w s, r ecesses in th e w a lls o f th e h o u ses, cellar w in d o w s and from th e street barricades. D u ring the w h o le o f tlbe 23rd O ctober, 1923, it w a s n ot p o ssib le to q u ell th e r isin g in B arm beck. T h e r esista n ce w a s to o stron g for it to be p o ssib le to carry ou t o p eration s or m ove the fo r c e s in the streets by d ayligh t w ith o u t con sid erab le lo sses. It w a s o n ly w h en darkn ess fe ll th at it w a s p o ssib le to su rrou n d th e cen tre o f C om m u n ist resistan ce w ith strong p o in ts of support, in order to force a w a y /from th ese p oin ts in to the C om m u nist nest on the 24th O ctober and sm o k e them o u t.

The rising cost the assailants the lives of ul least forty men, while the number of wounded is estimated at 10. The losses of
99

th e police in re c a p tu rin g police post 42 alone, w ere three dead an d tw elve w ounded, w hile in re c a p tu rin g B arm beck-N ord and B a rm b e c k -S iid five police o fficers w ere killed an d th irte en w ounded. Once again, in A pril 1925, th e a tte n tio n of G erm any w as directed to th e crim in al p lans fo r v io len t action on the p a rt of the Com m u n ists in co nnection w ith th e tria l of the Soviet R ussian and G erm an C hekists an d T e rro rists in the Suprem e C ourt in Leipzig.) F u rth e rm o re , th e C om m unist P a rty h ad adopted a new line of strateg y w h ich they re ta in e d u n til 1929. The idea and purpose of th e ir w ork consisted in th e conquest of the m ajo rity of the w orking class , as the p ro g ram m e of th e C om m unist In te rn a tio n ale expresses it. T hey h a d realized th a t the h ealth y forces of the

The Russian Chekist Gorew-Skoblewskf, who was condemned to death by the Supreme Court in 1925, and later ex changed against the German student Karl Kindermann and 10 other Germans.

n atio n w ere too stro n g for it to be possible to seize the pow er by a coup de m ain, in spite of th e inefficiency of the governm ent. W h at th en follow ed w as an alm o st boundless system of ag itation, p ro p ag an d a, in dividual action and o rganizations, w hich left no single class of th e G erm an people u ntouched, w hich p o ured th e Bolshevist poison into every vein of the body co rp o rate of the n atio n an d h a d everyw here a d isin teg ratin g effect in order to p u t the feverish organism in the co n d itio n of an im m ediately im pending rev o lu tio n ary situ a tio n . T he procedure, the tactics and th e m ethods of this p ersisten t an d w ell-aim ed Bolshevist w ork of disin teg ratio n an d p ro p a g a n d a am ong the w ork people, th e
" ) cf. Kindermann, 2 Jnhrc in Mosknus Tolenhfluscrn, Ecknrt-Verlag, BerlinStcglllz 1031.

24

unem ployed, th e p ea sa n try , th e w om en, th e young children, have been d escribed in detail elsew here.10)

and

the

A longside of Social B olshevism w ith its in citem en t to class h a tre d an d civil w ar, a q u ite special task w as assigned d u rin g this period to c u ltu ra l B olshevism w hich w as to d isin teg rate th e m oral pow er of resistance of th e n a tio n in books, p am p hlets, periodicals, film s, th e a tre s an d m eetings, b re a k up th e social co m m u n ity and u n d erm in e a n d d estro y th e G erm an ch aracter. T he k ern e l of c u ltu ra l B olshevism w as fo rm ed by th e recklessly h atefu l a n d low godless m ovem ent, w hile the p ro p a g a n d a in fav o u r of free love , m o ral decay an d m o ral p erv ersity w as able in the cleverest way to h arn ess the sexual im pulse fo r the political aim s of the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le.

Badges o f the various Communist organizations, arm-bands and the original tip o f Soviet flagstaff in the first National-Socialist Revolution Museum in Berlin. (S. A.-Standarte VI.)

.1

I0) Adoll rii eI mid Julius Schwcickurl : ,,Knlii\siclung dor Unterwelt". I.in Querschnitt iluirli ilir llolsehewisierunK Detilscliliiuds Kclwirl Verln^, Merlili SI egli tir. 11K V J.

25

It is, of course, obvious, th a t political Bolshevism was, a t th e sam e tim e, n o t neglected, b u t p u m p ed every day into the n atio n in an edition ru n n in g to m illions of copies. Pacifism , treason, espionage, th e ft an d crim e w ere also at this period the usu al w eapons of th e so-called ideological offensive . W e m u st co n ten t ourselves h ere w ith providing a sh o rt survey of the n etw o rk of C om m unist o rg an ization in Germ any. C onditions in 1932 w ere ap p ro x im ately as follow s: )
T h e organ ized core o f m ilita n t B o lsh ev ism in G erm any is arranged acco rd in g to the so,ale o f its p o litic a l rip en ess, co m m u n istic pu rity and d isc ip lin ed a ctivity in three grou p s: the b asic, the u n ifo rm fron t and the ad van ce p ost o rg a n iza tio n s. F or the sak e o f clarity, w e have arran ged th is in tabu lar fo r m .1") I. B asic O rgan ization s G erm an C om m unist P arty (sectio n o f th e C om m unist In tern ation ale), m em b ersh ip ............................................. ca. 300,000 (KPD, se c tio n o f the K om intern) G erm an C om m u nist Y ou th A sso c ia tio n (section o f the ca. 50,000 C om m u nist Y outh In tern ation ale) ................................ (KJVD, sectio n o f the KJI) Red F ro n t-F ig h ters L eague (R FB), ille g a l and other d efen ce o rgan ization s .................................................................... ? II. U n ifo rm F ron t O rgan ization s R evolu tion ary T rade U n io n O pp osition , se c tio n of tihe Red T rade U n ion In tern a tio n a le (RGO. sectio n o f the RGI) ............................................................................... ca. G erm an R ed P rovid en t S o c iety (section o f the In ter n a tio n a l Red P ro v id en t S o c iety RIID, se c tio n of the IRH) ........................................................................................ ca. In tern ation al W o r k m e n s P ro v id e n t S o c iety (IAH) ca. A ssociation o f G erm an P ro leta r ia n F ree-T h in k ers (section o f the In tern a tio n a l P roletarian F r e e-T h in kers V pFD , sectio n o f the IpF) ......................... ca. U n iform A ssociation for P ro leta ria n S ex u a l R eform and P rotection o f M others ............................................................ A n ti-F ascist F ig h tin g L eagu e ................................................. ca. III. A d vance P o st O rgan ization s Red P io n eers ................................................................................... ca. W o m en D eleg a tes ...................................................................... ca. D elegates o f the U n em p lo y e d ............................................. ca. Red Sp orting Clubs ................................................................................. 30,000 10,000 20,000 ?

300,000

235,000 120,000

160,000 ? 25,000

**) Extract from Entfesselung der Unterwelt, pp. 57 et seq. 12) All details are those given by the organizations, except the number of llic unemployed delegates which is an estimate. The sources are. given in the corresponding .special .sections of Purl II (nf IIn* ..Kiill'cascliing).

2ft

M iscellan eou s c u ltu ra l o r g a n iza tio n s (singers, m a n d o lin e p layers, c h e ss p la y ers, w riters, actors, esp eran to sp eak ers, etc.) ...................................................... F ig h tin g C om m ittees and A ction C om m ittees o f all k in d s (A n ti-Im p erialist L eagu e, G erm an P e a sa n ts L eague, T e n a n tsC om m ittees, A n ti-co m p u lso ry E d u c a tio n C om m ittees, 218, F ig h tin g C om m ittee for th e R e-op en in g o f the Z eh len d orf H in d en b u rg H osp ital, F ig h tin g C om m ittee for the R escu e o f R uegg, and a n oth er for the rescu e o f eigh t y o u n g n e g r o es from th e e le ctr ic chair, etc., etc.) ...............

T he fu n d a m e n ta l idea of the o rg an izatio n m ay be seen from Ihe above d iag ram : 13)
T h e ba sic o r gan izatio n s arc represented by the e o no enlric circles 1, 2 and .'i grouped r o u n d the sa m e centre, the ZK of Ihe KP1). The unifo rm fronl o r g an ization s belonging to Ihem are represented by the
") (If. up, i'll., |>|> (VO ( VI .

27

three e cc en tric cir cle s 4, 5 a n d 6. Eacih u n ifo r m fron t o rgan ization exten d s ou t o f th e orig in a l circle into the non-Com m uniist m a sse s; that is their id ea and aim . P art o f each circle, w h ic h has also the m a n a g e m en t in its h an d s and is c a lle d a C om m u nist fr a c tio n in the lan gu age o f th e K om in tern, overlap s the b asic circles. T hu s th e A sso cia tio n of P ro leta r ia n F ree-T h in k ers (circle 4) in c lu d e s am on g its 160,000 m em b ers about 30,000 C om m u n ists and 130,000 b elon gin g to no party. T he n e x t u n ifo r m fron t orga n iza tio n , su ch as th e In tern a tio n a l W o r k m e n s P ro v id e n t S ociety, rep resen ted b y circle 5, overlap s th e b asic cir cle s and also th e first u n ifo r m fron t org an ization . It th u s in clu d es, in A ddition to th e b u lk o f th e n on -p arty m en , also th o se w h o are in th e core or in th e oth er u n ifo r m fro n t o rgan ization or in b oth , etc. T h e w h o le arran gem en t is very rem in iscen t o f the C hinese b o x sy stem o f m od ern c o n c er n s co n n ected w ith sh are com p an ies, in whicih the p rom oter, startin g w ith a p aren t com p an y, acq u ires sh ares in oth er co m p a n ies and thu s, w ith little cap ital o f h is ow n , c on trols sev era l tim es as m u ch o u tsid e c ap ital. T he G erm an C om m unist P a rty is the p o litic a l h old in g co m p a n y o f the u n iform fro n t organ ization s. T h is sy stem o f o rg a n iza tio n s casts its n ets, in the form o f the ad van ce post o r gan ization s, into the su rrou n d in g cla sses o f the p o p u lation . T h ese are th e n a sc e n t organ ization s, rep resen ted by th e fig u r es 7, 8 and 9 in the diagram , w h o se m em b ersh ip fig u r es are no lon ger com p arab le w ith the fig u r es for the m a ss organ ization s, /for th e y h a v e a d iffe re n t qu ality.

T ak en all in all, th e n u m b e r of tra in e d and organized Com m u n ists in G erm any in 1932 m ay be estim ated a t ab o u t one m illion. T his fig u re includes, of course, only the core troops of C om m unism , w hile, as is know n, th e n u m b e r of C om m unist voters a t th a t tim e w as a b o u t six m illion. If we tak e into account the n u m b e r of sym p ath izers, w averers, p erv erts an d p a rt of the in d ifferen t, the re su lt fo r 1932 is a te rrib le p ictu re of the in te rn a l d isin teg ratio n a n d w eakness of rep u b lican G erm any w hich, w hen considered absolutely calm ly and im p artially , can only be described as hopeless. It m u st n o t be fo rg o tten th a t the Social-D em ocratic party , as the m ost im p o rta n t rep resen tativ e of rep u b lican au th o ritj', fo rm ed p a rt of th e sam e fro n t of M arxism , Ju d aism and P acifism as its hostile b ro th e r, th e G erm an C om m unist p arty . T he lack of d eterm in atio n , th e in te rn a l in secu rity an d the corru p tn ess w hich c h aracterized the Social-D em ocratic p a rty ren d ered it an absolutely in su fficien t fa c to r fo r resistan ce an d one w hich the n a tio n could n o t em ploy. It can th e re fo re be said w ith o u t exaggeration and p u rely on the basis of th e facts th a t th e really m ost d an g erous o p p o n en t of C om m unism in G erm any was n ot the state w ith the Social-D em ocratic p a rty a n d the C entre p a rty bul the N ationalSocialist m ovem ent w hich th re a te n e d to th ro w (his sam e helpless state off its balance w ith even g reater force. T hus the rage and th e h a tre d of the C om m unist P urty w e r e consequently co n ce n tra ted

28

m uch less on the m em b ers of th e W eim ar state th a n on the S.A. and S.S. B olshevism in G erm any did n o t fig h t a g a in st the past 6 u t ag ain st the fu tu re of th e Reich. T h a t w as th e situ a tio n in 1932. T he stead y advance of N ational Socialism c o n fro n te d the C om m unist p a rty w ith th e question of its very existence. W h a t th e rep u b lic h a d to le ra ted a n d furth ered fo r fo u rte e n y ears w o u ld n o t be su ffered by a N ational-Socialist G erm any fo r a single day. In th is sense th e C o m m unist p a rty fell itself to be th e ally of th e W e im a r state ag ain st th e com m on hated enem y, N atio n al Socialism . T he conquest of the rep u b lic w as not the pass-w ord given o u t fo r th e decisive struggle in the spring of 1932, b u t th e pass-w o rd w as a n ti-F ascist action. T he m o re ev id en t th e crack s in th e s tru c tu re of the rotten repub lic an d th e c le a re r th e a lte rn a tiv e of Soviet G erm any or T h ird R eich becam e, th e m o re fev erish ly did th e C om m unist parly begin th e p re p a ra tio n s fo r an a rm ed rising. T he p erio d of a co n d itio n al stab ilizatio n of capitalism w hir 11 w as still spoken of a t th e la st w o rld congress of th e Com m unis I In te rn a tio n a le in th e a u tu m n of 1928 w as a p p a re n tly at an end a n d w as follow ed b y a p ro fo u n d d istu rb an ce of w o rld business. T he M arxist an aly sis of th e s itu a tio n led of necessity lo the view th a t the situ a tio n w ould soon be rip e fo r a revolution. Serious rev o lu tio n a ry d istu rb an ces ap p eared inevitable. T he task of I he C om m unist p a rty w as to place itself a t th e h ead of th e revolutionary m ovem ent an d to b rin g a b o u t by force a decision in fav o u r of Ihe C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le. T he 12th p le n a ry m eeting of the Kxe cutive C om m ittee of th e C om m unist In te rn a tio n ale (EKKI) w hich was held in M oscow a t th e beginning of Septem ber 1932 sit id officially th a t th e re could be seen
w ith a b so lu te c lea rn ess th e p rosp ect o f th e m ost violen t clash < l cla ss d iffe r e n c e s . T h is sam e co m m ittee, the gen eral sta ff o f the w o rld revolution, e x p r e ssly e m p h a siz e d the very in c re a sin g r ev o lu tio n a ry m o v em en t in G erm any and the ra p id ly d ev e lo p in g c o n d itio n s n e c essa ry for a rev o lu tio n a ry c r isis .

In the reso lu tio n s ad o p ted by th is p len ary m eeting of the com m ittee G erm any is d escribed in fateful w ords as the w ound in K urope . T h e ir aim w as to estab lish them selves in this w ound and to use the gatew ay called G erm any to b rin g a b o u t the irru p tio n of Bolshevism all over th e w orld. T he com m illeo triu m p h a n tly assorts in its reso lu tio n s th a t
"the ( rin um R evolution will decid e the i'ute o f the prolctarlitu revolu tion In W estern nnd Central Kurope".

24)

T he w o rld w as to be co n q u ered by m arch in g th ro u g h G erm any. T he e a ste rn b o rd e r states, w edged in betw een a B olshevist Russia and a C om m unist G erm any, w ould have been ov erru n irresistibly, an d th e fro n tie r of th e Soviet U nion w ould have been advanced a t one blow across th e R hine to th e W est. T hey felt no d o u b t th a t the conquest of G erm any w ould be a p re lim in ary v icto ry in the w orld revolution. T he executive co m m ittee w ere fully a w are of these inevitable consequences w hen th e y recorded the assertio n th a t
the su cc e ss o f the G erm an R evolu tion togeth er w ith th e v icto r io u s d ays o f O ctober 1917 c o n stitu te the m o st im p ortan t step o n th e road to the w orld r ev o lu tio n .

T h e resolutions of th e C om m unist gen eral staff w ere adopted in th e ir en tirety by th e 3 rd W o rk m e n s C onference of the G erm an C om m unist P a rty in O ctober 1932, th e exact lines of guidance for its realizatio n w ork ed o u t an d sent as in stru c tio n s to the su b sidiary o rganizations. T he su b seq u en t d istrict p a rty congresses accepted u n reserv ed ly an d e n tire ly th e o rd ers of the 12th p len ary m eeting of the E xecutive C om m ittee of th e C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le and the in stru c tio n s of th e above P a rty Conference. T h e C om m unist p a rty w hich all its subsidiary o rg an izatio n s th ereb y placed itself a t th e services of th e direct m o b ilizatio n fo r civil w ar. A ction en m asse w as to be ta k e n to train , organize and arm th e w orking classes fo r th e seizure of pow er. T he setting up of a G erm an Soviet R epublic w ith a w o rk m en s and p e a sa n ts governm ent w as th e goal proclaim ed. To a tta in this goal and the d estru ctio n of th e h a te d N ational Socialism th ere w as both th eo retically an d p ra c tic a lly only one w ay, nam ely, an a rm e d rising.

'10

II. Conspiracy
F ro m th e very s ta rt all C om m unist o rg an izatio n s in Germany had a double existence. On th e one h a n d they w ere m ass organi zations for public p ro p a g a n d a and agitatio n , and h ad to stand I lie full lig h t of the policy of the day an d of public atten tio n . Ihil the roo ts of th e u n ifo rm fro n t or m ass o rg an izatio n s ran without exception b en e a th th e su rface of the official p a rty policy and deep into the m ire of th e political, crim inal, and lite ra ry underworld T his p rin cip le of o rg an izatio n w as in te n tio n a lly follow ed and m ain ta in e d in o rd e r to be able to d isap p ear fro m the stage < l public life a t an y tim e a n d w ork b ehind the scenes. It m ust also n o t be fo rg o tten th a t the a u th o rita tiv e tra d itio n h a d been Ia ken over fro m th e R ussia of the T sars w here the p a rty had worked illegally and u n d e r g ro u n d fo r decades. T he teach ers and leadei of C om m unism in G erm any also cam e d irect fro m the school 1 the old R ussian Jew ish revolution. T he sp irit of an invisible g h e l l o im p reg n ated fro m the s ta rt the G erm an C om m unist p arly and also the sp irit of m en tal reserv atio n w hich a p p a re n tly was I lie ju stific a tio n fo r th is double gam e, for lying, tre a c h e ry and I'nr Ihe idea th a t ev ery th in g w as allow able. Since the elections in S eptem ber 1930, the C om m unist P a rh h a d ad o p ted illegal m ethods an d accordingly did everything l< > tra in th e ir wrhole a p p a ra tu s, fu n c tio n a rie s an d m em bers in Hie a r t of conspiracy. T hu s th e C om m unist P a rty in Saxony issued the f o l lo w in g stric tly co n fid en tal o rd ers at th e end of S eptem ber 1932:
1. D u rin g the p eriod from the 5th to 15th O ctober ihotise In house se a r ch es are to be carried out even in the case o f th e highest tun e lio n a ries. T w o m en m u st a lw a y s go togeth er. D o not forget IIn1 cellar and the attics. C on fiscation s are to be m ade just as if it was a real search . A fter every search a report is to Ik* draw n up and sig n ed by the tw o m en and the h o u se-o w n er in w h o se hou se som e thing h as b een fou n d or not.

2. A fter the c o m p letio n o f the h ou se search es a w ritten report is l< > be sent to us at once. Kvery o p p ortu nity ele m entary courses, m eetings o f the lenders, etc. is lu lie nltli/.ed lor tin* pi'epnrntion for illegal m easures, There must tie no e lem en tary course in w hic h at least one evening is not 1 11\ 1111 <I In Mieli matters.

SI

In m ak in g h o u se -se a rc h e s do n ot forget the fu n ctio n a r ies o f th e su perior party o rg a n iza tio n s and th e d e fe n c e organ ization s. T h e h o u se -se a r c h e s m u st b e (begun on th e 6th O ctober a n d co m p leted on th e 13th O ctober w h e n the rep o rt m ust reach us. T o be d estro y ed at once.

T h u s long before th e G overnm ent began w ith dom iciliary searches in th e q u a rte rs of a d h e re n ts of the C om m unist P a rty , the la tte r h a d p re p a re d fo r com ing events and m ade house-searches am ong th e ir ow n follow ers.

(Photo Scherl)

The Karl Liebknecht H ouse in Berlin, decorated for the Communist First of M ay.

In N ovem ber 1932 a tria l a la rm was carried o ut in Berlin. On the 23rd an o rd er w as issued th a t all organizations in G reater B erlin w ere to be reo rg an ized w ith in th ree days on the basis of illegal p rocedure. T he co n n ectio n betw een the various o rg an izatio n s an d p a rty offices was th en only to be m ain ta in ed by couriers. T h e m eetings no longer took place a t p e rm a n en t points of assem bly b u t o nly a t so-called te m p o ra ry points. T he leaders of the m ass o rg an izatio n s w ere no lo n g er elected b u t ap p ointed by th e C om m unist p a rty w ith o u t th e m em bers learn in g the nam e of th e leader. In stead of th e re g u la r fu n c tio n a ries dum m y re p resen tativ es sat in th e offices, w hile the re a l leaders stayed in an u n k n o w n place. No one was even allow ed to know w ho the co u rier w as. E ach o rg an izatio n h ad to select a n e u tra l spot, such as a shop, to serve as a post office. In stead of nam es and addresses, only n u m b ers w ere used fro m th a t time on. In Berlin, for in stan ce, the numbers from I lo 100 w e r e u s e d for factory c e l l s , Ihc numbers

12

fro m 101 to 200 fo r stre e t cells a n d fro m 201 to 300 fo r country cells; fo r instan ce 12 106, m e a n t stre e t cell 106 in su b d istrict 12. T h e m o re th e p re ssu re on th e C om m unist P a rty increased, the m ore speedily w ere all visible p a rty o rg an izatio n s seem ingly d isban d ed an d w ith d ra w n to th e re a lm of illegal pro ced u re. O rder follow ed o rd er fo r th e p u rp o se of re n d e rin g th e en tire organization com pletely invisible. A fter Adolf H itler h a d been appointed C hancellor, th is w o rk o f m y stificatio n w as c arried o u t w ith special energy because th e y felt th a t th e decisive m o m en t was com ing n ear. At th e b eg in n in g of F e b ru a ry th e invisible h e a d q u a rte rs issued th e follow ing in stru c tio n s fo r the stric t carrying o ut of illegal m easu res:
a) T h e m em b ers o f th e co u rier se rv ice are to b e train ed w ith all p o ssib le m ean s. C om m u n ication b e tw e en th e cou riers and th e un its an d a lso b e tw e en th e m se lv e s m u st w o r k sm o o th ly , The s ecreta ries o f the d istrict lea d er s m ust alread y p rovid e th em se lv es w ith secret qu arters d istrib u ted in all partis o f the tow n . E v ery quarter o f th e to w n m u st se le c t qu arters for the couriers w h ic h m u st b e k e p t a b so lu tely secret and o n ly rep orted to the d istrict lead ers. P re sses fo r th e p r in tin g o f ille g a l lea flets, etc. m u st o n ly b e used o n ce in th e sa m e p la c e. In p rep arin g m an u scrip ts, ty p ew riters b e lo n g in g to n eu tra l p e r so n s, a cq u a in ta n ces etc. are to b e used. T h e b a la n ce s o f a ll p o s ta l ch eq u e a c co u n ts o f th e orga n iza tio n s are to b e w ith d raw n . P a y m en ts m a y no lon ger b e m ad e in to th ese accou n ts. T h e w e a p o n s o f the r ifle-sh o o tin g sp ortin g org a n iza tio n s are to he k ep t se p a r a tely in p r iv a te quarters. K n ow n o ffic ia ls o f th e p o litic a l p o lic e and th e o ffice rs in charge o f p o lic e sta tio n s are to b e c a re fu lly w a tch ed w h en th e y m ove ab ou t in th e tow n . If th ere is an y th in g su sp icio u s, th e dislriel lea d er is at o n ce to b e in fo r m ed b y cou rier or telep h on e. O fficials o f the p o litic a l p o lic e w h o h a v e te le p h o n e s in their private quarters th e n u m b ers w ill b e fo u n d in th e te le p h o n e b ook are to he freq u en tly rung up a n o n y m o u sly in th e early m orn in g and late in th e even in g and a lso d u rin g th e n igh t, in order to ascertain w h eth er th e y are at h o m e . In th is w a y it can be dedu ced wh ether a c tio n is b ein g taken.

ib) c)

d)

e)

f) g)

T h e o b ser v a tio n o f th e variou s p o lice head -q u arters is also e sp e c ia lly valu ab le. If lig h t is bu rn in g in the variou s r o o m s during the ev en in g or at nigh t, it is a sign that p o lice fo r ce s are b ein g held in . read in ess.

Shortly afterwards strict instructions were again issued for llu* final winding up of the former party office.s. livery office of every subsidiary organization h a d lo be vacated ul o n c e . All archives and depositories and, a b o v e all, all addresses, c i r c u l a r s ,

13

etc. w ere to be destroyed im m ediately, and the m em bers w ere even no longer to fre q u e n t th e ir u su a l b eer saloon. M eetings of several p ersons w ere n o t to be held; in an y case th e n u m b er of those p re se n t w as n ever to exceed five. E ven p riv ate q u a rte rs w ere to be cleared of p a rty m atter. T he fu n ctio n aries left th eir a p a rtm e n ts an d d isappeared w ith o u t re p o rtin g th e ir change of residence to the police. The protection of th e ir a p a rtm e n ts w as to be ta k en over by the fighting associations and te rro ris t groups. A rep resen tativ e was ap p o in ted fo r every p a rty fu n c tio n a ry in case he should be arrested ; every cell w as m ad e in d ep en d en t of c e n tra l p rin tin g presses etc. in its p ro p ag an d a w ork, being p ro v id ed w ith a m ultiple copying a p p a ra tu s of its ow n. T he m a in p a rt of th e w ork was tra n sfe rre d fro m p riv ate houses and th e streets to the factories. Even th e u n ifo rm fro n t org an izatio n s c re p t into the factories. B ut th ey by no m eans re stric te d them selves to such m easures of tech n ical organizatio n . T h e tra in in g of the m em bers in consp iracy w as c a rrie d on w ith th e greatest energy. T he rules of th e co nspiracy w ere im pressed w ith especial in ten sity on those m em bers of the p a rty w hose ta sk it was to c a rry on the w ork of d isin teg ratio n an d espionage inside the N ational-Socialist p a rty , fo r they h ad ad opted th e p lan of d isin teg ratin g an d u n d e rm in in g fro m w ith in the N ational Socialism w hich it was d ifficult to a tta c k by force. In F e b ru a ry 1933, th e cen tral fighting m anaging com m ittee in the R u h r D istrict issued the follow ing o rd ers reg ard in g the conspiracy to all local and facto ry m anaging com m ittees:
1. T h e com b attin g o f ifoolish 'talk and b oastin g is an important task . E very m em b er m u st o b serv e th e p rin cip le that ev ery one, even h e h im se lf, does n ot req u ire to k n ow m ore o f the o rgan ization o f th e co m sp ira to ria l w ork th an is a c tu a lly n e c essa ry for h is o w n w ork. 2. C aution in te le p h o n ic co n v ersa tio n s. T he te le p h o n e is not su ita b le as a m ean s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n in co n sp ira to ria l w ork. E x c ep tio n s are o n ly p erm issib le w h en the c on versation is con d u cted in a p rearranged code. N o m ore lette rs m u st be se n t to du m m y a d d resses than is in k eep in g w ith the stan dard o f liv in g o f the real o w n er o f the address. 3. C ypher cod es m ust be v ery c a re fu lly used , e sp e c ia lly in c o m m u n i catin g add resses. 4. C ouriers and rev o lu tio n a ry w ork ers en trusted w ith sp ec ia l ta sk s m u st be q u ietly dressed and beh ave th em selv es a ccord in g to th eir su rrou n d in gs. 5. M eeting p la c es are to be freq u en tly changed. O rgan ization m aterial and e sp e c ia lly the m m irs and ad d resses o f co -w o rk er s m ay no longer be kept in private d w ellin gs but must be

VI

sto red in sa fe ty in room s sp e c ia lly ren ted b y the figh tin g m anagem en t fo r th is p u rp ose. M aterial m u st n ot be carried ab ou t u n n e ce ssa rily in co a t p o ck ets. A d dresses, in so far as th e y ca n n o t be c o m m itte d to m em ory, m u st be reco rd ed in cypher. All fu n ctio n a r ies w h o co o p era te in certain ta sk s do w e ll to avoid all su p erflu ou s p erso n a l r ela tio n s w ith each oth er. M utual control w ith due caution, w h ic h m u st n ot be a llo w ed to b e c o m e a pan ick y fe a r o f sp ies, in crea ses th e sa fe ty o f the w ork. C om rades, the situ a tio n is very seriou s, but w e are read y to m eet it. Our ibattle-cry is: D o w n w ith the brow n plagu e, across b arricad es, and o n to so cia lism by rev o lu tio n a r y flighting. Red F ron t. O n t h e b a s is o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a in e d in R u s s ia a n d f o r t h e m o st p a r t u n d e r t h e d ir e c t o r d e r s o f t h e C o m m u n is t I n t e r n a t io n a le a c o m p l e t e s y s t e m w i t h r e g a r d o f c o n s p ir a t o r ia l m e t h o d s w a s s e t u p , o f w h ic h o n l y a f e w p o in ts , a s e x p l a in e d in th e c la s s e s fo r f u n c t i o n a r i e s , a r e c it e d h e r e : 1. In q u isitiv e p e o p le m u st be treated as su sp ect. C om rades m u st not be sen tim en ta l in d ea lin g w ith e a sily o ffen d e d or h ot-tem pered com rad es, never sp ea k ab ou t th eir o w n wT ork, let th e o th er c o m rad e con tin u e to p la y th e part o f the offen d ed p erso n and poin t out to h im that even th e b est c om rad e does n ot req uire to know everyth in g. 2. P seu d o n y m . All m em b ers o f the org a n iza tio n are ob liged to have a p a rty n am e. A n yon e w h o is d ea lin g w ith variou s d istricts at Ilie sam e tim e m u st u se a differen t n am e in each district. 3. P u n c tu a lity . T he c o n sp ir a to r ia l w ork d em an d s ex traord in ary p u n c tu a lity in the c arryin g ou t o f all w ork un d ertak en , h ow ever sligh t. 4. Ille g a l r esid en ces. T h e a d d resses o f ille g a l resid en ces m u st only b e told to tru stw o rth y com rad es. Care m u st be tak en in burning lig h ts there, as th is attra cts th e a tten tion o f th e n eigh b ou rs. T rie p h o n es are u n su ita b le for ille g a l resid en ces as co n v ersa tio n s can b e overh eard . O nly in itia te d com rad es m ay be ad m itted into the ille g a l resid en ce. B eh ave q u ietly, and go ou t and in as little ;is p o ssib le . 5. S ig n a ls and sig n s for the sa fe ty o f the illeg a l resid en ce. A sign m u st be agreed up on, to b e m ade, for in stan ce, w ith the curtain s or p o t p lan ts, to sh o w w h eth er the illeg a l resid en ce is clear, so that th e v isito r can se e from the street w h eth er there is any dan ger or not. (>. A d d resses in ille g a l r esid en ces. It m ust be co n sta n tly reiterated th a t n e ith e r a d d resses nor n otes m ay be k ep t in illegal resid en ces. C om rades m u st learn by h eart the ad d resses, tim es and details req uired fo r the w ork. 7. P re p a r a tio n s for illegal meetings. Behavio ur in Hu* streets. Before going to a meeting, a point of assem b ly or an illegal residence, all pockets must be c a re fu lly e x a m in ed in order to se e that they c ontain nothing Ibat might serve us a ('Ini'. W hen you go out into

35

the street a lw a y s c o n v in c e y o u r se lf th at th ere is no sp y there, b u t do th is w ith o u t attractin g a tten tio n . P ay atten tio n to th e dress w o r n b y p assers-b y, in order to b e ab le to rec o g n ize th em again. P a y p a rticu la r atten tio n to y o u n g p eop le, for th e y are m u ch used by th e p o lice . E x a m in e the street by lo o k in g in to a shopwomdow or b y lig h tin g a cigarette or b y c ro ssin g th e street (look in g back to see th at y o u are n o t fo llo w e d b y a v e h ic le or a sp y). 8. E x c h a n g e o f greetin gs on the street. If it can n ot be e n tire ly avoided, com rad es sh o u ld at lea st n o t g r ee t each oth er on the street or o th erw ise in the p rese n c e o f oth er p eop le.

9. T h e co n sp ir a to r ia l m inute. In th e case o f ev ery ille g a l m eeting, a so-oailled con sp ira to ria l m in u te m u st be ob served b e fo r e deali/ng w ith th e a ffa irs o f the o r g a n iza tio n . D u ring th is con sp iratorial m in u te a d isc u ssio n is to tak e p la ce to d ecid e w h at is to be said in th e even t o f the m e etin g b ein g b rok en up b y th e p olice. M ake u se o f cro w d ed m ean s o f transp ort. 12. Som e gen eral rules: a) A d dresses, a ssu m ed n a m es and d etails regard in g the affairs o f th e org a n iza tio n m u st n o t be co m m u n ica ted b y p o st or te le p h one. b) D o n o t give a w a y an y p h o to g ra p h s. d) T h e ille g a l w ork er m u st n ot p o s e or affect a m y sterio u s air; h is b eh a v io u r m ust b e n orm al, f) T h e m od e o f life m u st be ad ap ted to the set to w h ic h the o w n er o f the id e n tity p ap er is su p p osed to b elon g, g) D o not drink too m uch, do not le t an yon e im p ose u p o n you , etc.

W ritte n m a te ria l is the m ost d an g ero u s enem y of a co n sp ira to ria l o rg an izatio n . In cases in w h ich a w ritten sta tem e n t is quite u n av o id ab le it m u st be w ritte n in cypher. T here is h a rd ly any th in g so c h a ra c teristic of th e u n d e rw o rld c h a ra c ter of the C om m unist p a rty as th e g eneral use of cy p h er codes by the responsible fu n c tio n a rie s of the p arty , of th e co m m u n ist y o u th of the fighting org an izatio n s, etc. T he fa c t th a t th e y used cyphers, assum ed nam es and a secret language is the b est p ro o f of the treach ero u s and c rim in a l in te n tio n s of th e com m unists. T he cy phering first begins w ith th e use of assum ed nam es and catch w o rd s fo r certain p a rty grades, political opponents, state d ep artm en ts, etc., w hich it is n o t d esired to m ention openly. M any k in d s of assum ed nam es w ere in use in the C om m unist p a rty befo re th e M arch revolution. F o r in stan ce, the follow ing code w as fo u n d in th e possession of the co m m u n ist Adele Stein:
T rade U n ion S ection P o litic a l lead er E d ito ria l office O rgan ization lead er A gitation propagan da sectio n F rien d F rien d F rien d F rien d F rien d V X Z W Y

M ax H olz in four different disguises.

A s a privite citize n in Vienna . . . and as a dynam iter in 1921.

A m ong tliv fitfhtinx workmen in Central Germany (March, 1921).

In hiding in Berlin before his arrest (April, 1921).

A lso th e fo llo w in g catch w ord s: M u n icip ality o fficia ls E bert SPD H orsin g R eich sb an n er Im m ertreu crim in a l p o lic e w e t n avy

A ccording to secret in stru c tio n s issued by the R ed-F ront F ig h tin g L eague of G reater H am b u rg w hich w ere to be adopted g en erally la te r on, the follow ing assu m ed nam es w ere to be used:
K PD W F D (W ilh elm sb u rg er F u b all-V erb an d 09) RH D a llo tm e n t garden so c iety JAH em b ezzlem en t R evolver p h otograp h C artridge p late w a lk in g stick film roll RFB u n ifo r m a sso cia tio n co u rier our frien d d e fe n c e m an sp ortsm an crim in a l p o lic e o fficia l dog

In E a st-P ru ssia th e follow ing assum ed nam es w ere laid down am ong o th ers:
M ercan tile tech n ica l sc h o o l R eich sw eh r Join t cla ss R eich sw eh r garrison Glass R eich sw eh r b arrack s P ro fe ssio n a l sc h o o l p o lic e T each er in p r o fe ssio n a l sc h o o l p o lice o fficer

In th e a u tu m n of 1932 a n o th e r system of assum ed nam es was ad o p ted h ere an d th e re :


C ourier an n o u n cem en t Sp y grum bler C ypher rule o f th e gam e P o lic e doctor L egal old Illeg a l new D o le -o ffic e group B rid ge club R esign ation o f church m em b ersh ip fu llsto p P u b lic m eetin g co lo u red ribbon

The so-called im p o rtan ce of th is m ystification w hich is a fte r all lacking in skill does n o t becom e evident u n til it is reg ard ed in com plete connection w ith the C om m unist conspiracy. T hese catch w o rd s m ay ap p e a r sim ple an d som ew hat naive, b u t th e effect of th e carefu lly th o u g h t out real cy p h er system of the C om m unist P a rty , b u ilt up in accordance w ith all the rules of the a rt of cyphering, is astonishing. G overnm ent d ep artm en ts suceeded on several occasions in obtain in g possession of the keys to such cy p h ers w hich w ere Ihen, of course, im m ediately repluced by new

18

keys. W e give below an exam ple of th e C om m unist P a r ty s directio n s fo r cy phering issu ed in S ep tem b er 1932:
T h e a lp h a b et is d ivid ed in to fiv e grou p s o f fiv e letters ea ch in the fo llo w in g w ay: T h e letters J. A. 0 . t). and sz are m issin g , b u t th is is A B C D E o f a b so lu tely n o im p ortan ce, for th e sen se o f the w o rd s F G II I K can a lw a y s be gath ered w h en th e y are read and is L M N 0 P a lw a y s c le a rly r eco g n iza b le. E ven th e figures are n ever Q R S T U used in the o rd in a ry w a y , but, in stead , a w ord o f ten V W XY Z letters is se le c te d in w h ic h e a ch letter m u st o n ly occu r on ce, for in sta n ce , the w ord s H eil Mos k. au w h ic h giv es the figures from 1 to 0 read from le ft to right. In order to get the b a sic n u m b ers for th e cyp h er, the date o f any even t is taken and u sed as th e b ase o f th e cyp h er. F o r in stan ce, K arl M arx w a s b orn on the 5th M ay,1818; th is giv es us the figures 5 5 1 8 1 8 and w e n o w add th e m issin g figures so th at w e ob tain the fo llo w in g row o f ligu res. 5 5 1 8 1 8 2 3 4 6 7 9 and that is the k e y w h ic h is u sed in cyp h erin g. th e fo llo w in g address: W alter M arks 551818 23467 R VKLDI K XND L W e w ill n o w cyp h er B erlin N 24 955181 8 23 SZMKAM E EL

W e ob ta in ed th is row o f lette rs by, in th e w o rd W alter, b eg in n in g w ith the letter W ; 'we h ave cou n ted b a c k fiv e letters tow ard s the b e gin n in g o f the a lp h a b et w ith th e aid o f our k e y (and if w e h ave not e n o u g h letters to co u n t b a c k to th e b egin n in g o f the alph abet, w e c o u n t on from the letter Z in th e d irectio n o f the letter A), so that W b e c o m es R, A b e c o m es V, L b e c o m es K and so on. All letters that are cro ssed ou t or u n d erlin ed m ean fig u res so th at in th is case the u n d erlin ed E m ea n s 2, and th e u n d erlin ed L m ean s 4 (see figure key H eil M oskau ).

A no th er m eth o d often em ployed consists in the key w ord, for in stan ce S tra sse n b a h n being w ritte n vertically. A h o rizo n tal series is w ritte n to th e rig h t of each le tte r in alp h ab etical order. A sq u a re is fo rm ed by every th irte e n letters. T he cypher th en reprodu ces each le tte r by tw o figures in fra c tio n a l fo rm (the intersectio n of th e v ertical a n d h o rizo n tal lines). A p ra c tic a lly alm ost u nsolvable cypher is p re p a re d in the follow ing ex trem ely sim ple w ay. Any book is ta k e n w hich contains <>n an y given page th e w hole of th e 39 letters in th e a lp h a b et in several consecutive sentences. T he letters are tra n sfe rre d by dots to tra n s p a re n t p a p e r an d a cy p h er m essage is th en received from som eone in th e know . T he p ap er w ith the dots is laid on Ihe lexl and Ihe le tte rs req u ired ex tracted from the o th e r wise seniob'ss text. F ig u res can, of course, also lie put into

39

cy p h er in a prim itiv e w ay b y tak in g a catchw ord fo r each num ber o r v ario u s key system s can be utilized in a com plicated way. An illegal o rg an izatio n is ju st as d ep endent as a legal o rg an i zatio n on a system fo r the circ u la tio n of new s th a t w orks well. T h e delivery of m essages, o rders, circu lars, lite ra tu re , etc. is first n ecessary in o rd er th a t th e o rg an izatio n m ay becom e a living w hole. W e have alread y seen th a t since ab o u t Septem ber 1932 th e C om m unist P a rty no longer m ade use of the G erm an Post Office. T hey h a d o rganized a p a rty post of th e ir ow n w ith assum ed addresses, agencies an d couriers. T he co u rier service re p re se n te d the nervous system of th e p arty . Its fun ctio n s extended fa r b eyond the sm aller sphere of th e co m m unication of news. It becam e a com p o n en t p a rt of th e d istrib u tio n of lite ra tu re an d of th e co u n ter-w o rk an d w ork of d isin teg ratio n . O rd in ary and special co u riers sh a re d th e m ore or less secret functions. T he couriers w ere co n stan tly u n d e r w ay betw een tw o secret p a rty offices, using bicycles in B erlin and, in th e provinces, m otor cycles w ith side cars or even m o to r cars. To th e co u rie r him self the sender and the recip ien t w ere to re m a in u n k n o w n . By the in terp o latio n of several couriers th ey com pletely lo st an y grasp of the extent of th e ir ow n doings. T he low est u n it of organization of the p arty , w hich w as th e so-called group of five in a period of illegal m easures, received all m essages by w ord of m o u th th ro u g h the p a rty courier. It w as obvious th a t they m ade use of the sporting organizations of th e red sp o rt units in p a rtic u la r fo r the co u rier service, as for exam ple th e m o to r cycle sections of th e F ich te W o rk m e n s S p o rtin g Club. T hey bore the nam e of Red C avalry . T he m otor cyclists received five pfennig fo r every k ilo m eter travelled. A nother special concession w hich they enjoyed w as the g ra n t of a reduction of fro m 40 50 % on th e price of m o to r sp irit fro m the w ell-know n D ero p ta n k statio n s w hich, as is w ell know n, w as th e n a Soviet R ussian firm . T his cheap R ussian oil was also issued at the delivery agencies of the p a rty papers. It w as only possible in p a rt to a sc e rta in w h at m o to r vehicles w ere used by th e C om m unist co u riers; in m any cases stolen cars w ere p ro b ab ly used an d th e n u m b e r plates altered. B ut in any case the follow ing co u rier vehicles w ere ascertain ed in B avaria in F e b ru a ry 1932:
A. P a ssen g er Cars: II N 6285 p assen ger earn c o u n te r fe it num ber plate. To be arrested w h en m et and rep ort sen t to the p o lice in N rn berg-F rth. Karl L ehrbtirgcr, m erch an t, H och str. 8/1,

II N 8079

(Chevrolet)

Nrnberg.

40

II N 13025 (Ford) II U 7002 (Chrysler) II U 67 (H anom ag)

ditto.
Dr. Kurt K elln er, W rzburg. H an s L ieb l, W rzburg. B. M otor c ycles:

II N 0252

C ou nterm an ded tria l nu m b er p late. To b e arrested w h en m et and rep ort sen t to the p o lice in N iirn berg-F iirth. (DKW) G eorge F ried rich Streng, m ech a n ic, H oh e M arter 5, N rn berg, (iborn 15. 11. 11 in N rn berg). F ried ric h E rtl, H egelstrasse 5/II, N rn b erg (agitation p rop agan d a lea d er o f th e K JVD N orthern B avaria). T h e n u m b er p la te w a s said to have b een lost. To b e arrested w h en m et and rep ort sen t to the p o lic e in N rn berg-F rth.

II N 0690

II N 0787

A single exam ple m ay be selected fro m the m ass of facts regarding th e co u rier service of th e C om m unist P a rty :
On the 3rd M arch, 1933 the e x p ress co u rier o f the Germ an C om m un ist P arty, a m an ca lled M olsberger a ccu sed in th e e n c lo sed d o c u m en ts w as tem p o ra rily arrested by the .......................... in B endorf. W h en he w a s sea rch ed it w as fou n d that M olsberger had c o n c ea led in h is sp ortin g sto c k in g s fiv e letters from the C oblence c en tral o ffice o f the C om m u nist P arty dated 2nd M arch, 1933. T he c on ten ts o f th e letters d ealt w ith the p o litic a l situ a tio n in G erm any w h ich , it is stated , n o w d em an d s in te n sifie d work on the part o f the C om m u nist P arty for the fu lfilm en t o f th eir task s. B ut th e w ork is to be con tin u ed in se c re t and the m eetin g s h e ld un der the five-m an group system . Th'e w ork o f th e C om m u nist P a rty m ust n ot aw ak e any p a rlia m en ta ry illu sio n s, and on th e oth er h a n d it m u st b e p oin ted ou t that th is g o v ern m en t can n ot be rem oved at th e p o lls. A ction m ust be taken to disarm the S.A. A ction m u st be u n d ertak en in the factories, and in all fig h tin g th e q u estio n o f the fig h tin g u n ifo rm fron t m u st be p u t in c o n crete form . T h e rem arks c o n c lu d e w ith the w ords: F rien d s, th e h ou r h as n o w com e to b reak dow n the terrorism o f our op p o n en ts w ith courage and b o ld n ess an d b y su itab le m ean s and to give a h ig h er form to th e struggle o f th e w o rk in g c la sse s.W ith regard to the com m u n ication s, b e tw e en the in d iv id u a l grou p s o f five or o th er u n its o f th e C om m u nist P arty organ ization , th e fo llo w in g d e ta ils are given in the letter: T h e p ost is no lon ger to he used Ixil o n ly cou riers. T h e first p o in t for the e sta b lish m en t o f c o m m u n ic a tio n s is to be in fron t o f the r a ilw a y station o f E hrenh rcitslcin b e tw e en 3 and 3.30 o clo ck on the 4th M arch, 1933. T h e rcpre.Heiilnlivr o f the eentrnl o ffic e in C oblence w ill be recogn ized b y ;i s in ]i 1 1 w hite ne,<' w orn ill the lel'l b u tton h ole o f his coal.

In v iew o f the d eta ils in th e letter the w itn e ss . . . w en t to the r a ilw a y station o f E h ren b reitstein on the 4th M arch, 1933. H e h im se lf w o re a w h ite rose in h is b u tto n h o le. In rep ly to the su m m on s in the letter, th e a ccu sed Z im m ersch ied an d E n gel ap p eared at E h ren b reit ste in station . Z im m ersch ied greeted th e w itn e ss . . . w ith the w ords R ed F r o n t and E n gel said that he w a s th e cou rier from M etternich. L ater on, the a ccu sed K opp in g and W irg es also app eared. T h e accu sed Z im m ersch ied , E ngel, K opp in g and W irges are th erefo re to be regard ed as g u ilty o f h avin g w o r k e d in th e sen se o f the su m m on s co n ta in ed in th e letter o f th e C ob len ce Central O ffice o f the C om m u n ist P arty dated 2nd M arch, 1933. T h ey w e re cou riers o f the C om m u n ist P a rty .

The short-w ave tra n sm itte rs belonging to the m em bers of the F ree R adio L eague w ere also m ad e use of for the intelligence

Communist tecrit bvondcAstlnjf uppAi'Atus in it i Nowmbar and Jhctm her, 1932,

Berlin

i;

service. T he tra in in g w as in th e h an d s of so-called Red T echnical E x p e rts . R eaders will recall th e discovery of a C om m unist secret tra n s m itte r in B erlin in D ecem ber 1932 w hich w as used a t th a t tim e fo r p ro p a g a n d a p u rp o ses. If th e co nspiracy is c a rrie d o u t strictly it is ex trem ely d ifficult to get a t th e illegal o rg an izatio n , to o b tain inside in fo rm atio n , to lea rn its in te n tio n s an d to fo re sta ll its actions. E x tern ally , it h as b een disguised to su ch a n ex te n t th a t it seem s as if the o rg an izatio n h a d d isap p eared fro m the face of th e e a rth ; it is only now an d again th a t it gives a sign of life by th e com m ission of som e deeds on w hich occasions th e in te rv e n tio n of the police com es too late. B ut th e d an g er fo r a p o litical g roup o rganized an d equipped in th is w ay w ill be th e u n re lia b le m em bers in th e ir ow n ran k s, m en w ho are in capable of m eeting th e te rrib le dem ands of a real conspiracy, w ho w ish to evade the p ressu re of b lind obedience, w hose consciences begin to p ric k them , an d who th erefo re w ish to leave th e ra n k s. T h e o rg a n iz a tio n itself is fully aw are of the dan g er of such w eak spots. I t is b en t on m ischief, a n d is th e re fo re filled w ith suspicion of every m em b er even in th e in n e rm o st circle. It scents treaso n , espionage an d resistance everyw here, an d is com pelled to act ru th lessly ag ain st these people in ord er no t to be d istu rb ed in its doings. T he ad o p tio n of illegal m ethods is directly connected w ith th e settin g up of a system of c o u n te r espionage. T his secret p a rty police rep resen ts, so to speak, the w atch m en w ho have to sta n d on g u a rd a t th e gates of the u n d e r w orld. D etailed lists of the suspected p ersons are co n stantly d raw n up by th e ce n tra l h e a d q u a rte rs an d com m u nicated to all sub o rd in a te org an izatio n s. T h ey co n tain a d etailed perso n al des c rip tio n an d often a p h o to g ra p h of th e suspect an d m ay lead to his ru in . T he m eth o d a d o p ted is to vilify th e politically u n reliab le m em b er p ersonally, to re p ro a c h h im w ith som e k in d of sw indle or c o rru p tio n an d th u s to create th e im pression am ong his unsusp ectin g com rades th a t it is really a q uestion of low cre atu res d e trim e n ta l to th e ideal C om m unist m ovem ent. T his refined m etho d of em ploying sem i-official d isp arag em ent and denunciation is in d u b ita b ly one of th e m ost dang ero u s w eapons used by Bolshevism in th e fig h t fo r pow er. W oe to him w hose n am e is 0 1 1 th e black list of th e C om m unist P arty ! A few exam ples from such lists w ill serve to elu cid ate th is m eth o d of fighting.
K arl Ita.stian, c /o P re iss, 124b S k alitzer Strasse, B erlin, w a s a m em b er o f the party and h a s jo in e d the N ation al S o c ia list P arty. lie co m m itted everal a ssa u lts on m em b ers and attem p ted to p ersu ad e l iii w ife to c o m m i t treach ery.

P erso n a l d escrip tion : born 8th O ctober, 1907 in B erlin, h eig h t ab ou t 5 ft. 4 in. S lig h t b u ilt, o val face, grey eyes, th ick eyeb ro w s, n o se and ears n orm al, ligh t b r o w n hair, sm a ll scar on upper lip. P h o to g ra p h availab le. B auer, W a lter, 22 H ch stestra sse, B erlin, is a p o lice spy. H e a sso cia te d w ith com rad es fr o m the K arl L ieb k n ech t h o u se and in th e c ell beer saloon , 23, L in ien stra sse. P erso n a l d escrip tion : H eig h t 5 ft. 4 in., b orn 28th D ecem b er 1886 at E u tr itzsch n ear L eip zig; grey hair, bald patch. L arge trian gle scar on h is h ead ; fu ll-fa c e d w ith a scar on h is face. Sp eak s Saxon d ialect. B eck , W alter, e sp io n a g e a gen t o f the G erm an o ffic ia ls, and sp ie s on the p ro leta ria n o r g a n iza tio n s in the R uhr D istrict on their b e h a lf. L ast resid en ce 18 W e ih er S trasse, D ortm un d, w h ic h he h as left; h is p resen t add ress is not k n ow n . It is a case o f a clev er sp y w ith p le n ty o f assurance. P er so n a l d escrip tion : B orn 31st Ju ly 1896 in C annstatt near S tu tt gart; lig h t b row n hair; grey ey es; h eigh t ca. 5 ft. 7 K in.; is c h a u ffe u r by p ro fessio n . F ritze, E rnst, 17 H erm an n strasse, B erlin -N eu k lln . F ritze w a s e x p e lle d from the KJVD th ree years ago and jo in ed the N atio n a l S o c ia list P arty. H e n o w v isits m eetin gs in d istricts w h ere h e is n ot k n ow n . D escrip tion : H eigh t 5 ft. 1 0/4 in.; p o w e r fu lly and b road ly b u ilt; fu ll-fa c e d w ith round ch eek s; b r o w n h air parted on the left; age 24. M ierend orf, E rich , 61 F ra n k fu rter A llee, B erlin O 112. H e attracted a tten tion ow in g to h is p r o v o c a tiv e n atu re in the KJVD; is a p o lice and N azi spy. B ew are o f h is sister also. D escrip tion : H eight ca. 5 ft. lY i in.; dark hair (brow n com b ed back) ; clean -sh aven , h o o k ed n ose and n e a tly dressed. M oser, H erm an n (alias F eld and N eum an n), M nzel, E berhard. B oth w o rk as sp ies in the K ottbus Y outh A ssociation . D escrip tion : M oser: ca. 20 years o f age; brun ette; 5 ft. 6 /4 n arrow face; parted hair. S a y s he is A ustrian. in.; w h en

M nzel: 18 or 19 y e a rs old ; h eigh t 5 ft. 4 /4 in.; oval face; dark hair. P h otograp h availab le. N ier, W alter, c /o S ch n eid ereit, 3b, An der J eru salem er K irche, B erlin. Is in to u ch w ith th e crim in al p olice. He jo in e d the N ation al S o c ia list P a rty b ecau se h e e n jo y s m ore advan tages there. H e em b e zz le d 4 m arks out o f the cell cash b ox. D escrip tion : Born 21st Jan u ary, 1910; scu lp tor by p ro fessio n ; height 5 ft. 4 /4 in.; sm ooth brown hair, com bed back; brown e y es will dark rings round them; well dressed uppcnrunce.

Otto, W i ll i and h is w ife F ried a, 66 G artenstrasse, B erlin . W as a lread y in th e b lack list for O ctob er 1929. H e w a s th en e x p e lle d from th e p arty in K olberg fo r e m b ezzlem en t. H e n o w se lls arm s in Berlin togeth er w ith G erhard R eim er. B orn 21st May, 1901 in K olberg; w ife born 19th Septem ber, 1906. P od alsk i, Philipp , 8 P le n itz er W eg, W u sterh a u sen -o n -th e-D o sse. A sso cia tes w ith m em b ers o f the N atio n a l S o c ia list P a rty and w ill b etray m em b ers o f th e C om m u n ist P a rty to the p o lice . D escrip tion : B e tw ee n 28 and 30 y e a rs old; h e ig h t 5 ft. 4 K in.; fair-h aired and clea n -sh a v en ; scar on the righ t h an d sid e o f his face.

It is im possible in in d iv id u al cases to decide w h eth er th e accusatio n of em bezzlem ent is really ju stified or only serves as a m eans fo r a political attack . If th e d etails in the b lack list, o f w hich we give m ore below , re a lly re p re se n t the facts, th is throw s an u n u su ally sig n ifican t lig h t on th e b a d c h a ra c ters w ho appear to be so n u m ero u s in th e C om m unist P a rty .
N o v e m b e r - D e ce m b e r , 1932. Coast districts.

Assinus, W illi, H am burg, w as h ea d cash ier in R oth en bu rgsort and em b ezzled ca. 75 m arks there. In order to c o n c ea l h is em b ezzlem en t h e p reten d ed th at th ere h ad b een a bu rglary. D escrip tion : 5 ft. 1 in.; fair-h aired ; g row in g bald; full ash y-p ale fa c e and h y d ro c e p h a lo u s head. Barbers, Richard, d e n o u n c ed h is m a n a g e m en t and the c u sto m s o ffice . fe llo w wT orkers to the factory

N o d escrip tio n or p h o to g ra p h availab le. B o llm a n n , L iib eck, em b ezzled m o n e y for n ew sp a p ers an d badges an d did suibversiive w o rk in the party by sp reading false rumours a b ou t lea d in g com rad es. P ro b a b ly also a spy, as he h as b een seen in the c o m p a n y o f su p erio r crim in a l p o lice o fficia ls. D escrip tio n : h e ig h t 5 ft. 10/4 in.; gettin g fat; b etw een 35 and 38 yea rs old; lig h t browrn hair; grey-b lu e eyes. N o ph otograp h available Borgin ann , H ans, L iib eck, p o lice sp y; sy stem a tica lly d issem in ated ru m ou rs ab ou t lea d in g p a r ty fu n ction aries. D ecrip tio n : born 17th June, 1906 in Stargard; h eigh t 5 ft. 1014 in.; ligh t b ro w n hair; b lu e eyes; e y elid s o ften in flam ed ; droopin g sh ou ld ers. N o p h o to g ra p h availab le. Do ss, E w ald , August, Robert, Hamburg, c o m m its constant sw in dles by telling sh o p k ee p e rs that he is c o m m ission e d by 'Ihe R.ll. and I.A II. and has been able in this w a y to cheat them out of c o n siderable sums. Description: born 9th April, 1915 in Kiel; height ca. 5 ft. 5 in ; narrow p im p ly lace, fair haired; blue eyes.
Phot ogi i i | li iivnllnhl c

45

F eld te n , H arry, o r gan ization s.

h as

em b e zz le d

abou t

150

m ark s

in

m ass

N o d e sc r ip tio n or p h o to g ra p h a vailab le. F ro h n e rt, W illy , H am burg, u n ifo r m asso cia tio n ; m ad e aw ay w ith g e n e ra l lists and sto le a rubber stam p b elo n g in g to th e association . It is su sp ec ted th at h e w ill c o m m it oth er sw in d les w ith the aid o f th is stam p , and it m u st b e th e r efo r e tak en aw a y fr o m h im w h en he m a k e s h is app earan ce. D escrip tio n : b orn 12th Ju ly, 1894 in M em el. N o d eta ils or p h o to grap h y a vailab le. F isc h e r , N eu m n ster, em b ezzled p arty fu n d s a m ou n tin g to about 200 m arks. N o d escrip tio n or p h otograp h a vailab le. F isch er , W ilh elm , also c a lls h im s e lf to sw in d le c om rad es b y sa y in g th at h e w a s p e r se cu te d by th e p o lice o w in g to- a b e e n co n d em n ed to 10 y e a r s p e n a l e sca p in g in G ttingen. In r ea lity h e is a F ritz S ch rd er and attem p ts is an em igrant; sa y s th at h e p o litic a l m urder; h as alread y servitu d e but su cceed ed in N ation al S o cia list.

D escrip tio n : B orn 17th F eb ru ary, 1902 in C lausthal-Z ellerfeld . D e ta ils lack in g. P h otograp h av a ila b le.

An original Communist c.w/ index (black list) in the Nntional S oclilh t Revolution Museum, Beilin.

In view of w h a t h a p p e n e d d u rin g th e B olshevist revolution in Russia, th e re can be n o d o u b t as to w h a t m easures the C om m unist P a rty an d its C heka w ould ad o p t ag ain st all th e ir opponen ts in th e event of th e ir seizing the rein s of a u th o rity .
A m on g the c ircu m sta n ces in v e stig a ted b y us, street fig h tin g is o f a very p itile ss character, in th e sen se o f th e p h y sic a l d e str u c tio n o f the en em y. Any in c lin a tio n to h u m a n ity d ea lin g w ith th e c la ss en em y w h ic h se ize s the p ro leta ria t d u rin g th e arm ed stru ggle gives rise to su p e rflu o u s d iffic u ltie s in th e fig h t and, un d er u n fa v o u ra b le con d itio n s, r esu lts in a ca ta stro p h e fo r th e r isin g . 1)

C om m unism u n d e rsta n d s n o th in g b u t a p hysical destru ctio n an d a n n ih ila tio n of its o p p o n en ts.2)


It h a s alread y b een p o in te d ou t in an ea rlier p a ssa g e that one o f th e m o st p ressin g task s o f th e risin g, o f w h ic h the so lu tio n w ill at on ce p rovid e th e in su rg e n ts w ith great ad van tages, m a y b e the task o f d isp o sin g o f th e lea d ers o f the co u n ter-rev o lu tio n : th e cap tu re o f th e sta ffs, the arrest o f th e m ost im p ortan t govern m en t o ffic ia ls (m in isters, p o lice p resid en ts, etc.), gettin g rid o f the r ea c tio n a ry co m m a n d ers o f b o d ies o f troop s, o f the lead ers o f an ti-rev o lu tio n a ry p arties, etc. T h is gettin g rid o f the lea d ers is p o ssib le if c a re fu lly p rep ared d iv e rsio n s w h ic h in clu d e te rr o ristic acts (p h ysical d estru ctio n and arrest) are u n d ertak en in g o o d tim e. *)

T he C om m unist P a rty co nsiders as its o p ponents n o t only the police, th e defence force a n d th e officials, b u t also the en tire n a tio n of all classes n o t in clu d ed w ith in the n a rro w lim its of the C om m unist org an izatio n . In p a rtic u la r, the fate of all those w hose nam es are on the black lists of th e C om m unist P a rty w ould be rem orselessly sealed. Such black lists w ere d raw n up by no m eans only fo r go v ern m en t officials an d m em bers of n atio n a l associatio n s; on th e co n tra ry , they included the n am es of respected citizens a n d o th e r persons w ho, ow ing to th e ir c h a ra c ter an d the esteem in w hich th ey a re held by th e ir fellow countrym en, co n stitu te a h in d ra n c e in th e w ay of th e B olshevization of G erm any. In m an y cases such black lists have been seized u p o n w hich m a n y a p eaceful citizen w ould fin d his ow n nam e. F o r instance, such a list w as confiscated in N ierstein in the O ppenheim d istric t a n d also in o th e r villages in th a t district. The citizens w hose n am es w ere on th e lists of th e condem ned w ere to be a rre ste d as soon as pow er h a d been seized an d th e n polished o ff . A sim ilar list w as fo u n d in th e room s of the d istric t
l) A. Neulx'ig: "Dcr bewaffnctc Aufsland, p. 242. ) lbirirm, pp. 2I!> and 217. ') A. NtMilxn'ty: "her Ix'wuffnetc Aufstand", pp. 215 and 217.

47

m an ag in g com m ittee of th e C om m unist P a rty fo r the R uhr D istrict a t 16, R o tter Strasse, Essen, w hich contains the follow ing re m a rk :W e n o w req u ire q u a n tities o f p h o to g ra p h s, but w e can n ot get h o ld o f th em at p resen t and are fo r ce d to try our lu ck w ith the street snapshobter. I b e lie v e th at w e h ave n o w g o t photograph o f fifty o f th e se p e sts .

T h e fifty p ests , th a t is to say in ten tio n al or u n in ten tio n al o p p o n en ts of Bolshevism , w ere th e re fo re not only noted by the E ssen te rro ris t h e a d q u a rte rs b u t h a d also been photographed th ro u g h th e agency of a street p h o to g rap h er. T his w as en tirely in accordance w ith the B olshevist principle of ru th le ssn e ss:
In d ealin g w ith the o u tsp o k en o p p o n e n ts o f the revolu tion , it is n e c e ssa r y to a p p ly th e severest rev o lu tio n a r y d isc ip lin e an d even terrorism . T he degree to w h ic h terro rism is to be adop ted is p u rely a q u estion o f ex p ed ien cy . T h is a lso app lied to the q u estion of h o sta g es. 4)

T he d raw in g up of black lists an d the opponent w o rk a lto g eth er is one of the m ost im p o rta n t spheres of activity of th e C om m unistic intelligence service, a special ap p a ra tu s for collecting and d istrib u tin g new s w hich gradually m erges into B olshevist o rg an izatio n fo r d isin teg ratio n , espionage and high treaso n . F ro m the very sta rt, the C om m unist P a rty devoted special a tte n tio n to the intelligence service, if for no o th e r reason th an b ecause it is a fte r all the agent in G erm any of an alien and hostile pow er and, am ong o th er things, also serves to provide in fo rm atio n fo r th e Soviet U nion. T he m ore th e C om m unist P a rty felt the a p p ro a c h of the fa ta l h o u r, the m o re intense was the organization of all details of th e ir intelligence service. An excellent idea of th e w ay in w hich it was o rganized and w orked is provided by the follow ing lines of guidance issued by h e ad q u a rte rs fo r the intelligence service in tim es of crisis. I reproduce them w ord for w o rd an d w ith o u t cuts, in o rd er to give a com plete idea of the system atic m ethods and the u n scru p u lo u sn ess of this treach ero u s w o rk :
A. T ask s. 1. P relim in a ry rem arks: All the ta sk s dealt w ith above w h ich are to be carried ou t in p e a c e fu l tim es are retain ed to their fu ll exten t. In c o n fo r m ity w ith th e in crea sin g a c tiv ity o f the entire c lass o f w ork ers in acute situ a tio n s, the w ork o f the in te llig en ce

4) Alfred Lunger: "Dor Wen zum Slog", p. 21,

IN

serv ice also exten d b oth q u a n tita tiv e ly and q u a lita tiv ely . W ith in the sc o p e o f the en tire task s o f the in te llig e n c e se rv ice certain sp h eres com e m ore to th e fro n t and in c re a se in im p ortan ce. In ad d ition to this, th ere are a lso a nu m b er o f fr esh tasks. T ask s w h ic h com e m o re to th e front. a) Q u estion s o f m ilitary strategy, both tactical and te ch n ica l. (P lan s for the ad v a n ce and e m p lo y m en t o f the R eichsw rehr, p o lic e and d e fe n siv e a sso cia tio n s, the co n cen tra tio n o f th eir forces, their tactics, an d the state o f th eir train in g and arm am ent.) b) P o litic a l r elia b ility o f all h o stile fo rm a tio n s. (S ym p tom s o f d isin teg ra tio n , a sc e rta in in g o f the ca u se s o f d iffe re n c es and d issa tisfa ctio n in the v a r io u s fo rm a tio n s, in order to e n h a n ce the prop agan d a w ork.) c) D isc o v e ry (and in in d ivid u al cases even in terru p tion ) o f the network o f co m m u n ic a tio n s o f th e e n em y (telep h on e, telegrap h , and e sp e c ia lly p o lic e cab les, w ith regard to th eir p o sitio n and the m o st favou rab le p o in ts fo r attack s. W ire less in clu d in g both the p u b lic b r o a d c a stin g sta tio n s and also the sp ecia l p o lice b ro a d ca stin g station s). d) T h e c reation o f n ew an d the d ev elo p m en t o f old fro n tier c o m m u n ic a tio n s (for the c ro ssin g o f the fro n tier by in d iv id u a ls and for the ex ch a n g e o f prin ted m atter and p arcels in both d irectio n s). D e fe n c e (m ore severe m e th o d s in the treatm en t o f th ose w h o are d iscovered to be sp ie s and agents p rovocateu rs). M isin form in g o f o p p o n e n ts b y all p o ssib le m eans.

e) f)

F re sh task s. a) C ollection o f m aterial and p rep aration o f d iversion s and action b y p artisan s. (P ro v isio n o f stru ctu al plan s o f im p ortan t art cen tres and in d u stria l p lan t. D eterm in a tio n o f the m ost favou rab le p o in ts o f attack, and th e la y in g d ow n o f the te ch n ica l d etails fo r a ctio n again st th ese ob jectives.)

b) P ro v isio n o f the n e c essa ry in fo r m a tio n for the wrork of arm am en t. (For the d isa rm a m en t o f in d iv id u a l and sm all groups o f p o lice and oth er arm ed p erson s, seizu re o f sto ck s o f arm s and the u tiliz a tio n o f fa v o u r a b le o p p o rtu n ities for p u rch asin g arm s.) c) P re p a r a tio n and o r g a n iza tio n o f terrorism on a large sca le in c o n n e c tio n w ith the fo rm a tio n o f sp ec ia l groups. (D raw ing up o f co rresp o n d in g lists and fa m ilia r iz a tio n w ith the h ab its o f .specially im portant people.)

d) i'n i1 1ic*ii 1 e n lig h teiu n cn l o f the m ilitary organ ization w h ich w ill be created in the form o f co m p a n ies or se lf protection orguni

za tio n s (m eetin g p la c es and o ffic e s o f th e en em y, p o lice station s, b arrack s, im p ortan t b u ild in gs, their lo c a l situ ation , stren gth o f the d e fe n c e and fav o u ra b le p o in ts o f attack for a cou p de m ain and for sy stem a tic attack). B. M eth od s o f w ork. T h e en tire in te llig en ce serv ice w o r k assu m es (d ow n w ard s), w h en th e situ a tio n b e c o m es acute, a g e n e ra l ch aracter to a still larger e x ten t th an form erly, and d em an d s (upw ards) a still greater refin em en t an d sp e c ia liz a tio n o f th e a c tiv ity o f th e section , and thu s an e sp e c ia lly c a re fu l and also te ch n ica l train in g o f the w orkers. In general, the w o r k in g m e th o d s w h ich w e re alrea d y ad op ted in p e a c e fu l tim e w ill a lso b e retain ed to th eir fu ll e x ten t in the n ew situ ation . T h e cen tre o f g ravity o f th eir im p o rta n ce is, h o w ev er, sh ifte d in the fo llo w in g d ir e c tio n s: 1. As the situ a tio n b eco m es m ore acu te, vo lu n ta ry a ssista n ts app roach the o rgan ization from all sid e s w ith o ffe r s to su p p ly m aterial. F or th e m o st p art th e y a p p ly to o ffic ia l qu arters (secretariats, e d ito ria l o ffic e s, and w e ll-k n o w n frien d s). T h e reason s for their vo lu n ta ry co o p e ra tio n are o f v e ry d iffe re n t k in d s (their ow n p reca rio u s p osition , in d ig n a tio n at the state o f a ffairs, d iffe re n c e in o ffic e or in th eir o rgan ization and, n ot least o f all, a re-insurance in c a se th e w o rk in g cla sse s triu m p h ). T h e m ore a c tiv e ly the w o r k in g c la sse s com e forw ard , th e greater w ill be the volu n tary c o o p e ra tio n in m asses, and th u s v a lu a b le m aterial w ill be su p p lied . 2. In th e w ork o f the se c tio n itse lf greater im p ortan ce w ill h ave to b e a ttach ed to the u tiliz a tio n o f a g en ts w h o se r ecru itm en t in tim es o f in c re a sin g stru ggles is e sp e c ia lly fu ll o f prom ise. C. O rgan ization. 1. P re lim in a r y rem arks. On the o c cu rr en ce o f a rev o lu tio n a ry situ ation , a m ilita r y o rgan ization w ill d o u b tless on ce m ore be created w h ich w ill h a v e at its d isp o sa l strictly d isc ip lin ed and firm ly organized cad res w ith in the o rgan ization on the one hand, and w h ich , on the other hand, m u st lea d and d irect th e com p an ies and se lf-p r o te c tio n o rg a n iza tio n s that w ill be form ed . T h e d etails o f the organization o f th ese lead in g m ilita ry co rp o ra tio n s w ill b e in accord an ce w ith th e situ a tio n arisin g out o f th e r evolu tion ary p ositio n . But the vario u s fo rm a tio n s w ill u n d o u b te d ly also require, in order to carry out th eir task s, an in te llig en ce se r v ic e w h ich w ill h ave to carry out ta ctica l en ligh ten m en t. In th is co n n ection the lead ers w ill h a v e to b e se lec ted from am on g the w ork ers in the old in te llig en ce serv ice b y w h ic h the train in g o f the now in te llig en ce serv ice is to b e carried out. T hu s, on th e creation o f the m ilita ry o r g a n i zation , the fo llo w in g pictu re w ill I presented: a) T h e station ary in te llig en ce ser v ic e w hich m ust deal w ith the en tire above m entioned group o f tasks, w ith the e x ce p tio n o f tin1 In < 'it i it I ' i > i ii;I t- 11111 - 1 i oi ill* i 11 < Ii \ (hint 'm ilitary form ation!).

50

b) T h e m o b ile n ew s se r v ic e w h ic h is lin k e d w ith th e fo rm a tio n in c o n n e c tio n w ith w h ic h it h a s b e e n form ed an d w h ic h h a s to p rovid e for the ta c tic a l en lig h ten m en t o f th is fo r m a tio n on the on e hand, and, o n th e oth er han d, w ill b e su m m o n e d for the clo ser e x a m in a tio n o f d e ta ils co m in g to the k n o w led g e o f the sta tio n a r y in te llig en ce se r v ic e eith er th rou gh rep orts from agen ts or in oth er w ays.

T he task s of th e intelligence service th u s include m ilita ry e sp io nage an d sabotage, h ig h tre a so n , su p p o rt of th e arm ed rising, p re p a ra tio n of m ass terro rism , an d , finally, re n d e rin g assistance to the Red A rm y . T he intelligence service is, alongside of th e m ilitary fighting organizatio n s, th e m o st im p o rta n t com p o n en t of the illegal p a rty ap p a ra tu s, w h ich itself, again, so long as the p a rty is n o t fo rbidden , co n stitu tes th e fre q u e n tly disguised core of the official C om m unist P a rty . T he p re p a ra tio n s of th e C om m unist P a rty for the im p en d in g a rm ed risin g led to th e fact th a t, alongside of the new s service a n d the fig h tin g org an izatio n s, a n u m b er of o th e r special fo rm a tio n s w ere also b u ilt up w hich no longer h ad to do w ith g en eral ag itatio n an d p ro p ag an d a, b u t w ere exclusively devoted to th e d irect p re p a ra tio n of th e revolution. Alongside of the intelligence service, m e n tio n m u st be m ade of the illegal p a rty o rg a n iz a tio n in a n a rro w e r sense an d fu rth e r of th e A m (A nti-M ilitary) o rg an izatio n a n d th e so-called O.S.N.A. wrhich we w ill deal w ith later. T he illegal p a rty o rg an izatio n in a n a rro w e r sense w as fo rm ed in acco rd an ce w ith th e in stru c tio n s issued by h e a d q u a rte rs a t th e beginning of Septem ber, 1932, o u t of v arious d e p a rtm en ts w hich w ere alw ay s in d icated by le tte rs an d w hose m em bers w o rk ed u n d e r assum ed nam es. T he follow ing sections ex isted :
1. D e fen ce , lettered A, ch a rg ed w ith th e su p erv isio n o f the p arty fu n c tio n a r ie s and th e fu rth er ex a m in a tio n o f n ew m em b ers. 2. C ourier serv ice, lettered J, w ith th e u su al fu n ction s. len d in g lib raries fo r ille g a l literatu re. 4. P o lic e , lette re d K, w ith th e fu n ctio n o f su b versive w ork am on g th e p o lice . N..S.D.A.P., lettered N azi, esp io n a g e and subvex*sion in the H itler

3. L iteratu re, lettered L, w ith the sp ec ia l fu n ctio n o f esta b lish in g

5. D e fe n c e fo rce, lettered W , w ith th e corresp on d in g fu n ction s. 6. 7.

Movement.

Unit (lied Kronl Fig htin g League) lettered E, for preparatio n of tvrrorlit notion.

S|

8. M ilitary p o licy , lettered R, p rep a ra tio n o f the arm ed risin g w ith th e fo llo w in g su b -eo m m ittees: a) R isin g w o rk in g group, lette re d AAK. b) M anaging C om m ission , lette re d LEIKO, w h ic h w ork s strictly co n sp ir a to r ia lly and c o n stitu te s th e real brain o f the arm ed risin g. T h e m em b ers are fo r m e r o ffic e r s w h o form the general sta ff o f the r evolu tion in th is case. c) M iscellan eou s su b -co m m ittees T h e S tah lh elm , the issu e o f w ith sp e c ia lly d iffic u lt task s e x p ert and a c o m m u n ic a tio n fo r th e N a tio n a l-S o c ia list P arty. su b versive literatu re, for dealin g (sh o ck b rig a d e), an in fo rm a tio n an d lia iso n expert.

In p u rsu it of the grow ing p re p a ra tio n fo r the rising the su b sid iary org an izatio n s of th e p a rty w ere also reorganized and disguised, as is show n by the follow ing circular:
In tellig e n c e service L ow er R h in e D istrict S ectio n 25. L ist o f the n u m er ica l in d ex o f the section s. P o litic a l O ffice o f the C om m u nist P a rty in charge o f L am bert H orn No. XV O rgan ization O ffice o f the C om m u n ist P arty in charge No. XVI o f H ans F lad u n g C ulture o f th e C om m unist P arty in ch arge o f No. XVII H ans F lad u n g No. XV R ep resen tative o f L am bert H orn, R u di H en nig T rad e U n ion K onrad Sk rentn i N o. X V III N o. U .B .X S u b -D istrict h as on ly one num ber N o. K. B. XX K. g. d. F. in charge o f H R ed P ro v id en t S o ciety in charge o f W eb er No. R. H. XXX N o. I. A. XXXX IAH. in charge o f A rnold K rone All oth er Su b-D istricts un der their resp ective num bers. In tellig e n c e S ervice M ath, and P eter K lingen N o. 25 M. org a n iza tio n E rich G nter O berb ilk N o. 26 T a c tic a l A p paratus P rinz O berbilk N o. 26a O p p on en ts S ectio n II. N o. 27 A sso cia tio n (RFB.) No. 28

T he la st active groups w ere given the form of groups of five. T he w hole stru c tu re of th e o rg an izatio n w as from top to bottom c arefu lly disguised an d rigidly co ordinated. In p a rtic u lar, the suprem e m an ag em en t w as to be concealed u n der so m any disguises th a t it could conduct the en tire p re p aratio n s fo r the rising u n d istu rb ed , w ith o u t it being possible to attack or recognize it. N ot yet satisfied w ith the stru c tu re of such an illegal p a rty org an izatio n , the Com m unist P a rty at once began to build up f u rth e r m eans of protection and special sections w hich w ere strictly adap ted to Ihc requirem ent.* of nu eventual arm ed rising.

5I

At th e end of D ecem ber, 1932, in stru c tio n s w ere issued for the im m ediate fo rm a tio n of special O rg an izatio n P ro tec tio n and Intelligence Sections (O.S.N.A.). T h e O.S.N.A. w ere en tru ste d w ith the fu n ctio n of assisting th e intelligence service in the case of specially difficu lt task s (section G of th e O.S.N.A.); and fu rth e r w ith carry in g out a p e rm a n e n t p ro tectio n of the o rg an izatio n (section O.S.) an d finally w ith p ro tectin g the leading fu n ctio n aries, th eir dw ellings, th e m eeting places and offices of th e p arty , points of assem bly, etc. (section F.S.).

W illi Miinzenberg, the red H ugenberg


(Photo Gross)

T he idea of the O.S.N.A. was to create an absolutely reliable elite o rg an izatio n w hich w as to w o rk as a special organism not alongside of b u t in th e p a rty . A bout 10% of the m em bers w ere to be enrolled in the O.S.N.A., special im p o rtan ce being attach ed to the len g th of tim e th ey h a d been m em bers of the p a rty a n d to o th e r pro o fs of reliability. Its o rg an izatio n was to be com pleted on the 20th D ecem ber, as th e y in ten d ed to ap p e ar fully equipped on the scene of civil w ar in the com ing w eeks. Close co m m u n i cation of a p ersonal kind w as established betw een th e O.S.N.A. an d I lie R ed F ro n t F ig h ters League. Section leaders of the O.S.N.A. were a tta c h e d to the section staffs of the Red F ro n t F ig h ters League. T he p ractical w o rk of the O.S.N.A. m ay be gathered fro m a single instunee. On the 28lli F e b ru a ry the C om m unist and m em ber of the O.S.N.A. P aul L cderer was arrested in N urem berg, lie was found lo be in possession of in stru ctio n s from the O.S.N.A.

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leaders, a list of th e N u rem b erg police stations and of the N ationalSocialist P a rty and S.A. leaders, and fu rth e r of docum ents in cy p h er and a 08 arm y pistol. It th erefo re ap p eared fro m this th a t in F e b ru a ry 1932 th is e x tra o rd in a ry fighting o rg an izatio n of th e C om m unist P a rty w as also in fu ll w orking order. F inally, p a ra lle l to th e illegal p a rty organizatio n, the so-called Am o rg an izatio n (Am = a n ti-m ilitary ) was b u ilt up as the sh arp est p olitical offensive w eap o n ; it w as also previously described as the M o rg an izatio n or also as th e G.K. (m ixed com m ission). T he im p o rtan ce of th e A m -organization is obvious fro m the fact th a t th e lead ersh ip fo r the Reich w as in the han d s of M unzenberg an d Schneller, w hile the p resum ptive h ead of the illegal p a rty o rganizatio n , K ippenberger, w as obviously sum m oned to give advice. T h e supposed le a d e r of th e B erlin d istric t council is said to have been th e Y ugoslavian subject Dr. K arl T heodor F . . . . , w ho m ade use of an assu m ed nam e. T he stru c tu re of th e Am o rg an izatio n consisted of d istrict com m ittees an d su b -d istrict com m ittee u n d e r w hose o rd e rs the so-called active g ro u p s w ere placed w ho h a d to fulfill th e m ost d angerous an d m ost d ifficu lt task s connected w ith the p re p a ra tio n of th e rising. T he sph eres of the w o rk of the Am org an izatio n w ere closely related to those of th e O.S.N.A. in a ce rtain respect b u t h ad a stro n g er m ilita ry em phasis. T he follow ing spheres of w ork w ere d ealt w ith w ith special energ y :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. E sp ion age and su b v ersio n o f the p arties of the Right. ditto in th e p arties o f th e L eft. ditto in th e P o lice, A rm y and N avy. P ro v isio n o f w ea p o n s and exp losives. D e fen ce again st a tta ck s b y the state or by opp onents. Sp ying on pu blic a u th orities, in d u strial u n d ertak in gs, in te llig en ce service. 7. R ecru itin g w ork a m o n g form er m em b ers o f the A rm y a n d P o lic e.

In th e m iddle of F e b ru a ry in stru ctio n s w ere once m o re issued to develop the w ork am ong the fo rm er m em bers of the A rm y w ith the g reatest energy. O ut of th em a reliable staff for th e civil w ar arm y w as to be fo rm ed w hich was at th e sam e tim e to fo rm the backbone of th e Am organization. In the Am o rg an izatio n too th ere w as a certain overlapping w ith th e circles of th e Red F ro n t F ig h ters League. T h u s various elem ents of treaso n and violence w ere th ro w n tog eth er a n d m ixed u n til the invisible h e a d q u a rte r staff held in th eir h a n d s an explosive for m ilita ry purposes, of w hich the effects w ere a m enace to the w hole stru c tu re of Ihe Hcich. E verything w as done to bring about an early decision. Tin* p re p a ra to ry w ork of

VI

o rg an izatio n in th e sphere of political w ork w as com pleted. T h e o rganizatio n w as read y to u n d e rta k e th e fully p rep a re d rising. T hey w ere also q u ite clear as to w h at h ad to be done at IIn m o m en t w hen civil w ar b ro k e out. D etailed in stru ctio n s existed according to w h ich the p re p a ra to ry o rg an izatio n s w ere l<> he reo rgan ised d u rin g the struggle a n d a fte r its successful conclusion an d to be a d a p te d to th e new state of affairs. A fter pow er h a d been seized its u n d istu rb e d en jo y m en t w as to be secured. T h e germ s of th e C heka a n d of th e R ed A rm y w ere contained in th e illegal in su rre c tio n a ry o rg an izatio n s them selves and they w e r e I fru c tify on th a t day. W ith re g a rd to th is th e re is also au th e n tic m aterial available em an atin g fro m th e C om m unist h e a d q u a rte rs of w hich 1 r e p r o d u c e an exam ple te x tu a lly an d U nabridged:
T he In tellig e n c e S ervice du rin g the A rm ed R ising. A. F u n ctio n s. In the arm ed risin g, both at the start and also d u rin g the Flighting ih e w ork o f the in te llig en ce serv ice is not e lim in a te d hut. on the contrary, its fu n c tio n s are fu rth er augm ented. It is th en to concen t rule on the q u estio n s d ealin g w ith the d irect p o litic a l an d m ilitary over th row o f the e n e m y and h is form ation s. T his m ea n s m en tio n ed : th e fo llo w in g task s, in ad d ition to those already

1. T h e sta tio n a r y in te llig en ce service: su p p ressio n o f the en em y press, d isco v ery o f se c re t p rin tin g p resses, con d u ct o f m a ss terrorism lu con ju n ctio n w ith the sp ec ia l groups and, su b seq u en tly, supporting the r ev o lu tio n a r y trib u n a ls by the p rod u ction o f su ita b le material, 2. T h e m o b ile in te llig e n c e service: ta ctica l e n lig h ten m en t < > l all o rg a n iza tio n s o f the figh tin g fo r m a tio n s, sea rch in g the public ami p riso n ers and assistin g th e cou rts m artial.

B. W ork in g M ethods. F or the w o r k in g m eth o d s during the figh tin g th e sole line of g u id a n ce is to b e th e g oal to b e aim ed at. T o a c h iev e it, ill menus are ju stifie d . D e ta ils m u st dep en d up on the situ a tio n at the mom ent and the sp ec ia l circu m sta n ces. T he p o in ts th at are alrea d y clear are as fo llo w s: 1. T h e p ressin g n e c essity o f bein g in form ed regarding the enem y's p lan s d em an d s the m ost ex ten siv e use o f agents and reliable men. T h is e n ta ils the d raftin g o f a large n u m ber o f p arty friend s In p o sitio n s Hint ca n n o t he se ize d in the ordinary w ay. 2. T h e rapidity with w h ich decision s must be taken and Itie eon stantly ebaugiiig situation m akes the safe fun ctionin g of the m eans of c o m m u n ic a tio n betw een the apparatu s and the connectio n u

55

L E N I N FR

R E V O L U T IO N R E N

A N T inL IT A R IS

(Photo: Horlemann)

W hat was still possible recently: Fifth D istrict Conference of the BerlinBrandenburg section of the Red Front-Fighters League in the A ssem bly H all of the Piussian Diet, Berlin

d e c isiv e q u estion . H en ce one lin e o f co m m u n ica tio n is not enough, becau se it can be o n ly too e a sily interrup ted . W h at is n ecessa ry is the esta b lish m en t o f tw o or th ree p arallel lin es o f com m u n ication . 3. D u rin g th e figh tin g the en em y w ill also em p loy every form o f cu n n in g, even the d issem in a tio n o f fa lse in form ation . It is th ere fore p a rticu la rly im portant that all in fo rm a tio n received sh ould be c a re fu lly e xam in ed w ith regard to its correctness.

C. Organisation.
D u ring the first stages of the fig h tin g the form w ill rem ain th e sam e as during the p reviou s period m o b ile in te llig en ce service). W h en p ow er h as been large areas (districts) and w h en th e Red Army has th e ch aracter o f both bran ch es o f the in tellig en ce changed. o f organ ization (station ary and co n so lid a ted in been organized, service w ill be

1. The stationary intelligence service, augm ented by the best men in the organi/;ail ion, merged with 111* spcial groups formed for m ass terrorism ami with llic addition nf permanent military units, will
S<>

form the E xtraord in ary C om m ission (Cheka) w h ic h w ill carry out the sev erest m easu res to com b at the co u n ter-rev o lu tio n . T h e d e ta ils of the org a n iza tio n for th is can n ot yet b e fo reseen . 2. T h e m o b ile in te llig en ce se rv ice w ill b eco m e a p u rely m ilita ry in te llig en ce se rv ice w ith the p ro g ressiv e d ev e lo p m en t o f the R ed Arm y, w ith a ll th e fu n ctio n s assign ed to the in te llig en ce serv ice of a regu lar arm y. F rom th a t p oin t on w ard s it w ill w o rk in d e p e n d en tly w ith its ow n d irect c o n n ectio n s (agents).

The official, even if secret, lines of guidance fo r the intelligence service du rin g the arm ed risin g leave n o th in g to be desired as regards u n m ista k a b le clearness. D uring the rising the sta tio n a ry intelligence service in co n ju n ctio n w ith the special groups is to take over th e m an ag em en t of m ass terro rism , w hile the m obile intelligence service in c o n ju n ctio n w ith the special groups is to said perfectly fra n k ly th a t all m eans, th a t is to say to rtu re an d m u rd er on a vast scale, are to be em ployed. As a re w ard fo r th eir h a n g m a n s w o rk d u rin g the fig h tin g the sta tio n a ry in te lli gence service, on th e day a fte r pow er h as been seized, is to bccom e a Cheka, an o rg an izatio n of w hich the in h u m an cruelty is h isto rically a ttested by the R ussian exam ple. T he m obile new s service, 0 1 1 the o th e r hand, is to take over the w ork of m ilita ry espionage. In considering this d o cu m en t an d the C om m unist plans it m u st never be fo rg o tten th a t all the m em bers of the p re-rev o lu tio n ary intelligence service of the C om m unist P a rty are fu tu re C hekists an d w holesale m u rd e re rs w ho have a perfectly clear idea of th e ir fu tu re ta s k . It oug h t to be m ad e perfectly clear to these reckless an d u n scru p u lo u s political crim in als th a t the a u th o rities are fully in fo rm ed reg ard in g th e ir m u rd e ro u s in ten tio n s an d th a t they m ust reg ard the sp arin g of th e ir lives as a gift fro m the new G erm any. At the b eginning of F e b ru a ry the A ltenburg local group of the C om m unist P a rty received an o rd er th a t all young m en w ho h ad p e rfo rm e d m ilita ry service w ere to re p o rt to the district h e a d q u a rte rs of th e C om m unist P a rty of T h u rin g ia at E rfu rt by th e 15th F e b ru a ry . Sim ilar in stru c tio n s w ere doubtless received by the o th e r local groups of the C om m unist P arty . A secret m eeting at w hich soldiers w ere to be p resen t w as to have been held in D resden in the house of a c e rta in B ondem ann on the 22nd F eb ru ary . At the sam e tim e the Red F ro n t-F ig h te rs L eague in H am burg issued the follow ing p ro c la m a tio n :
W ork ers and a n ti-F a sc ists o f Haimiburg! H itlers b ro w n S.A. m u rd erers are on the m arch ! R ed H am burg is b ein g m ob ilized ! P o lic e o ffice rs! You too are p r o leta r ia n s in u n iform . Do n ot let them u se you w r o n gfu lly to fire on th e w orkers, on you r fathers, b rothers, mother iiiul nisIi-is! W e w arn you. H am burg w ill rem ain red in
1

57

spite o f all terrorism . T h e Red F ro n t-F ig h ters L eague is on the w atch . A lthou gh fo r b id d e n for years, it is n ow stronger th an ever. To arm s, an ti-F ascits! T h e day is at han d w h en our v icto r io u s Red A rm y w h ic h req u ires no p o lice p ro tectio n w ill u se its arm s to drive the d ead ly e n em ies o f the w ork in g c la sse s to the devil. Red F ro n t-F ig h ters L e a g u e .

T h a t w as the sheet lightning th a t presaged the B olshevist revolution. T he av alan ch e was on the move. W as it going to cru sh th e G erm an n a tio n ?

Red Front" mass meeting in the Sportpalast, Berlin.

III. Treason.
T he n a tu re of C om m unism an d th e ex ten t of its activity in G erm any can n o t be rig h tly estim ated if one does not completely take into acco u n t th e in te rn a tio n a l c h a ra c teristic of M arxism . The G erm an C om m unist P a rty is th e only one in G erm any which is a foreign, alien an d h o stile group. It is p a rt and parcel of IlitSoviet U nion; as reg ard s o rg an izatio n an d finance, it is directly d ep en d en t on M oscow to w hom , according to th e statu Ies, il owes th eo retically an d p ractically u n reserv ed an d unconditioned obedience. T he w hole w ealth of ideas of th e p arty , th eir whole ag itatio n an d p ro p ag an d a, all th e ir o rg an izatio n s an d actions u n d irected ag ain st th e in terests of G erm any and calculated lo p rom ote th e in te re sts of th e Soviet U nion. W ith th e conception of the Soviet U nion th e re is connected n o t so m u ch the idea < 1 Russia, b u t the con cep tio n of a six th p a rt of the e a rth s surface w hich is co n tro lled b y the C om m unist In te rn a tio n ale. T here stood, an d still stands, b eh in d th e G erm an C om m unist P arty , n ot so m uch the Soviet G overnm ent, b u t th e K om in tern an d th e C om m unist P a rty of th e Soviet U nion. As a result, how ever, of the ncliml positio n in R ussia, w h ere the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le exercises an u n re stric te d despotism an d keeps th e Soviet G overnm ent in n state of dependence, th e re ru n countless th re a d s from the Gcrmim C om m unist P a rty in B erlin to the Soviet R ussian G overnm ent in Moscow. Of g re a t im p o rtan ce fo r th e ju d g m en t of th e Commimisl P a rty s treaso n ab le w o rk is, above all, in th e first place, Is subjectio n to the C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le, to Ihis Jewish M arxistic m o rta l enem y of the G erm an natio n . It w ould ta k e up too m u ch tim e to quote th e endless examples of the Soviet obsession of the G erm an C om m unist P a rty . II will suffice w h en I say th a t n o t a single copy of a new spaper, not a single p am p h let, gram o p h o n e record, or book of pictures was produced, n o t a single film , th e a tric a l p erfo rm ance, o r meeting and, generally, n o t a single m eeting of th e G erm an Com m unis! P a rty ever took place b u t th a t G erm any w as insulted and beh a ved in the m ost ab o m in ab le m an n er, the Soviet U nion, on the oilier hand, being e x tra v a g a n tly praised sky-high and rep resented as the real F a th e rla n d of the G erm an w orkers. C om m unism in G erm any was and is in its essence and effect an u n in te rru p te d and organized belrnyal of land and people.

It is quite n a tu ra l th a t above all things the Intelligence Service of th e K.P.D., in fact th e w hole org an ization of m illions itself, w as in th e Secret Service of a fo reig n country. T he resu lt was th e incredible an d u n b earab le con d itio n of affairs w hereby a fo reig n c o u n try h ad a t its beck an d call an o rganization containing a m illion alien subjects, w hich let itself be m isused as the b etra y er of its ow n n atio n . T h a n k s to th e C om m unist p a rlia m e n ta ry groups in the m u n icip al an d state p arliam en ts, u ltim ately in the R eichstag itself an d in the R eichstag com m ittees, Moscow w as alw ays excellently in fo rm ed reg ard in g th e in te rn al occurrences in the G erm an Reich. T he facto ry cells gave details of G erm an in d u strial w o rk s; th e cells in th e facto ries of m ilita ry im portance, in b arrack s a n d on ships, w ere w ell-disciplined an d poorly paid agents in the service of Moscow. T he w hole of G erm any w as in terp en etrated by an a rm y of agents an d spies of th e C om m unist In te rn a tio n ale. At no tim e of h er h isto ry has R ussia herself conceived and c reated h e r in d u stria l an d m ilita ry w orks. It has alw ays been foreig n co u n tries w hich supplied th e ideas, the processes, the inventions an d the experts. T h e Five Y ears P lan and the in d u stria liz a tio n of Soviet R ussia m ade it especially u rg e n t for h e r to o b tain exact details of G erm an y s latest tech n ical and scien tific achievem ents. F o r th is p urpose all the C om m unist fa c to ry an d trad e-u n io n o rg an izatio n s w ith th e ir m an y hun d red s of th o u san d s of m ore or less unsu sp ectin g m em bers w ere engaged in the service of the Soviet-R ussian facto ry espionage. It w as a q uestio n of a cen trally fo rm ed an d system atically organized secret service system w hose m em bers h a d to proceed u n d er definite in stru c tio n s and on th e basis of certain q uestionnaires. W e give below an exam ple of such an espionage q u e stio n n aire:
Is th ere a sp ecia l secu rity serv ice in c o n n e x io n w ith the firm ? If th is is n o t the case, h o w are th e p rem ises guarded? D o es a c om p an y su p p ly m en for th e guard? N am e o f com p an y? H ow strong is th e secu rity service? W h at are th e h ou rs o f th e w o r k in g sh ifts? H ow stro n g ly are the gates gu arded a) during the day? b) by nigh t? W h at is the p o litic a l attitude o f th e secu rity service a) in general? b) as an organ ization (F ascist organ ization s?)? Are there an y R.G.O. (R evolu tion ary T rade U n ion s O pposition) c o m rad es or agen ts am ongst them ? Is the secu rity service arm ed? S tate nature o f arm s, in the case o f fire-arm s, if p ossib le, calibre or pattern. Are the w e a p o n s alw ay s curried <>r only nl night?

(> 0

T otal num ber o f p istols? T o ta l qu an tity o f a m m u n itio n ? W h ere are the reserve sto r es o f w e a p o n s and am m u n itio n situ ated ? (to b e m arked in sk etch ) Are m em b ers o f the se c u r ity se rv ice m assed as a reserve w h en the w a tc h m e n on d u ly are b e in g relieved ? W h ere? (to b e m a rk ed in sk etch ). H ave th e w a tch m en dogs w ith th em ? H ow m an y? T h e above q u estion s sh o u ld be gon e in to th o ro u g h ly and a c c u rately an sw ered even w h en w a tc h and w a rd com p an ies are em p lo y ed . Are th ere a n y sp ec ia l fire p ic k e ts on duty? W h a t is th eir stren gth a) b y nigh t? b) b y day? W h a t is the p o litic a l attitu d e o f th e m en o f the fire p ick ets a) in gen eral? b) as an o r gan ization ? Are th ere a n y p o litic a l r ela tio n s b e tw e en the fire p ic k e ts and the secu rity service? Is th ere a com m on m an agem en t? WT h at ala rm -co n triv a n ces are th ere in the factory? (Fire-alarms, steam or e lectric siren s. E x a c t p o sitio n s to be m arked in sk etch ). Are there direct p o lice-a la r m s? W h ere are the alarm poin ts?

How far away is the nearest police station?


W h a t attitu d e did the fire p ic k e ts and the secu rity serv ice adop t on th e o c ca sio n o f form er strik es? In case o f action , 'what d o e s the R.G.O. w o rk s m a n a g em en t con sid er im p ortan t? All q u estio n s are to be go n e in to th o r o u g h ly and u tm o st care m u st be taken.

On 25th April, 1932, in th e first crim in al division of the c o u rt of app eal a t F ra n k e n th a l, th e tria l w as held of E ric Steffen, K arl D ien stb ach an d F rie d ric h O ehlenschlager w ho w ere charged w ith w orks-espionage at th e I. G. F arb e n w e rk e a t L udw igshafen. T he evidence show ed th a t fo r som e y ears a c e n tral office for in d u stria l espionage h a d existed in B erlin fro m w hich the in d i vidual C om m unist su b -d istricts received in stru ctio n s fo r getting hold of th e w o rk s secrets of th e individual in d u stria l u n tertak in g s in G erm any an d to p ass those secrets on to the cen tral office in B erlin. T he evidence show ed th a t the object of the activity of the accused w as w o rk s espionage, p lan n ed on a large scale and aim ing a t the b e tra y a l of secrets fo r the pu rp o se of com petition, an d th a t in favour of th e Soviet in d u stry . All processes connected with III p ro d u ctio n of am m o n ia, carbam ide, m ethane, artificial resin, d r , an* com prised in the u p -grading of the raw m a teria ls present in Mu.sm in large q u an tities, nam ely, chiefly, charcoal

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an d ta r an d w ith in th e com pass of th e building up of a chem ical in d u stry w ith in in th e Five Y ears P lan . A ccording to S chm idts confession, m an y im p o rta n t secret processes an d p a ten ts w ere b e tra y e d to th e Soviet-R ussian espionage w hence th e y w ere passed on to Russia. A ccording to S ch m id ts statem ents, in d u strial espionage is of tw o d iffe re n t k in d s: the th eo retic al an d the p ractical. All m em bers of the p a rty w orking in in d u stria l u n d e r tak in g s are pledged to the first. T h ey are in stru c ted to inform th e ir p a rty of all im p o rta n t events a n d changes in th e w orking of th e w o rk s w hich com e to th e ir notice. F o r p rac tica l espionage w h ich aim s a t getting possession of valu able m a n u fa ctu rin g secrets o n ly a sm all n u m b e r of specially gifted and tru stw o rth y m em bers of th e p a rty are em ployed. S teffen s case w as obviously one of p ra c tic a l espionage. T he tria l en ded b y Steffen, D ienstbach and Schm idt being sentenced each to 2 y ears, O ehlenschlager to 5 m o n th s im p riso n m en t. T he a ttitu d e of th e cu lp rits is revealed in one of S teffens in te rc e p te d letters w hich ra n as follow s: W e d o n t call it espionage, b u t econom ic assistance. In th e re p o rt on th is case the B ayerische S taatszeitung, No. 85 of 15.4.1931 m entioned, am ong o th e r things, th a t the fact th a t in a single G erm an large-sized u n d e rta k in g betw een the years 1926 an d 1930 no few er th a n 134 serious cases of facto ry espionage w ere discovered, and th a t in the y e a r 1927 alone, some 3,500 legal actio n s w ere n ecessitated by such crim es, ought to m ake both, a u th o ritie s an d p riv ate u n d ertak in g s, consider the m a tte r seriously. A fu rth e r exam ple of w o rk s espionage w as b ro u g h t to light by th e tria l of th e electrician F rie d r. T hiele for w o rk s espionage c a rrie d o u t by him at th e I. G. F arb en w erk e, near B itterfeld in F e b ru a ry , 1931. T hiele w as sentenced to 3 y e ars p en al servitude. T hiele w as p resid en t of th e I. G.s w o rk m en s council and a m e m b e r of the I. G.s w o rk s council. His fellow -accused w ere, w ith o u t exception, m em bers of th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty an d the R ev o lu tio n ary T rad e U nion O pposition. T hiele tried to get h old of th e w hole m a n u fa c tu rin g process of the B itterfeld w o rk s of th e I. G. F a rb e n in d u strie A.G. and to o b tain possession of d etails, especially of th e p ro d u c tio n of m agnesium , n itric acid, p h o sp h o ru s and light m etal. T he know ledge obtained by such spying w as to reach the ce n tra l office of the G erm an C om m unist P a rty by ro u n d a b o u t w ays an d ev en tu ally Soviet Russia. In the de facto as w ell as in the legal ap preciation the ju dgm ent p roceeded fro m the fact th a t the foreign governm ents, especially S oviet R ussia, have been try in g to keep them selves well posted as to w h at is being m an u factu red in G erm any and w hat m ethods of p ro d u ctio n are being used. Russ in p refers lo m ake use of the

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m em bers of the G erm an C om m unist P a rty , because the la tte r consider it th e ir d u ty to p lace them selves a t the disposal of a co u n try w hich serves th em as a m odel in political, econom ic an d cu ltu ral respects an d w hose exam ple th ey follow as a m a tte r of course. T h a t th e indiv id u al a u th o rs w ere acting on the in stru c tio n s of the G erm an C om m unist P a rty is proved by the fa ct th a t th e C rim inal Police succeeded in discovering, b u t n o t arrestin g , th e supposed lead er of the gang, a m an living u n d er an assum ed nam e. T his m an w as a m em b er of the C om m unist C entral O ffice in B erlin and, in th is capacity, an agent of the R ussian Intelligence Service, w ho h a d been in stru c te d to fin d o u t d etails of the w o rking of the G erm an in d u stry , above all th in g s of m ilita ry im portance. W e have proofs of this. It is clear, even fro m these few exam ples, how close the co-operation of Soviet espionage w as w ith th e C om m unist o rg a n i zations in G erm any. T h a n k s to nu m b erless police investigations and tria ls befo re th e S uprem e C ourt, it has been proved th a t I. a fo reig n section of th e M uscovite G.P.U. w as w orking in G erm any an d th a t 2. this Soviet-R ussian o rg an izatio n controls an d m an ag es th e C om m unist espionage in G erm any. A case is w ell k n o w n of th e Soviet R ussian S ecretary to the E m bassy in P aris, B essedow ski, w ho, in th e beginning of 1930, had to clim b over th e w alls of the P a ris E m bassy building in o rd er to avoid being a rre ste d by the C heka agent R oisem ann. At th a t tim e, th e B erlin as w ell as th e H am b u rg Sections of the G.P.U. h ad flying d e ta c h m e n ts at th e ir disposal. N am es do n o t p lay an im p o rta n t p a rt w ith the agents of the p o litical dem i-m onde. T hey change fro m day to day w ith o u t the rig h t n a m e being k n o w n a t all. T his is especially tru e of one of the m o st d angerous G.P.U. agents in G erm any, Boris N ikolajew itsch , alias Iw anow , alias K rassnopolski. In F e b ru a ry 1933, this B oris N icolaevich cam e in to co n tact w ith a n u m b er of highly suspicious persons, e. g. th e R ussian C om m unist V olodiya, the R ussian Jew S cherzm ann, th e G erm an C om m unist K unst. J u s t before 27th F e b ru a ry Boris N icolaevitch w en t back to Moscow. T he G.P.U. agents are no novices in th e ir profession. T hey proceed w ith th e g reatest sm artn ess an d have acquired the a rt of p ro tectin g them selves a g a in st police observation. W hen caught, such an ag en t refuses to speak. His obstinacy goes so fa r th a t at lim es, as, for exam ple, in th e case of th e C om m unist Otto P., he avoids cross ex am in atio n by co m m ittin g suicide. The professional agents approach a member of the German Communist Parly and Iry to induce him to get for them news

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o u t of th e w orks in w h ich he is engaged. L ady-typists and em ployees in the draw ing-offices a re freq u en tly approached. The victim sta rts w orking fo r the M oscow espionage volu n tarily or com pulsorily. T he News C learing S tations are found in illegal fla ts w ith a dum m y ow ner. Such w as the case w ith the C om m unist M em ber of th e R eichstag J. Sch. w ho w as w orking in a flat supposed to be occupied by a c e rta in Mr. B raun, w ho, how ever, h a d d e p a rte d to R ussia long ago. W h en this Intelligence H ead q u a rte rs w as raid ed the police fo u n d c o u riers parcels containing a re p o rt on the B erlin -K arlsru h er In d u striew erk e. A sim ilar p a rt was play ed by th e C om m unist L andtag M em ber Siegel, w ho w as app ro ach ed by th e ch au ffeu r Jo h an n es M. and th e lo ck sm ith K urt I), w ith in fo rm a tio n reg ard in g the G erm an fro n tie r protectio n . He re fe rred th em to the R eichstag M em ber K ippenberger, w ho reg u larly received and paid these agents. It is know n to the courts th a t th e m a n ag er of the News Clearing S tatio n passed 0 1 1 the espionage m a te ria l to Russia via the h e a d q u a rte rs of the G erm an C om m unist P arty . Soviet-R ussian espionage is in te re sted n o t only in G erm an p aten ts, in d u stria l factories an d chem ical processes, b ut especially in the R eichsw ehr, th e ir a rm a m e n t and train in g and in all o th er m a tte rs in connexion w ith the defence of the country. It is the m o st sh am efu l c h a p te r in the h isto ry of the C om m unist party, so rich in treach ery , th a t they served in th e m ilita ry espionage section of a foreign pow er T he b e tra y a l of m ilita ry secrets goes h a n d in h a n d w ith the w o rk of d isin teg ratio n in the G erm an a rm y an d navy, and b etray al seem s to be a fru it of C om m unist d isin teg ratio n . T he C om m unist espionage tries to o b tain in fo rm atio n ab o u t the o rg an izatio n an d the a rm a m e n t of the G erm an arm y a n d navy, especially ab o u t th e c o n stru ctio n of guns and m en-ofw a r and o th er m ilita ry details. B etw een Ju n e 1931 and D ecem ber 1932 no few er th a n 111 m ain tria ls w ere held for treason. A lm ost 150 persons w ere sentenced for th e b etra y a l of m ilitary secrets. In m ost cases C om m unistic subversive lite ra tu re prep ared th e betray al. Some of the cu lp rits acted o ut of p u rely C om m unistic conviction. As th ey them selves declared, there w as for them no fa th e rla n d ; in case of w ar, they w ould side w ith the Soviet Union ag ain st G erm any. But, often enough, the m otive for b e tray al w as p erso n al profit. H igh bribes w ere prom ised, though seldom paid. In one case the bribe w as a new p a ir of bool soles; this how ever, leak ed out and the new ow ner of I lie soles received a long stretch of pen al servitude. Again and again, Ihe threads of espionage could be traced to some Communist Member of llte Heichslag who used liis immunity

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for the p urpose of selling his ow n fa th e rla n d , an d p ro tected him self ag ain st police in v estig atio n s by m eans of n u m ero u s false addresses, false nam es, go-betw eens a n d cam ouflaged m eeting places. T he am ple fees a n d allow ances of R eichstag M em bers m ade such persons fin a n c ia lly in d ep en d en t an d p e rm itted them to utilize especially im p u d e n t m ethods. W hen ev er a C om m unist spy w as at la st discovered an d arrested , th e re w ere re g u la rly fo u n d in his dw elling great

( i . und j : Photo H orltm ann)

Prominent Reichstag Members of the German Communist P arty: Wilhelm Pieck; Ernst Torgler; H ugo Eberlein.

q u a n titie s of subversive lite ra tu re , w eapons or explosives, in a word, all th e tools of a w ell-equipped Bolshevist. If one considers th e ex ten d of th e C om m unist net of espionage over the w hole te rrito ry of G erm any, one realises th a t here a m illion o rganized G erm an n a tio n a ls have w ork ed for the m ilitary intelligence service of ;i foreign pow er, and it is quite im possible to dispute lli< e x tra o rd in a rily d angerous q u ality of C om m unist spying.

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It is a m a tte r of course th a t th e Ino G.P.U. w orked w ith all the trick s of cu n n in g co n sp irato rs o p eratin g u n d e r assum ed nam es or false addresses, fo u r or five a t a tim e, w ith secret lodgings, forged passp o rts, secret codes, disguises as com m ercial travellers or to u rists, last n o t least w ith p rovocation, counter-espionage, d en u n ciatio n , te rro rism secret c o u rts and all the o th er m ore or less cu n n in g m eans of a well th o u g h t-o u t org an ization of the political u n d erw o rld . If, fro m tim e to tim e, all th ese things are rem in iscen t of a fa n ta stic detective novel, it is tru e th a t here, as often, facts are m u ch m ore fan tastic, m ore com plicated, and m ore gruesom e th a n the m o st d arin g fancy. O ut of th e w ealth of au th en tic m a te ria l only a few cases can be quoted. As is w ell know n, th e re has existed in G erm any fo r nearly t e n . y ears th e so-called Red P ro v id e n t Society of G erm any, a section of th e In te rn a tio n a l Red P ro v id en t Society, know n by the R ussian ab b rev iated nam e of M O PR , to all o u tw a rd seeming, an o rg an izatio n for h u m a n ita ria n a n d alm ost ch aritab le purposes, w hose sole official fu n ctio n consisted in giving help to political priso n ers an d th e ir dependants. B ut th is society, like every B olshevist organization, h ad a second, illegal face. The deficit in its 1931 budget am ounted in all to 231,000 m ark s w hich w as paid by Moscow. B ut th e w hole of the Societys ex p en d itu re am ounts to 3,700,000 m ark s w hich w as also paid by Moscow. T he com plete o rg an izatio n is m an ag ed by W a lte r Stocker an d W illi Miinzenberg, th e n o to rio u s Red H u g en b erg , who, on his visit to Moscow in N ovem ber 1931, received no less th a n one m illion gold roubles to spend on th e developm ent of C om m unist p ro p ag an d a in G erm any. T he secret o rg an izatio n of the Society organized, w ith the help of th e G.P.U., p assp o rt-fo rg in g centres, so th a t in Berlin, H am b u rg and D anzig no few er th a n 5,000 passp o rts and 10,000 certificates w ere issued in th e co u rse of fo u r years. The Red P ro v id en t Society secretly stood in close connexion w ith th e D e ru tra (G erm an R ussian T ra n sp o rt C om pany Ltd.), w h ich ostensibly, carried on a g enuine tra n sp o rt business w ith Russia. K aolin, th e H am burg ag en t of th e D eru tra, was at the sam e tim e the rep resen tativ e of th e C entral Com m ittee of the MOPR fo r G erm any. T he fo rg in g of p assports an d the close connexion w ith the tra n sp o rt co m p an y h ad a quite definite purp o se: to free political p riso n ers an d get them out of the co u n try , especially to Russia. H o rst W essels m u rd e re r found refuge in such a cen tre in P rag u e w hich w as u n d e r the m an ag em en t of the U k r a i n i a n C om m unist W apuhl.

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T he hid in g of p riso n ers etc. w as gen erally effected in the follow ing w ay:
As so o n as a C om m u nist h a d esca p ed fro m p r iso n or w a s e x p e ctin g to b e arrested, h e w a s tak en b y m otor car to one o f th e v a r io u s fro n tier-cro ssin g p laces, eith er in th e n orth to L auen, in the so u th to R eich en b ach -G latz or in th e w e st to M eppen. H ere h e ob ta in ed w ith o u t d ifficu lty a te m p o ra r y fro n tier p a ssp o rt fo r on e day, w h e r e u p on h e p ro m p tly d isa p p ea red w ith th e h elp o f frien d s. In case o f th rea ten in g arrest, th e fo llo w in g cou rse w a s pu rsued: T h e refu g ee w e n t to D an zig, w h e n c e he p ro ceed ed to S oviet R u ssia on a S ov iet steam er. In oth er cases, the r efu g ee took the route fr o m S tettin via S assn itz to B o rn h o lm , w h er e h e w a s lan d ed at a d e fin ite, so -ca lled co n sp ira to rs b a s e o f th e MOPR. T h e se c o n d w ay has, up to n ow , cau sed no d ifficu ltie s; th e tran sp ort o f the r efu g ee s w a s a u to m a tic a lly and c a re fu lly org a n ized and n o fa ilu re s h a v e b e e n rep orted.

T he m o re th e re v o lu tio n a ry situ atio n in G erm any rip en ed in the opinion of th e K o m in tern , th e m ore was th e Red P ro v id en t Society co m m itted to illegal action. Specially selected persons w ere sent fro m M oscow to G erm any, am ong th em :
1. A certain w om an n a m e d ................... w h o fr o m 1922 to 1926 w ork ed in th e B alk an s un der the in str u c tio n s o f th e OGPU and later on in th e co m m issa ry d ep a rtm en t o f the OGPU on sp ec ia l m issio n s . S h e w a s attach ed to a sp e c ia l group w h ic h d eals w ith q u estio n s co n n e c ted w ith the P ro v id e n t S ociety. ............................ an form er o ld fe m a le a ssista n t in th e R azved u p r and in the EKKI o ffice for in te rn a tio n a l com m u n ica tio n s; sh e w a s a m em b er o f th e sp ecia l grou p from the start. ............................ a jo u rn a list, ex -a g en t o f th e MOPR in N ew York. He w a s c lo s e ly c o n n e c ted w ith th e e co n o m ic se c tio n o f th e OGPU. All th e se p e r so n s are in p o s se ssio n o f fo reig n p assp orts. A L ith u a n ia n w o m a n ; a G erm an; a P o lish Jew .

2.

3.

In a d d itio n to its visible m an ag em en t th e Red P ro v id en t Society h a d a secret h e a d q u a rte rs of its illegal organization, corresp o n d in g to th e illegal o rg an izatio n of th e p arty . Very pro b ab ly th is h e a d q u a rte rs w as com posed of th e follow ing persons:
1. K urt F u rtw en d ler, S o c ia l D em o cra t (left w in g), m em b er o f the cen tra l o ffic e o f the trade u n io n s as w e ll as one o f the h ea d s o f th e sta tistic a l section . Dr. H acklunder, C ologn e-W erm elsk irch en , w h o w a s in tou ch for m an y yea rs w ith the EKKI in c o n n e c tio n w ith the MOPR. He en jo y e d the fu llest c o n fid e n c e o f the EKKI. As he is above all .tiittpicion, his person seem o f great im portance.

2.

(>7

3.

P au l B aum an n, L u d w ig sh a fen (exact add ress and p r o fe ssio n u n k n o w n ). As a rule, m o n e y s for th e variou s p arty fu n d s w ere re m itted th rou gh him . G nther H op p e, years. B erlin ; co o p e ra te d w ith the MOPR for m any

4.

5. M eta Kraus-JFessel, B erlin , w o m a n jou rn alist. 6. Dr. P au l F ried ln d er, B erlin, p a n e l doctor. 7. E rna H alle, dau ghter o f P r o fe sso r H alle. She w a s one o f the m an agers o f the cen tral o ffice s fo r the M arxist sc h o o ls in B erlin. 8. H ah n en sch ild , fu n ctio n a r y o f th e MOPR and o f th e In tern ation al W o r k m e n s P ro v id en t S o c iety (IAH), B erlin. W eid en w e g 68.

9. P o g ed e, B erlin, G en terstrasse 52, p arty fu n ction ary. 10. W an sk e, B erlin -P a n k o w , B rem erstrasse 25.

T he C om m unist m em ber of the R eichstag, Siegfried Redel, at th e sam e tim e m an ag er of the W o rk in g C om m unity of socialp o litical org an izatio n s (Arso), w as th e liaison officer betw een the official m an ag em en t an d the secret h ead q u arters. Tw o exam ples of lib e ra tio n of crim inals:
a) W illy Sim on, liv in g in B e rlin N W 87, S iem en sstrasse 8, w as su sp ec ted o f tak in g part in the m u rd er o f the sc h o o lb o y N orkus. W hen o n 24th Janu ary 1932 he w as sittin g in a beer sa lo o n in the W icle fstra sse servin g as a m eetin g p la ce o f the party, a m an is alleged to h a v e c o m e up to h im and to h ave said th at he w o u ld h a v e to be got o u t o f the co u n try as h e w a s su sp ec ted o f h avin g m urd ered N orkus. T h e stranger gave h is n am e as L anger. T h ey w en t in a taxi tow ards G rnau, ch an gin g ta x is at B au m sch u len w eg . H e, Sim on, w as hidden fo r a fe w w e ek s in a settlem en t. On 13th F eb ru ary the u n k n ow n m an b rou gh t him a p assp ort m ad e out in th e nam e o f K urt B rw ald. The p e r so n a l d escrip tio n corresp on d ed w ith his ow n . T he p assp ort w as issu ed in B erlin , and Sim on tra v elled w ith it to the Soviet U nion. b) P a u l M ichaelis, h avin g h is la st resid en ce at W ittstock , Ringm ein er str a sse 4, w as a m em b er o f th e C om m unist Y outh L eague and o n 1st O ctober 1931 got m ixed up in a sh ootin g affray w ith S.A. peop le. H e w e n t to B erlin. W h ile h e w a s read in g a C om m unist p ap er on B lo w p la tz, he w a s accosted by a m an w h o stated that he w a s a m em b er o f the R.F.B. M. said he w a s afraid o f being arrested. After a fe w d a y s the stranger gave him a p assp ort m ade ou t in the nam e o f Ed. F isch er. T he p erso n a l d escrip tio n o f the letter agreed w ith h is ow n dow n to the date o f h is birth. T he p assp ort w a s dated from B erlin . A fter h e had received a ra ilw a y -tick et and RM. 20 travellin gm on ey, he w en t to R ussia via T ilsit-K n igsb erg w ith th is passp ort.

With and without the support of the Red Providence Society numerous centres lor falsifications were established by the (iennaii

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C om m unist P a rty . F o rg eries w ere m ade of en tran ce cards for election m eetings an d conferences of all kinds, adm ission-tickets to police dw ellings and b a rra c k s, S.A. id en jity -card s, police id entitycards, even coins an d bills of all d en o m in atio ns w hich w ere m an u fa c tu red in C om m unist fo rg e rs dens. A fo rg e rs den of this n a tu re w as discovered in A ugust 1932 in th e so-called Gnge d istrict at H am burg, w hen 16 fire-arm s, 3 m ilitary rifles, steel haw sers, ru b b e r tru n ch eo n s, iro n tru n ch eo n s, daggers, k n u c k le dusters an d a m m u n itio n w ere fo u n d in th e sam e building. A sim ilar discovery w as m ad e in S tu ttg a rt. T his kin d of fin an cin g the p a rty by fra u d , fo rg ery o r e x p ro p riatio n , i.e . th e ft or ro b b ery m ethod, is, m oreover, a tra d itio n a l B olshevism in w hich C om rade S talin h a d excelled. A p o p u la r tric k consisted in the n u m ero u s G erm an experts em ployed in R ussia losing th e ir p assp o rts w hich w ere th en used for C om m unist agents trav ellin g to G erm any. A special B lack C abinet a t th e G.P.U. in M oscow w as w ork in g th is trick , and a t the sam e tim e, supervised the m em bers of th e Ino G.P.U. ab ro ad , of w hom we have alread y h eard . T he follow ing m ethod of procedure w as adopted for th e p ro cu rin g of foreign p assp o rts:
A P ru ssia n n ation al, K. B., w a s en gaged at a fa c to r y in L eningrad. On 15th O ctober, 1931, K. B. gave h is p assp ort to a m an n am ed B atygin and em p ow ered th is m an to arrange w ith the A lien s O ffice for the p r o lo n g a tio n o f h is (K. B .s) certificate o f resid en ce. T h e v a li d ity o f th at certificate h a v in g d u ly b een exten d ed , K. B .s p assp ort w a s retu rn ed to B atygin w h o th ereu p o n d ecam ped. T h ere w as a certa in r esem b la n ce b etw een K. B. and B atygin.

T he discovery by th e police, a t B erlin-W ilm ersdorf, K aiserullee 48a of th e huge h e a d q u a rte rs fo r p assp o rt forging on 28th N ovem ber, 1932 is still w ith in the m em ory of all. T he follow ing details are ta k e n fro m the police re p o rt on this a ffa ir:
. . . . T h is c o lle ctio n w as h o u sed in a cupb oard w ith four sh elv e s an d c o n ta in in g a ll th e n e c essa ry m aterial fo r forgin g p u rp oses. On the c en tra l sh e lf tw o tran sp ortab le b o x es w ere foun d, co n sistin g each o f eigh t d raw ers fille d w ith fo r g ed rubber stam ps. T h e stam p s w ere n eatly arran ged under varyin g head in gs and served th e p u rp o ses o f G erm an co n su la te s abroad, fron tier traffic, p a ssp o rt o ffices, and o f th at se c tio n o f the P o lic e H ead q u arters in Berlin w h ic h issu es fo reig n r e sid en ts licen ces. A m ong them w ere stam p s o f variou s oth er se c tio n s o f the B erlin P o lice H eadquarters, o f Hu* p o lice miminlM lrative se c tio n s o f foreign cou n tries, o f the registry oll'ices o f I In* Itcich ami foreign cou n tries as w ell as n u m erou s f a c sim iles nml slum p* o f b u sin ess firm s. A ltogeth er 21ii rubber and

69

11 em b o ssin g stam p s o f the sorts n am ed w ere fou n d in th ese b o x e s to g eth er w ith p h o to g ra m s o f in la n d and foreign p a ssp o rts and p a ss p o r t stam p s. . A sp ec ia l file con ta in ed n u m er o u s b irth c er tific a tes, p o lice te sti m o n ia ls, sc h o o l and tea ch in g certificates, p o lice reg istra tio n pap ers and oth er im p o rta n t p ap ers fo r p e r so n a l id en tification . O ther ino f the p assp ort togeth er w ith the d u ration o f v a lid ity o f the passport, r eg u la tio n s or d eta ils regarding th e d ealin gs b e tw e en c en tral offices and lo c a l fron tier sta tio n s are d ealt w ith b y m in iste ria l d ecrees. In v estig a tio n s sh ow that th e fo rg ers h a v e u su a lly forged p assp orts issu ed b y th e p a ssp o rt a u th o rities by tak in g out pages, e sp e c ia lly th o se c o n ta in in g th e n am e and d e sc r ip tio n o f th e p erso n o f th e ow n er of th e p assp ort togeth er w ith the du ration o f v a lid ity o f th e passport, n ew p a g es w ith forged co n ten ts b e in g su bstitu ted . T h e p a ssp o rt form s u sed fo r th is p u rp ose app ear to h a v e b een genuin e. T h e forgers did n ot lim it th eir a c tiv itie s to the p ro d u ctio n o f p a ss ports but ibirth -certificates, u n em p lo y m e n t and tax cards, and certifica tes of e m p lo y m en t w ere also forged , th e sign atu res o f the origin al o ffic ia ls b ein g forged by tracin g th em over. T he org a n iza tio n o f the forgers w as divided into four sep arately lo ca te d groups. In th e ab o v e-q u o ted ca se o n ly th e O ffice o f the p assp ort forgers w as d iscovered . T h e other three d iv isio n s con sisted of the so -c a lle d W o r k sh o p in w h ic h th e to o ls are m ade, also a D raw in g D ep a rtm en t and P h o to g r a p h ic D ep a rtm en t in w h ich d raw in gs o f stam p s and p h o to g ra m s o f p assp orts etc. w ere m ade. A S toreroom in w h ic h sp are m a ter ia l and p assp orts read y for issu in g w ere stored , co m p lete s th e p icture. T h e org a n iza tio n d iscovered in K aiserallee 48a w as run by tw o p erso n s w h o w e re o f C om m u nist c o n v ictio n s. T h ey w ere the tool-m ak er Karl W ., born on 7. 5. 02 at Charlottenburg, and th e p ain ter E rw in K., born at N eu -R u p p in on 6. 4. 06. T h ou gh th e se w e re arrested, tw o oth e r s w e re able to m ak e good their escape. T h ey o c cu p y in th e C om m u nist P a rty h igh and im portant p o sitio n s and m ay be d escrib ed as th e m en at th e b ack o f th e p a ss port fo rg in g a ctivities. F ro m en q u iries u n d ertak en as a resu lt o f goin g th rough the m a teria l fou n d , it app ears th at w ith in th e C om m u nist p arty in stru ctio n s h ave b een given to th eir m em b ers req u estin g them or their rela tiv es to ob tain from the p a ssp o rt a u th orities p assp orts w h ic h w ere th en used by th e p assp ort forgin g organ ization .

T he n ecessary form s, docum ents, stam ps etc. for such forging h e a d q u a rte rs are, as a rule, o b tain ed from the a u th o rities by m eans of theft. From the sentence of the Supreme Court of 8. 12. 1931, on Walter Nesller, the following facts may be concluded:

70

//it; Communist P.i.s sport Forgers Workshop, discovered on 2 8 .1 1 .1 9 3 2 in the flat of AJk/i.iid ( i.u tmann, merchant, Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Kaiserallee 48a.

H ahn, w a tch m a k er in C hem nitz, m em b er o f the G erm an C om m u n ist P arty, arrested. Seven forged stam p s of district ad m in istration s and m a n y c o p ies o f o fficia l d o cu m en ts confiscated . H ahn escap es to L eningrad. N e stler ad m its h avin g m ad e c o p ie s and so ld p a ss fo rm s to the G erm an C om m u nist P arty.

On 28. 2, 1933 th e negative of an official docum ent w as found a t 25, L in d o w erstrasse, B erlin. In th e cellar th ere was a com pletely eq u ip p ed p h o to g rap h ic d a rk room . F in a lly it m ay be m en tio n ed th a t th e sm uggling of P.G.U. agents into, a n d of refugees out of, G erm any, the sm uggling of illegal m a te ria l etc. n ecessitated a special section of C om m unist w ork, th a t is to say, the o rg an izatio n of a p rotected and safe fro n tie r traffic. F o r th e m ost p a rt th is took place th ro u g h so-called sp o n so rs over definite p a rts of the fro n tier. I give herew ith ex tra c ts fro m th e w ork in g p lan of the G erm an C om m unist P arty fo r the second q u a rte r of 1932, re g ard in g instru ctio n s fo r the secu rity of the Saxon C zecho-Slovakian border. It is proposed to a rran g e fo r w ork in g cells a n d R evolutionary T rad e Union O pposition groups in the fo rest u n d ertak in g s of the fro n tier districts, th e follow ing su b -d ep artm en ts being noted:
UB. UB. U B. U B. T h o rw a ld D istrict. F o re st D istrict K h n h eid e A n sp ru ng R benau. C rotten dorfer F orest. H eroldwrald, S ch n eb eck er W ald , A uerbacher W ald, D h ler W ald. C reation o f strong local groups in the fron tier district, e sp ecia lly w h er e a fron tier is crossed by roads and railw ays. UB. 2: K lein gie h b el, R osen th al X, H ellen d orf X, lsengrund X, ls e n , F rsten w ald e, R u d olp h sd orf, F rsten au X, G ottgetreu, G eising -(-, L c w e n h a in -}-, R e h e feld X, L au n estein X. D eu tsch g eo rg en th a l X, D eu tsch k ath arin en b erg X -f-, Satzun g X, A n sp ru ng X, P fa ffr o th a -S ch n fe ld X, Sayda X -(-. J h stad t X Jugel X, S tein b ach X, W ild en th a l X, G lashtte W e ite re s X. S ch n b erg X -]-, H en n eb ach , L and w iist X, W ern itzgr n X, E ubabrun n X, Jgersgrn, S teindb ra, Soh l-M iih lh au sen X -j-, Bad E lster X + . + = R ailw ays; X R oads. 2: 4: 8: 9:

UB. 4: UB. 8: UB. 9:

All th e details quoted com bine to m ake the terrib le p icture of th e th o ro u g h ly organized, cen trally directed, im pudent espionage w ork, possessing a th o u san d ram ificatio n s, of the G erm an Com m u n ist P a rty and ils collateral o rganizations, in the interests of a foreign pow er, lo 1* exact, of in enem y pow er, the C om m unist

72

In te rn a tio n a le in Moscow. T h e idea is m o n stro u s th a t th is n e t w ork of frau d , spying, fo rg ery , subversion an d force has lain fo r years over G erm any w ith o u t th e govern m en t ever having m ade a serious a tte m p t to b re a k th e n et in w hose m eshes they have long enough been u n w ittin g ly entangled. It becam e very obvious th a t th e in te n tio n w as to co n ce n tra te the G.P.U. w ork in G erm any m o re and m ore, to p re p a re it m ore and m ore fo r th e com ing d ecision as one of the m ost im p o rta n t in stru m e n ts of th e a rm ed risin g and of the com ing d icta to rsh ip of the C om m unist clique.

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IV. High Treason.


T h e n ex t stage of the im m ed iate p re p a ra tio n of the arm ed risin g consists in th e subversion of th e opponent, and, first and forem ost, of his o rg an izatio n s fo r a tta c k and defence. Im p o rtan t objectives of the C om m unistic su bversion w ork wrere S.A., S.S., S tah lh elm , a rm y an d police. T h e fu n d a m e n ta l docum ent a b o u t th e strategy and tactics of th e arm ed risin g w hich in th e y e a r 1928 is said to have been p u b lish ed by O tto M eyer, Z rich a n d w ritten by th e notorious C om m unist te rro ris t an d exp ert in subversive lite ra tu re H einz N eu m a n n w ho uses th e assum ed nam e A. N euberg, co n tains a detailed th e o ry of th e w ork u n d e r F ig h tin g Forces of the B ourgeoisie . T he book of N eum ann-N euberg Der B ew affnete A ufstand, V ersuch e in e r th eo retisch en D arstellu n g is one of the m ost im p o rta n t docu m en ts for th e tra in in g of th e C om m unist defence organizations fo r m ilita ry purposes. T ak in g th is book as a basis, the tra in in g of th e fu tu re soldier of the red a rm y and Cheka in G erm any has been proceeded w ith. Besides th is book, th e lib ra ry of a B olshe vist te rro ris t h a d to co n tain tw o o th e r w orks Die m ilit rp o liti sch en S ch riften von E ngels u n d L e n in , published by In te rn a tio n a le r A rbeiterverlag, and th e equally illegal book of H ans Kippenberg er, alias A lfred L anger, D er W eg zum Sieg Die K unst des b ew affn eten A ufstandes , said to be p ublished by P. M eier, Z rich. Published by the same firm, behind which, naturally, 1 Com munisf organization took cover, there also appeared in the illegal

74

m o n th ly m agazine O k to b er , M ilitrp o litisch e Z eitschrift, edited by E rn st S chneller, M em ber of th e R eichstag. A m ongst the co lla b o ra to rs of th is strictly secret le a d e rs perio d ical are a n u m b e r of au th o rs w ho sign th e ir co n trib u tio n s w ith pseudonym s, e. g. Adolf, M ax , T heo etc. N atu rally all the ru les of c o n sp ira to rs w ere observed w hen sending o u t these perio d icals w h ich are seldom d espatched th ro u g h the post, or, w hen th ey are, in a m isleading envelope, n o rm ally by co u rier to in term ed iate or false addresses. T he card-index of th e su b scrib ers is w ritte n in c y p h er an d m ade safe m an y tim es over so th a t th e d istrib u tin g centres h ave n o t yet been discovered, n o r h as it been possible to confiscate a n d destro y these papers. N euberg-N eum ann speaks of th e necessity of th e w ork of su b verting th e arm y, th e m eth o d of w o rk being as follow s:
T he a ttitu d e o f th e r ev o lu tio n a r y p roletariat to the im p e r ia lis tic w ar in k eep in g wiith L e n in s p r in c ip le .is the tran sm u tation o f thiis w ar in to civ il w ar. T ow ard s the arm y, w h ic h is the m ost im portant fa c to r o f the im p e ria listic w ar, the attitu d e o f the party and o f the w h o le r e v o lu tio n a r y p roletariat m u st be su ch th at th e y w ork for the c o m p lete su b v e rsio n o f th e .im p erialistic arm y and th e .goimig over o f m a sses o f so ld ie rs to th e side o f the r ev o lu tio n a r y p roletariat. T hat is the aim an d o b ject o f the w ork o f the p arty in tihe larmy, but it is ach iev a b le o n ly w ith the c o m p lete victo ry o f th e p roletarian revolu tion . As lon g as the p ow er is in the h an d s o f the b o u r g e o is state, the b ou rgeois arm y w ill r em a in one o f th e d ecisiv e c o m p o n e n ts o f that state. It is th e ta sk o f the p roletariat, no m atter w h at the p o litic a l situ ation in the cou n try m a y be, to su bvert the b o u rg e o is arm y as far as p o ssib le and to r ev o lu tio n iz e it.1)

A lfred L anger expresses h im self in very m u ch th e sam e w ay:


O ne o f the m ost im p ortan t p relim in a ries to this fig h t is tireless, o b stin a te, sy stem a tic w ork , sh rin k in g from no terrorism , w ith in th e a rm ed fo r ce s o f the b o u rg eo isie, a c o n tin u o u s r ev o lu tio n a ry e d u cation o f th e so ld ie r-m a sse s. 2)

T he G erm an C om m unist P a rty has, in the sp irit of these th e o ries, issued m an y tim es exact directions fo r th e w o rk in the n a tio nal associations, a rm y an d police. T he alread y w ell-know n ille gal special o rg an izatio n s, especially th e intelligence service, th e enem y observ atio n section, th e O.S.N.A., th e R.F.B and, above all, the A m -organization c a rrie d o u t the w o rk of subversion. A c irc u la r of the A m -o rg a n iz a tio n p ara g ra p h :
*) A. N c-111 fi>* "Der Bewaffnete Aufstand", p. 157. 2) Alfred l.iinnei : Der Weg zum Sieg, p. 38.

co n tain s th e follow ing

e > *

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At first, it is n e c essa ry to get th e w ron g idea out o f the heads o f co m ra d es that all p o lice m en are b lo o d th irsty hou nd s. T h ere are n a tu r a lly sw in e am on gst th em and th ese sh ou ld be p a rticu la rly noted. At d em o n stra tio n s as w e ll as on oth er days, there are a lw a y s ch an ces o f a rgu in g w^ith p o lice o ffice rs. F or ex a m p le, there w as su ch a p ossib ility at the la st d istu rb an ces in M oabit. O b servation sh o w e d that su ch c h a n c e s are m ade u se o f on ly in a fe w caises. W hat su b jects sh ould be d iscu ssed w ith p o lice o fficers? F irst o f all, our p rogram m e an d dem an d s in gen eral. T hen the co n v e rsa tio n w ill, as a rule, turn to th e present situ ation . Strikes m e etin g s ille g a l d em o n stra tio n s etc.

In h a rm o n y w ith the th eo retical principles of N euberg, how ever, th e subversion of th e arm y, police an d of the n atio n al associations w as u n d e rta k e n by th e A m -organisation professionally. At the sam e tim e, th e w hole o rg an izatio n of C om m unism w as used for th is treaso n ab le activity. I quote th e follow ing sentences fro m the c ircu la r of the G er m an C om m unist P arty , In fo rm a tio n Section, reg ard in g the w ork am ong th e relatives of m em bers of th e arm y.
B esid es w o r k am ong the F a sc ist form ation s, w o rk am on g m em b ers o f the arm y is ab so lu tely n e c essa ry not o n ly w h ere th e y are station ed , but wrh ere they have their h om es. W ith us, it is not on ly the task of in d ivid u als, but o f th e w h o le orga n iza tio n . T h e o ffic e r s are r e a c tio n a ry alm ost to a m an. W ith the rank and file the fo llo w in g attitudes have ibeen observed: w ith som e (fairly large) bod ies, d islik e o f the N azis, w h o are regarded as com p etitors. B esid es this ev ery w h ere k een in terest for e v er y th in g that h ap p en s in the S oviet U nion. T here is a certain am ou n t o f d issa tisfa ctio n w ith the pay. T he sy stem o f p rom otion 'is a fu rther ca u se o f d iscontent. In our pu b lic m eetin gs, ev er y w h e r e w h ere w e com e into con tact wiith w orkers, the m a ter ia l m e n tio n e d here m ust be ex p lo ite d to the full. In our n ew sp a p ers for fa cto ries and b lo ck s o f h ou ses, esp e c ia lly in u n d e rta k in g s v ital in w ar, and in arm y garrison s, th ese facts m ust be p u b lish ed and com m en ted up on, sp ec ia l referen ce b ein g m ade to their value for the ibonrgeoisie in p rep arin g for wrar and civil w ar.

T his docum ent is a strik in g p ro o f not only for the theoretical, b u t also fo r th e p u rely p ractical, treaso n ab le w ork of all C om m u n ist o rganizations, how ever h arm less they m ay seem. T he follow ing q u estio n n aire is an o th e r proof. It was d is tri bu ted am ongst th e m em bers of a p a rty conference held in B erlin a t th e beginning of F e b ru a ry , 1933 and had to Ik* given back im m ediately after being filled in. II read s w ord for w ord as follows: H ave you thought how important it in lor the party to be 'informed of the plans o f the bourgeoisie in good time, ami lu k n o w the leelings of the clasftci which lllcv lire pu lling a^iiinst us?

7(i

W e w an t to h elp y ou : 1. H ave y o u an y a cq u a in ta n ce s or r ela tio n s in o p p o n e n t o r g a n iza tio n s o f an y kin d, o f w h om y o u k n o w th a t th e y are alread y u n ce r ta in or sy m p a th ize w ith u s? 2. D o y o u k n o w any te c h n ic a l w ork ers, en g in eers or c h e m ists in u n d erta k in g s vital in w ar or w h o w o rk in research in stitu tes? 3. 4. 5. H ave you any relation s, a c q u a in ta n ce s or sc h o o l fr ie n d s in co n c er n s vita l in w ar anid p eace w h o co n tro l th e life blood o f su ch co n cern s? H ave y o u an y c o n n e x io n s w ith th e S o cia l D em o cra tic P arty, R eich sban n er or free-tra d e-u n io n fu n ctio n a r ies? H ave y ou any c o n n e x io n s w ith m em b ers N .S.D .A .P . or w ith the T en o, S tah lh elm Anbeitsdiemst? of or the S.A., S.S. or m em b ers o f the

6.

D o y o u a lw a y s k eep y o u r e y e s o p e n fo r p rovocateu rs and agents w h o w ork in our ranks? D o y o u k n o w that the p o lic e are tryin g m igh t and m ain to sm u ggle ele m en ts o f th is mature in to th e party? H ave y o u reflected th a t u m p teen com rad es have frien d sh ip s w ith m em b ers o f the arm y and n avy? H ave y o u any su ch frien d s?

7. H ave y o u an y a cq u a in ta n ce s w h o do b u sin e ss w ith su ch p eo p le? 8.

H ave y o u g ir l frien d s or a cq u a in ta n ce s w h o are e m p lo y ed b y p eo p le w h o are o f im p ortan ce to u s? D o n t th in k th at you r in fo r m a tio n is not im p ortan t. E ven the sm a llest bit o f n ew s i s valu ab le.

Name.
N o. D ay. Cell.

W ith u n su rp a sse d energy and m in u ten ess of detail, opposing o rg an izatio n s w ere spied u p o n and th e w ay paved for th e ir sub version. Such q u estio n n aires w ere fre q u e n tly distrib u ted, w ith th e o b je c t of th e ir being collected in som e ce n tra l office, gone th ro u g h an d m ad e use of. T h ey w ere carefu lly studied w hen it w as a m a tte r of spying upon th e police forces, th e S.A. and S.S. T he follow ing sheet of q uestions w as d istrib u ted by the h ead office of th e enem y o b serv atio n section to all m em bers of the Intelligence Service and th e enem y ob serv atio n section w ith the req u est fo r an im m ed iate answ er:
1. Is a) b) c) d) th ere a se c tio n o f the N .S.D .A .P . in your lo ca l group? A storm troop o f the S.A. and S.S.? N u m ber o f the troop and its strength. N am e o f th e lead er. W luil are Hie su b d iv isio n s o f the troop, troops o f runners, inteJliKoncd sectio n etc.? < i I lin n m iiioiiu led section ?

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2.

H ow m a n y p o lice station s are th ere in your district? a) N u m ber o f the station. b) Strength. c) N a m e o f o fficer. Is th ere a N a zi b arrack s in you r sp h ere o f w ork? b) N u m ber o f m en. H ow arm ed, carb in es, m a ch in e-g u n s &c.? c) H ave w e any c o n n e x io n s w ith the N azi barrack s through our lia iso n m en? d) W h a t op p o rtu n ities are there fo r attack? A u tom ob ile p ark of the p olice and au x ilia ry police. a) W h ere are the p o lice car garaged? H o w are th e y guarded? b) W h ere are the S.S. and S.A. ca rs garaged? H ow are th ey guarded? c) Are th ere an y arm oured cars n ear the p o lice station ? m a n y are th ere and w h ere are th ey garaged?

3.

4.

If so, how

5.

D o the fo rm a tio n s o f the S.A., S.S. an d Stah lh elm w ork togeth er? H ow do th e y w o rk togeth er? Is there an y p o ssib ility o f gettin g su bversive literatu re into the sectio n s? . If so, to w h om sh ou ld it b e d elivered ? Give e x a ct address.

T he c h ie fs o f the eneimy ob serv a tio n sectio n s m ust at on ce exp el r elia b le com rad es for certain d e fin ite rea so n s. T h e e x p u lsio n o f the m en in q u estio n m ust be m ade k n o w n to all m em b ers. T he duty of the e x p e lle d m en is as follo w s: to gain en trance into o p p osin g organ i zation s, all n e c essa ry p reca u tio n s b e in g observed, o rgan ization o f the in te llig en ce service. A. H ow is th e o rgan ization arm ed? Are the m em b ers o f the org a n i z ation train ed in m ilitary fa sh io n ? W here? If p ossib le, state tra in ing gronnid. B. W h ere are the stock s o f arm s k ep t? H ow strong is the guard o f th e b u ild in g w h ere the arm s aire kept? G. Are there any m a ch in e guns, carb in es, m ach in e p istols, 08 p isto ls &c? If p ossib le, give num ber. F u rth er ob servation and rep ortin g on the op p on en t fo llo w s n atu r a lly fro m the ob servation . M oney from the fu n d o f the en em y o b ser v a tio n se c tio n s is at the d isp osal o f the com rad e con cern ed on his stating for w h at purp ose. T he com rad e con cern ed w ill r ec eiv e p orting. further in form ation on re

S ection 25/27.

R esults of the C om m unist espionage have been seized in m any ases, e. g. in I lie tria l of Em il Vogel for high treason. T he k clehes here reproduced wore found in Vogel's flu I.

Sketches produced at the trial of Emil Vogel for high treason. For further sketches, see page 80.

N atu rally , if p ro p e rly co n d u cted subversive w ork is to produce valuable resu lts, spies m u st be p ro p erly train ed . T his tra in in g wT as c a rrie d o u t in special m ilita ry courses of the A m -organization, fo r w hich very d etailed in stru c tio n s w ere d istrib u ted by the H ead O ffice of th e A m -m anagem ent as late as F e b ru a ry . 1933.
I. S trictly c on fid en tial. N ot su ita b le for the norm al run o f b u sin ess.

D eta ils o f cou rse for the m ilita ry task s o f the rev o lu tio n a ry p roletariat. C on ten ts: page I. In tro d u ctio n II. T h e A rm y ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ 1 4

A. T h e o r g a n iza tio n o f the A rm y ............................................................. 6 B. T h e im p ortan ce and part p la y ed by the A r m y ................................. 6 C. A n a ly sis o f cla sse s rep resen ted in th e Arm y and its id e o lo g y 7 D. T h e p o litica l, o ffic ia l and m aterial p o sitio n . . . .................... 9 III. T he c ffe c l o f IIn' crisis on the Arm y. A. 1$. l'im diim enlal c o n tr a d ictio n s inc a p ita lis t m ilitary p o licy Tin*H Ti'ds o f the crisis on the Arm y .......................................... Thi' riiM'. mill di sin teal'll linn from w ithin ................................... 10 10 10

7l>

#;

80

IV.

The A. B. C. D.

lin e o f propagan da. G eneral p o litic a l p o in ts o f v iew ....................................................... C ap italist and p ro leta ria n m ilita r y p o licy .................................. W a tch w o rd s and p aroles in the agitation ................................. P art -dem ands .......................................................................................

11 11 12 13 14 14 15 16 17 17 18

V.

M eans o f prop agan d a and m e th o d s o f w ork A. G eneral m e a n s and m eth o d s ............................................................ B. S p ecia l m ea n s o f ag ita tio n and prop agan d a ............................ C. M ethods o f d istrib u tion o f literatu re ............................................

VI. T h e fo rm s o f org a n iza tio n o f w ork am on g sold iers. ........................................................................ T h e m ilita ry o r g a n iza tio n B. T h e o rgan ization o f th e en tran ce o f r ev o lu tio n a ry e le m en ts into the A rm y ........................................................................................ C. T he w ork am ong form er sold iers ............................................ VII. T h e org a n izin g o f the r ev o lu tio n a r y w ork am on g sold iers . . . . E n c lo su re s: 1. T h e fo rm a tio n o f th e A rm y. 2. E sta b lish m en t o f o ffic e r s and other ranks. 3. T h e so c ia l sta n d in g o f m e m b er s o f th e A rm y. 4. L ist o f literatu re and ta b le o f p aym en ts.

II.

S trictly c o n fid e n tia l.

N ot su ita b le for the nonm al run o f b u sin ess. D e ta ils o f course. T he w ork am on g the p olice.

C ontents. I. II. A r ev o lu tio n a r y task. (F u n d a m en ta l attitude) .................................................................. 1 3

T h e p olice. (H istory F o rm a tio n A p p lica tio n Class w arfare M aterial p o litic a l and o ffic ia l p o s i t i o n ) ........................................ C risis G row th o f th e rev o lu tio n . (E ffec t th e p o lice d u rin g and after the arm ed rising) L in e o f p ropagan da. (G eneral p o in ts o f view p o litic a l lin es o f dem and s) M eans and m e th o d s o f p ropagan da. (S p ecial m e a n s m eth od s o f d istrib u tion o f literature) H o w to in flu e n c e the A rm y (T he g ettin g o f agents bases) ..................................................

4 15 16 17a 18 20 21 22 23 25 26

III. IV. V. VI. VII.

W o rk o n th e m asses. (The id e o lo g ic a l struggle m o b iliz a tio n o f the m asses)

A feverish activ ity of th e A m -subversion o rg an ization developed at th e end of 1932 an d beg in n in g of 1933. It w as intended to w ork intensively am ong the police and a rm y m em bers on C hristm as leave. Tin- circles of frien d s of th e police and arm y w ere subjected to close and detailed spying. In the m iddle of Ja n u a ry 1933 a
SI

m eetin g of th e fu n ctio n aries of th e A m -organization at th e com m an d of th e B erlin -B ran d en b u rg d istric t took place, and am ongst o th e r th in g s th e follow ing sta te m e n t was m ade:
It is o f the g r ea te st valu e to get hold o f form er m emibers o f the arm y. T h e y m u st ibe u sed to get c o n n e x io n s w ith soldiers under the c olou rs. In th e even t o f an arm ed risin g th eir m ilita r y k n o w led g e m ust be u sed b y a p p oin tin g th em lea d ers o f separate groups. ......................................................It is fu rth er c o n fid e n tia lly stated that other m eth o d s m u st be se lec ted for g e ttin g n e w c o n n e x io n s w ith th e arm y or p o lice. T h e e x istin g relia b le c o n n e x io n s m ust get the n am es o f m em b ers o f th e arm y or p o lice o ffic e r s w h o h a v e com m itted som e crim e o f w h ic h th e au th orities are in ig n o ra n ce. T h ese m e n can them b e forced to co-op erate by th rea ten in g to in fo r m th e c om m an d in g o ffice r o f their o ffen ce .

T his sp h ere of C om m unist w o rk is little know n to the general public, so th a t it h as been possible fo r th e im pression to get abroad th a t a rm y a n d police are im m u n e ag ain st such attem p ts at subver sion an d th a t th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty h a d given up the idea of u n d erm in in g these tw o m ost im p o rta n t p illars of th e state and of th e n atio n . T he tru th is exactly th e opposite. W h a t has actually ta k e n p lace on th is fig h tin g section m ay be com pared only to an in calcu lab le flood of subversive a tte m p ts of all kinds w hich u n in te rru p te d ly in u n d a te d th e a rm e d forces of the country. No police squad, no police station, no b a rra c k s, no w arsh ip w as spared subversive tre a tm e n t. In su fficien t public a tte n tio n w as directed to th is p ro ced u re of th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty u n til it w as too late. T h u s it is th a t it h as been possible only recently to get a clear surv ey of th e ex ten t of C om m unist a tte m p ts at subversion in arm y a n d police, an d th a t n a tu ra lly only so fa r as ce rta in facts have com e to light.
Su rvey o f C om m u nist su b v ersio n a c tiv ity in a rm y and p olice betw een Jan u ary 1st and D ecem b er 31st, 1932. C rim inal Cases: Arm y N u m b er N u m b er N u m b er N u m b er P o lic e N u m b er N u m ber N u m ber N u m b er of of of of p o lice in vestigation s ............................................................. crim in al cases han ded over to the P u b lic P rosecutor arrests ............................................................................................ p erson s sen tenced ..................................................................... 708 566 121 04 of of of of .............................................................. p o lice in v estig a tio n s crim in al cases h an d ed over to the P u b lic P rosecu tor arrests .............................. p erson s sen ten ced ...................................................................... 457 365 98 75

82

Total
N u m ber N u m ber N u m ber N u m ber of of of of ........................................... p o lice in v e stig a tio n s cases h an d ed over to the P u b lic P ro secu to r arrests ..................................................................... p erson s sen ten ced ........................................... 1225 931 219 169

A ccording to th e above, th e re w ere in 1932 in all 1,225 C om m u nist a tte m p ts a t subversion inv estig ated by th e police of w hich roughly tw o th ird s w ere am ong th e police forces. In th is one y e ar th ere w ere th u s alm ost 100 c rim in a l cases of subversion h an d ed over to th e P ublic P ro se c u to r. In spite of th e no to rio u sly c o m plicated an d p ro tra c te d proceedings in th e Suprem e C ourt, no

Sn/'iv/ s/re literature distributed in the .vtn y and navy.

8*5

few er th a n 169 perso n s w ere sentenced on account of subversive w o rk am ong a rm y an d police. On an average, then, last year, th ere w ere 3 4 cases of subversive w ork per day, a sentence w as p ro n o u n ced by th e S uprem e C ourt every o th er day, and every week no few er th a n fo u r a rre sts w ere m ade. H ow over th e w hole field of C om m unist activity, th e Bolshev ization in th is special section in creased from m o n th to m onth an d reach ed its h ig h est p o in t in th e first q u a rte r of 1933 m ay be seen fro m th e follow ing tab le:
1. 10. 31. 12. 1932 A. Arm y 1. N u m ber o f p olice in v e stig a tio n s 2. N u m ber o f arrests B. P o lic e 1. N u m ber o f p o lice in v e stig a tio n s 2. N u m ber o f arrests C. T otal 1. N u m ber o f p olice in v e stig a tio n s 2. N u m ber o f arrests 256 50 447 61 144 26 308 25 (?)
112

1. 1. 31. 3. 1933

24

139 36

T h u s th e n u m b e r of subversive atte m p ts investigated by the police w as alm o st doubled betw een th e last q u a rte r of 1932 and th e first q u a rte r of 1933 and th e n u m b er of a rre sts w as co n sid er ably larger. T he n u m b er of police investigations m ade on account of subversive a tte m p ts am ong th e police forces and th a t of the a rre sts m ade in th e a rm y for th e sam e reason are specially striking. T h e com m onest fo rm of subversive w ork w ithin arm y and police is th e d istrib u tio n of subversive lite ra tu re of all kinds, illegal b ro ch u res, leaflets, cell periodicals &c. In the year 1932, 1,367 cases of th e d istrib u tio n of subversive lite ra tu re am ong a rm y and police w ere k n o w n officially. In 235 cases subversive lite ra tu re w as co n fiscated by th e police, and in 620 cases crim in al cases w ere h anded over to th e P u b lic P ro secu to r on acco u n t of the d istrib u tio n of lite r a tu re of th a t class. Again th e great m ass of th is lite ra tu re falls to th e sh are of th e police (885 ag ain st 482 in the arm y). A co nsiderable increase of C om m unist activity about the end of 1932 and th e beginning of 1933 m ay be seen from th e follow ing survey:

84

1. 10.

31. 12. 1932

1 . 1.

31. 3. 1933

A. A rm y 1. N u m ber o f cases o f d istrib u tion of su b versive literatu re 2. N u m ber o f crim in al action s B. P o lic e 1. N u m ber o f cases o f d istrib u tion o f su b v ersiv e literatu re N u m ber o f crim in al actio n s instituted instituted 58 82 141
110

167 99

301 196

2.

C. T otal 1. N u m ber o f ca ses of d istrib u tion o f su b versive literatu re 2. N u m ber o f crim in al a ctio n s in stitu ted 157 278 308 411

In th e above figures, too, the alm o st doubled nu m b er of cases of d istrib u tio n of subversive lite ra tu re w ith in th e police forces is specially strik in g . T he n u m b e r of crim in al proceedings in stitu ted h a d also alm o st doubled. In F e b ru a ry 1933, th e subversive activity in arm y and police reached its h ig h est p oint. D u rin g th e y e a r 1932, th ere w ere roughly 40 cases of d istrib u tio n of subversive lite ra tu re w ith in the arm y and 74 am ong th e police. T hese figures rose in F rb ru a ry 1933 to 53 an d 130 respectively. W h e re a s th e n u m b er of cases of d istrib u tio n in the arm y had increased by m ore th a n 25 p e r cent, it h ad alm ost doubled am ong the police. F o r th e rest, th e follow ing are th e figures of cases of d istrib u tio n in F e b ru a ry , 1933.
I. A m on g the arm y. 1 p u b lica tio n in 10 oases 2 p u b lica tio n in 4 cases 3 p u b lica tio n in 2 cases 27 p u b lica tio n in 1 case 2 verb al c a ses o f su b version

10
8

6
27

H5

II. 1 1 1 1 11 75 1 1

A m ong the p o lice p u b lica tio n in 16 cases p u b lica tio n in 8 cases p u b lica tio n in 4 cases p u b lica tio n in 3 cases p u b lica tio n s in 2 cases p u b lica tio n s in 1 case inscription attem p t as su b version by w ord o f m outh

16 8 4 3 22 75 1 1 130 Total 130 183

T h e follow ing exam ples show how the agents generally w ent to w ork.
22. 12. 1932: S everal p arcels o f th e leaflet D ow n w ith S c h leich er w ere d elivered at the K om m andan tur and to the 5th P io n eer B ataillion at Ulm . 25. 12. 1932: W ach t-T ru p p e B erlin: 4 p arcels o f leaflets w ere th row n over the 'barrack w all. H allo! H allo! T he rev o lu tio n a ry com rad es o f the C avalry D etach m en t ca llin g . 1. 12. 1932: L e a fle ts On the a d v a n ce ! sm u ggled into the 2rd tor pedo-boat h a lf flo tiila at L iibeck.

23. 12. 1932: The Police Officer forwarded through the post to IImuihurg policcincii mid publicly dlslriihulcd.

8<>

25. 12. 1932: Alarm ! L o o k out! P o lic e O fficers, lo o k out! into the lette r-b o x es o f th e H am b u rg p o lic e m e n s h om es.

P ut

I
I!

12. 1. 1933: A rm y so ld ie r is req u ested in B e esk o w to get w e a p o n s and literatu re for the G erm an C om m u nist P arty on p aym en t.

As we have alread y seen, th e w o rk of subversion w ent h a n d in h a n d w ith th e b e tra y a l of m ilita ry secrets. F ro m a ju d g em en t of th e Suprem e C ourt in the year 1933:
In Ju ly, 1932, in the co u rse o f a search by th e p o lice in th e ihom e o f the accu sed , th ere w as fo u n d u n lo ck ed , in the righ t d raw er o f h is w ritin g desk, un d er C om m u n ist pap ers and p u b lica tio n s, a sk etc h r e p resen tin g th e vertica l s e c tio n o f -a m ilita r y b u ild in g. A ccord in g to the statem en t and ex p ert o p in io n o f C aptain N. N., it h as b een a scerta in ed th at th e d raw in g r ep re se n ts th e tr o o p s b u ild in g XY o f the b arrack s in ZZ, o c cu p ied b y th e X C om p any o f th e R eich sw eh r In fan try R egim en t X. It is true th ere are a fe w u n im p ortan t d iffe r e n c e s b e tw e e n th e sk etch fo u n d in the a c cu se d s h o u se and th e a u th en tic plan o f the b arrack s w h ic h su g g ests the th ou gh t th at the sk etch h as b e e n made from m em o ry or fro m the d escrip tio n o f a th ird p erson , but th ere w a s n o d isp u tin g the sta te m en t th at it rep resen ted the b a rra ck s m e n tio n e d in Z.Z. C harge o f th e P u b lic P ro secu to r again st the lo ck sm ith X. Y. in the y ea r 1933, o n acco u n t o f th e org a n iza tio n o f th e Red Y outh F ro n t, the h o ld in g o f m ilita ry c o u rses and drill, org a n iza tio n o f a rev o lu tio n a ry in te llig e n c e serv ice, d raw in g up o f a p lan o f the p o sitio n and b la c k lists.

SiW 'i <i \u v literature distributed among the police. H7

T he fo llo w in g h ectograp h ed d ocu m en t, am ong other things, b elon ged to th e p lan o f the p osition : P la n o f p o sitio n : M ake a sk etch o f the p rin cip al en tran ces into the tow n , size in sqr. m etres. 2. P ut in p o lice barracks, h o w arm ed . 3. H ow m an y m en in each b arrack s? 4. W h ere are the fly in g sq uad s station ed ? 5. Anmy b arrack s, depots, garages? 6. W h at are the strategic parts o f th e tow n ? 7. T ram w ays, depots. 8. F a cto r ie s and w o rk s w ith d e sc r ip tio n (gas, electricity . &c), strength o f p erso n n el, and of our in flu e n c e , is there a cell? 9. P ost, telegrap h , ra ilw a y , m o to r v e h ic le parks, aerod rom e. 10. Motor car firm s, telep h o n e n u m b ers, h o w m an y cars, w h ere, w hat are th e p o litic a l o p in io n s o f the d rivers and their so c ia l position ? 11. E n em y organ ization s, their stren gth , their d istrib u tion in th e strees. W h ere are th eir lea d ers to b e fo u n d , w h ere accom m od ated , sublead ers, p oin ts o f alarm , agen ts an d sp ies? 12. Wihat is the social co m p o sitio n o f th e p op u lation ? 13. P o litic a l o p in io n s. (M ake use o f th e e le c tio n results.) 14a) Our in flu en ce, stren gth o f th e party, our o r g a n is a t io n and all o rg a n iza tio n s a ffiliated . b) P o in ts o f alarm . c) W h ere hou sed? d) Stores? e) W h at m e a n s o f transp ort? A lis t w ith e x a ct figu res m ust be. given w ith each item . List: as per sam p le en c lo sed . In the black list w ere in clu d ed , a m o n g other th in gs: ad d resses and te le p h o n e nu m b ers o f th e p olice o ffic e r s, arm y o ffic e r s and soldiers, c iv il servants, ju d ges, legal o ffic ia ls, m em b ers o f en em y asso cia tio n s and o rgan ization s, their m eetin g p la c e s and quarters, ad d resses o f m o tor car ow n ers a n d their p o litica l p arty, list o f nu m bers o f m otor cars w ith p o litic a l o p in io n s o f the o w n ers. In fo rm a tio n o f the su p erv isio n o f e n e m y o r gan ization s. L ists o f n am es an d ad d resses to be arranged for th e m o st part a ccord in g to streets. Case o f the turner H ein rich M., H an over, on w h om w ere foun d in str u c tio n s regarding the org a n iza tio n an d a ctivity o f the sp ecia l section for w ork am ong arm ed forces. 1.

T h e n u m ero u s ju dgem ents p ro n o u n ced by the Suprem e Court w h ich are to be found in th e arch iv es of the League of G erm an A nti-C om m unist-A ssociations p erm it of a deep insight inlo the treaso n ab le resu lts of the C om m unist w ork of subversion. Subversive lite ra tu re has freq u en tly been put into the en trances of police statio n s or the letter-boxes of policem ens hom es. II has often been p u shed u n d er the doors of flats, w ritten on walls,
88

th ro w n into th e wrells of sta irc a se s or even into lavatories. L eaflets and pro clam atio n s of subversive c h a ra c te r have often been posted up or even attach ed to th e w alls of m ilita ry hospitals. D uring the arm y m ano eu v res th e subversive o rg an izatio n w orked w ith in sc rip tions on w alls, claque groups, tra n sp a re n c ie s an d lite ra tu re th ro u g h the post. A ttem pts w ere m ad e to sabotage and cripple th e m ilita ry forces of th e country. Thus, fo r exam ple, d u rin g th e day set aside for the P ro te ctio n ag ain st gas in Ja n u a ry , 1933, a leaflet in th e a p p a re n t form of an o ffic ia l an n o u n cem en t an d w ith a c ircu latio n of 20,000 w as posted early in th e m o rn in g on th e w alls of houses. T he o rg an izatio n d ep a rtm e n t of th e ce n tra l co m m ittee of th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty re m a rk e d , in th is connexion, in a co n fid en tial circu la r a b o u t experiences gained and lessons to be learn ed in the action ag ain st gas and a ir m an o eu v res :-
It m u st be p ossib le for us, by virtu e o f still b e tter m o b iliz a tio n w ork , c o m p lete ly to h in der th e e x e c u tio n o f such w ar m a n o e u v r e s by the p ow er o f m ass m o v em en t.

T h e type fo r leaflets an d subversive lite ra tu re of this k in d is com posed by reliab le m em b ers of th e p arty . H arm less an d ig n o ra n t unem ployed th en tak e it to a b u sy b eer saloon w here it is h an d ed over to a liaison m an on giving a passw ord. G enerally the tra n s p o rt goes on still fu rth e r w ith o u t the individual links of the chain k now ing the beg in n in g or end of th e chain. P rin tin g is done a t nig h t, m ostly in sm all econom ically dependent p rin tin g esta b lish m e n ts on p ay m en t of a bribe. All traces are im m e d iately d estroyed. At th e h o u r agreed upon, a m o to r car is driven up and loads th e p rin te d m a tte r w hich is b ro u g h t to its destin atio n in due course, d riv ers an d vehicles being changed on the way. T h e lite ra tu re is also fre q u e n tly se n t by m eans of couriers to in te r m ediate places in sm all p arcels fro m various post offices and th en , n a tu ra lly , w ith a disguised ad d ress and m isleading envelope. T he d istrib u tio n to th e low est su bversion u n it is u ltim ately m ade fro m the q u a rte rs of an u n in te re ste d p a rty . T he agents never ca rry the lite ra tu re in th e fo rm of a p arcel, b u t alw ays loose in th e ir pockets. F re q u e n tly th e subversive lite ra tu re b ears h arm less and attrac tiv e outside covers, e. g. T ech n iq u e of Love, by van der Velde, or A m o to r cycle fo r you, too. L atest new s fro m the M otor Show , a title w h ich concealed th e illegal periodical for the T h ird A rm y C om m and, 3rd y ear of p u b licatio n , No. 1 of F e b ru a ry 1933. How cu n n in g th e cam ouflage of th e subversive lite ra tu re has been mny be seen fro m cases in w hich such pam p h lets w ere hidden even in m atchboxes o r cig arette pack ets and given to little ch ildren to lake to c e rta in addresses.

89

T he low est subversive unit, th e active group, is ap p ointed to a defin ite place, e. g. a b a rra c k s, or the m ens q u arters in a police statio n . T his place is th en w ork ed on u n in te rru p te d ly , system a tically an d deliberately. T he m em b ers of the active group are supposedly n o n -p arty . T hey also serve as spying o rg an izatio n in so m u ch as th e y gain the confidence o f the officials over a gam e of c a rd s or a glass of beer. R ecently the G erm an C om m unist P a rty organized special girls clubs w hose m em bers w ere th o ro u g h ly train e d as spies. T hey w ere th e n sent to various places of am u sem en t to act as decoys to the tro o p s an d freq u en tly to the officers as well. Such a penetrating and comprehensive subversive work could not remain without effect, in spite of the utmost reliability of lh<

90

troops and the keenest sup erv isio n . It is q u ite c ertain th a t the fo rm atio n of C om m unist cells w ith in th e police force h as m ade considerable progress. In th e y e a r 1931, a t an u n k n o w n place an d tim e, a conference of red police to o k place. A re p o rt of th is found in th e m ilita ry gazette of th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty O k to b er o f D ecem ber, 1931.1)
T he F irst R eich C o n feren ce o f the R ed P o lic e. K. O ppel. H ave n o t su b v ersio n s o f w h o le fo r m a tio n s and -individual o ffic ia ls tak en p la ce th ro u g h o u t P ru ssia in the last fe w w e ek s as n ever b e fo r e? D id n ot tw o sq^lads o f p o lice in the B erlin M aik fer barrack s r e fu se to g o on d u ty ? W as n ot the In ter n a tio n a le su n g in p o lice b arrack s? D id n ot a w h o le p latoon in the B o u ch estra sse B arrack s r efu se to go on du ty? D id not the B e rlin L in d en u n it refu se to tak e part in fie ld ex er cise s? H ave th ere n ot b e e n w ild sc e n e s and rio tin g o f the sq uad s in the B e rlin W ra n g el B arracks? H a v e n ot d isc ip lin a ry p u n ish m en ts b een in flic ted in variou s B erlin p o lice sta tio n s on o ffic ia ls w h o r eb elled again st salary cuts? W ere n o t th ree o ffic e r s d ism issed from the W ra n g el B arrack s in B erlin on accou n t o f C om m u nist su b version ? T h is se le c tio n m ust su ffic e for the present. L ack o f sp ace fo rb id s us to rep eat a great nu m ber o f e x p r essio n s o f o p in io n from o ffic ia ls in all parts o f th e R eich w ith regard to r ev o lu tio n a r y w ork ers. T h ey w o u ld m ak e yo u r hair stan d on end, H err S evering-G roener. And a still larger nu m b er o f fa c ts w e are savin g up for later o c ca sio n s for very ob v io u s r ea so n s . . T h e h o ld in g o f th is c o n fe r e n c e in tro d u ces a n e w chapter o f th e r ev o lu tio n a r y a n ti-m ilita rist w o rk in G erm any. It is o f h isto r ica l im p ortan ce b e c a u se at it in th e w ord s o f one o f its o w n r eso lu tio n s for th e first tim e sin ce 1919, m em bers o f the arm ed fo r c e s o f the b o u rg e o is state have com e to g e th er in order to debate as to h o w th e y m a y use the w eap on s, given th em for fig h tin g again st the p eop le, for fig h tin g lo r the p eop le. T he c o n fe re n c e rep resen ts the tra n sitio n from the h ith erto alm ost e x clu siv e ag ita tio n for the creation o f a d e fin ite r ev o lu tio n a r y o rgan ization in the p o lic e .

E x-soldiers a n d policem en, m an y of w hom have been d is m issed w ith o u t a claim to a governm ent position, ap p e ar to be specially su sceptible to ag itatio n . At th e b eginning of 1933 it was possible to obtain a glim pse into th e files of Mr. K raus, C om m unist d istric t leader and m em ber of the R eichstag. T hese p ap ers co n tain ed a list of police officers and arm y soldiers stated to be convinced m em bers of th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty . T hese e x tra o rd in a rily im pressive figures of red arm y m en a n d police officers are as follow s:
l) In oitlci i" . amouflage this Oktoberniimbcr, a cover with the title Neue Architektin, In- Ar liitect Otto Diebel, Zrich' was used.
7*

I. P o lic e officers: B erlin Thurinigia Danziig B rem en P om eran ia H am burg S axon y 270 140 52 78 14 181 231 966

II. Arm y soldiers: B erlin T h u rin gia D an zig B rem en P om eran ia H am burg Saxon y 430 120 12 41

71 70 744

T h e figures quoted are c e rta in ly rig h t to a high degree. In te r esting is above all th e te rrito ria l d is trib u tio n w hich ab o u t c o r resp o n d s to th a t of th e G erm an C om m unist P a rty itself. It

M11.ITARPOLITISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT

V > /K T O B E R

The illegal periodical Oktober in its new appearance as Modern Ardxitecture .

c a n n o t be denied th a t th e n u m b er of police officers of Com m unist convictions w as exceedingly high an d disquieting, especially w hen one considers th a t the g reat m ass of policem en did not consist of conscious enem ies of Bolshevism b u t of "n eu tral officials of the Republic.

92

And now. w h at m eans w ere used for th e purposes of subversion? E ven if we d isreg ard th e h an d b ills, p am phlets, p o sters and o th er lite ra tu re w hich w ere specially p ro duced and used for the p u rp o se of subv ertin g th e a rm y and police forces, if w e tak e no notice w hatever of th e incalcu lab le q u a n tity of press productio n s and of C om m unist lite ra tu re w hich alw ays served th e addition al p u rp o se of d isin te g ra tin g th e arm ed forces, th e re are m any h u n d re d p ro d u ctio n s of th a t sort. W ith in the arm y th e follow ing w ere d istrib u te d :
D ie R e ich sw e h r , the r ev o lu tio n a r y so ld ie r s jou rn al, 4th year o f issu e, N o. 2 in 43 cases; 4th year o f issu e, No. 4 in 32 cases, 96 c o p ies altogeth er. The b o o k let M an lieb t den V errat un d verach tet den V errter in 11 cases. P rin cip a l d istrib u tio n cen tres B erlin , K nigsb erg, S a x o n y and B reslau . T he b o o k let D er F e in d steh t im eig en en L a n d e in 22 cases. T he b o o k let R ote S tu rm fa h n e in 18 cases. D ie R eich sw eh r und die A rb eitersch a ft in 31 cases. T e ch n ik der L ieb e by van der V elde, in 12 cases.

T he follow ing cases of d istrib u tio n w ere discovered am ong the police:
D er P o liz e ib e a m te , N o. 2/32, in 21 cases. To th e mothers, w iv es and fia n c e s o f p o lice o ffic e r s (han db ill), in 11 cases. W as G oerdeler n ic h t sc h a ffte in 15 cases. P o liz eib e a m te! K ollegen ! (han db ill) in 26 cases. Ob ju n g ob alt (handbill) in 22 cases.

A ty p ical p ro d u ctio n of subversive lite ra tu re is the W eh rk reisZeitung fo r th e th ird d istric t of th e 3rd C om m and, 3rd year of issue, No. 1 F e b ru a ry , 1933, b earin g th e title: A m otor cycle fo r you too. L atest new s fro m th e M otor Show .4) A few exam ples of the conten ts, tak en at ran d o m :
N ew s from the garrison s. Our C ross-w ord P u zzle J o u r n a l has had the e ffe c t o f a bom b. O ur c o m ra d es w ere deligh ted , th eir o ffic e r s fu riou s. T h is tim e w e can p u b lish lette rs fr o m m an y garriso n s from w h ich w e have h ith erto had no rep orts. K ................: In cred ib le c o n d itio n s ex ist here. C aptain M........................ L ieu ten an t S e ll and regim en tal sergean t m ajor S c h o f the . . . . C om
4) Publi.slitMN: 1 , P i l g e r & C o . , B e r li n , S . O . 16, K p e n i c k e r s t r . 8 6. Ilaai'k'.M'lir P r in t in g W o rl c, , Merlin. S . O . 16, K p e n i c k e r s t r . 86 . Printed by

93

p an y are p itile ss slave-d rivers. W e h a v e to do extra drill for every tr ifle, su ch as a b u tton m issin g on th e pan ts or a nail ou t o f a boot. 95 per cen t o f th e troop s have alread y ibeen in clin k . C aptain M................. is a n o to r io u s drunkard. A com rad e g o t 14 d ays c. b. for sa y in g this. At the au tu m n m a n o e u v r e s in S ilesia th is fe llo w b eh aved lik e a sw ine. At N .......................h e forb ad e the so ld ie rs to go to the la trin e and struck L an ce-C orp oral J in the fa c e for attem p tin g to d iso b ey the order. But w h at .does the H itler g o v e rn m en t th reaten us w ith . H itler is for n a tio n a l co n scrip tio n . T hat m ea n s go o d -b y e to our h o p es o f a go v ern m e n t job. All sen ior com rad es, la n c e-c o rp o ra ls, N. C. O.s etc. sh o u ld stop the b u lly in g o f recru its and stick togeth er w ith th em lik e com rad es against th e slave-d rivers and the officers. If you d o n t get fair treatm ent, y o u m ust, all o f r efu se to go on d u ty ! you, to a m an,

T h e C ross-w ord Puzzle J o u rn a l re fe rred to is a so rt of cam o u flag ed subversion pro d u ct. T h e cover show s a p ictu re of a cro ss-w ord puzzle w ith th e h eading: C om petition num ber 10 p fennigs. Puzzle C orner, B erlin. O b tainable a t all booksellers, sta tio n e rs an d n ew sp ap er stalls or th ro u g h the post. T he follow ing is p rin te d on th e first page of re a d in g m atter: Jo u rn a l for the C om m and III d istric t follow ed by an in v itation to p a rticip a te in an ti-F a sc ist p ro p a g a n d a an d th e a n ti-w a r congress. T he publishers are again said to be Pilger & Go, b u t th e address is different: B erlin ,S.W. 68, P u ttk a m e rstr. 19. Several h an d b ills w ere d istrib u te d during th e au tu m n m ano eu v res 1932 an d in addition, d etailed directions for subversive w o rk in th e A rm y, u n d e r th e title: R ote M anver-K ritik . T h is docu m en t co n tain s th e follow ing p ractical h in ts:
G etting in to tou ch w ith sold iers. A d m ission o f so ld iers into red quarters. A cco stin g so ld iers during field e x er cise s. E x p lo itin g m an oeu vre in cid en ts for p u rp o ses o f agitation . D istr ib u tio n o f su b versive literatu re in b ille ts, baggage w agon s, tank station s, iin the field , at road crossin gs and street b en d s. D istrib u tio n o f su b versive lite ra tu re by ch ild ren . S tick in g up of p o sters on p ow er circu it p ylon s; org a n iza tio n o f ch an tin g ch oru ses w ith th e fo llo w in g w ords: W e greet y o u sold iers, our class-b roth ers, w ith three ch eers R ed F ro n t.

for

Subversive pamphlets were, however, published quite openly too, as, for example, by the Cenlral Committee of Ihe K.P.I). Die Reichswehr und die Arbeiter,scluill". The most important in

01

strum ents of subversion also in this special field, how ever, w ere the illegal ccll-periodicals, som etim es p rin te d m a tte r too, b u t m ostly h an d b ills w ith c a ric a tu re s, p rin te d fro m w ax sheets, an d letters to the ed ito r in citin g th e re a d e rs in the filth iest m a n n e r against n atio n a lly m inded o fficers an d soldiers. As exam ples fo r th e A rm y, we m ay m e n tio n :
D ie R e ich sw e h r , a n e w sp a p er for rev o lu tio n a r y sold iers. Der R ote K raftfah rer for th e C om m issariat b arrack s at L an k w itz. Der gute K am erad , so ld ie rs jo u r n a l for the T hird C om m and. D ie W a c h t , a p e r io d ic a l sp e c ia lly for r ev o lu tio n a r y so ld ie rs and N. C. O.s. D as R ote W ach t-R eg im en t , so ld ie r s jo u r n a l for the reg im en t on guard duty in B erlin. D ie ro ten S an d -H asen . Der B e o b a c h te r , so ld ie rs jo u r n a l for the garrison s o f S ch lesw ig H o lstein a n d E a st H an over.

As exam ples fo r th e N avy:


Der R ote R e ich sw e h r so ld a t , p e r io d ic a l r ep re se n tin g the in terests of th e Army.. D ie R eicihsm arine , garrison jo u r n a l at K iel. D ie R e ich sm a rin e , red jo u r n a l for the h a lf-flo tilla s.

E xam p les fo r th e police:


H. P. Z. H an seatic P o lic e O ffic er s Jou rn al, p e r io d ic a l o f the re v o lu tio n a r y p o lice o ffic e r s o f H am burg, L b eck and -Bremen. U n ter k u n fts-W a c h t , r ev o lu tio n a r y p o lice o ffic e r s jo u r n a l o f the 15 20 W . B. R oter P o liz e i-F u n k , jo u r n a l o f th e lo w er a n d m id d le ran k s o f p o lice in sp e c tio n N o. 6. D ecem b er, 1932. D er F e in d steh t im e ig e n e n L a n d , jo u r n a l o f th e rev o lu tio n a ry y o u n g w o r k e rs o f G erm any.

B esides th e reg u lar p u b licatio n s illegal subversive h an d b ills an d p a m p h le ts w ere sm uggled in to th e arm y, navy and police forces fro m tim e to tim e:
O ctober, 1932: M an verzeit fr h lic h e Z eit! T h e h a n d b ill ends w ith th e fo llo w in g w ords: L on g liv e the com m on fig h t o f the w ork ers, p ea sa n ts and sold iers for a free, so c ia listic G erm an y! N ovem b er, 1932: D ie H erb stm a n v er , an im p e ria listic d em on stration . N o v em b er, 1932: P o lic e o ffice rs! C olleagu es! O rganize th e an ti-F a sc ist c o m m itte es in the b ille ts. C hristm as, 1932: P o lic e o ffice rs! H unger! Bread! R efu se to go on duty! M utiny! Join th e w o r k e rs. F eb ru a ry , 1933: D ie roten S c h u p o z ellen an das rote B e rlin : H itler ch a n cello r. Do rev o lu tio n a r y w ork am on gst the low er and m id d le rank o f flic p olice forces. D ow n w ith the H itler govern m en t! AntiI'iis('i hI iicllon is the order o f the hour.

95

F eb ru ary, 1933: Schu po! Augen a u f, n ach d en k en , w o h in g e h t der K urs! 13 dead, 7 se rio u sly w o u n d ed in D resden. In cases o f affrays, sh o o t in the air! U se side streets w h en w ork ers have dem on stration s. F eb ru ary, 1933: Polizeiibeam te! K o lle g en ! H itler ch a n cello r. H e is goin g to ban the C om m u nist P arty. D e fen d y o u rselv es. Coomb in e w ith th e a n ti-fa sc ist w ork ers! No sh o o tin g , no strik in g the w ork in g people! R efu se to ob ey orders. P rovid e the w o rk in g cla sses w ith w ea p o n s for th e fin al affray! A nsw er w ith op en m u tin y. F orm action com m ittees! F eb ru ary, 1933: M arinesoldaten! K lassen b riid er! H itler ch an cellor . . . W h a t can w e do to stop it? . . . E xam p le o f the 7 P ro v in c es (Open m u tin y). F eb ru ary, 1933: A ppell d er roten S c h u p o z ellen . P o lic e o ffic e r s sing th e In tern ation ale. Our figh t is you rs! F or the w o r k m e n s and p ea sa n ts rep u b lic, Red F ront! T h e red p o lice o f B erlin. F eb ru ary, 1933: H itler K an zler! W h a t w ill b ecom e o f the arm y? W e are fig h tin g w ith the rev o lu tio n a r y w ork in g cla sses for the w ork er and p ea sa n ts rep u b lic! T he rev o lu tio n a ry soldiers. F eb ru ary, 1933: H itler R e ich sk a n zle r. Shoot in the air! P assive resistan ce! Join the w orkers! T he rev o lu tio n a r y so ld iers o f the III Com m and 22nd F eb ru ary, 1933: A.B.C .-Tour again st H itler, F ascism , S.A. terror! Secure the w ea p o n s for th e a n ti-fa scist fight. S en d u s full details o f all th at h ap p en s in the .billets. V ery pop ular too, w ere the sm a ll a d h esiv e propagan da lab els w h ich w e re k ep t lo o se in the p ocket, and w h en nob ody w as look in g, w ith a sw ift m o v em en t o f the han d stu ck on barrack d oors, w alls or in lavatories. N ovem b er, 1932: P o lic e o ffic e r s ! Su p p ort the w ork in g cla sses in their fight! R efu se to protect strik e-b reak ers. F igh t again st cuts and fight for th e in crea se o f you r pay by r efu sin g to ob ey orders. Join han ds in the co m m o n figh t o f workers and p o lice o fficers! V ote for L ist 3. D ecem b er, 1932: P o lic e O fficers-C o llea g u es G iving pow er to H itler m ea n s . . . . salary cuts, no fra n ch ise . . . . A nsw er b v refu sin g to ob ey orders. D ecem b er, 1932: W ill H itler com e to p o w er ? A p peal for form in g a u n ited front. Jan u a ry , 1933: P o lic e o ffic e r s ! An e y e for an eye! A tooth for a tooth! D o n t sh oot the hungry! N o rubber tr u n ch eo n s against those le ft in th e cold. Jan u ary, 1933 A larm . L ook out, p o licem en ! L ook out! - E xercise p ra ctica l solid arity. D o n t strike y o u r fellow s! D o n t shoot! T he R evolu tion ary P o lice O ffic ia ls o f H am burg.

T h e n u m ero u s subversive leaflets and handbills, destined for the S.A. and S.S. w ere w ritten in nuieli Hie sam e style. We m ention

96

The double face of Red Pacifism, ( reproduced from "Entfesselung der Unterwelt p. 241 which contains details o f the shown publications. The:pictures in the middle show the editor o f the Weltbiihne, Carl von Ossietzky, who was sentenced to 18 m onths imprisonment for betrayal o f m ilitary secrets, and ex-Reidxswehr L ie u t R id\ard Sdietinger who join ed the German Communist Party.

V7

o n ly: "SturiiilmniKM", p e r io d ic a l o f rovolutltum ry S A, and S,S. c o m r a d e s , a n d " l)er S.A. P r o le l a r , S.A. and S.S. o p p o s i t io n jo u rn a l, N o r t h - W e s t D istric t.

T h e special d an g er of th e subversive w ork 11 the arm y and police consists of th e fact th a t it w as destined to cripple decisive in stru m e n ts of pow er in th e h a n d s of th e governm ent. Alm ost all subversive lite ra tu re ends w ith th e d em and: D ont strik e your fellows! D ont shoot? R efuse to obey orders! Jo in the united red fro n t! T h e h isto ry of revolutions show s how trem endously im p o rta n t th e re fu sa l to obey o rd ers m ay be a t a decisive m om ent even th o u g h it m ay be only a sm all d e ta c h m e n t of troops. T reason is an in fectio u s disease. T h exam ple lead s to tem p tatio n , ru m o u r exaggerates th e event, stren g th en s th e ra n k s of the aggressor and has a d em oralizing effect upo n th e defence. On th e o th e r h an d , th e w o rk of subversion, even if considered as a special fu n ctio n , w as, how ever, still organized in the closest connexion w ith all o th e r co m m u n ist actions: subversion and spying, subversion an d th e ft of arm s, providing of explosives, m ilita ry tra in in g , o rg an izatio n of red te rro ris t groups etc., all these w o rk ed h a n d in h an d , like th e clo ck w o rk of an in fe rn al m achine w h ich is destined at a su itab le m o m en t to blow the enem y fo rtre ss in to th e air.

98

V. The Armed Rising


a) Mobilizaiion.
T he first ch a p te r of the p re p a ra tio n s fo r civil w ar is concerned w ith intelligence service, th e em p lo y m en t of secret agents and spies, and w ith th e b uilding up of an illegal o rg an izatio n . T hese d iffe re n t activities are closely connected an d a re u n d e r one lead ersh ip . T hey aim at finding o u t ab o u t th e enem y, discovering his plans, revealing his w eak spots, a t w earin g h im dow n an d m ak in g him as incap ab le as possible of p u ttin g up a fig h t. T he second c h a p te r of th e p re p a ra tio n s fo r civil w ar is logically connected w ith th e first an d deals w ith positive w ork in the C om m u n ist ra n k s them selves. It aim s a t setting u p ag ain st a w eakened o p p o n en t a strong, w ell-disciplined, w ell-organized, courageous, resolute and, finally, w ell-arm ed Red F ro n t. If th in g s com e to a crisis a n d th e day of arm ed rising ap p ro ach es, the greatest em p h asis is to be la id on p ro c u rin g an ad equate supply of arm s an d am m u n itio n . A lthough the arm ed rising m u st alw ays and everyw here be a m ass actio n an d m u st only give th e enem y th e final d eath blow, n evertheless th e re su lt depends on the fighting, m an to m an, in th e open stre e t an d on th e b arricad es. At th e last reso rt th e fate of th e R evolution depends on th e te rro rist group.
" N ow r ev o lu tio n is an art ju st lik e w ar and oth er arts and is su b je ct to certa in rules. A ny p arty w h ic h n e g lec ts th ese ru les b rin gs abou t its o w n d estru ction . T he r u les are lo g ic a lly d e d u ce d from the natu re o f p a rties and the circu m sta n ce s o f the p articu lar case. T h ey are so clear and sim p le th a t the sh ort e x p e r ie n c e o f 1 8 4 8 'has m ad e th em fam iliar to th e G erm ans. F ir stly , one sh o u ld never p la y w ith the id ea o f a r isin g u n le ss o n e is p repared to defj' all the co n seq u en ces. A risin g im p lie s r ec k o n in g w ith u n k n o w n fa c to r s the valu e o f w h ic h m a y change e v er y day; th e fig h tin g fo r c e s to w h ic h one is op p o sed have th e advan tage o f o rg a n iza tio n , d isc ip lin e and tr a d itio n a l a u th o rity e n tire ly on th eir side. U n le ss stron g fo r ce s are b rou gh t again st th em one w ill b e b eaten and d estro y ed . S econ d ly, w h en o n c e th e risin g h as b e g u n one m u st a ct w ith th e greatest d eterm in ation and se ize the o ffe n siv e . T he d efen siv e m e a n s d e a th to an y a r m ed revolt it is lo st b efo re b attle is join ed . Su rp rise the e n e m y w h en h is troop s are d isp ersed ; try and g et d aily n ew , e v en th o u g h sm a ll, su cc e sse s; m a in ta in the m oral su p eriority w h ic h the first su c c e ssfu l risin g h as g iv e n y o u ; brin g all th ose e le m e n ts over to you r side w h o are at fir st u n ce r ta in but w h o alw a y s fo llo w the stro n g est

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Miry can rally tlx* i't* lor cos uguiinst you i in whorl, In tin' w in d s of bu nion, tho g r m l r s t k n o w n maisler o f revolutionary luolh'H Mr I'nuduce, <le laudace, e n co re do lau d a oel (b old n e ss, boldness amd still more b o ld n e ssl) M 1)

T he W ay to V ictory says fu rth e r concerning the arm ed rising:2)


W e do n ot b e lie v e in a n u n arm ed but in an arm ed rising. T he m o st -burning c en tral q u estion o f the r isin g is the prob lem o f arm in g the p r o le ta r ia t. . . T h e q u estion o f arm s m ust in the first p lace be solved b y the m a sses th e m se lv es, wiho m ust p ro v id e th e m se lv es w ith w h atever w e a p o n s th e y can get h o ld of. One co u ld add in d e fin ite ly to L e n in s list o f e x a m p les o f p rim itive w e a p o n s a v a ila b le to the p roletariat. T o k n ives, k n u ck le-d u sters, rags so a k ed in p e tr o l etc. on e c o u ld add p erh ap s axes, b rick s, b o ilin g w ater for p ou rin g on to the b estia l p o lice ragin g in the w o rk in g class quar te r s, sim p le h an d -gren ad es o f d y n a m ite to m e n tio n on ly the m ost p rim itive o f the alm ost infinite p o ssib ilitie s availab le ev ery w h ere for th e arm in g o f the p r o le ta r ia t. . . It is p ro leta ria n s w h o w ork in c h e m ic a l factories and in m ines and h ave to h a n d le p o iso n g ases and e x p lo siv es, or w h o have to transport o n the r a ilw a y s and w ater-w ays the b o u r g e o isie s in stru m en ts o f m urder. If, for th e sak e o f their freed om , th e y m ak e use o f th ese p o ssib ilities g iv en to th em th ey are o n ly doin g th e ir d u ty.

T h en as N euberg3) fra n k ly says:


T he arm ed risin g to destroy the app aratu s o f go v ern m en t and to se ize p o w er for the proletariat ta k e s the form o f a ru th less arm ed stru ggle b e tw e e n the m ilita r ily o r g a n ize d part o f the proletariat and its a llie s on th e on e han d and the lik e w is e m ilita rily o rgan ized fo r c e s o f th e g o v e rn in g cla sses o n the other h a n d .

A lfred L an g er co n tin u ally em phasizes th a t the p ro le ta ria t m ust not w ait u n til it is p resen ted w ith w eapons from som e q u a rte r or o th e r; it m u st ra th e r p ro cu re th em itself in every conceivable w ay b y th eft, robb ery , m u rd er, etc. T h e C om m unist p a rty in G erm any acted according to these p rin ciples. A p art fro m th e delivery of a rm s from ab ro ad either by co u rie r fro m th e east or th ro u g h sm ugglers from th e w est the C o m m u n ist fighting an d te rro ris t o rg an izations p ro cu red all th eir w eapons them selves. T he th e ft of explosives and w eapons w as the fav o u rite m eth o d of self-arm ing for th e p ro letariat. T h e sm uggling of w eapons w as a p erm an e n t b ra n c h of the K.P.D. On m an y occasions the C ustom s officials have been able to
) Der W eg zum Sieg. Die Kunst des bewaffneten Aufstandes by Alfred Langer, page 1 Quotation from Karl Marx, Revolution und Konterrevolution. 3) ibidem, page 47. 3) A. Neuberg: Der bewaffnete Aufstand. page 192.

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* n n w tITt t h r w . r . n . l uive iru<i mo s m u g g l e i n r o u g n w e a p o n s f r o m <. / e c h o S l o v a k i n . B e l g i u m o r H o l l a n d .

On April 01 h, 1932 a revolver w ith cartrid g es w as found in the house of a w o rk er in M arien b u rg (Saxony) together w ith o th e r w eapons of th e sam e kind, all of w hich h ad been sm uggled in to G erm any. On J a n u a ry 20th 1932 on th e B elgian D utch fro n tie r n ea r M aeseyck th e unem ployed H e rb e rt R o tter of M oers, A lbert F o e rste r o f M eerbeck and R obert R iick ert of M oers w ere a rre ste d by th e Dutch police w hile atte m p tin g to sm uggle w eapons from Belgium into H olland, and 16 B elgian pisto ls an d 115 cartrid g es w ere ta k en from them . T he sm ugglers w ho w ere all keen m em bers of th e K.P.D. ad m itted th a t th e w eap o n s w ere to be in tro d u c ed th ro u g h H olland into G erm any. T he p resid en t of th e H a m b u rg Fiscal O ffice stated in a re p o rt at the beginning of 1932 th a t m an y w eapons h a d been illegally in tr o duced by sailors. Also th e P re sid e n t of Police of H am b u rg expressed th e opinion th a t R ussian ships w ere sm uggling in arm s. T he m in er R obert Pilz of A ix-la-Chapelle, w ho w as closely connected w ith th e K.P.D. w as sentenced in M ay 1932 to 7 m o n th s im p riso n m e n t fo r sm uggling arm s. T he fro n tie r statio n of L iegnitz of th e state police succeeded in M arch 1933 in a rre stin g 6 C om m unists in Seidenberg. Silesia, w ho, in alliance w ith C zecho-Slovakian C om m unists, w ere b ringing a rm s an d lite ra tu re fro m C z e c h o s lo v a k ia into G erm any. T he m o st im p o rta n t sources of arm s an d explosives w ere n ev erth eless th e a rm a m e n t facto ries a t hom e, the shops w here w eapons are sold and th e chem ical concerns, all of w hich w ere sy stem atically stolen fro m by th e fighting org anizations of th e K.P.D. and th e ir w eap o n -p ro cu rin g sections. One gets th e best idea of w h a t w as going on from the e x tra o rd in a rily n u m ero u s tria ls b efo re th e Suprem e C ourt4), w hich of
4) Compare, for example, the legal actions against Kohnen of August 5, 1930, Seidel of October 14, 1930; Mettin and accomplices of March 13, 1931; Audehm and accom plices of June 6, 1931; Frlich of July 17, 1931; W ilm s of July 22, 1931; W rpel of August 4, 1931; Kopp and accomplices of August 21, 1931; Sakowski of August 28, 1931; Manns of December 15, 1931; Eisele of January 22, 1932; Pelzer and accomplices of February 6, 1932; Estermann of February 9, 1932; Loehrke of February 26, 1932; Zeller and accom plices of March 1, 1932; Schneege and accomplices of May 6, 1932; Meyer and accom plices of March 23, 1932; Becker of April 5, 1932; Hoffmann of March 11, 1932; Langheim of April 29, 1932; W enninger of May 11,1932; PfalT and accom plices of June 7, 1932; W yschka of June 14, 1932; Lenhardt and accom plices of June 21, 1932; Rabenmller (Gro), berbrck and accom plices of July 9, 1932; W illuw eit and accom plices of July 29, 1932; Kriesel and accom plices of July 29, 1932; Pirmann of August 17, 1932; Behring and accom plices of October 26, 1932; Lidtke of November 14, 1932; Bude and

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................

.......................... V > m im ir d

Hnn

lU 'IM I^ IU

1(1 J I I S l l C C .

In 1111' y e n i'm 1 9 2 9 / 1 9 3 0 i il o n e n o l e s s H um /() l l i e l l * o f e x p l o s i v e s Imm'iiiho k n o w n l o I lie p o l i c e . W e t*:i 111 k > I fslluiRt*' l i o w n m n y m i d i s


c o v e r e d I h e f t s o f e x p l o s i v e s a n d a r m s w e r e s m * c v d nll y e a r n e d o u t .

F a irly w ell-know n is the g reat tria l before the Suprem e C ourt of those accused of stealing in F e b ru a ry 1933 from a Leipzig Army D epot one heavy m ach in e gun, 36 lig h t m achine guns and 217 rifles. T h e g reater p a rt of th e accused, p a rtic u la rly P . . . . an d M ettin were given long sentences of im p riso n m en t. T he accused w ere nearly all m em bers of the K.P.D. or closely allied to it. Only in the case of th e arm y em ployee P. w as it im possible to prove this. C ertain of th e accused, such as L in d au , W ied em an n , T h aler and others, a d m itte d in th e p re lim in a ry ex am in a tio n th a t the w eapons w ere to be p ro c u re d for th e P a rty . One m a y ta k e it th ere fo re as proved th a t th e th e ft to o k place a t th e in sta n c e of the K.P.D. In the case of th e th a tc h e r A ugust R abenm ller and accom plices of E rfu rt th e d elib erate a tte m p t to p ro c u re explosives and arm s for th e K.P.D. w as also proved. On J a n u a ry 3rd, 1931 52.5 kg. of am m o n ite w ere stolen in a m ost c u n n in g w ay fro m th e p o w der-m agazine of the chalk-w orks in O epitz n ear P ssnick in the E rfu rt d istrict, although the m agazine w as b u ilt into th e ro ck an d closed w ith th ree doors. D uring the tria l it w as also revealed th a t in th e p eriod from the 9th to the 16th J a n u a ry 1931 7 packages, each containing 2.5 kg. of a m m onite, 80 b lastin g cartrid g es an d 4 m etres of fuse h a d been stolen fro m the locked m agazine of th e lim ek iln ow ner, Ludw ig F u ld n er n e a r E lxleben. On th e 26th of F e b ru a ry 1932 33 m ilitary rifles co n v erted in to sp o rtin g rifles, 3 in fa n try rifles, 9 carbines w ith a b o u t 750 S-cartridges, 250 m odel 88 cartrid g es and a m achine-gun belt w ith ab o u t 250 S-cartridges w ere found in the sum m er h u t of a c e rta in Gro in E rfu rt. T he explosives fro m O epitz w ere conveyed to B erlin a sh o rt tim e a fter the th e ft. Several of th e accused in F e b ru a ry 1931 converted, or trie d to convert, the stolen explosives into a m m u n itio n w hich could be u sed by them . A p a rtic u la rly in
accom plices of November 18, 1932; Mehs and accomplices of October 13, 1932; Strack and accom plices of November 18, 1932; Lcker of October 19, 1932; as also the indictment bill against H ohl of May 25, 1932; Land and accom plices of June 9, 1932; Biebusch and accomplices of July 9, 1932; Hasselbring and accomplices of July 11, 1932; Funk and accom plices of July 12, 1932; Heyer and accomplices of July 15, 1932; Schumacher of August 1, 1932; Hermannski and accom plices of August 6, 1932; Neubert and accom plices of August 12, 1932; Thies and accom plices of August 12, 1932; Hugo of August 16, 1932; Koch and accomplices of August 14, 1932; Geissler and accom plices of August 18, 1932; Bernin of August 25, 1932; Hesse o f August 27. 1932; Knchel and accomplices of September 7, 1932; Schelinsky and accom plices of October 11, 1932; Kronenberg of November 23, 1932.
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Horlin S. 'hiiiu Imm^, S i e d l u n g I / m d o n h o f , I' v l l i s l n i U c in th is t r i a l

19,

ns r e v e a l e d

U u borbn ick w a s arrested 0 11 the 23rd o f O ctober 1031 at the sta tio n in B erlin on his arrival from B reslau . He had w ith him tw o tru n k s fille d w ith e x p lo siv es. W h e n h is h o u se w a s th e r eu p o n se a r c h e d c o n sid erab le q u a n tities o f C om m u n ist litera tu re w ere fo u n d as w e ll as m a teria ls fo r m ak in g in str u m e n ts etc. fo r co m m ittin g o u trages as for instance, fu ses, M astin g cartrid ges, fu se-co rd , d raw in gs o f e x p lo siv e a m m u n itio n and cartrid ges, h a n d -g ren a d es, h an d -gren ad e fu ses, etc. T h e ex p lo siv e w h ic h w a s d iscovered , ch lo ra tite 3, bad b een sto len from th e m a g a zin e o f the firm o f Su B m ilch on th e n igh t from the 5th to the 6 th F eb ru a ry 1931. T he tin b o x e s d isc o v e r e d in U eb erb riick s h ou se a n d m ade '.by h im corresp on d ed in size to th e cro ss-se ctio n o f a r a ilw a y r a il and th e r efo r e w ere p a rticu la rly a d ap ted to be fix e d to a rail. In sh a p e th e y w ere in fa c t sim ilar to w h a t is u sed for b la stin g rails. A p e r io d ic a l w as also fo u n d en titled S trategy and T a c tic s o f Civil W ar, P art I, P a rtisa n s W a r fa re , w h ich -dealt e sp e c ia lly w ith the b lo w in g up o f rails. U eb erb riick c o n fe sse d that h e h a d b elo n g ed to a certain circle w h o se aim s w ere p o litic a l and In clu d ed p ro cu rin g and ev en tu a lly u sin g e x p lo sives.

R abenm iiller w as sen ten ced to 4 y e a rs penal servitude an d 5 y e a rs loss of civil rig h ts, U eb erb riick to 8 y e a rs penal serv itu d e an d 4 y e a rs loss of civil rig h ts. In passin g sentence the S uprem e C ourt stated am ong o th e r things:-
T h e ex tra o rd in a ry e xten t o f U eb erb riick s activ ity in c o lle ctin g a n d d istrib u tin g e x p lo siv e s (over 1 cw t. o f e x p lo siv es and abou t 3,009 b la stin g cartrid ges w ere fo u n d in h is p o sse ssio n dn ad d ition to o th er e x p lo siv e m aterial) a n d h is d efen ce th at he and h is c o m p a n io n s w e re w o r k in g for d e fe n c e again st F a sc ist a tta ck s prove th at U eb erb riick w as d e te r m in ed to m a k e use o f the e x p lo siv e s a ccu m u la ted by h im a t th e n e x t o p p o rtu n ity or to a llo w h is c o m p a n io n s to u s e th e m and th ereb y to en d an ger p rop erty, life and lim b o f oth ers; it also p roves that he a n d h is a c co m p lic e s w h o b rou gh t h im th e e x p lo siv es and se n t him on h is jo u r n ey s, w e re c o n sp ir in g b y c o n su lta tio n and actu al p rep aration s to do th is at a g iv en m o m en t. A nd further: It w as n ot o n ly at B e th m a n n s (one o f the accu sed ) in sta n ce th at an o rg a n iza tio n w a s form ed w h ic h directed from B e rlin the p r e p a r a tio n s for arm ing w ith e x p lo siv es . . . T h is grou p h a d its cen tre in B erlin , but ap p ealed fo r help in p r o c u rin g w e a p o n s and e x p lo siv es to oth er lo c a l groups o f th e K .P.D . in m a n y d iffe re n t p la c es in the R eich . B ut the aion o f th e o r g a n iza tio n started and d irected from B e rlin w as not m e re ly d efen ce again st th e su p p o se d th reat o f F a s c i s m . . .

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l i d 11 inn ii n p rogram m e e m p h a s iz e s tin iu lcim l ii al litu of Hu* indtis trial crisis mid Ilit* danger o f llic legal seizure ol p o \ \ r | )iy llte N ation al S o c ia lists iby w ay o f a parliiamentairy unajorih ami Imlleaies th erefo re that those about B e th m a n n w ere not to let the >inticiput< * < I ingiifntion of the m a sses at their e v e r -in cr e a sin g ly dep ressed co n d ilio n <f{o u n ex p lo ited . On the other h a n d th e y w ere reso lv e d under all circu m .slan ces to im p ose th eir w ill by force o n th ose o f a d ifferen t p o litic a l co m p lex io n , even ii the latter sh o u ld form a c o n stitu tio n a l govern m en t. T h o se w h o are p reparin g th e w a y for the rev o lu tio n have tw o task s: to recru it so ld iers o f the R e v o lu tio n (and to ob tain w e a p o n s for the a ttack . . . V arious p am p h lets and le a fle ts p u b lish ed or app roved and quoted from iby th e party lead ers d em an d th e fu lfillm e n t o f the latter task . . . T h is c o in cid e n c e o f the th e o r etica l d iscu ssio n in the O k to b erh efte, the M ilitary N e w s o f th e Com m uniist P arty and in lec tu r es given to the lo ca l b ran ch es o f the p ractical r ea liza tio n by th e a ccu sed seem s to be the rea so n w h y the d e fe n d in g c o u n c il w as m ore con cern ed to d isp ro v e an y c o n n e c tio n b e tw e en the acts o f the a ccu sed and th e lead ers o f th e K .P.D . th a n to deal w ith wihat th e a ccu sed th e m se lv e s had a ctu ally don e. T h e a ccu sed Ueiberbriick h a d , o n his a rrival w ith the ex p lo siv es in B er lin , b een in p o sse ssio n o f an id e n tity card from the Z.K. S ecretary. Gutsch e and U eb erb riick had, on e a ch o f their jo u r n e y s to B reslau to p r o cure e x p lo siv es, visited the d istrict head q u arters o f the K .P.D . A ccor din g to the accu sed , the e x p lo siv e s and w eap on s in E rfurt and P o ssn eck had also b een procured not w ith o u t the k n ow led ge o f the party o ffic ia ls. In th e tr ia l o f N eu m an n and h is a c co m p lice s it w as esta b lish ed that A ugust M aier, h ea v ily im p lica ted iin th is case also, had b een t h e W u m b o o ffic ia l for procu rin g w e a p o n s an d a m m u n ition s in the th e n e x istin g p artisan o rg a n iza tio n s for the c h ie f district B erlin -B ran d en b u rg.

W h ilst th e U eberbriick case gives one a clear view of the political b ack g ro u n d to the th e fts of explosives, the follow ing m ore p lain ly show s w h at details of explosive technique w ere tak e n into co n sid eratio n in such th efts. In the ju d g em en t passed on th e tax i-driver K lem ens Schelinsky of H agen by th e S uprem e C ourt on Ja n u a ry 6th, 1933, the fo llo w ing passage o ccurs:
. . . T h e exp ert, an a rtificer lie u te n a n t (retired) nam ed N ., certified in the m ain p ro ceed in g s that th e ex p lo siv e in the p o ssessio n o f the accu sed , W agen er, w as a so -o a lled b risan t e x p lo siv e, that the in sta n ta n eo u s fu ses w ere electric q u ick fu ses, bein g attach ed to a lu m in iu m r in g b la stin g cartrid ges w ith d o u b le-in su la ted w ire; th at is to say th ey w ere e x p lo siv es w ith in the m e a n in g o f the E x p lo siv e s Act. T he Court is satisfied that N .s statem en t is correct. T he e x a m in a tio n o f fou r sam p les o f each had sh o w n th em to be r ea d y for use. T he cartridges, each c o n ta in in g 75 gm ., are o f th e year 1932 and are th erefore in e x tr em e ly good con d ition . F or any sin gle e x p lo sio n they w ou ld be fu lly e ffe c tiv e . T he fu ses fro m the E lectric F u se W ork s Ltd., C ologne, fac-

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lo r y iin T ro isd o rf, arc each fitted will tw o 4'/ ut. <lottl>l' Itiwnlnled tin p lated cop p er w ires and m ay th e r efo r e be used also under w ater. Tlvc firm ly fix ed b la stin g cartrid ge, size N o. 10 is the m ost p o w erfu l o f its kin d. C h loratite 3 is u sed for b la stin g i n qu arries, clay-p its, p otash -w ork s and also for b lastin g u n d er w ater. T ogeth er w ith the electric un d er w ater q u ick fu se, b rid ges, tr a ffic fa c ilitie s on river b an k s, can al docks, c a n a lisa tio n p ip es, g a s and w ater p ip es and so on can be e a sily and u n o b tr u siv e ly b lo w n up from a sa fe ihiding-place. B ut it can also be used to load and e x p lo d e h an d -gren ad es, bom b s, m in es, etc. A ttached to a b lastin g-cartrid ge o f 75 g. o f c h lo ra tite 3, th is e x p lo siv e charge is eq u i v a len t to a h ea v y han d -gren ad e or th e sh e ll o f a lig h t field -g u n . Even th e la y m a n w ou ld reco g n ize w ith o u t d iffic u lty fr o m th e seal C hloratite 3 th e d an gerou s natu re o f the ca rtrid g es.

On acco u n t of th e danger of tra n sp o rtin g explosives of this n a tu re those p ersons w ho w ere to u n d e rta k e it w ere m ost carefully p ick ed in accordance w ith th e ir re lia b ility and courage. But, even so, th e tra n sp o rt o ften to o k place in a m ost careless w ay and seriously endangered th e lives of th o se in th e neighbourhood. The explosives w ere often c a rrie d sim ply in the h an d or in the pocket, o r even h u n g betw een th e legs. W eap o n s w ere also concealed in th is w ay. In one case a lin en b an d w as tied ro u n d the hips; to this a second b an d w as atta c h e d w h ich led th ro u g h betw een the legs. T o th e second b an d a cloth case co n tain in g a pistol w as attached. On th e 27th D ecem ber 1932 a t 7.45 p. m. two police sergeants on th e ir b e a t in H am burg-S t. P au li saw a red delivery-van HH-41284 sto p in fro n t of th e house No. 62 B ernhard-N ocht-S trasse. T hree m en un lo ad ed a heavy case an d c a rrie d it into th e house, w hile a fo u rth rem ain ed b eh in d th e car. T h e policem an challenged the m en ju s t as th e y w ere carry in g th e case into the cellar. Since they refu sed to answ er questions as to th e contents of th e case and why th e y w ere tra n sp o rtin g it, one of th e policem en opened it and found th a t it co n tain ed arm s.
An ex a m in a tio n o f the cellar in to w h ich the case w as b eing carried revealed am ong other th in gs: 2 34 1 3 A rm y p isto ls 08, p istol cartrid ges, p am p h let T he W ay to V icto ry by A lfred L anger, C om m u nist le a fle ts w ith th e M orse alph abet w ritten by han d on th e b ack , , 18 u n fille d c o lle c tio n lists o f th e R ed M ass S e lf-D e fe n c e .

By m ean s of th e ft an d sm uggling th e K.P.D. and its fighting o rg an izatio n s had, according to all appearances, provided th e m selves am p ly w ith explosives an d w eapons. At the end of the year 1932 th e re could be no question of a n absence or scarcity of w eapons

106

R ight: L eft above: M iddle: Below:

W eapons found in the house o f the pensioner, Paul Schnitter, Berlin, Stralauer P latz 3, Sept . 2nd, 1931. Arm oury of the K. P. D. Bottrop i. W. district group. Drawing o f explosive bomb from the case Gro and accomplices. 1931. W eapons found on the property o f the deceased official o f the K.P.D . O tto Krause in Schwanebeck, October 1930.

8'

107

us had been Hie ease in Hie llam buif! 1 1 inn of lil'i.'l. The red re v o lu tio n a ry a rm y was richly provided with I he m ost deadly in stru m e n ts of m u rd e r. Daggers, ru b b er truncheons, k n u ck le d u sters, axes, etc. w ere an o rd in a ry pari < > I the e q u ip m en t of the ra n k and file C om m unist. In add itio n , every m em ber of the fig h t ing o rg an izatio n s p ro p e r an d of the p a rty was undo u b ted ly supplied w ith fire-arm s and explosives, and th e organizations them selves h a d in m an y p a rts of th e c o u n try secret arm s depots, w hich could be used fit o u t to te rro rists on th e d ay of the arm ed rising. It is obviously im possible to d ra w up a list of all the arm s d epots and m u n itio n dum ps of th e K .P.D . in G erm any. H ere we can o nly judge fro m th e evidence w hich h a s been given of the various cases of depots w hich have been discovered. In spite of m uch eagerness on the p a rt of th e people to re p o rt C om m unist arm s and explosive dum ps, the general p ublic has h a rd ly an idea of the en o rm o u s q u a n tity of w eapons ac tu a lly discovered. I w ill th e re fore give som e exam ples:
In May, 1932, w h ile search in g the h o u se o f the m in er B ierow sk i in B eu th en , w h o w a s said to have b een a m em b er o f th e A n ti-F ascist L eagu e, th e p o lice foun d 50 d y n a m ite bom b s m ade ou t o f 1 lb. jam tin s, 8 d eton ators, 28 d yn am ite b lastin g-cartrid ges, 191 round s of a m m u n itio n , 2 r ifle lock s, a m a ch in e-g u n case w ith o ile d m achine-gun parts, 50 d eton ators w ith fu ses, 10 p ie ce s o f in su la ted w ire w ith d e to n a to r s for e le ctr ic d eto n a tio n fr o m a d istan ce, 3 ro lls o f fu se and a tin o f dyn am ite. T h ese ob jects w e re fou n d in a cellar, a ccess to w h ic h w a s th rou gh a trap-door on w h ic h a so fa stood . In N ovem b er 1932 the h ou se and g rou n d s o f the C om m u nist tow nc o u n c ille r Sp rin ger in T ilsit w ere search ed , and in th e ground s w as fo u n d a pit 50 cm . deep fu ll o f closed w in e-b o ttles. T h e bottles c o n ta in e d r ifle am m u n ition . F our C om m u nists w h o had, in the nigh t o f the 18th A ugust, 1932, sto le n 100 lb. o f am m on iac and 4 lb. of p ow der from the ex p lo siv e d e p o t in D a u fen b a ch w ere ,c o n d em n ed by the Court o f Ju stice at Tqier to se n te n c es o f 2 to 3 y e a rs im p rison m en t. In Janu ary 1933, as a result o f sea rch in g the h o u ses o f 3 C om m u n ists in E ssen , 12 gas-m asks, 11 te a r jgas con tain ers, 4 p ack ets o f sm o k e pow der, 3 p isto ls w ith am m u n itio n and su b versive propagan da w e re fou n d . T he gas-m asks, tear-gas co n ta in ers and the pow d er had b e e n sto len b y one o f the a ccu sed fr o m h is em p loyer. T he gas-m ask s e v e n tu a lly fo u n d w ere 25 in nu m ber. T h e con ten ts o f on e o f the seized tea r-g a s co n ta in ers w ou ld have b e e n su ffic ien t to put a w h o le d ep artm en t store, or in the open street, an entire p o lice detach m en t o u t o f action . One p ack age o f sm o k e p ow d er w o u ld be en ou gh to h id e in fo g a w h o le street-p rocession . T he accu sed w ere said alread y to have m a d e exp erim en ts w ith the sm o k e-p o w d er in rem ote parts o f the to w n at night. In F eb ru ary a cigar sh op w a s search ed and th e fo llo w in g o b jects w ere co n fisca ted : 1 rifle, pattern 98, 5 pistols,

108

I du m m y pimlol, I live eg^ han d -gr en a d e and 000 rounds of pistol am m uu lllon. W orlliy o f n ote is a fin d n ear B ottro p -R eck lin g h a u sen in M arch 1933 o f w h ic h the rep ort sta te s: H ere w ere fo u n d b u ried in th e r a ilw a y em b an k m en t a m ilk -ca n w ith 40 tin s m ade up as h an d -g ren a d es, large q u a n tities o f d e to n ite and a m m on -salp etre, 6 egg h a n d gren ad es, a large sa ck w ith 66 tin s fille d w ith e x p lo siv e, 12 sh o rt tu b es fo r h an d -gren ad es, 1 z in c c a se w ith a p ou nd ibox o f d eton ite, a 10 cm . sh ell w ith d eton ator and 3 h a n d -g ren a d es.

I w ill only e x tra c t a few ty p ical exam ples o u t of an alm ost endless official list of w eapons confiscated fro m C om m unists in 1932 and at the beginning of 1933:
24. 4. 32 W h en se a r ch in g th e K .P.D. restau ran ts in th e B lu m en talstrasse 1 pistol, 7 cartrid ges, etc. w ere fou n d and c o n fisc a ted 26. 4. 32 On acco u n t o f a S w a stik a fla g in the B iesen h o rst n ear B ie s d orf a sh o o tin g a ffra y occu rred b e tw e e n K .P .l). and N .S.D .A .P . T h e w e a p o n s stated op p osite w ere c o n fisc a ted 23. 6. 32 T h e N atio n a l S o c ia list Otto M ller w as sh ot at in L ich ten berg and the fo llo w in g w ea p o n s w e re c o n fisc a ted at the p lace w h ere the deed w as com m itted 32 T h e fo llo w in g w eapons w ere fo u n d and c o n fisc a te d in the h o u se o f K reitloff, K olb erger S trasse 11 W ea p o n s c o n fisc a ted 1 pistol 7 cartrid ges 1 steel rod 2 life-p reserv ers 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 13 6 2 30 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 7 2 1 1 1 4 1 p istol carb in e m agazin e cartridge cartrid ge-cases dagger p istols m agazin e w ith (bullets a n d cartrid ge-cases p isto ls cartrid ges k n u ck le-d u ster life-p reserver p ick -axe b ayon ets rubber tru n ch eon w o o d en clubs p isto ls m agazin es cartrid ges k n u ck le-d u sters p o ck et-k n ife p iece o f iron w ire sp iral sp ring ston es w o o d en club

6. 7.

15. 7. 32 At an attack p la n n e d on the N .S.D .A .P . co lo n y F u c h sb er g e m em b ers o f the K .P.D . w ere fo u n d arm ed. The w ea p o n s sta ted o p p o site w ere c o n fisc a te d 20. 7. 32 A rm ed C om m u nists w ere dis co v ered at an attack p la n n ed on the N .S.D .A .P . restau ran t B lack Cat in M ahlsdorf. T h e w ea p o n s stated o p p o site w ere co n fisca ted . T h e sto n e s w ere to b e u sed for th row in g, the w o o d e n club for h ittin g

1 gimlet

109

23. 7. 32 T he fo llo w in g w eap on s were fou n d in search in g K .P.D . r esta u rants in G orlitzer S trasse 58 and 7 a ,R eich en b erg er S trasse 124, G logauer S trasse 29, L iegn itzer S trasse 18 and P iic k ler str a sse 50 3. 8. 32 W ea p o n s fo u n d at a m e etin g of K .P.D . m en for terrorist actio n and in search in g the K .P.D . restau ran t G erich tstrasse 17 29. 8. 32 W ea p o n s fou n d on the o c ca sio n o f a fig h t and sh o o tin g a ffr a y b etw een K .P.D. and N .S.D .A .P . in C h arlottenburg, R o n tgen strasse 5. 9. 32 A b a y o n et and other w e a p o n s w ere fou n d and c o n fisc a te d at a sh o o tin g a ffr a y in the Buttm an n strasse. T h e d o g -w h ip w as u sed fo r h ittin g 27. 10. 32 On search in g th e d w ellin g s o f M ichaelis, R itterstrasse 124, and o f th e w ork m an R eim ann, F iirsten strasse 21

WrupoiiH n iilfU rittrd 3 ph loln 35 cartridge 2 rubber clu bs 1 k n u ck le-d u ster 1 bayon et 1 1 1 1 2 1 14 1 5 1 3 5 3 1 1 1 2 1 b a y o n et life-p reserver dagger b rok en rubber tru n ch eon p istols dagger cartrid ges cases cartrid ge d eform ed b u llets revolver cartrid ges cartrid ges cases b u llets steel rod d o g -w h ip in fan try rifle carb in es ibayonet round s am m u n ition

463 2 daggers

1 life-p reserver 9. 1. 33 W e a p o n s fou n d on a search carried ou t in Sp and au b e c a u se the R .F.B. w as su sp ected o f c o n tin u in g ille g a lly 14. 1. 33 W ea p o n s fou n d on the o c ca sio n o f an attack by abou t 40 C om m u n ists on the N .S.D .A .P . r esta u rant R euther, B o y en stra sse 12 On search in g th e h o u se T egel, Sch loB strasse 20 a rev o lv er w as fou n d 22. 2. 33 On the clo sin g o f K .P.D . restau* rants in B erlin w ea p o n s w ere fou n d in m an y p la ces and c o n fis c a te d 1)

1 army pistol 08
10 2 1 1 1 4 1 7 2 1 6 11 6 2 2 2 rou n d s o f am m un ition lo a d in g strips revolver p istol 6.35 p istol 09 cartrid ges revolver cartrid ges cases rubber tru n ch eon s revolver cartrid ges p istols rubb er tru n ch eon s b a y o n ets sw ord s air-gu ns

5) The 1st National Socialist Revolution Museum is an exhibition of confiscated weapons. This museum has been organized by Standarte 6 of the Berlin S.A. in the pre mises of the former Anti-War Museum, Berlin C., ldenstrae, corner of Parochialstrac.
110

The NVNltMiuilie character of (he preparations for a rising can be seen Iroul the iact that, for instance, the procuring of explosives bad begun already in the year 1929. But a few examples from that time must suffice.
19. 1.31 H artstein stolen . 2. 4. 12. 5. F a cto ry W eiliw eiler: 30 A m m on ite ca rtrid g es

30 Q uarry iin Vicht: 36 b la stin g cartrid ges stolen . 29 S tein fu rth -K on igsw ald e: 8 kg. A m m on ite, 153 d eto n a to rs, 64 m etres fu se sto len .

3. 1. 31 V etschau E x p lo siv e s Ltd.: 982 b la stin g cartrid ges N o. 8 and 20 p ie ce s No. 6 sto le n . 27. 11. 31 M annheim : sk etc h e s and m eth o d o f p reparin g h an d -gren ad es, d eton atin g cartrid ges, etc. w ith e x p la n a tio n s stolen . C lay-pit on the S c h m iick en h o h e near C oblenz: 45 kg. A m m o nite, 60 d eton ators, 8 m etres T and 60 m etres b la c k fu se stolen . Salza Q uarry, S u B m ilch: 15 kg. C hloratite, 15 kg. A m m on ite, 2,000 d eton ators. 16. 9. 31 M arkusm uhle: 44 b la stin g cartrid ges, 3 d eton atin g cartrid ges, 9 e x p lo siv e cartrid ges, 23 d e ton ators and 8 fu rther d eto n a tin g cartrid ges. 15. 8. 31 In C ologn e-C lod w ip p l 4: 6 d yn am ite cartrid ges w ith d e to nators, 7 d eton ators, 4 m etres fu se stolen . 28. 3. 31 Q uarry in Goslar: 5 kg. A m m on ite, 2 kg. g u n p ow d er, fuse stolen .

Some apparently harmless, but very dangerous, weapons captured by the S. A . Storm 6 and exhibited in their museum. Cane-gun, cross-bow and iion club.

T he sh o rt su m m ary show s th a t th e K.P.D. has tak en to h e a rt L en in s teach in g :


T h e b om b h as c eased to be the w eap on o f the isolated bom b th r o w e r . It secu res the e sse n tia l w eap on for the arm in g o f the p eop le. T h e m e th o d s and in str u m e n ts o f street fig h tin g m ust be m o d ified in a cco r d a n ce w ith the ch an ge in th e tech n iq u e o f w a r. *) 6) Militarpollti.sclic Scliriften, Engcls-Lcnin pp. 61-62 Intern. Arb. Vcrlag Berlin.

Ill

In considering t he finds of w e a p o n s mi d explosives one m u s t rem em b er th a t th e K . I M ) . h a d a l r e a d y g i v e n v e r y strict directions for rem oving w eapons fro m t h e p a r l y r e s h u i r n n l s , dw ellings, and offices. I n tra n sfo rm in g itself into : m i l l egal and co n sp irato rial o rg an izatio n it w as clear th a t w eapons and explosives w ere the m o st im p o rta n t things th ey w ished to hide safely. II is th erefo re q u ite c e rta in th a t the police has, u p to now, succeeded in finding only a sm all p o rtio n of th e C om m unists arm s and am m unition w h ich really exist. E ven now the g re a te r p a rt will be hid d en in disu sed m ines, in a llo tm en t g ard en s a n d woods, in the beds of can als a n d rivers w aitin g fo r th e day of the arm ed rising. T he countless assau lts and m u rd ers co m m itted by the K.P.D. on S.A. m en and police officers prove conclusively th a t C om m unism in G erm any was an extrem ely d eterm in ed arm ed force at w ar w ith th e w hole natio n . N euberg, w hom we have alre a d y quoted several tim es, rightly m a in ta in s th a t th e arm ed rising does n o t begin w ith street-fighting b u t w ith the perio d of im m ed iate p re p a ra tio n fo r the general a tta c k .63)
O ne m u st rem em ber that, in th e w id e st sen se o f the w ord, the risin g d oes n o t begin w ith the atta ck o f the fig h tin g org a n iza tio n s of the p ro leta ria t (Red Guard), but rath er som e days, ev en w eek s, before. It b egin s w h en th e tim e for the g e n e ra l attack h as b een fix ed and w h en the party is w ork in g at fe v er ish sp eed to w in over th e troops, to arm th e p ro leta ria t and the sem i-p ro leta ria n elem en ts for the d e c iv ise stru ggle for p ow er. It b eg in s w h en the m a sses take up the fig h t o f th eir ow n in itia tiv e a g a in st th e fo r ce s o f the cou n ter r ev o lu tio n . .?.

In th is sense G erm any was, since the m iddle of D ecem ber 1932, in th e p erio d of th e C om m unist rising. T h erew ith the necessity arose th e in d isp u tab le necessity, according to N euberg (cf. p. 175) for th e C om m unist P a rty to c reate its ow n p ro le ta ria n arm ed forces. A ccording to L en in s th e o ry of revolution, the organ, of the risin g m u st be th e Red G uard as a rm e d m ass o rganization of the P ro le ta ria t. At the m om ent w hen th e p a rty takes over the im m edi a te p re p a ra tio n s fo r th e seizure of pow er such a m ass fighting o rg an izatio n m u st be created. T his m o m en t o ccurred for the K.P.I). in the last h alf of 1932, and so it began to organize the Red Guard as the Red Mass Self-Defence (R.M.S.S.). A ccording to Com m unist re p o rts th e y h a d succeeded in 1923 in organizing about 250.000 Red G uards m en in to p ro le ta ria n h u n d re d s , in the course of a few m o n th s (cf. op. cit. p. 177). One hoped now for the sam e result.
6a) op. c i t . page 207.

112

/ low the R ed Front lived.

In connection with the m i l i Fn. sei sl n e l l o n Mini I lit* I n d i e s of t h e red muted front wilh the non-parly S o n a I I l e n i m i .die workmen, the Anti-Fascist Fighting League was feverishly developed as a half military, half propagandist fighting organization. T he p ecu liar co nditions of street-fighting from the technical m ilita ry p o in t of view b ro u g h t it ab o ut th at, besides such m ass o rg an izatio n s, special te rro ris t groups, varying in stren g th from 10 to 200 m en, w ere fo rm ed p a rtly of p a rty m em bers to c a rry o ut special task s in th e in tric a te b attlefield of tow ns. T he le a d e rs staff of all su ch C om m unist fighting organizations h ad n o t only to be m ilita rily tra in e d , b u t also politically train e d an d reliable. In acco rd an ce w ith the th eo ry of civil w ar, these lead ers should, as fa r as possible, be ta k e n fro m th e illegal G erm an Red F ro n t F ig h te rs League. C o n trary to the usual con cep tion, th e Red F ig h te rs L eague w as not so m uch a m ilitary as a p olitical nucleus, n o t th e o rg a n of d irect fig hting b u t an elite o rg an izatio n and a t th e sam e tim e th e re p resen tativ es of the idea of civil w ar a n d a stro n g m ean s of p ro p a g a n d a fo r this idea in the w orkingclass as a w hole7 ) A ltogether th e follow ing schem e of org an izatio n for the period of a rm ed rising em erged: T he Red F ro n t F ig h te rs L eague w as to be th e ce n tra l n u cleus of th e K.P.D. and lead ers u n it for the o ther fig h tin g organ izatio n s; th e A nti-F ascist-F ighting League w as to w in over an d tra in th e b ro a d e r m asses of the people for th e fight ag ain st Fascism , the Red M asses Self-D efence w as to be an im m ed i ate m ass fig h tin g o rg an izatio n ; an d finally, as m ilitary backbone an d sh a rp e st w eapon of revolt, th e n u m erous te rro rist groups w ith th e ir p u rely m ilitary tasks. As is w ell know n, th e Red F ro n t F ig h te rs League w as forbidden a fte r th e disorders of th e 1st May, 1929 w hen its m em bership, acco rd in g to N euberg, w as a b o u t 100,000. F ro m m any sources of in fo rm atio n , trials, actions, an d p u b lications of an illegal n a tu re it is clear th a t th e R.F.B. co n tin u ed to exist illegally w ith an u n k n o w n m em bership. It o rg an ized le a d ers m eetings, m ilita ry tr a in ing courses an d w en t in fo r defensive sp o rt . It supplied t h e m en fo r th e A m -organizations and th e O.S.N.A and w orked in te n sively to subvert arm y an d police. F o r instance, in the A ltona d iv riel in J a n u a ry 1933 a subversive p am p h let w as fo u n d w ith the heading Red F ro n t and th e badge of th e R .F.B., in w hich the police w ere called upon to disobey orders. Also in d ifferen t places in Saxony
7) Neuberg p. 179.

114

in J a n u a ry and F e b ru a ry 19.TI H I' II. leaflets and placards w ere d istrib u te d in w hich police and arm y were called upon to ally them selves w ith th e R.F.B. A special edition of the Red F ro n t m ay be ta k e n as an exam ple. It begins will the w ords M obili zation. T he Red F ro n t L eague calls you! T h at is quite in h a r m ony w ith N eubergs directio n s, according to w hich:
In th is p eriod w h ic h b e g in s w ith th e ap p roach o f th e gen eral b attle, in th e p eriod o f p rep a ra tio n fo r the attack on th e State, th e P a rty m u st co n cen tra te its a tten tio n on th e task o f su b vertin g and w in n in g over the tr o o p s. 8)

and th is alone m akes it possible to convert im p erialistic w ar into civil w a r. T he m ore th e general situ atio n , in th e opinion of the K.P.D., changed to an im m ediate rev o lu tio n a ry situ a tio n the stro n g er w as th e em phasis on p u rely m ilita ry train in g . In the w in ter of 1932-33 th e p olitical tra in in g of th e R.F.B. m em bers was accordingly second to m ilita ry train in g . T he m em bers w ere tra in e d p a rtic u la rly in defensive sp o rt a n d in the use an d th eory of arm s. P a rtic u la r em phasis was laid on the blocking of streets, the raising of b arricad es, on shooting an d th ro w in g hand-grenades. A ccording to th e alread y quoted w orks of N euberg, L anger etc., the fu tu re lead ers of the arm y fo r the Red rising w ere tra in ed in the strategy an d tactics of civil w ar b efore, d u rin g and a fte r the rising itself. T he tra in in g w as c a rrie d out in accordance w ith special schem es for a risin g w hich w ere published by the m anagem ent of th e R.F.B. in the m iddle of D ecem ber 1932. T he leaders th e m selves say ab o u t these schem es:
T h ese sc h e m es m u st b e th e b a sis for the id e o lo g ic a l w ork o f our g r o u p s o f five, o f the p o litic a l u n iversity o f our organ ization . T h ey m u st be th e m ain th e o r etica l w eap on s in all th e 545 g rou p s o f the n u cle u s org a n iza tio n s and tra in in g sq uad s, as w e ll as in the reserve form ation s, in the cou rses w h ic h , under co n sp ira tio n a l co n d itio n s, are organ ized in the fa c to r ies b y our sh ock troops. Our p resen tation fo llo w s c lo se ly N eu b ergs D er b e w a ffn ete A u fstan d and a r tic le s in O ktober so that the la ck o f th ese b o o k s in no lon ger o f im portance. It is at the sam e tim e your task ds to co m m u n ica te to us an y ex p e rien ce you acquire in your train in g w ork and to m e n tio n any d e fe cts or m istak es in our sch em es. C ontinue th e train in g o f th o se com rad es w h o sh ow a k e e n in terest through fu rth er sp ecia l cou rses, m ak e them p rop agan d ists an d agitators for our Arm y o f F r e e d o m .. . . It is a b solu tely n ecessa ry that all rev o lu tio n a ry p arties w h o are p rep arin g to secu re the p o litic a l pow er sh ou ld p on der the le s so n s o f the p roletarian risin g in R eval on 1. 12. 2*1
8) Neuberg p. 207.

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l lir In stru ctio n usu ally took p la c e in iln* so culled (ruining squads, w hich w ere buill up according lo I Ik* principle laid dow n by th e lenders of th e R.F.B. in Sepl. 1032. A ccording lo these principles, the tra in in g squad consists of nil new ly jo in ed m em bers of a Storm T ro o p d istric t and is d iv id e d into g roups of f iv e . T h e period of tra in in g is tw o m on th s. F ro m now on the fo u rth sqiutd of every Storm T roop m u st be a tra in in g squad. R egulations a s lo com m ands and o rd e rs and o th er d etails of o rg an izatio n were d istrib u te d in the so-called W eh rp o litisch e S c h rifte n re ih e Nr. 2 and 3, a new edition of th e b ooklet P ro le ta risch er W e h rsp o rt, K om m andou n d B cfeh lso rd n u n g f r p ro leta risc h e W e h r v erb n d e .9)

In th e in stru c tio n s of th e R.F.B. W hy D efensive S p o rt? the follow ing exercises a re o rdered:
P h y sic a l dirill S p orts B o x in g S h ootin g C ross-conn Iry m a rch in g F ie ld E x e r c ise s C alcu lation o f D ista n ce s P ractice in h o ld in g d e m o n stra tio n s M ap-reading F in d in g o n e s w ay b y co m p a ss and stars M orse cod e Jiu-jitsu.

W ith w h at th o ro u g h n ess m ilita ry tra in in g w as c a rrie d through w e can see fro m the R ules as to A uxiliary T ren ch M ortars in the A rm ed R ising .
In th e a n n e d risin g e n em y strong p oin ts, e .g . b a r r a ck s and rail w ay station s, w ill have to be ta k en by force. In stead o f a rtillery, tirench m ortars or large-caliibre iro n tiubes w ill be used. T h e tw o ty p es o f a u x ilia r y b om b -th row ers, viz. the tren ch m ortar* and th e m ortar in the sh ap e o f a large-calib re iron tub e, are th e r e fo r e to a high d eg ree su ited to h a sten or to ren der p o ssib le Ilie c o n q u est o f fo r tifie d p oin ts. T h e m oral e ffe c t o f su ch m in es filled w ith high e x p lo siv es is so great that an en em y w h o is p o litic a lly not h e tr o g en eo u s w ill p ro b a b ly su rrender a fter a fe w h ea v y m in es have exp lod ed . In ad d ition to that, one m u st con sid er the ex tra o rd in a rily stron g d estru ctiv e e ffe c t o f h ea v y m in es w ith in a narrow com plex o f b u ild in g s.

In co n nection w ith the th e o re tic a l tra in in g th ere w as practical m ilita ry drill w hich took place u n d e r the g reatest secrecy. Such M anoeuvres of the Red A rm y did n o t alw ays pass off as the fu tu re Red generals a n d in stru c to rs w ould w ish, as the follow ing exam ple fro m 15th an d 16th O ctober 1932 shows:
T h e W h ite d eta ch m en t co n sisted o f the groups from Stuttgart, E sslin g en , C an nstad t, B acknan g, P lo c h in g e n and M ellin gen . Its stren gth w as 100 110 m en. T he Rod d etach m en t co n sisted o f Hie 9) "BrQckc", Vurlug Anton Huber, Danzig 1931.

1 17

groups from L ud w lgsb urg, I Viu-i lnn l>. / tiI'I< * n11 miis*n, I llin grn and W e lle n d o r f anid w as about 90 strong. On cm li tide llirr<* wore further, as runners, 3 m o to r-c y c lists and 9 10 ordinary rycllNln. T h e Red d etach m en t co llected on the 15th O ctober at 9 o clock un der great se c re cy on the C om m on and m arch ed from there in c o lu m n s to U n d ertiirk h eim , M ettingen, B rhl, in the d irection o f D e izisa u and th e n alon g the road to D e n k en d o r f to a sp ot n orth -w est of th is road and abou t IV 2 km . sou th o f the cross-road s E sslin gen D eizisa u , E sslin g en -D en k e n d o rf. T h ere a cam p w as set up near F ried ric h sm iih le. H ere th e d e ta c h m en t arrived at ab ou t 1 o clo ck at nigh t and im m e d ia te ly retired to rest. T h rou gh the to w n s and villa g es m arch in g w a s in lo o se order. At 3 o c lo c k the alarm w a s sou n d ed and th e w h o le d eta ch m en t w a s d raw n up on th e road b etw een D e izisa u and D en k en d o rf. T h e d iv isio n into grou p s and sectio n s fo llo w ed . T he 4 se c tio n s w ere fo r m e d into 2 figh tin g lin e s w h ic h k ep t at a d istan ce o f 400 to 500 m etres from each other. T he p osition and th e o b je c tiv e w e re as fo llo w s: T h e en em y h as o c cu p ied h ill 326 in th e L au er H o lzle, ab ou t 3 km . sou th o f Zell. Red has first to d is co v er b y m ea n s o f p a tr o ls the p o sitio n and stren gth o f th e en em y o u tp o sts and th e p o sitio n o f th e en em y. R ifle-fire w ill be in d icated b y th e cla p p in g o f h a n d s and th e fla sh in g o f e le ctr ic to rch es and m a c h in e -g u n fire by rattles. S in ce up to 8 o clock in the m orn in g n o c o n ta ct w ith th e e n em y h ad b een fou n d the m a n o eu v res w ere su sp en d ed and the d eta ch m en t m a r ch ed b a ck to the cam p in th e w ood n ear B eck h eim in lo o se order. T h ere tea w as m ade, a rest w a s taken, sp o rtin g e x er cise s w e re carried o u t and at 11.30 a .m . lu n ch w as provided. T ow ard s 2 o clo ck the v a r io u s local groups m arch ed hom e in lo o se order. T he d isc ip lin e of the m ajority o f th ose w h o took part w as e x tre m ely bad. As the e x er cise s g ra d u a lly took up m ore and m ore tim e, the orders o f th e lea d er s w ere o n ly relu cta n tly o b ey ed and in so m e c a ses n ot o b ey ed at all. T h e fie ld train in g m u st be co n sid ered as very poor, and the lead ers e sp e c ia lly , b ein g for the m ost part yo u n g and u n k n ow n , seem ed q u ite ign oran t o f m ilita ry op eration s. T h e h igh com m an d w as h eld b y an u n k n o w n y o u th o f 23 to 24 about 5 dt 6 in. in h eigh t w ith blon d hair and a haggard face. T h e m an oeu vres m u st be co n sid ered as a failu re. As ap p eared afterw ards, the R eds never o c cu p ied h ill 326 again st w h ic h th e W h ite s had ad van ced , b u t held h ill 344.8 about 1,300 m etres sou th o f D eizisau . H ill 344.8 lie s about 2 km . so u th -w est o f hill 326.

W h en it was still legal the R.F.B. had adopted the follow ing o rg a n isa tio n : 10)
10) Richtlinien ber den Aufbau der Organisation und Ausflirungsbestimmungen. Rot-Front Verlag, Ernst Thlmann 1929.

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of the l.caituo

M am iK cm rnt

T he m ost im p o rta n t u n it of th e L eague seem s to be th e gro u p consistin g of 8 m en, w ho, as fa r as possible w ould w ork in the sam e fa c to ry or live in th e sam e block of houses, and th u s be able to keep in c o n sta n t con tact. T he Soldiers of th e Red F ro n t m u st se p a ra te them selves from the G erm an co m m u n ity and su b m it u n co n d itio n ally to th e C om m u n ist In te rn a tio n a le . P ro o f of th is is th e Red m ilita ry o ath of the R.F.B. w hich is as follow s: n )
W e c la ss-c o n sc io u s p r o leta r ia n s sw ea r to use all our stren gth in the fig h t for th e freein g o f the w o rk ers from c a p ita list e x p lo ita tio n , o p p re ssio n and p ersecu tion . In iro n d isc ip lin e and w ith th e str icte st o b ed ien ce w e su b m it to all ord ers and reg u la tio n s w h ic h m ay be n e c essa ry in th e fig h t fo r the in te re sts o f th e p roletariat. H e w h o is u n fa ith fu l to th e Red F ro n t or b etrays the in te re sts o f the p r o leta r ia t w ill su ffer th e d e e p e st con tem p t of the w o rk in g c la ss an d th e m o st se v e re se n te n c e o f rev o lu tio n a ry ju stic e .

On th e 15th J a n u a ry 1933 th e re w as a g reat recru itin g drive to b u ild u p Y outh S torm T roops. T he young w o rkm en w ere to be quickly m obilized an d sy stem atically tra in e d fo r the arm ed risin g .1 *) A fter th e p a rty o rg an isatio n s h ad tu rn e d illegal, the groups of 8 w ere tra n sfo rm e d in to g roups of 5. A c irc u la r le tte r fro m the
1*) From a confiscated membership book of the RFB., Judgment of Supreme Court of the 3 0 1 ,1 September 1932. 12) Rotor JiiHcnd-Presscdienst, illegal, early in February 1933.

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L eague M anagem ent (o all cl is ( r it*I lenders w h i c h was sent round o n F e b ru a ry 25th, 1933, hy co u rier explains I h r significance of th is basic fig h tin g u n it of the R.F.H.
It m u st b e clear to every lead er that 11 this sen se the group is th e d e c isiv e form ation . All w ork m u st be carried o u t w ith the help o f the group. T h e greatest in itia tiv e and the greatest r esp on sib ility lie w ith th e group lead er. A very e ffic ie n t in te llig en ce and alarm .service m u st b e organ ized from group to group and w ith in the group itse lf. T h is m ust m ak e it p o ssib le to bring the group into action at a n y tim e o f th e day or nigh t. T h ro u g h its in d iv id u a l m em b ers the g r o u p its e lf m u st b e ab le to jo in up and m o b ilize w ith the other m a ss e s an d o rg a n iza tio n s o f w o rk ers. T h is org a n iza tio n com b in ed w ith firm d eterm in a tio n on th e part o f our sta ffs and lead ers w ill e n a b le us to p ro v e in the co m in g w e e k s that our en e m ie s can n ot d e str o y us and that w e axe in a p o sitio n to d e a l them the decisive b lo w .

A decisive tu rn in the w ork of th e o rg anization of the R.F.B. w a s n oticeable at th e end of F e b ru a ry 1933, since it was now th o u g h t th a t th e critical h o u r h ad arriv ed . T he R.F.B. h a d to show th a t it w as equ al to the task of lead in g the o th er m ass fighting o rg an izatio n s. F o r th e second h alf of F e b ru a ry th e Red Mass SelfD efence w as placed u n d e r th e lead ersh ip of the R.F.B. and th u s was fo rm ed a w ell-p rep ared m ass o rg an izatio n politically and m ilitary reliab le in its lead ersh ip . T he street b a ttle could begin. A lready a t th e beginning of D ecem ber 1932 the leaders of the R.F.B. h a d recognized th a t th e decisive h o u r w as rapidly app ro ach in g . T hey called a secret co n ference of the en tire Reich o rg a n isa tio n s a t B runsw ick w hich w as held so secretly an d w ith such p recau tio n s th a t n o t u n til som e w eeks later, w iien the reso lu tio n s an d d irectio n s of this co n ference w ere passed on to the low er grades of th e R.F.B., did the officials of the state realize th a t it h a d been held. T his Reich conference issued a call to the G er m an w o rk in g class in w hich the G eneral staff of the Socialist A rm y of F re e d o m urg ed th e Red fig h ters to rem ain in a state of in ten se p re p a re d n ess an d called u p o n to p rep are fo r the p o liti cal g en eral strik e as the first stage of the arm ed risin g .
W o rk ers in A rm am ent F actories, R a ilw a y and T ran sp ort W orkers. P ro leta ria n s in M ines, F a cto r ie s and F arm s. P o lic em e n and Soldiers. U n ite all the o ffe n siv e and d e fe n siv e elem en ts o f th e w ork in g p e o p le in th e d e fe n siv e rev o lu tio n a ry b a ttle o f the m a sses again st th e F a sc ist g en era l d ic ta to rsh ip .

T his la st ap p eal fo r arm ed revolt derives its term s and plans fro m a detailed reso lu tio n of th e R eich conference in w hich the follow ing passage o ccurs:
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" l lir It I It must play a lea d in g part in all a sp ects o f the d a ily clans win T h e R.F.B. m ust grow to an even greater m a ss o r g a n i zation II m u st b eco m e the o r g a n iza tio n o f all p ro leta ria n s fit for d efen sive action . F o rw a rd to the fu lfilm e n t o f the th ree m o n th s plan (i.e . till th e end o f F eb ru a ry 1933). F orw a rd in th e fig h t for the d icta to rsh ip o f th e p r o leta r ia t.

T he reso lu tio n lays d ow n fu rth e r th a t th e low er u n its fo r p a rtic u la r task s should tak e th e le a d e rsh ip in to th e ir ow n h a n d s e. g. in th e p ra c tic a l fig h t a g a in st sentences of th e courts, ag ain st forced sales, in strikes, d e m o n stratio n s, etc. In a p o litical speech co m rad e P a u l declared th a t the red fighters m u st lead the fig h t fo r a free socialist fa th e rla n d .
T h e 12th sessio n o f the E.K .K .I. p ro cla im ed that a p eriod o f n e w w ars is at han d. W e are th e r efo r e fa c ed w ith the q u estio n o f in te n sify in g w ork am ong the m a sse s ab ove all am on g th e S.A., R eich sb an ner, S tah lh elm , R eich sw eh r and p o lice. W e m ust also 'in ten sify our e ffo r ts am on g th e r a ilw a y w ork ers, th e w ork ers in in d u str ies v ita l in w ar and am on g the u n em p lo y e d . W e can p ro v e sc ie n tfic a lly th a t there i s n o oth er w a y out o f th e crisis (but th at .of rev o lu tio n . . . W e are for d e fe n siv e p rep a ra tio n s, fo r the fig h t fo r S o cia lism . B etter and m o re v ig o ro u sly th a n b e fo r e w e m u st p o p u la rize our d ead lead ers, th e h e r o es o f th e rev o lu tio n . W e m u st w o rk up su ch a m o o d am on g th e w o rk ers th at th e y grasp th e id e a th at r ifles m u st b e in the w o r k e r s han d s. O nly th e p r o leta r ia n r ev o lu tio n can d e fe a t c a p ita lism and o v erco m e w ar and th e d an ger o f w a r .

In the speech dealing w ith the w ork of o rg an izatio n it is stated am ong o th e r th in g s th a t th e illegal cen tral perio d ical of the R.F.B. m ust in fu tu re a p p e a r in an edition of 300,000 and th a t on th e a n n iv e rsa ry of the R ussian Red A rm y on 23th F e b ru a ry 1933 th e R.F.B. w ould tra n s fe r 10,000 fu n c tio n a rie s as a gift to th e K.P.D. In th e speech th e follow ing passage o ccurs:
T h ere m ust b e greater c o o p era tio n . W e have add ressed a circu lar letter w ith 4 q u estio n s to all d istricts. T h e a n sw ers to th is letter h a v e been r ec eiv e d from 22 d istricts. 17 teleg ra m s o f greetin g to the R ed A rm y w e re sen t o ff. W e h a v e r ec eiv e d 20 telegram s e x p r essin g c o n fid e n c e in th e leagu e m an agem en t. A ll th at sh o w s so lid a r ity b e tw e en the cen tra l o r g a n iza tio n and the d istrict lead ers. W e stan d n o w b e fo r e the great o ffen siv e ; th is m ust th u nd er lik e a storm th rou gh G erm any. W e m u st b e th e b e s t h elp ers o f the P arty in the fig h t ag a in st th e V e rsa illes T rea ty in th e in d u stria l stru ggle.

T he close so lid arity of th e R.F.B. w ith th e Red A rm y of Soviet Russia is strik in g ly proved by these extracts. The g ift of 10,000 officials show s in th e sam e w ay as the c ircu latio n of the periodical, its organ, th a t th e R.F.B. w as organizing revolution in th e grand style

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Ff one adds lo this a resolution ol ih r llnlch conference the cir cular issued by the Wrttemberg dinlricl < > l Ihr It I1 '.It. which begins with the words:
R ed so ld iers o f F reed om , jo in aip for Ihr fu lfilm e n t o f the threem o n th s storm p la n .

th e n it becom es quite clear th a t th e R.F.B. w as the m ost im p o rtan t fa c to r in th e im m ediate p re p a ra tio n s fo r revolution in G erm any an d th a t it h a d succeeded, in spite of it being forbidden, in becom ing th e b est o rganized fig h tin g tro o p of the civil w ar. T he directio n s of the W rtte m b e rg d istrict dealing w ith the p o litical an d o rg an izatio n al ta sk s w hich the R.F.B., in accordance w ith th e reso lu tio n of th e R eich conference, h a d to fulfil are im b u ed w ith the m ost violent radicalism . T hey show th a t the o rg a n iz a tio n a l an d p ro p ag an d a w ork of the Red Soldiers of F re e d o m is aim ed a t th e political an d technical arm ing of the p ro le ta ria t fo r th e civil w a r . T h e m ost suitable w ay of arm ing the civil w a r tro o p of th e K.P.D. fo r the final b attle lies in a n ti m ilita rist w o rk am ong soldiers, policem en, railw ay-guards and in th e bourgeois defensive o rg a n iz a tio n s, in the p rep a rin g of the rev o lu tio n in th e factories, p a rtic u la rly in th e vital ones and the ones im p o rta n t in w ar, in getting hold of youth, in physical tr a in ing an d th e stu d y of defensive technique, and in tra in in g for m ilita ry pu rp o ses u n d er th e n ew est rev o lu tio n ary instructions. T h e secret d istrict co n feren ce of th e R.F.B. of H e sse-F ran k f u r t on th e 17th an d 18th D ecem ber 1932 w hich took place in co n n ectio n w ith th e Reich conference issued a sim ilar appeal.
E very p ro leta ria n w h o is ca p a b le o f d efen d in g h im se lf and has the fig h tin g sp irit sh o u ld be in ou r ranks. Get h im for us. F orw ard to the attack ! T h ere can be no p eace or tra n q u illity u n til th e red flag o f th e freed o m o f th e p e o p le s flie s over us w h o are the Red A rm y o f a free so c ia list S oviet G erm any! R ed F ro n t!

It w as stated a t the sam e conference th a t the subversive w ork of the R.F.B. am ong the police h a d by no m eans been unsuccessful, A R.F.B. m em ber fro m P fu n g sta d t declared th a t they the police on th e ir side. If p ro p ag an d a bills w ere to be posted in the night, th e police w ere in fo rm ed b efo reh an d . D uring th a t tim e the latti k e p t o u t of th e w ay. One rep resen tativ e of the R.F.B. from M ayence gave the im p ressio n th a t he w as a police official. He explained am ong other th in g s th a t w hen th e police w ere called out one should m ake a n o te of those w ho did not act ruth lessly . These should be the first
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to he approached with subversive material, in order to win them over l<> I lie* organization. On th e 28th D ecem ber the N orth Went D istrict h e a d q u a rte rs of the K.P.D. p u b lish ed u rgent in stru c tio n s w hich called for the closest connection betw een the w ork in lh<* p a rty a n d the m ilitary w ork. T he m asses w ere to be called upon to p ro tect the p a rty , an d th e p relim in aries for the re v o lu tio n a ry situ atio n w ere to be accelerated. At th e end of J a n u a ry 1933 the qu estio n of p ro cu rin g arm s for the com ing risin g w as a lre a d y being discussed a t m eetings of the o fficials of th e R.F.B. On th e 31st Ja n u a ry th e leading R.F.B. m em ber S chubert declared a t a secret m eeting of leading officials a t the p a rty h e a d q u a rte rs of th e K .P.D . in H am b u rg th a t a general strik e w as inevitable. He said th a t th e p re lim in a ry stage of the arm ed rising h a d com e, an d m ig h t a t an y m o m en t lead to th e arm ed rising itself. T he te rro ris t o rg an izatio n s of th e seab o ard provinces w ere to ta k e actio n as ra p id ly as possible a n d th e unem ployed m ight, for instance, begin to p ro c u re fuel by force. It w ould do no h a rm if d irec t collisions w ith th e police took place in this connection. T he D ata relatin g to th e lau n ch in g of an d re p o rtin g on our 1933 offensive p ublished b y th e R.G.O. is entitled: M ake all p re p a ra tio n s to be re a d y , a n d co n tin u es:
E v en ts are o ccu rrin g at in c re a se d sp eed . T here is n ot m u ch tim e left. A ll fig h tin g p r o leta r ia n s m u st jo in us. T h e C om m u n ists arc read y to tak e ad van tage o f all o cca sio n s to o rgan ize the m a sses and th u s m a k e p o ssib le th e v icto r y o f th e p roletariat. T h e rev o lu tio n a ry c risis m a y r ea lly occu r at an y m o m en t.

T he o rg an of th e R.F.B. in its 36th illegal n u m ber of the n in th year of issue13) (incidentally w ith an alleged circu latio n of 500,000) is still p la in e r:
M ob ilization O rder. A ll y o u n g w ork ers fit for m ilitary service are ord ered to rep ort th e m se lv es for ser v ic e in th e fo r m a tio n s o f the red Y ou th F ron t. G eneral e x a m in a tio n is from to-d ay u n til the 15th M arch. E n list at on ce. W e are go in g to a ttack w ith L u xem b u rg, L ieb k n ech t and L enin. T o all fo r m e r com rad es o f the red arm y o f th e R u hr-D istrict! T o a ll m em b ers o f th e p r o leta r ia n h u n d red s ! H o ld m e etin g s ev ery w h ere, o rgan ize y o u r se lv es and join the union o f R ed F ron t F ig h ter s L ea g u e. **) Another organ of the R.F.B. Der Rote Frontsoldat, dealing with the politics of proletarian defence, published by Kurt Heiss, Berlin, Sieger-Press, Berlin NW., Turmstrasse 87. There is also manuscript material such as Graue Kolonnen greifen an and the already mentioned Wehrpolitischc Schriftenreihe" mid the numerous subversive writings partly published by the R.l'.B.

O n the 25th F e b ru a ry 11KJ3 Hie follow ing special editio n of th e Rote F ro n t was d istrib u ted :
O rganize a con tin u o u s alarm service; organ ize d ay and nigh t patrols and guards! W atch the S.A. beer sa lo o n s . . . R em ain togeth er in groups, sleep in groups, d e fe n d y o u r se lv es in grou p s and die for fr ee d o m if n ecessa ry . O rgan ize y o u r se lv es in the tried fo rm a tio n s of the R .F.B . R ally r o u n d th e m .

T he language becom es ever plain er. T hey consider it no longer n ecessary to disguise th e ir re a l intentions. T o-m orrow they will fig h t on th e b arricad es! D er ro te M atrose w rites:
T o arm s! T h e v icto r y w ill be ours. R eload y o u r rifles, p u ll the fu se s o f you r h an d -gren ad es an d o ff to th e b a rricad es . . . h an g th e fa sc ist m urd erers and in c en d ia rie s . . . do n o t sh o u t G erm any a w a k e , b u t w ork ers to the b ar r ic a d e s ! F orw ard to v icto r y !

T he fin a l p re p a ra tio n s w ere feverishly m ade. In the R u h r D istrict a system of successive stages of a larm w as arran g ed :
D iffe r e n t stages o f alarm are in d icated b y a num ber 50, 100, 150 or 200. W h en 50 is sign alled , e v er y m em b er o f the R .F.B . m ust rem ain at h om e. T he cou rier service h a s to stand rea d y in order to m o b ilize the w h o le o rgan ization and to alarm the p arty as ev en ts take p lace. W h en 100 is sign alled , p a tr o ls o f sin g le grou p s m ust be on the w atch . W h e n 150 is sign alled , the w h o le o rgan ization m ust get read y for action , and each group o f fiv e m u st be co n cen tra ted in a d w ellin g and w ait for fu rth er orders. A part from that, the in stru ctio n s for the n u m b ers 50 and 100 apply. W h e n 200 is sign alled , arm ed p atrols w ill also be sen t ou t in acco rd a n ce w ith party ord ers or th ose o f the R .F.B . lead ers. At ea ch o f th e variou s sta g e s o f alarm the grou p s o f fiv e h ave to get in to tou ch w ith e a ch o th er and at the sam e tim e to su p p ly the lo c a l p arty head q u arters w ith in fo r m a tio n abou t the situ ation . F u rth er, th e c lo sest c o n ta ct is to be k ep t w ith the su b d istrict h e a d q u arters by m ean s o f a d d itio n a l cou rier sta tio n s to be kept op en day and n ig h t.

On the 25th F e b ru a ry 1933 th e couriers of the union leaders took th e o rd ers of the day to a ll d istrict staffs:
WT e, the cen tral h ead q u arters, in vite all lea d ers and com rad es to do their u tm ost to get all th at is p ossib le ou t o f the o rgan ization . W e m u st sh o w that w e can red eem our oath and carry ou t the r e so lu tio n s o f the last R eich C on feren ce that w e sh ou ld be the best servan ts o f the rev o lu tio n a ry p a r ty .

W ords are follow ed by deeds. The ala rm is given by the leaders of th e R.F.B.: the arm ed risin g is to take place at the end of F e b ru a ry :
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To all

Section Staffs!

Our orga n iza tio n , the w h o le o f Ihe w orking c la ss fil for m ilitary service, is c o n fr o n ted b y the d ecisiv e task. C ourage, b o ld n e ss and d eterm in ation . At an y m o m en t all Ihe lead ers must be ca p a b le o f m o b ilizin g the m a sses th rou gh the o rgan ization . II is not o n ly a q u estion o f ca llin g up on th e m asses to p assively defen d the K.P.I). and the righ ts o f the w o rk ers, but w e m ust also slir up th e b a ttle o f Ihe m a sses and direct a m a ss attack against the F ascist d ictatorsh ip . The L eagu e head q u arters at th is d ecisiv e m o m en t e x p e ct every lead er and com rad e to do h is u tm o st and to risk h is life in the stru ggle for our class. W e th erefore order: 1. T h e w h o le o r g a n iza tio n m ust be co n sta n tly read y for im m ed ia te action . 2. At an y m o m en t th e p arty m a y b e forb id d en or o th er brutal m easu res adopted. 3. N oth in g can or m a y h in d er our w o rk fo r a m inute. 4. As lon g as w e r em a in in p e r m a n e n t so lid a r ity and are in sep a ra b ly c o n n e c ted w ith the w o r k in g m a sses w e are in v in cib le. 5. S a fest p r o te ctio n o f op era tio n s and co m m u n ic a tio n s and Ihe m a in ten a n ce o f c o n ta c t are in d isp e n sib le con d ition s. 6. All d isc u ssio n s an d big m e etin g s are forb id d en . T h e c h ief com m an d and the lea d er s ord ers are n o t to be q u estion ed . W h o ev er d iso b ey s th em is a traitor. 7. M aintain c o n tin u o u s c o n ta ct w ith th e R eich sb an n er, th e fo rm a tio n s and h ead -q u arters; th e r e the atm osp h ere is favou rab le. C oop eration sh o u ld b e organ ized in th is resp ect. 8. T he n a tio n a l fr o n t is n o t so u n ited as th ey w o u ld h a v e u s b elieve. L arge n u m b ers are d isa p p o in ted , o th ers w ill b e c o m e so. T h erefore prop agan d a am on g the m a sses m u st n o w be in te n sifie d w ith all p o ssib le energy. 9. R u th less o p p o sitio n again st iso la ted acts o f terrorism . T h e m o s t d e c isiv e b attle o f th e m a sses on the b road est fr o n t 10. O rgan ization and d e fe n c e o f th e w o rk in g -cla ss qu arters. W atch p atrols. 11. In su re th e sa fe ty o f th e app aratu s o f organ ization . 12. D ep u ty lead ers are to be a p p o in ted every w h ere. M ass d istrib u tion o f m a ter ia ls and th e sale o f n ew sp ap ers. 13. In th is d e c isiv e h ou r every lead er and com rad e m u st show w h eth er h e is r e a lly rea d y to fig h t on fe a r le ssly and to m ake the u tm o st sa c r ifice . R eport on everyth in g th rou gh th e quickest ch an n els. L ead ers and com rad es, u n fu rl the ban ner o f our m a ss action . F orw a rd to the m o st ad v a n ced o u tp osts. Sh ow that you are figh ters and also, if the r ev o lu tio n dem an d s it, th at you can die as h eroes in b attle. B oun d for ever to all lead ers and com rad es, rem em b erin g our c om m on p led ge: F orw ard , lon g live our victory. L eague H eadquarters."

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A fter the longed-for success of the rising, the R.F.B., w as to receive its g re a t rew ard . It w as n o t to play llie p a rt of a Red Army in G erm any, b u t acco u n t w as to be ta k e n of the fact th a t it co nsist ed of p icked m en and it w as d estined to becom e a C heka or G.P.U. in th e fu tu re Soviet G erm any. T he Red Mass Self-Defence O rgani zations, th e so-called Red G uard on the o th er hand, and the A nti-F ascist F ig h tin g L eague (KgF) w ere to form th e Red Army. E ven in its u n ifo rm th e A nti-F ascist League gave an indication of its p lan s fo r th e fu tu re. Its m em bers w ore black R ussian blouses w ith d a rk red co llar-p atch es, b lack b reech es and leggings, shoulders tra p s a n d sw ordbelts, a n d d a rk -b lu e y ach ting caps. On th e collar th e re w as a red Soviet s ta r m ade of m etal. In spite of the im p o rta n t ta sk it w as to have in the fu tu re , the A nti-F ascist L eague w as by no m ean s so well organized and dis guised as th e R.F.B. R ight up to th e end it w as able to c a rry on openly an d w as n o t forbidden. In 1 of its statu tes we re a d :
T h e lea g u e is ca lled the KGF. Its ob ject is to b ring togeth er in o n e org a n iza tio n all an ti-F a sc ist fo r ce s to form a broad an ti-F ascist m a ss m o v em en t. It w ill train its m em b ers for th e fig h t again st F a sc ism and w ill carry on th is fig h t w ith the m ost su itab le p olitical a n d o r g a n iza tio n a l m e a n s.

T h ere is no d o u b t as to w h at m ean s th e KgF th o u g h t su itab le . Q uite n a tu ra lly th e re w as only one su itab le m eans of carrying on fight, an d th a t w as th e arm ed rising. In th e firs t m o n th s of 1932 th e KgF h esitated betw een two p urposes, to w in a b ro a d m easu re of su p p o rt am ong the m asses a n d a t th e sam e tim e to create w ell-train ed closely organized fig h t ing un its. In its w ork am ong th e m asses it even w en t so fa r as to fo rm w om ens an d girls d etach m en t w hich ap p eared at antiF ascist congresses . T h ere w ere, for instance, in Jen a in Septem ber 1932 six squads, one y o u th squad a n d one of w om en and girls co n sisting of fro m th re e to six groups of eight or nine m em bers each. In ad d itio n to th a t th e re w as a cyclist squad. T he p u rely m ilitary aspect w as, on th e o th e r han d , m o st clearly show n by the custom of n o t ca rry in g papers, b u t tin id en tificatio n discs on w hich the n u m b e r of th e g roup an d of the m a n w ere stam ped, a n d w hich th e y c a rrie d on a strin g ro u n d th e ir necks. In th e a u tu m n of 1932, th e tra n sfo rm a tio n to illegality was begun in th e case of th e A n ti-F ascist L eague also, b u t prop ag an d a am ong th e m asses w as n o t ab andoned. As late as D ecem ber 1932 D as S tu rm b a n n e r, the o fficials org an of the KgF w rote:
T he rev o lu tio n a ry w a v e is risin g. T he m a sses are learn in g to w id en th e strik e m ovem en t, and to d evelop it to large sc a le p o litica l strik es and even a general str ik e .

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I ii c Iohc* co n nection w ith th e R.F.B. and w ilh the p rinciples laid down by the Ueich C onference in B runsw ick, the KgF ad opted a three m o n th s p lan up to the en d of F e b ru a ry 1933, in the course of w hich 50,000 new m em bers w ere to be enrolled and new squads and local g roups organized. T he sim ilarity betw een th e tw o p lan s of a tta c k a t th e beginning of the y e a r is very strik in g . T h is in d icates too th a t th e pass-w ord h a d been given o u t fro m a com m on cen tre to be read y fo r the action by th e end of F e b ru a ry . The y e a r 1933 b ro u g h t to th e fro n t th e necessity fo r re o rg a n iz ing th e A n ti-F ascist L eague in its illegal form , in strict accordance w ith wrh a t h a d been done in th e R.F.B. an d in th e illegal p a rty o rg an izatio n . T he g roup of five w as set u p as th e fu n d a m e n ta l u n it in th e A nti-F ascist L eague as well. T he d irectio n s as to org an izatio n s issued by th e league a t th e beg in n in g of J a n u a ry 1933 lay dow n th e follow ing principles.
T ogeth er w ith the grea test p o ssib le d ec en tra liz a tio n o f our fo r ce s so as to ex ten d our w o rk a m o n g th e m asses, th ere m u st b e a t the sa m e tim e th e greatest co n c en tra tio n o f the w h o le o r g a n iza tio n on th e ta sk s to be fu lfille d .

At th e end of J a n u a ry th e y h ad got so fa r as to be p re p a re d to let th e A nti-F ascist League hide b eh in d illegality. A gitation and p ro p a g a n d a w ere d isco n tin u ed because street-fig hting w as soon to begin. L eague head q u a rte rs issued o rd ers to ensure th e safety of th e o rg an izatio n an d to disguise it. I quote the o rd er as it ap p ears in th e an n o u n c e m e n t of th e N o rth -W est d istrict h e a d q u a rte rs of the league on th e 23rd J a n u a ry :
1. N o m em b er o f th e o rg a n iza tio n m ay give an y in fo r m a tio n ab ou t it to an ou tsid er. 2. E x c ep t at th e m e etin g s o f th e organ ization , m em b ers and o ffic ia ls, th ere m u st be n o d isc u ssio n o f in tern a l a ffa irs eith er in r estau ran ts or in th e streets or in r a ilw a y ca rriages or tram -cars, or e lsew h ere. 3. M em bers o f th e o r g a n iza tio n are fo r b id d e n to p u t up or to give in fo r m a tio n , m o n e y or a n y oth er a ssista n c e to p erso n s w h o say th at th ey are m em b ers, e v en if th ey p ro d u ce a m em b ersh ip book . In c o n n e c tio n w ith that, it m ay be p oin ted ou t th at su ch p eop le, o fte n p ro v id ed w ith e v er y co n c eiv a b le forged p ap er o f in d en tifica tio n , g ive as a r ea so n fo r th eir w a n tin g sh elter and a ssista n c e th at th e y h a v e c o m m itte d so m e o ffe n c e and e x p e ct h e a v y p u n ish m en t. T h is is a lw a y s an a b so lu te sw in d le, o n ly ca lc u la ted to e x p lo it th e fe elin g s o f so m e o f the o rgan ization m em b ers. A bove all th in gs, w e w arn m em b ers again st su ch p eo p le. 4. W h e n e v e r the o r g a n iza tio n m ak es a p u b lic ap p earan ce, w h eth er at m eetin gs, d em o n stra tio n s, or p u b lic so c ia l even in gs, m em b ers m ust be sp e c ia lly on th eir guard again st the a c tiv ity o f secret agen ts an d agen ts p rovocateu rs.

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6.

in every ease il must be remeinlipred that on ly Hie directions and commands o f the appointed lead ers o f I I . r iii'ManUutlon are to he ob eyed . In fo rm a tio n , communications el*, may !> c o n v e y ed to
the p rop er o ffic ia l eith er th rough Ihe i mini I < *li n 1111 < *Is or through su ch m em b ers as are p e r so n a lly k n ow n to lh. sou rce o f in form ation . F in a l R em ark s fo C om rades, L eaders and Staffs.

T h ese d irectio n s in d ic a te th e le a st th at m u st be d o n e to en su re th e sa fe ty o f th e o rgan ization , w ith o u t creatin g a sp y p sy ch o sis. T he grea test sa fe ty for th e o r g a n iza tio n lie s in its activity, its h old on th e m a sses and its fo u n d a tio n in th e factories. If, from n o w on, m em b ers or r ep re se n ta tiv es o f th e d istr ict h eadq uarters are detached to in sp e c t etc., w e sh a ll in e a ch c a se a n n o u n ce th eir arrival in due tim e, and, in so far as th e y are n ot p erso n a lly k n ow n to you, th e y w ill b e su p p lie d w ith th e req u isite id e n tity pap ers, w h ic h w ill have b e e n arran ged b efo reh a n d w ith the in d iv id u a l lo ca l h eadq uarters. R eady for the attack! R eich H ead qu arters. W e p o in t ou t o n ce m ore th at fo r sp ec ia l rea so n s w e req uire the fo llo w in g from each lo ca l g r o u p : one add ress for letters, one a d d ress fo r p arcels, on e in fo r m a tio n o ffic e for cou riers and, at the sa m e tim e, a ltern atives, so that, if n e e d be, w e can use th e alternative a d d resses. T h ese ad d resses w ill so o n be fe tc h e d b y m essen ger or co m m u n ic a ted to R eich h ea d q u a rters in som e oth er w a y to be a rra n g ed .

Tw o days la te r the firs t shots w ere fired an d nine persons w ere killed. T he official re p o rt of the Police P re sid en t in D resden on w h a t o ccu rred a t th e m eeting of th e A nti-Fascist League in the K eglerheim on Ja n u a ry 25th, 1933 sta te s:
T he c h ie f sp eak er w as the C om m u nist, retired lie u te n a n t F rad rich from R au tzen. H e sp ok e in su ch an in fla m m a to ry w a y that the a u d ien ce o f 800 b eca m e m ore and m o re excited . At 10.35 p .m . the p o lic e o ffic e r on d u ty d ecla red th e m e etin g d isso lv ed and ca lled up p o lic e r ein fo rcem en ts. As th e sp ea k er p ro tested again st the m eetin g b e in g d isso lv ed , th ose p resen t w ere o n c e m ore lo u d ly in fo r m ed that the m e etin g w a s d isso lv ed and c a lled up on to disp erse. Rut although th ey at first o n ly protested by gesticu la tin g , resista n ce b ecam e greater b eca u se th ey w e re ex cited b y F ra d r ic h s b eh aviou r. Groups, c h iefly in the g a lle r y , sh ou ted in u n iso n th at the p eop le w ere to k eep their seats. T h ereu p on th e o ffic e r co m m a n d in g the p o lice m ou n ted on a ch air and o rd ered th o se p resen t o n c e m ore and in a sp ec ia lly lo u d an d clear v o ic e to leave th e h a ll. G roups o f m en started to sh o u t again in u n ison , and, at the sam e tim e, b eer-glasses, chairs, etc. w e re th ro w n at the p o lice from th e g a lle r y fa c in g the p latform ; one or tw o sh o ts w e re also fire d from th e gallery. T h ereu p on the p o lice m a d e u se o f th eir revolvers, firin g c h ie fly at th o se w h o had shot fr o m th e gallery. It h a s b een p ro v ed b eyon d dou bt th at the C om m u n ists fired at th e p o lice from tw o d iffe re n t p o in ts in the gallery.

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A fir I thon in the g allery had retreated b e fo r e the firin g o f the poller, the order w as given to c ea se fire. Hut as th e p o lic e w ere again b om b ard ed w ith v a r io u s o b je c ts an d fu rth er sh o ts w ere fired from the gallery, the p o lic e o ffic ia ls h ad again, in se lf-d e fe n c e , to use their revolvers. 21 o f 29 p o lic e m e n p r e se n t u sed th eir w e a p o n s and fired in all 36 sh ots. Of th o se w h o took part in th e m e etin g 9 w e re k ille d , b u t on ly 4 o f th em d ied o f g u n sh o t w o u n d s.

T he illegal A nti-F ascist L eague h a d fo u g h t its first b attle. It h ad com e o u t of its am b u sh a n d h a d shed th e first blood. W a r had begun. On th e 30th J a n u a ry th e new G overnm ent w as fo rm ed w ith Adolf H itler a t its head. On th e sam e day th e A nti-F ascist L eague issued its ala rm o rd ers:
T o -d a y at n o o n th e n e w go v ern m en t w a s form ed . T h e greatest v ig ila n c e is u rg en tly req u ired . W e th e r efo r e issu e th e fo llo w in g o rders: 1. A ll L eagu e sq uad s and m a ss se lf-d e fe n c e fo r m a tio n s are to h old th e m se lv es in r ea d in ess u n til fu rth er n otice. 2. E v ery lo c a l group and sq u a d m u st at o n c e e sta b lish a co u rier in fo r m a tio n o ffic e . E v e ry lo c a l group m u st at o n c e h a v e a d u m m y ad d ress w h ic h w ill o n ly be v a lid fo r th e se fe w d ays. 4. All th at is still n e c essa ry for o r g a n iza tio n m u st be p rotected fro m en em y in te rfe re n c e. C om rades m u st also c o n c e a l th eir 5. m em b ersh ip b ook s. O nly m em b ers o f h ead q u arters w h o are k n o w n as such and c om rad es w ith sp ec ia l p a p er s o f id e n tific a tio n m ay be given in fo r m a tio n as to th e sta te o f and m e a su r es ad op ted b y the

o rgan ization . 6. S trict d isc ip lin e and o b e d ie n c e to th e lea d er s orders. 7. If it sh o u ld be fo rb id d en , th e org a n iza tio n w ill b e 8. 9.

con tin u ed

10. 11. 12. 13.

14.

ille g a lly . C om rades m u st rem ain a b so lu tely c o o l and d isp la y n o n erv o u sn ess. P r e ca u tio n a ry m ea su res m u st b e ta k e n at on ce to p r o te ct the h o u se s o f th e c h ie f o ffic ia ls. R em em b er w h a t h a p p en ed after th e 3 1st J u ly in K nigsb erg. T a k e o ff u n ifo r m s and b a d g es at nigh t. D o n o t stan d ab ou t in grou p s in fr o n t o f o ffic ia ls h ou ses, but w a tc h th e h o u se, p la c e com rad es in th e v icin ity and p a tr o l it. H ead q u arters m u st also b e sea rch ed at n igh t in th e Ila n k en str a sse. W e stan d for the p o litic a l m a ss strik e again st H itlers d ic ta to r sh ip . T h e org a n iza tio n o f p o litic a l ch o r u se s and d isc u ssio n grou p s in th e fa c to r ies is o f ex trem e urgency. Im m ed iate con tact is to be esta b lish ed w ith the co m ra d esh ip s and se c tio n s o f th e R eich sb a n n er w h o are also p rep ared for a ctio n . T h ey m u st be told w h ere th ey can reach us, and that w e are read y to fig h t w ith th em again st the n ation al F a sc ists.

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B esid es the h o u se s o f the c h ief fmn llim m it s, w o r k e rs restau ran ts and d istrib u tion cen tres >( Yoopenttlve.M" muni 1> < * guarded. A fter read in g and d isc u ssin g lid s docu m en t w illi the im m ed ia te lea d er s it m u st b e at on ce d estroyed . H eady for the attack! D istrict H ead qu arters.

15.

Safely p ro te c te d on all sides, ready to take any action req u ired , the A nti-F ascist L eague crossed th e invisible fro n tie r betw een peace fro m w ar. On th e 1st F e b ru a ry 1933 it w as a t w ar w ith the G erm an natio n . At th e sam e tim e th e fo rm a tio n s of the Red G uard , th e real re v o lu tio n a ry arm y , w ere also m ade rea d y fo r the attack . T he K .P .D .h a d alread y in th e su m m er of 1932 begun to form these m ass org an izatio n s, w hich w ere, so to speak, the rev o lu tio n ary regim ents of th e line. It w as the k ern el of th e A nti-Fascist Action w hich had been called into life by th e p ro c la m a tio n of the ce n tra l com m ittee of th e K.P.D. of the 25th M ay, 1932.14) T he germ s of such selfdefence o rg an izatio n s w ere of course alread y in existence. T here w ere for in sta n c e :
1290 m em b ers o f th e A n ti-F a scist L eague and 183 se lf-d e fe n c e m en in E ssen ; 1622 m em b ers o f th e A n ti-F ascist L eagu e and 1132 S elfD e fen ce m en in D u isbu rg, etc. (Circular o f the lo ca l com m an d o f th e Ruhr D istrict A n ti-F ascist L eagu e, dated 18th May, 1932.)

T he sp irit w hich an im a te d these Red Mass Self-D efence (R.M.S.S.) o rg an izatio n s m ay be seen very clearly from th e follow ing re m a rk s of th e illegal cen tral organ of the A nti-Fascist League, dated June, 1932: 15)
B itter h atred and fu rio u s anger again st th e H itler gangs th o se are th e m o st im p ortan t w e a p o n s o f the w o rk in g class. One m u st n o t a llo w th em to b e b lu n ted b y in d iv id u a l acts o f terrorism . In fec t the w h o le w o r k in g -c la ss w ith yo u r h atred and an ger . . . O rganize th is m ass se lf-d e fe n c e ! B y m e a n s o f the m asses d rive the b ro w n p e st from th e streets a n d from all w o r k e rs quarters! Then y o u w ill h ave la id th e fo u n d a tio n s for the fin a l ju d gm en t on these crim in a l ex p lo iters o f the p eo p le, the rea ctio n a ry barons and th eir sw a stik a ban d o f m u rd erers.

T he arm ed risin g th e B olshevist m ass m u rd er w as to be b o rn of this senseless rage ag a in st fellow -countrym en an d of a b lin d h a tre d of th e overw helm ing m a jo rity of the G erm an people. Mass te rro rism an d civil w a r h a d alread y been decided upon as th e goal of th e Red Mass Self-D efence. W h at had been proclaim ed alread y in A ugust 1932 by th e cen tral organ of the R.F.B., Die Rote F ro n t :
14) Cf. Rote F ahne, issue of 2G. 5. 32. l l ) Cf. Rotes Sturmbanner, No. 7.

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Barricades in Moabit in June, 1932.

T h e m a ss terro rism o f th e w o rk in g cla ss and o f the other e x p lo ite d cla sses m u st be o p p o se d by the terrorism o f th e Fascist o rg a n iza tio n s. To o r g a n ize a fig h tin g fron t o f m illio n s is the only w a y , n ot o n ly to treat the b o u rg e o isie in th e sep a ra te sk ir m ish e s o f th e civ il w ar, but to d e str o y terrorism a lto g eth er and, a t the sam e tim e, to d e str o y th e fo u n d a tio n s on w h ic h the c a p ita list e x p lo ite rs r e st.

At th e beginning of Ju ly 1932 th e official ru les as to th e fo r m atio n of th e R.M.S.S. w ere issued by th e P a rty . H ere we find stated :16)
T h e R ed S e lf-D e fe n c e is a part o f th e great A n ti-F a scist action of th e m illio n s o f the u n ite d m ilita n t Red F ro n t T h e R ed M ass S e lf-D efe n c e is n eith er an o rgan ization nor a society b u t a n on -p arty u n io n o f all w o rk ers . .

G roups or squads of th e R.M.S.S. w ere, according to these rules, to be fo rm ed in every facto ry , in th e dole offices, in every block of houses a n d in th e co u n try . T he task of th e R.M.S.S. h a d alread y been set as to fig h t fo r the com plete d estruction of nil strik e -b re a k er and te rro ris t o rg an izatio n s of th e N azis in the far to rie s an d L ab o u r E x ch an g es.
It is fig h tin g to clear N azi c ells out o f the fa c to r ies an d to build up S e lf-D efe n c e sq u ad s o f all w ork ers in all fa c to r ies and L abour E x ch a n g es. T h e R.M .S.S. is fig h tin g a g a in st F a sc ist terror on th e streets, ag a in st S.A. beer sa lo o n s, S.A. H om es, S.A. b ases and for the protection o f the d w ellin g s and b e e r-sa lo o n s o f the w ork ers, and o f th e w o r k e rs property, their press and C oop erative Societies. ,6) Rules l'or Self-Dcfence Hamburg 11.7. 1932. See also Roter Massen-Selbst schtz, marschiert mit". Ivrnst Schneller.

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T h e R.M.S.S. is org a n izin g <<nlhiiioiit propaganda a m on g tin* e m p lo y ee s and I he w ork in g m iddle rluss. above all am on g the sm all sh op k eep ers; but it w ages ru th less war against those F ascist sh op k eep ers w h o su p p ort the N azi agitation. H ow is th e R.M .S.S. m o b ilized ? The M ass S e lf-D efe n c e sq u ad s are to be alarm ed iby sq u ad headq uarters and, w h ile p erfo rm in g th e task s allotted to them , they m u st o<bey the orders o f the lead er, w h o h a s ibeen ap p oin ted by the squad com m an d for the p erfo rm a n ce o f the p articu lar task u n d erta k en .

T he badge of th e R.M.S.S. w as a pentagon pointing dow nw ards (the Soviet Star) w ith a silver b ack g round on w hich w as a fist clasping a red flag. T he in sc rip tio n was Red Mass Self-D efence. T he ex tern al fo rm of o rg an izatio n was k ep t as close as possible. T he m em bers w ere given n o m em b ership cards and had no sub scrip tio n s to pay. T he R.M.S.S. was subdivided in m uch th e sam e w ay as the R.F.B.: groups o f five, co m radeships and sections. Great em phasis w as laid on discipline and p u n ctu ality . Squad evening m eetings took place re g u la rly for pu rp oses of m ilitary instru ctio n .
On the 14th and 15th Jan u ary 1933, a m ilita r y -p o litica l c o u rse w as h eld in th e St. P au li quarter o f H am burg, a n d w as a tten d ed by 23 K .P.D . fu n ctio n a ries. T h e fo llo w in g su b jects w e re d iscu ssed : 1. P rep a ra tio n for the arm ed rising. 2. A rm ed risin g as an art. 3. T he situ a tio n in the seab oard p rovin ces an d the stren gth o f the en em y. T he m e etin g d iscu ssed in detail the ru les o f street-fig h tin g , the d isarm in g o f p o lice p ick ets, su rp risin g o f guards and the o c cu p a tio n of im p ortan t strategic poin ts, p articu la rly th ose in the suburbs. T h e uses of variou s w ea p o n s w ere a lso d iscu ssed : F irearm s, h an d -gren ad es, bom bs, m in es and, fin a lly , gas. T he n e c essity o f m ak in g m aps o f the streets (details o f h o u se s, r oofs and courtyard s, and p o sitio n and natu re o f p o lice station s) w as e sp e c ia lly em p h asized . T h e se m ap s w ere to ibe c o n v e y ed to th e P arty o rgan ization . A bove all th ey d iscu ssed the fo r ce s o f p o lice present in H am burg, H am burg and A ltona W a n d sb eck (arms, nu m ber o f arm ou red oars: H am burg . . . H arburg . . . W a n d sb eck . . .) and also h o w to procure w ea p o n s iby fin d in g and rohbin g en em y arm am ent d ep ots. E x a m p les w ere given from 1923. R eliab le in fo r m a tio n w a s given that, alth ou gh at the m o m en t the danger o f an arm ed attack b y the K.P.D. w as not im m in en t, n e v e rth eless it w as fe lt that party h eadq uarters w ere m ak in g in creased p rep aration , for the arm ed risin g. T h e sp eak er em p h asized that the lea d er s had given particu lar atten tion to the .arrangem ent o f the c o u rses an d had

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selected Hu |inrI *i(>:iiiIs in order lo tin in him IlioniM'ics w h o should ]>rl>iii llii- m usse s by influencin g 1 .1 11* m i ls and squads lor an armed rising. T he sp eak er sp o k e from typed notes. T he cou rse w h ich lasted sev en h o u rs w as l< > be rep ealed in four w eek s. T he fo llo w in g b o o k s w ere reco m m en d ed by Ilie sp eak er: D er W eg mim S ieg K riegsth esen des VI. W e ltk o n g r esse s D er b e w a ffn ete A u fstan d ! M ilitrisch e S c h r ifte n by E ngels L en in Beschlsse des XII. E k k i-P len u m s S old aten l ' i b d D ie n e u e G ruppe D er StraU enk am pf . (P o lice Report)

T he ju d g m en t of th e fo u rth division of the Suprem e Court ag ain st Placzek of th e 31st May 1932 and ag ain st M eyer and nr com plices of th e 3th S eptem ber 1932 show how this tra in in g was p u t into practice.
In the ju d gm en t a g a in st P la c ze k a leaflet o f the Red F ron t F igh ters U n ion W ilh elm sb u r g is rep rod u ced . T h is le a fle t ca lls fo r the sam e a ctiv ity w h ich the a ccu sed H olert w a s ch arged w ith: d u rin g the period in w h ic h the r ev o lu tio n w as b ein g organ ized groups o f five com rad es the w e ll-k n o w n sm a llest u n io n in the R .F.B. m u st com e togeth er to acquire k n o w led g e o f the art o f th e arm ed risin g (E n gels-L en in . MiIi t r p o litisc h e S ch riften ) and in add ition to that to see to th e provision o f arm s . . . . T h e ju d gm en t a g a in st M eyer and a c co m p lice s m e n tio n s m uch m al< rial from the d istrict co m m a n d U pper S ilesia o f the R .F.B . fr o m the year 1931 w h ich also m e n tio n s co u rses and train in g ev en in g s and calls for p o litic a l and w ar tr a in in g o n the part o f the U n ion m e m b e r s.......... T h e ju d gm en t o f the H igh Court 15 J 24.32 again st B aru ch , I I 1/15 J. 2 0 3./31. a g a in st R osch er and 14 b/15 J. 80.31. again st Renvble deal w ith sim ilar p ro ceed in g s. B ut the train in g c o u r se s w h ich this ju d gm en t refers to d eal p rim arily w ith the arm ed risin g from a p olili cal poin t o f view , w h er ea s the c o u rses arran ged iby th e R .F .B . d eal w ith the sam e q u estion c h iefly from its m ilita ry aspect.

T he th eo retical teach in g w as supplem ented by field exercises an d m arches. T h e tra in in g in the use of w eapons w as on quite n high level. T he P a ra b e llu m pistol, th e M auser, tin* hand-grenade, rifle m odel 98, carb in es, m achine-pistols and m achine-guns were studied. In stru c tio n in th e use of the w eapons them selves was c a rrie d o u t only u n d e r the strictest p recautions. It Was seldom possible actu ally to observe shooting practice on the p a rt of te rro ris t groups, as for instance th a t of I lie terrorist g ro u p N eu rath in K ln-M hlheim w hich was held in the cellar I the b a rra c k s in the Ila c k e t u e rstr e 23. F ifteen u n iform ed lerro risls took pari and shot w ith 6.22 F lo b ert rifles, long rifles and pistols, lu the stm n im d in n g streets C om m unist double patrols with
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bicycles kept guard, w11 iI< * nt {hr Niunr time the police were kept busy in another part of the town. In August, a fte r the R eichstag elections, the groups of five r e ceived th e nam e S ta r, the street squads w n e (Milled from now on P e n n a n t , an d th e tow n d istricts "B an n er . T he squad leaders o rganized th e service of co u riers and had to see th a t m ore defensive sp o rt p ractice took place. In accordance w ith the in stru ctio n s of th e R.M.S.S. th e house defence and facto ry divisions w ere given the follow ing con crete ta sk s:
A ctive stru ggle again st all N azis by th e o rgan ization o f m a ss action and the av o id a n ce o f in d iv id u a l terrorist acts. C on cen tration on the n ea rest N azi base. T h e arran gem en t o f bar rack s for the sq uad s in r ea d in g room s, p arty beer saloons, gard en s etc. T h e sou n d in g o f alarm s b y horn or w h istle signals.

T h ree stages of a la rm w ere laid down, according as to w h eth er it w as a m a tte r of big n a tio n a l socialist action, of local d isturbances, or, finally, of sm all in cid en ts w hich could be dealt w ith by the street squads them selves . T hese in stru ctio n s state literally :
At the first alarm stage A, the h ou se sq uad s m ove to th eir p la c es w h ich th ey have to secu re b y sen d in g forw ard , if p ossib le, c y c lists and m otor c y clists to in su re a g a in st all even tu a lities. T he n e c essa ry ord ers for a ctio n are issu ed after a sh ort tim e. At the h igh est alarm sta g e our co m ra d es m ust provid e th e m se lv es as far as p o ssib le w ith h a v e r sa c k s or r u c k sa c k s and the n e c essa ry food . T he squad lead er m ust a lso provid e tools, axes, p ick s, sp ad es, etc. All hou se sq uad s m u st try to fo rm in d e p en d en t c y clist grou p s.

By th e end of Septem ber th ere w ere in B erlin ab o u t 500 squads of th e R.M.S.S. w ith a v ary in g m em bership up to ab o u t 80. In S tu ttg a rt th e n u m b er of squads was alread y ab o u t 50. The b est organized w ere those in the seaboard provinces. H ere a t the end of F e b ru a ry 1932 th e re w ere ab o u t 13,000 A nti-Fascists in 260 squads. T he allo tm en t g ard en ow ners squad in A ltona - L u ru p n u m b erin g 220 m en rep resen ted a considerable force. Alm ost tw o th ird s of th e squad m em b ers w ere n o n -p arty , e. g.:
S ailors d ivision 450 m en, 60 o f them K .P.D. m em b ers, St. P a u li South 350 m en, 95 o f th em K .P.D . m em b ers, Centre D istrict 1,125 m en , 330 of th em K .P.D . m em bers.

At th e beginning of F e b ru a ry 1933 th e re w ere in H am burg a b o u t 150 house squads w ith a b o u t 5,500 m en. Of these ab o u t 2,500 could be used for an y pu rp o se. As reg ard s the tech n iq u e of defence, th e house squads h a d reached a high state of efficiency p a rtic u la rly on account of th e w ell-attended shooting evenings.
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The in .11 n the decisive hour ap p ro ach ed I lie m ore rigidly was the It M S S . o rg an ized un til finally, ns we saw, in I lie* m iddle of Ja n u a ry lv33, it w as in co rp o rated in the Il.F.lL on tin* u n d e rsta n d in g th a t th e leading positions in IIh* 11.M.S.S. would be held by m ilita rily tra in e d R.F.B. m em bers. A fter th a t tim e I In* org an izatio n p rin cip le of th e group of live w as stric tly applied. T h re e groups of five m ad e up a section an d th re e sections a storm tro o p . R epresentatives of th e O.S.N.A. w ere a tta c h ed to th e storm tro o p com m ands. T h e ra n k s of th e reo rg an ized R.M.S.S. w ere quickly organized, th e o rd e r being issued th a t all m ale m em bers of th e p a rty an d a ffilia te d o rg a n iz a tio n s, w ho w ere cap able of mili ta ry service should jo in up. In th is w ay an im m ediate con cen tra tio n of th e C om m unist forces u n d e r th e R.F.B. w as to be brought about. As a kind of reserv e to th is Red G uard, the o rd in a ry Mass Self-Defence (M.S.S.), consistin g of all th e m em bers of the p arty not fit for m ilita ry service an d th e w om en, was called up. Every m em ber of th e tw o fig h tin g o rg an izatio n s had to pay a weekly su b scrip tio n of 5 pfennigs. T he u n ifo rm fo r the reorganized R.M.S.S. w as to be a black s h irt w ith a black tie. On the 25th Ja n u a ry 1933, a m a rc h p a st of th e R.M.S.S. groups of five took place in fro n t of th e K arl L ieb k n ech t H ouse on the B iilow platz in B erlin. In G reater B erlin alone th e new m ilita ry org an izatio n of th e K.P.D. h a d a tta in e d a stren g th of n early 13,000 m em bers. The o rd er w as issued th a t all o rg an izatio n al m easures should be con eluded by th e 23rd F e b ru a ry 1933 th e a n n iv ersary celebrated by th e Red A rm y of Soviet Russia. T he G erm an Y oung C om m unists League (K.J.V.D.) h ad an im p o rta n t p a rt to play in th e p re p a ra tio n s for the arm ed rising, since it b ro u g h t to g e th e r all th e y o u th fu l an d active forces in the m ovem ent. A ccording to its pro g ram m e, it w as bound to u n d e r ta k e subversive activ ity in th e arm y an d navy an d to c a rry on m ilita ry espionage. A p art fro m th a t, it form ed an im p o rtan t cad re w ith in th e B olshevist defence force and w as m ost carefully train ed . I tak e th e follow ing exam ple from a police re p o rt from N urem berg, d ated O ctober 1932:
A part from q u estio n s o f in tern al organ ization and p o litic s o f tin* d a y , th e r egu larly h e ld group ev en in g s a n d e d u c a tio n a l lec tu r es dealt c h ie fly w ith m ilitary su b je cts (arm ed risin g, c iv il w ar, sab otage, etc.). In th e field e x e r c ise s, a m o n g oth er things, action in the e v en t o f a p olice attack w a s sp ec ia lly p ractised . A n e w m eth od is the h old in g o f w eek -en d cou rses in sm all tow n s and villages, at w h ich the p a rticip a n ts appear under the nam e o f som e a p p a r e n tly h arm less so c iety . T h u s a sh ort tim e ago the Y oung C om m unist L eague, having ftlven itse lf the nam e o f a n ation al scien ce so ciety , held

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.. vi-k (iiui (mhii m (iiImmiI ;h> put Ii< i11 it11 1^i 11111 1 i llir lead ersh ip o f llu* voting Coinummist leader Alldieu . Paul td . m e m ln i j; The su bject of the week end cou rse w as the "Armed Unio n I' Iit* leriurers w ere Joseph Bldtili o f F iir lh and Marlin Slkibel of Niuremiliei f^

A p art fro m the above m entioned m ass orgim izulions, the K.P.D. form ed, p artly , as we have seen, from its own m em bers, num ero u s te rro ris t groups in o rd er to be able to m eet the req u irem e n ts of an arm ed risin g an d of th e tech n iq u e of street fighting. T he so-called S cheringen squads becam e k now n a t th e beginning of F e b ru a ry 1933; th ey consisted in B erlin of 100 m en and in H annover of 140 m en each. T h ere w ere even larg er squads in H am burg an d Co logne. In these squads w ere b ro u g h t to gether ex-m em bers of th e Red Y outh F ro n t, an d th e R.F.B. It som etim es h ap p e n ed th a t th e m em b ers of th e S cheringer squads w ore S.A. u niform s. O th e r wise th e u n ifo rm consisted of a blue cap, a black R ussian blouse, a soft black collar w ith a tie of th e sam e colour, black breeches, shoes an d le a th e r leggings, sw ord-belt and sh o u ld erstraps. On the le ft a rm of th e sh irt th ere w as a ro u n d b lack cloth badge w ith the w ords Scheringer S quad in red and the squad n u m b er in R om an n u m erals. T he p a rtic u la r ta sk of th e Scheringer squads w as su b versive activ ity w ith in th e S.A. an d S.S.; they w ere placed u n d e r th e com m and of th e R.F.B. As early as th e b eginning of 1932, a so-called H am m er sq u ad w as fo unded in h o n o u r of th e shot C om m unist H am m er. O ther te rro ris t groups w ere n am ed in th e sam e w ay. T he te rro rist groups w ere also used fo r gu ard in g m eetings. T hey held shooting practice. In p a rtic u la r, shooting a t n ig h t was practised, in order to destroy th e enem y in th e dark . C ountless little te rro rist groups of fro m 0 to 8 m en existed in all in d u stria l tow ns, as for instance in N u re m berg w here th e lead ers w ere Jean W o h lfa h rt, K arl R iem er, R ich ard S chum ann an d F ra n z T anzburger. T he m em bers of th e te rro ris t groups w ere p a rtly ex-convicts, w ho had previously been sentenced, as fo r in stan ce, the above-m entioned F ra n z T an zb erg er and also Jo h a n n M ichael Lunz, Ju g elstrasse 155, N urem berg. T he la tte r h a d attem pted to m u rd er the police in sp ecto r on d uty at a d em o n stratio n on th e 11th Ju n e 1932. H e m issed th e inspector and killed a certain F alk n e r. A fter th e deed, L unz succeeded in escaping to Russia, although he w as alread y w an ted by th e police fo r a serious th eft. A sim ilar a ttem p t to m u rd e r a m ou n ted p olicem an was com m itted by T anzberger, w ho w as la te r a rrested fo r b u rg lary . T hese attem p ts at m u rd e r w ere by no m eans the personal acts of th e tw o crim inals, b u t w ere an im p o rta n t p a rt of the tasks of th e te rro ris t groups. As h as fre q u e n tly been show n in high treason cases b efore th e Suprem e C ourt, the te rro rist groups and g ro u p s'o f
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five It im I hr " lig h tin g skeleton of the d e m o n stra tin g pro letariat. They i u t to u s e all possible form s < !' violence and crim e, in or<ler to attain th e ir te rro ris t ends. T o Ibis end, nol only are outrages com m itted, b u t also robb in g w ith violence and even village wells poisoned in o rd er to get m oney fo r the K .P.I). T he C om m unist te rro ris t groups h a d also m ade p re p a ra tio n s for w holesale poisoning. At th e end of M arch 1933 about 8 II. of sodium cyanide and V 2 lb. of co p p er su lp h ate w ere confiscated from a te rro ris t group in D sseldorf. H alf of th is q u a n tity would have been su fficien t to p oison th e w hole of D sseldorf. T h e follow ing w ere m em bers of th is te rro ris t group w ho w ere w o rking in close co n tact w ith th e A nti-F ascist F ig h tin g League: A ugust Ilillg ral. H ein rich W eisziehr, H ans W ienke, E rn s t S aalw chter and others. T he parcel w ith th e poison w as first h id d en in the ru b b ish heap of th e house B eeren strasse 1 an d w as then ta k e n o u t again and p u t into an o th e r hiding-place. F in a lly it reached H illg rafs dw elling, w here it could be confiscated.

b) M ass Terrorism.
T he activities of th e te rro r-g ro u p s in connection with com m u n ist d e m o n stra tio n s w ere subject to strict in stru c tio n s and ord ers of the te rro ris t h ead q u arters. It w as these initiative-groups w hich w ere sy stem atically em ployed, according to th e tactical dem ands of th e street-fig h ts. One of th e m an y o rd ers o f the day of the te rro ris t h e a d q u a rte rs , fo r th e c a rry in g o u t of d< * m o n stra tio n s, states:
E ach group o f fiv e is assign ed a certain sp ot w h ere (they have to app ear p u n ctu ally at a given tiime. At a given signal the groups o f fiv e h a v e to form im m ed ia te ly , as qu ick as ligh tn in g, in to squads

R iot /n fro n t o f the H am bu rg L abour bureau.

1 0

1 57

or d etach m en ts. Al Ilit* .sumr lim e cyrHsIs m e to lie cm|>loyr<l who are to guard the n eigh b ou rin g slie e H u^iiinsl Ihe p olice; in ca.se of dan ger th ey m u st im m ed iately notify I In* Hpmd w h ich is then lo d isp erse at o n ce and d isa p p ea r from the dan ger zone Whn d isp ersin g, h o w ev er, the grou p s are a lw a y s t> keep togeth er in loose form ation . B eforeh an d , a d e fin ite route is to be arranged for Ilie d em on stration , as a lso for the guard o f c y clists. Each group, acco rd in g to order 2, has to send the report, /imme d ia te ly it is com p leted , to th e lea d er o f the squad -by cou rier, the k;adT o f the squad to th e lea d er o f the storan-detachim ent, the storm d eta ch m en t o f the d ivision , the d ivision to the sub-group and the su b g rou p lead er to the group-deader,s. A larm d evices m ust be p resen t ev eryw h ere: bu glers, siren s, lo u d sp eak ers etc. T h e cou riers have p ro v ed to be good. T h e groups are instru cted to use o n ly relia b le co m ra d es for th is fu n ctio n and also to provid< for cy cles, ligh t etc. N ew sy stem s o f con trol w ill be em p lo y ed and the in stru ctio n s co n cern in g them are to be strictly observed. In cases o f alarm a n e w m eetin g-p lace for the rela y -co u riers is a lw a y s to be arranged. T h e cou riers are to k eep up h o u rly c o m m u n i cation b etw een their base and the >block. In sp ecial cases the cou riers n atu rally act im m ed ia te ly .

T he p ractical ex ecution of such plans and show n in an ex ceptionally ty p ical case:

in stru c tio n s

is

On the 26th. F eb ru ary 1933 H am burg w a s in th e m id st o f a liv e ly e lection -p rop agan d a. A bout 8,000 to 10,000 p erson s took part in a d em on stration o f the S.A. (storm d etachm en ts) in the fo ren o o n ; aboul 15,000 p erson s took part in a m arch o f the Iron F ron t at n o o n . The d e m o n stra tio n o f the B lack -W h ite-R ed F tighting-front , at w h ich ViceC h ancellor von P ap en sp ok e, w as v isited b y from 8,000 lo 9,000 persons. In sp ite o f th e ou trages p lan n ed by th e C om m unists, again st w h ich e x ten siv e safegu ard in g m e a su r es w ere taken by the p o lice, th e day en d ed h ere in com p arative quiet, apart from a few sin gle c a se s *>f sh ootin g. M inor cases o f figh tin g, sm a sh in g o f w in d o w s o f v ariou s b u sin ess prem ises and o f th e K arstadt b u ild in g, occu rred d u rin g the w h o le o f the day. A m ong th e m ore serio u s cases the fo llo w in g are to 'be m en tion ed : 1. At abou t 8.20 a. m. S.A. m en w ere fired at by C om m un ists, in L ock stedterw eg, w h ereb y 2 S.A. m en w ere in ju red by sh ots thr nigh the p e lv is and the up p er thigh. T he cu lp rits escap ed . In the cours* o f the in v estig a tio n s m a d e b y the crim in al p o lice, h o w ev e r, the m ach in e-m ak er W alter R ob ert R ohde, p reten d in g to b elon g to no party, born 9. 3. 1913 in K lein-G rabau, w as arrested on strong su sp icion , and w as reco g n ized by on e o f the injured m en as the culprit.

138

AI iiI< 111 I I I0 a. m. :in S.A. sqiiutl was bom barded with s lo n e s in lit*' Unrmlx'c kcr S trasse. As the S.A. men I h e m i p o n w ere preparing to advan ce up on P fis te r s b eer saloon , IreipienlIy I> v Hie Iteieb sb a n n eislio ls w ere fired fro m w ith in , w h ereb y a w om an w a s inju red by n sh ot th rou gh the ja w and an S.A. m an by a slm l into the abdom en 3 m em b ers o f the R oichsibanner w ere arrested, b ein g strongly su sp ected o f h avin g com m itted the crim e. At 12.10 p. m . 6 or 8 w e ll-d re ssed y o u n g p eop le en tered th e F alk en b u rg beer saloon , F a lk en rie d 45, freq u en ted by the m em b ers o f the N .S.D .A .P ., ov ertu rn ed sev era l ta b les and fired at random , w h ereb y 2 N ation al S o cia lists, w h o w ere on the p rem ises, w ere shot through the n e c k an d th e ab d om en r esp e ctiv ely . One o f the p e r so n s in ju red died in h o sp ita l. T h e cu lp rits escap ed u n reco g n ised , bill later on th e jo in e r A lexan d er A d olf E m il Sch w ert, b orn 24. 11. 1010 in H am burg, m em b er o f the c o m m u n istic H ou se d e fe n c e c o rp s , w as arrested on stro n g su sp ic io n and b rough t b efore th e court. At abou t 10.40 p. m. m eetin g -p la ce o f the N .S.D .A .P ., K rgers beer saloon , B ro d sch ra n g en , w a s fired u p o n b y a C om m unist terrorist group, w h er eb y on e sh o t en tered th e p rem ises and cau sed slig h t dam age. A p o lice m a n w h o ap p eared w a s sh ot at and w o u n d ed in tb e upper thigh. O ther p o lice m en took u p the pu rsuit, w h e r e b y som e firin g to o k p la c e in w h ic h o n e o f the cu lp rits, the d o ck -w o rk er Joh an n W ilh elm Jasp er, b o r n 28. 1. 1898 in M eldorf, w a s injured by tw o sh ots th rou gh the leg.

3.

4.

F u rth er, the fo llo w in g w ere arrested: 1. F ran z H esse, b la c k sm ith , b orn 23. 6. 1904 at S ch w erte, 2. W a lter A d olf B e n n ie s, tailor, b orn 5. 9. 1911 at H am burg, 3. R ichard W e sse lo w sk y , ord in ary seam an , born 20. 4. 1911 at K nigsb erg, 4. E rn st A d olf L ou is W en d t, m etal-w ork er, born 16. 5. 1898 at A ltona, in A ltona. T h e fo llo w in g a r tic le s w e re fo u n d in the p o sse ssio n o f the p e r so n s arrested and c o n fisc a ted : 1 arm y p isto l 08, 1 la rg e M auser pistol, 1 live-ibom b, 1 Sauer p istol and a nu m b er o f cartrid ges. L ater on, tw o m o re large M auser p isto ls w ere fou n d w h ich w ere th row n a w a y during th e fligh t. D u rin g the sh ootin g four m ore p erson s w e re in ju red w h o ap p a ren tly h ad n oth in g to do w ith the affair. (P o lic e report.)

A dang ero u s te rro ris t group w as cap tu red , a lte r a s h o o t in g affair, in D sseldorf, K lner Strasse, on the 20th. Ju n e 1932 a I 11.15 p .m . A fter search in g a few houses an d m aking a few a rre sts it w as possible to c a p tu re a w hole arm ed te rro rist group of th e K.P.D. Among o th ers the follow ing persons belonged to this group: K arl H offm ann, H einrich H esshaus, Joseph Iiesshaus, H einrich J rg en s ete.
1 0 *

1V>

The

fo llo w in g

report

of

111 * trinl

serves

jis

n n o tlicr

clea r

exam p le:
T h e six accu sed w ere m envbers o f tin* "Kwl D efen ce S q u ad in C h em n itz, w h ic h w as organ ised in Ihe su m m er of H)!U), a fter the d isb a n d m en t o f the R ed F ro n t-fig h ters L ea g u e . The d u tie s o f the sq u a d in clu d ed m ilita ry training, e sp e c ia lly in the use o f fire-a rm s an d e x p lo siv es, the p ro cu rin g o f su ch arm s and in str u c tio n s fo r their u se for acts o f sab otage and terrorism . F or the p u rp ose o f fu lfillin g th e tactical and stra teg ic task s, the lea d ers o f the squad gave the m em b ers c a refu l m ilita r y train in g; tw ice a w eek lesso n s w e re giv en , b y com rad es w h o h ad se e n a ctive service, in the h a n d lin g o f fir e arm s and e x p lo siv es, e sp e c ia lly in the a ttach in g o f th e la tter to bridges, r a ilw a y -ju n c tio n s, and b u ild in gs, as also in m ilita r y m o v e m e n ts on th e field . F or te a ch in g p u rp oses revolvers and m ilitary r eg u la tio n s for the u se o f fire-a rm s w ere used, w h ilst the e x p lo siv es a n d th e h an d lin g o f them w ere e x p la in ed in o b ject lesso n s by m e a n s of illu stration s. In order to p r o v id e th e d efen ce-sq u a d w ith th e n e c essa ry m u n itio n s for their illegal activ ities, th efts o f e x p lo siv es w ere carried out. T he portaible fire -a rm s w ith w h ich the storm -sq u ad s w ere arm ed , orig in a te at le a st part o f th em from C zech o-S lovak ia; b esid es that, it w a s in te n d e d to try to get arm s from B elgiu m . T he Red D e fen ce -S q u a d , w h ic h did n ot o n ly fu n ctio n in C hem nitz, but w h ic h also had grou p s in several p la c es o f th e C hem nitz d istrict, that also gave their m em b ers a m ilita ry train in g, e sp e c ia lly in the <use o f arm s, describ ed th e m se lv es as the G.P.U. C hem nitz D iv isio n .

Such te rro ris t or in itiativ e groups w ere also recru ited fro m the ra n k s of th e self-defence corps and org anised into a fighting-group, w hich h ad to p e rfo rm special d uties in the case of street-fig h ts an d d em o n stratio n s. F o r instance, w ith in th e H ouse-block D efence Corps of Canns ta tt a special group of reliab le d aredevils was form ed w hich w as to be set against the police m otor-cars, in o rd er to h o ld the g u ard in check w ith pistols. Such te rro ris t groups often lie in readiness in som e place or o th e r in the case of a m assed C om m unist action. The leaders of the s tre e t actio n issue th e ir o rd ers fo r the in terv en tio n of these groups th ro u g h cyclist-couriers, w ho often use sm all w ooden discs w ith a n u m b e r b u rn t in to them as badges of identity. T he te rro ris t groups have also to te rro rize th e in h a b ita n ts o f the d istric t an d to hold th em in fe a r an d subjection. Among th e m are also to be fo u n d the w rite rs of anonym ous th reaten in g letters, th ro u g h w hich th e political opponents in th e neighbourhood are to be frightened. T he follow ing letter from the te rro rist o rg a n i zatio n of W edding to a c e rta in Mr. B., P asew alker Strasse, is one o f th e m an y exam ples:

140

D ear Mr. B., In c o n se q u en ce o f the ever in crea sin g brow n m u rd er-p esl, l< > w hich your (liriM* brats a lso b elon g, w e are obliged lo resort to m enus, in se lf-d e fe n c e , w h ic h d eep ly a ffe c t the p arental hear I; but it c a n t Inhelp ed . W e are in p e r il and on the d e fe n siv e again st the b row n m ob Your d au gh ter has rep ea te d ly h ad sexu al in te rc o u r se w ith the brow n m urder b an d its. T h e y o u n g est scam p p rovok es th e w ork m en < > 1 W ed d in g in a m o st in so le n t m ann er. V ery w ell then. W e accept I lie c h a lle n c e . T h e cup is fille d to th e brim . F ro m to -d a y on w e sh a ll send all the N azi b a n d its, w h o m w e k n o w , to wrhere one w au ls lo send us in the T h ird R eich . W e draw y o u r atten tio n to th e fact that also your N azi b ra ts w ill h a v e to take th is jou rn ey. W h eth er right or w ro n g is n ot a m a tter fo r u s to judge. Our p a tien ce is exhausted . C aught to g eth er h a n g ed togeth er. T h ere is no retu rn in g to the w o rk in g class. It is alrea d y too la te. T h is is not m e a n t as a threat, bu t a n o tifica tio n to th e paren ts to be p rep ared for so m eth in g , i f n ot to-day, then in a fe w days. W e m u st stic k to our oath , in sp ite o f everyth in g. Both you r scam p s, as w e ll as th at N azi w h ore, get read y for your jo u r n e y to the F ifth R eich . It is fiv e m in u tes to tw e lv e!

Ctn v o n

k o m m u n is li'ii

g e s c h a n d e t e r G r a . b iiK i
hhl

Smashed window of a Beilin store.

Tombstone desecrated by Communists

T h e sam e te rro rist groups are also p robably responsible for th e sm aller actions, a s, for instance, the desecration of ch u rches and t o m b s t o n e s , th e s e l l i n g fire to n u m ero u s advertisem ent pillars

141

w hich o ccu rred in B erlin in 1932, in te rru p tin g w ireless tr a n s m issions, looting of shops a n d sm ashing of shop w indow s. On D ecem ber 3, 1932, larg e g atherings of C om m unists took place in vario u s d istricts of B erlin, for in stan ce in the D anziger Strasse, A dm iral S trasse and P e te rsb u rg e r Strasse. D uring a large d e m o n stra tio n in th e Grosse F ra n k fu rte r Strasse th e d em o n stra to rs sm ashed a show -case outsid e N ikolais g u n sm ith s shop, and m ade off w ith a n u m b e r of arm s. In G oldackers adjoining provision sto re a w indow -pane w as sm ash ed an d a q u a n tity of sausages etc. stolen. At C hristm as-tim e, 1932, looting of provision stores becam e exceptionally fre q u e n t in B erlin. It w as obvious fro m the s ta rt th a t these o utrages w ere n o t p e rp e tra te d by distressed m em bers of th e w o rk in g class, b u t w ere directed by a cen tral C om m unist actio n com m ittee. S h o rtly a fte r C hristm as the crim inal police raid ed th e w o rk m en s hom e of the C om m unist P arty , 19 V ete ran strasse, an d a rre ste d th e in stig a to r an d nine youths there, som e of w hom p a rtic ip a te d in th e looting of stores in B erlin in D e cem ber 1932. It w as ascertain ed , w ith o u t any doubt, th a t a C om m unist w as am ong th is crow d w ho h a d collected th ese y o ungsters at a la b o u r exchange an d led th em fin ally to the Bolle D a iry a t 45 S ch n h au ser Strasse, a fte r m any unsuccessful atte m p ts a t looting. It is sig n ifican t th a t in th is case none of the cu lp rits acted o u t of dire need. One of these youths, fo r exam ple, w ho h ad stolen 4 tin s of sard in es, sold one of them for 50 pfennigs, gave th e second aw ay and fin ish ed off th e last tw o w ith a couple of friends. In n u m ero u s cases provocative hand-bills of the K.P.D. w ere found, inciting the u nem ployed and youths to acts of th e ft an d robbery. T he follow ing is an exam ple:
To th e U n em p loyed! In B erlin , H am burg, B rem en , etc. the sh o p -w in d o w s o f the big p r o v i sion stores are b ein g sm a sh ed day after day; in the to w n s o f the R uhr d istrict the coal-yard s are b e in g raid ed and lo o ted by h u n d red o f u n em p lo y ed . T h ese u n em p lo y e d p roletarian s have realised that it is on ly by rev o lu tio n a ry se lf-h e lp th at th ey can save th e m se lv es from .starvation and cold . T h ey sim p ly tak e w h at th ey need. P roletarian s! T h e se action s sh ou ld and imust be a sign al for the u n em p lo y e d th rou gh ou t G erm any. T h ese stock s o f p r o v isio n s etc. in G erm any w ere p rod u ced by w ork m en , and th e y b e lo n g to the w ork m en , to you. T h is is not th eft, as the la w says it is, /but on ly tak in g p o sse ssio n o f the resu lts o f your ow n labou rs. All o f you w h o are starvin g and su ffer in g from the cold , g a th er in front o f the b ig sh op s and co a l-y a rd s and take w hat you need.

Make for tin1 supplies!!

It.

As alread y m en tio n ed , m any a tte m p ts w ere m ade by the te rro ris t groups to o b ta in m oney fo r the K.P.D. by robbery. Take the a tta c k w hich was m ad e in H am b u rg upo n Slihr th e b o o k m ak e rs office in the W ex S trasse, by W alter R adatz, W illi A lbertz and others. A p a rt of the m oney w as placed at the disposal of the Com m u n ist o rg an izatio n by th e cu lp rits. In a n o th e r case in w hich ju d g em en t was passed, it was stated in the reasons for the judgem ent, on the basis of in fo rm a tio n given by the police in H am burg, that all the p a rtic ip a n ts in a ro b b ery w ere m em bers of the Red F ro n t F ig h te r L eague . F u rth e r, the A ttorney G eneral m ain tain ed , in the bill of in d ictm en t in a crim in al case ag ain st fo u rteen m em bers of a C om m unist te rro ris t group from H erfo rd , th a t the accused did not

M ay disturbances on the Hermannplatz, Berlin, in 1932.

only discuss the q uestion of civil w ar a t th eir m eetings, but th at also w ays and m eans wT ere discussed by w hich arm s, explosives ;m<l m oney could be o b tain ed for th e parly , and for a tim e the plan w a s discussed of robbing th e H erfo rd b ran ch of the R eichsbank. T he p rin c ip a l d u ty of the initiative-groups, how ever, was to gel rid of th e ir political opponents. T he crim in al police in D beln (Saxony) found out that the C om m unists h ad a larg e q u a n tity of cyanide in readiness in Dbeln, w ith wrhich certain perso n s w ere to be poisoned by the C o m m n n is l te rro ris t groups. T he q u a n tity of poison it was p ure potassium cy an id e w hich th e police confiscated w ould have been enough In poison from 100 to 150 persons. T he m u rd ero u s plans of the Dbeln C om m unisls w ere s o far developed, th a t tru sted agents w ere ap p oin ted by Ih r K.IM). who w ere to ad m in ister the su g ar lo tln'ir intended v ic t im s in a most cunning m a n n e r . II was ascertained

143

th a t th e c y a n id e w a s sto len by a Is.IM), f u n c t io n a r y o f the D b e ln d is trict g r o u p f r o m a firm w h ic h u se s su ch po iso n.

It is q u ite im possible to go into each single item of the endless c h a in of assau lts an d m u rd e rs w hich the C om m unist te rro rist g ro u p s p ra c tise d on policem an a n d S. A. m en in the course of the y e a r 1932 and in th e first m o n th s o f 1933. In these last few m onths th e re w ere days on w hich six p erso n s w ere killed and several dozen serio u sly in ju red . T he civil w ar w as actually in full swing, a gue rilla w ar and political street-fig h t, of w hich th e police and the m em b ers of th e S.A. w ere h o u rly victim s. A few of these cases, w hich h av e becom e especially well know n, m u st be recalled to m em ory. On th e 24th O ctober, 1932, an a tte m p t was m ade by the C om m u n ists B erner an d O esselm ann to blow up the house of the gendarm e G. in H em elingen, in th a t th e accused th re w bottles filled w ith ex plosives th ro u g h th e w indow s of th e gendarm es house. F o rtu n a te ly no lives w ere lost. W h en h e w as arrested on the 27th O cto b er 1931, B erner, w ho w as arm ed, sought to defend him self, On th e 18th J a n u a ry 1932 a tro o p of N ational Socialists m arched fro m W a id m a n n slu st n ear H erm sd o rf, w here they had held a m eet ing, th ro u g h S chnholzer W eg in R einickendorf-O st. Several shots w ere fired fro m th e n eig h b o u rin g colony of Felseneck. In an a tte m p t to c a p tu re th e culp rits, th e N ational Socialist P rofessor E rn s t Schw arz and the la b o u re r F ritz K lem ke w ere shot. T he tw en ty -o n e y e a r old N ational Socialist B ern h ard W ittk o w sk i and th e em ployee M andala an d also tw o police officials w ere injured. It w as only a fter strong police rein fo rcem en ts had arriv ed th a t this n ig h t b a ttle could be ended. Some days later, on th e 21st J a n u a ry 1932, at 11.30 p.m. in the G rnland colony, in the n o rth -e a st of Berlin, eleven C om m unists w ere a rre ste d w ho h a d fo rm ed a te rro ris t group and treacherously lay in am b u sh to fire upon som e N atio n al Socialists re tu rn in g from a m eeting at H ohenschnhausen.
On their w ay hom e the N a tio n a l S ocialists w ish ed to take the route B e rlin -H o h en sch n h a u sen O derb ru ch strae L and sb erger A llee to the cen tre o f the to w n . T he m em b ers of the terrorist group m et at the sp ot m arked on th e sk etch. F rom th is p oin t cou riers w ere sen t on birvcles, from tim e to tim e, to the p lace w h ere the m eetin g w a s held in order to in fo r m the terrorist group in g o o d tim e w h en the m eetin g w as fin ish e d . A fter the m eetin g w as o ver the terrorist g ro u p intended to m ak e their w ay, as sh ow n in th e sk etch , to the p lace w h ere the crim e w as com m itted , in the cutting. F ro m the sp ot m arked o the N ation al S ocialists w ere to b e shot at w ith n in e pistols, m ostly 9 m m . F rom the strategical p oin t of view o f the C om m u n ists the place w as very fa v o u r

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ably rliuM ii The n arrow c u llin g led 'through u llo lin i:nI garden* The natural su rrou n d in gs hid th em w ell from tin* unsiiHpi'ctinig N ntlonul So cia lisls. Aihove all, a w ell covered retreat w as a v aila b le lor the cu lp rits after the attack . P u rsu it w ou ld have b een ab solu tely useless. T h e p o lice receiv ed in fo r m a tio n o f this intended a ttack sh o rtly b e foreh an d . T h e first steps w h ic h w ere tak en w ere the c lo sin g o f the S ch n h a u sen er Strae and the d irectin g o f the N ation al S o c ia lists to go via th e W e i en seer W eg and L ich ten b erg, in order to k eep th o se w h o took part in the m eetin g a w a y from the sp ot w h ere the sh o o tin g w a s to ta k e p la ce, in case the e ffo r ts to cap tu re the cu lp rits sh o u ld n ot be su c c e ssfu l. A rran gem ents w e r e th e n m ad e for the 'arrests. A th ick fog m ade the action easier, so that, at th e sp ot m ark et x , the arrest o f the w h o le terrorist g r o u p w a s a c co m p lish ed so u n ex p ec te d ly that, w h en th e sea rch lig h ts w ere su d d en ly tu rn ed on, b e a d s o f p ersp iration w ere to be seen on the fa c e s o f several o f th e terrified C om m u nists. E ach o f the p erson s arrested carried a lo a d e d p isto l read y cock ed . If w e co n sid er the e x ce p tio n a l fig h tin g stren gth o f the terrorist group b y itse lf 11 m o stly la rg e calib re p ortab le arm s lo a d ed w ith 7- 9 round s, i. e. ab ou t 90 ro u n d s w h ic h co u ld b e fired in a very sh o rt tim e it can c le a rly be se e n w h a t a d isa ster w ou ld have b e fa lle n the u n su s p ectin g N atio n a l S o cia lists if the a ttem p ted attack had b een carried out. T h e d efen ce o f the a c cu se d w as p laced in the h an d s o f the n o to rio u s partner o f th e still m ore n o to r io u s la w y er L itten , the Jew Bairbasch, by the R ed P ro v id en t S ociety. In the court o f ap p eal n in e o f th e accused w ere se n te n c ed to h ea v y term s o f im p rison m en t and p en al servitu de. U n fo rtu n a te ly the am nesty la w h as com e to the rescu e o f th ese crim in a ls so that th ese b estia l attem p ts at m urder have rem ain ed u n p u n ish ed .1 1 ')
K o lo n ie

Hohenschhs.

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l9) Police report.

115

The murdered police captains Lenk and Anlauf.

T h e m u rd e r of the police ca p ta in s A nlauf and L enk in fro n t of th e K arl-L ieb k n ech t H ouse in B erlin on the 9th of August 1931 will still be in th e recollection of all.
In front o f the stron gh old o f th e C om m u nists in B erlin, on the B iilow P latz, w h ere the K arl L ieb k n ec h t H ou se w ith the p u b lish in g o ffic e s o f the R ote F a h n e is situ ated , a very large crow d o f p eo p le gath ered togeth er about 8 p. m. T he C om m u nists in te n d e d m ak in g a d em o n stra tio n there. T he p olice w e re attack ed as soon as they a p peared on the scen e. W h en the nin e sq uad s o f p olice w h ic h w^ere then ca lled to clear the B iilow P latz began their w ork, sh ots wrere su d d en ly fired from the h o u ses n ext to the B ab ylon Cinem a, se rio u sly in ju rin g th e in sp ector o f the 7th d istrict, P o lic e C aptain A n lau f and P o lice C aptain L enk, as w ell as P o lic e S ergean t W illig. Both the p o lice c a p tain s died on the w ay to h osp ital. T h e p olice th ereu p on first took en e rg e tic m easu res, and orders w ere issu ed for all w in d o w s to b e closed . S h ootin g w as the result in all c a ses o f neglect to carry out these orders. T he p o lice h ad a fourth c a su a lty and w ere fired upon from th e w in d o w s and h ou se entrances. It w as n ot p ossib le to ascertain th e n u m b ers o f k illed and wrou n d ed d em on strators, as the C om m u nists carried o ff their w ou n d ed to a place o f safety. It w as ascertain ed that sm all h a n d b ills had b een p osted on the w alls o f the h o u ses and ad vertisin g h oard in gs in the n eigh b ou rh ood o f the Sch n h au ser Tor and the A lexander P latz, and elsew h e re in recent tim es, bearin g the threat: L ook out, p igh ead , hussar and d e a th s head! W e ll catch y o u ! W e are in form ed that p igh ead and h u ssar w ere th e n ic k n a m e s g iv en by the C om m u nists In Captain A nlauf and S er gean t W illig . (E xtract from P o lic e H eporl.)

A n o th er p r o o f o f the m a n n e r in w h ic h the C o m m u n i s t s in c ite d the m a s s e s lo m u rd e r p olice o f f ic ia l s , itinV he seen in llu* w o r d s

14ft

in large red letters on th e p avem ent in th e F ried rich Strasse and Rolke StraBe, n ear the school in VVeiBensee, reading Lieut* n a n t Becker, set y our w atch, the R.F.B. is o n y o u r track l F o r every w o rk e r shot, two police officers will be taken! R.F.B. takes revengel W hen m em bers of the police force rem oved bills w ith p o litical m atte r fro m w alls in the N eh rin g S trasse in C h arlo ttenburg, fu rth e r bills w ere subsequently fo u n d posted to th e sam e places b earin g the w ords: G reenhorn! If you d a re to again tear dow n o u r bills, you will follow y o u r k n av ish colleagues A nlauf and Lenk! Signed. C om rade G rzesinski, on b e h a lf of Z orrgiebel.
p a in te d

The murdered S. A man, Hermann Thielsch.

T he carefu lly p re p a re d a tta c k by th e C om m unist te rro rist group on th e S.A. beer saloon Z ur H o ch b u rg , 17, G neisenau Strasse, B erlin on the 9th S eptem ber 1931, took place en tirely according to plan:
H erm an n T sch age, lea d er o f the. su b -d istrict Z entrum o f the p roh ib ited Red F ron t F ig h te r s L eagu e, w h o had h ith erto b e e n in hid in g, c a r e fu lly p repared th e p lan s o f the sh ootin g outrage, A sh o ck troop w a s fo rm ed w ith in str u c tio n s to su rroun d the S.A. beer sa lo o n Zur H o ch b u rg in the G n eisen au Strasse, and to open fire at a given sign al. O ther m em b ers o f th is sh ock troop, b esid es T sch age, w e re the h ead o f th e orga n iza tio n , E rw in R atsch, th e head o f the lite ra r y se c tion o f the R .F.B ., E m il B eilfuB , and the C om m u nist S ch o el. On rea c h in g th e S.A. beer sa lo o n sh o rtly b efo re m id n igh t on 9th S eptem ber 1931, th e C om m u n ists first o f all sh ot d ow n the S.A. sen tries T h ie lsch and S eelig from a d istan ce, as th ey stood in fro n t o f the sa lo o n , and then turned th eir fire on th e in terior, sev erely w o u n d in g the S.A. m en Ihlenfeld and A ppholy se r io u sly an the forearm . T h ielsch died sh o rtly after being admitted to the Urban H ospital, w h ilst the p h y sicia n s suc-

147

cred ed in saving tin* 1i if I llir S A nu n SrcIlH, w ho w as w ounded in the liver and kid n eys. AI the present lin n 1 hr m h ow ever, si ill 70 per cen t u n fit for w ork, lieillul.1 and Schorl w ere si (Higgled over th e fron tier (into R u ssia w ith the aid o f the lied P rovident S ociety. T h e y retu rn ed o f th eir o w n fr ee -w ill to (erm anv later, h ow ever, and IieilfuB m a d e a c lea n b reast o f e v ery th in g . T he e o n n e e lio n w ith the K .P .D . w as proved up to the hilt. S ch o el received 15 y e a rs penal p ervitu d e, and B eilfuB the (m axim um im p r iso n m e n t p e r m is sib le for p erson s n ot o f age, viz. ten y e a rs.

A p a rtic u la rly diabolical crim e w as p e rp e tra te d by n ist te rro ris t group in B rem en on th e 10th Ju ly 1932. casion of a S.A. p arad e, large n u m b e rs of C om m unists groups in the streets, clearly in d icatin g an in ten tio n to peace.

a C om m u On th e oc gathered in disturb the

A fter th e p o lice force had b e e n put into action , one o f its m e m bers, w h e n ex a m in in g the ground , fou n d a sm all len gth o f iron p ip in g dn a little d itch im m ed ia tely a d ja c e n t to the h igh w ay. T he sa id pip in g w as p artly w rap p ed in p ap er, .and, o n b ein g lifte d from the ground, exp lod ed , tearin g the p o lice o ffic ia l to pieces. A se c o n d p o licem a n w as se v e re ly in ju red . T h ree fu rth er b o m b s w ere also foun d. It w as in te n ded to exp lod e th ese bom b s u n d er S.A. vans. T h e bom b s w ere m ade o f a m ixtu re o f ch lorate o f p otash , pow d ered sugar and b lack pow der in iron pip in g, the en d o f w h ic h w ere filled w ith fragm en ts of iron. In anoth er part o f B rem en , C om m u nists also to o k up the m a n u fa ctu re o f b om b s very sim ila r in design and c o n stru ctio n to those ju st d escrib ed . O ne o f the accu sed , w h o se n am e is S chaib le, o f 2 D roste S trasse, B rem en, stated th at that he k n ew o f th e m ak in g o f the ab o v e-m en tio n ed bom b s and w a s told tby one o f the p articip an ts, on en q u iry, th at th e party h ead q u arters m ust not have a n yth in g to do w ith the m atter in c o n n e c tio n w ith w h ic h one cou ld o n ly app roach the p roh ib ited R ed F ron t F igh ters L eague. T h e sim ila rity in th e c o m p o sitio n o f th e b om b s m ade at variou s p laces and b y d iffe r e n t p erson s lea d s to the c o n c lu sio n that the in stru ctio n s for m ak in g su ch bom b s have ibeen issu ed u n ifo r m ly by one cen tral ad m in istra tio n .

O nly a few days la te r th e w ell-know n Bloody Sunday took place in A ltona, on th e 17th Ju ly 1932. T he re p o rt is as follow s:
On the o c ca sio n o f a m arch for p op u larizin g the S.A. m ovem en t, from the so u th ern part o f S c h le sw ig -H o lstein th rou gh A ltona, very seriou s e x ce sse s w ere com m itted b y adh erents o f an ti-F a scist action in the v icin ty o f th e H am burg fron tier. T he p articipan ts in the m arch, is w ell as the p o lice acco m p a n y in g it, w ere sh ot at by the a n ti-F a scists from th e ro o fs, 'balconies and d w ellin g s. T he p o lice retu rn ed the fire. A b arricad e had b een erected iby the com m u n ists in the K leine Fre.iheit; it con sisted o f th ree co a l-ca rts from w h ic h fire w a s o p en ed on the p o lice. An electric tram car w a s stop ped by the C om m u nists in the Elb Strasse, the condu ctor, driver and p assen gers ordered o ff the car,

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The scene o f the Bloody Sunday in Altona on the 17 th June, 1932. L o w e r i n s e t : Russian passport found in possession o f the Communist leader Ltitgens, bearing photograph o f Liitgens, but made out in the name o f a Captain Lange. U p p e r in s e t: A sketch found in possession of Liitgens showing the thorough/ares in which the main fighting took place.

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mil the lutler then a llow ed to run on mini tended In the inn nediato vicin ity anoth er street ear w as overtu rn ed N in ety-on e a rrests have h ith erto been m ade. E ven the Social D en m ciiilic P olice P resident E ggerstad t had to adm it to the press rep resen ta tiv es Iha I the d istu rb an c e s had b een c a re fu lly organ ized , and that the police forces h ad a ctu ally b e e n u n ab le to deal w ith the C om m u nists. T he C om m u nist sn ip ers on the r o o fs w ere w ell arran ged , so that their fire sw ep t the streets. M ost o f the in ju r ies c a u se d w ere the resu lt o f cross-sh ots. P rep ared b u lle ts w ere also em p loyed . F our N atio n a l S o cia lists w ere k illed . T he to ta l nu m ber o f k ille d w as seven teen , w h ile over fifty w ere w o u n d ed .

It is an extrem ely re m a rk a b le fa c t th a t the C om m unist paper th e H am b u rg er V olkszeitung on th e previous day (No. 163 of the 16th Ju ly 1932) p rin ted an article w ith th e title W h a tss going to h a p p en in A ltona to m o rro w ? In th e concluding p a ra g ra p h of th a t article an in d icatio n o f the com ing te rro rist a ttac k is given in th e follow ing w ords:
T he w ork ers o f A ltona have every reason to in crease their p rep a ra tio n s. Red A ltona m ust n o t be le ft u n p rotected again st th e m u r d erou s terrorism o f the S.A. T he M ass S elf-P ro tectio n o f the AntiF a sc ist A ction m ust b e p u t on the m axim u m alarm fo o tin g in com m on w ith the entire cla ss-in sp ire d proletariat o f A ltona to prevent A ltona b e com in g a seco n d E c k e rn fo rd e.

D uring th e n ig h t of th e 31st Ju ly 1932, the so-called Gangev iertel in H am b u rg w as th e scene of th e follow ing d istu rb an ce:
A bout 1.15 a.m . p o lice o ffic ia ls n oticed a crow d o f abou t 30 p eop le ap p aren tly C om m u nists w h o ru sh ed forw ard s sh ou tin g T he N azis are on the m ove! At th em ! Go for th e m ! A fter th e p o lic e had rec e iv e d rein fo rcem en ts, th e y pressed forw ard , o n ly to be m et by a b o u t 100 p erson s w ith c ries o f b lo o d h o u n d s , and w ork er m u r d erers , w h ilst fire w as o p en ed on th em out o f the crow d and h ou ses, a n d a h a il o f sto n es and p ie c e s o f iron d escen d ed on th em . One m em b er o f the p o lice force w as sh ot in the abd om en and se r io u sly w ou n d ed ; . a seco n d w as sh o t in the leg. T h e form er is in dan ger o f lo sin g h is life , w h ilst the su rg eo n s have b een able to rem ove the b u llet from the leg o f th e la tter o fficia l. It w as o n ly by liv e ly fir in g that the p o lice w ere able to h o ld the m o b at b ay and b rin g th e tw o w ou n d ed o ffic ia ls into safety. O f the a ttack ers, one m an w as k ille d by a shot, and four in ju red p erson s w ere ta k en to the H arbour H osp ital. All th e c iv ilia n s in q u estion w ore b ad ges o f the A n ti-F ascist A ctio n . T he dead m an had a w h istle in h is p o ck et and w as ch a ra cterized as the lead er b y a w om an w ith w h om he w as c lo sely con n ected . In th ese circu m stan ces th ere is little doubt that the w h o le th in g was a w ell-p rep ared and sy stem a tic assault on th e p o lice fo r ce s.

T he organized m u rd er of th e storm -troop leader M aikow ski and th e policem an Z auritz on the historical 30th of J a n u a ry 1933 still rem ain s u nforgotten.

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" F o llo w in g Iho torch light procession past H in d e n ly u rg and llille i on Hie 101 h o f Jan u ary 1933, the Storm T ro o p M en cou n tered a mint her o f C.oinm unists in the W all Strasse in C.harlollcnihurg. The S A m en took no n otice o f them . All o f a sudden about 100 sh o ts w ere fired out o f the w in d o w s o f the a d jacen t hou ses. The S to n n -lea d er tvberhard M aik ow sk i and the p o lice m a n Z auritz fell dead on the spot. The fact that the fire w a s op en ed sim u lta n e o u sly from the d o o rs o f the saloon as w ell as from th e w in d o w s o f the ad jacent h o u se s sh ow s without any doubt that the outrage w as p rev io u sly p lan n ed and sy stem a tica lly w orked out.

The storm=troop leader Eberhard Maikowski, shot in Berlin on the 30 th January /9 5.1

The subseq u en t days saw n u m ero u s acts of te rro rism on I he p a rt of the Red F ro n t, som e on an alm ost u n p recedented scale. It will suffice to m en tio n th e case in D resden already m entioned and the vario u s atta c k s w ith fire a rm s alread y described, in w hich C om m unist te rro ris t tro o p s opened fire on passing N ational Soeia list fo rm atio n s. On th e 12th of F e b ru a ry , san g u in ary ligh tin g took place in Kis leben in connection w ith a S.A. dem o n stratio n , C om m unists b e in g on th e one side, and S.A. m en as well as police on the other. S h o ts w ere fired into a p rocession of S.A. d e m o n strato rs from the Com m u n ist p a rty q u a rte rs, w hereu p o n the S.A.men an d the p o lic e storm ed th e house an d the adjoining school. One S . A. m an w a s killed and 20 p erso n s seriously in ju red . F in ally no less th a n six lives w ere lost on the l.llh F eb ru a ry 1933, all six people being killed exclusively by C om m unists. Betw een Hu* 1st Ja n u a ry 1928 and the end of O ctober 1 932, eight police officials were m urd ered and 870 o th er police officials

Scene during the fighting at Eisleben on the 12 th February 1933.

in ju re d m ore or less seriously by the te rro rist o rg anisations of the K.P.D. In conclusion an abridged selection of com m unist te rro rist acts an d assau lts w hich o c c u rre d in 1931 is given below; this by no m eans ex h au sts the list of B olshevist crim es, b u t only gives an idea of the m anifoldness, m eth o d icaln ess and b ru ta lity of th e m eth o d s of arm ed fighting used b y the K.P.D. in Germ any.
On the 12th Janu ary 1931 search in the liv in g room s o f the carter W erp el, 64 G eorgen kirch strasse; con fisca ted : 3 in fan try rifles, 7 eggform h an d tb om b s w ith fu ses, 3 b om b s, 6 m ach in e-gu n lo ck s, 1 r e v o l ver, 5 m ach in e-gu n belts, 7 drum s, 4 autom atic m a ch in e p istols, 4,249 rou n d s for in fan try rifle 88,170 rou n d s fo r rifle 88,597 p istol cartrid ges 9 m m ., 34 V ery lig h ts and diverse a c ce sso r ies for w eap on s. On the 17th F eb ru ary 1931 th e m ou rn ers at a fu n eral in R n tgen tal, w h o su b seq u en tly visited the E d e lw e iss b eerh ou se, w ere fired upon, and the pain ter T heodor Aunt as w ell as the m ail-gu ard R u d olf P o h lm a n n w ere injured. Amt died as the resu lt o f h is in ju ries. 6 b u l lets, 8 cartrid ges, 7 cartridge cases, 1 p istol, 6 sinall-ibore rifle cal. 6 m. and variou s p ercu ssio n w ea p o n s w e re su b seq u en tly foun d. On the 13th M arch 1931 N .S .D .A.P. m en w ere assau lted and fired u p on by K .P.D . m en at the corner o f the M ehlitz Strasse and W ilh elm saue; 4 p istols and 26 cartrid ges w e re found. On the 24th M arch 1931, after a N .S.D .A .P. m eetin g held at 92, B erliner Strae in H o h en sch n h a u sen , those retu rn in g from it w ere

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attack ed and lin 'd upon by -10 K.TM). P olice o ffic ia ls w h o in te r ven ed w ere th reatened hy arm ed K.IM) n u n .'i pistols, (> carl ridges and 3 sp en t cartrid ges w ere con fiscated . On the 27th M arch 1931 the fo llo w in g a rticles w ere co n fisca ted in c o n n e c tio n w ith the Gloth and o th ers e x p lo siv e case: 2 b o x e s o f e x p lo siv e s, 9 m etres o f fuse, t parcel o f loose e x p lo siv es, 27 pistol cartrid ges, 1 im p act fu ses, 2 pistols, 8 cartrid ges, and one b ox co n ta in in g exp lo siv es. On the 29th M ay 1931 S ta h lh elm m en w ere sh ot at by K .P.D. m en on th e S en efeld er P latz. H ead C on stable Z nkert w ou n d ed in ab d om en and died afterw ard s. C onstable Sch ottsted t w ou n d ed in upper arm . In fo llo w in g up the case o f Z iinkert, the fo llo w in g articles w ere d iscovered in the d w ellin g o f H erm an n B eck er, sh oem ak er, F eld Strasse, B erlin: 16 arm y p isto ls 08, 1 M auser p istol, 2 p isto ls o f 7.65 and 1 o f 6.35 caliibre, 17 ch argin g strips for arm y p istol 08, 1,349 round s o f 9 mm . p istol a m m u n itio n , 170 rou n d s o f 7.65 m m . ditto, 23 p ack et each c o n ta in in g 25 rou n d s o f 6.35 p isto l a m m u n ition , 3 p a ck et each con ta in in g 25 rou n d s o f 6.35 p istol a m m u n itio n , 3 p ack ets each con ta in in g 50 rou n d s o f parab ellu m a m m u n itio n , 64 round s o f p istol a m m u n ition , a r m y p istol 08, 40 round o f a m m u n itio n for M auser p istols, 150 round s of 7.65 m m . pistol a m m u n ition , 3 cartrid ges for an 11 m m . revolver. In stru ctio n s for all k in d s o f w e a p o n s w ere also fou n d at B eck ers h ou se. T he in stru ction al tab les had b een issu ed by the R eicb sw eh r. B eck er w as also in p o sse ssio n o f m u ch printed su b versive m aterial. On th$ 30th June 1931, on the o c ca sio n o f a fo rb id d en d em on stration of th e K .P.D . in the F ra n k fu rter A llee, H ead C on stable K uh feld w a s fa ta lly w ou n d ed by a sh ot in th e abd om en . H e died on the w ay to h osp ital. T he K .P.D. fired ab ou t 40 sh ots at the p olicem en . T h e in v e stig a tio n s in the K u h feld case led to the d iscovery o f the fo llo w in g w eap on s, e x p lo siv es and am m u n itio n in the h ou se, 85 T ilsiter Strasse: 1 case con ta in in g 17 h ead s o f hand-igrenades w ith han dle, 1 case c o n ta in in g alu m in iu m p ow d er and 3 p istol cases, 1 case w ith p ow d ered alu m in iu m , 1 ease c o n ta in in g 13 drum s for m a c h in e -p isto ls as w ell as 3 stop p ers, 1 b ox con ta in in g 19 p istols o f variou s calib res, va rio u s p istol b a rrels, 3 p istol m a g a z in es and 3 reserve sp rings, 3 r ifle-lo c k s, 5 sid e-arm s, 2 side-arm s p o ck ets, 1 com pass, 766 rou n d s o f pistol a m m u n itio n , 3 sh ot-cartrid ges for sp ortin g guns, 1 b e lt for a m ach in e pistols, 2 m a g a zin es for O rtgies p istols, 1 case c o n ta in in g 6 b earin g block s, 1 case w ith 10 m a c h in e -p isto l drum s and 2 stop pers, 1 case c o n ta in in g 1 B elgian pistol, 4 m a ch in e-p isto l, 3 stop pers, and 1 m ach in egu n lock , 1 case w ith 31 fla sk s o f e x p lo siv es (sodium ) and 544 pistol cartrid ges, 1 case co n ta in in g 3 m a c h in e -p isto l cases, 1 m a ch in e-p istol barrel, 1 m a c h in e -p isto l lock , 1 sp ira l spring, 1 bolt, spare parts for m a ch in e-p isto ls, 1 case co n ta in in g 2 pistols, 11 barrels w ith forks and fram es, tw o fram es, 4 P arab ellu m 08, 4 han dles, 2 m agazin es, 10 handle soales, 4 m a ch in e-p isto l drum s, 3 stop pers, 1 case co n ta in in g 5 leath er cases for P arab ellu m 08, 1 b ox w ith 26 m a ch in e-p isto l d ru m s and 2 stop pers. 1 case con ta in in g 35 m a ch in e-p isto l drum s and 1 b ox o f

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ui a 11111 < p islol d ru m s and . r > .stoppers, and I ease w ith and variou s p a ck in g m a ter ia ls.

sa fe ly looks

On the 1st A ugust 1931 the carp en ter F ritz Schrd er w as beaten lo death by m em b ers o f th e K .P.D. in the M ller Strasse. He died on the spot. On the sam e date, at the corn er o f the F ran k fu rter A llee, and the M ainzer Strasse, on the o cca sio n o f a c on gregation o f K .P .D . ad h erents and assau lts on the p o lice , H ead C on stable F ie big w as sh ot and severely injured. D u rin g th e su b seq u en t e x ch a n g e o f sh ots R udi T o ffe l w as sh ot th rough th e heart and k illed . P erp etrator u n k n ow n . On th e 8th A ugust 1931 K .P.D . m en ga th ered on the B illow Plat/, w h en p o lice o ffic ia ls w ere v io le n tly attack ed and in ju red . F ritz Auge w as ta k en to th e No. 15 am b u la n ce sta tio n in the Landsiberger Strasse by civ ilia n s, w h ere he w a s fou n d to have received a b u llet w ound.

Even in those days th e sullen h a tre d an d ra g e of the Red F ro n t was c o n cen trated ag ain st m em bers of the N ational-Socialist m ovem ent, in p a rtic u la r ag ain st th e S.A.men. T he K.P.D. clearly recognized th a t th e ro tte n official a p p a ra tu s of the R epublic was quite un ab le to resist a n y serious arm ed risin g of the m asses. Long before th e old state, th e B olshevists realized th a t th e G erm an natio n w as n o t to be saved by th e W eim ar Republic, b ut solely by the follow ers of Adolf H itler, th e only facto r of any real prom ise and stren g th in th e g re a t struggle in recen t years. T his explains w hy th e no m in ally n e u tra l state looked on as helpless th ird p arty in th e struggle for life a n d d eath betw een th e sons of the n ation in S.A. u n ifo rm and th e deadly enem ies of th e people, w earing the Soviet badge. No few er th a n 200 S.A.men fell w hilst defending G erm any ag ain st th e C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le; 20,319 S.A. and S.S.men w ere b eaten an d in ju re d for life by the C om m unist terro r ist troo p s, or o th erw ise wrounded or seriously injured. T h e fight in w hich th ey fell w as no less h o n o u rab le and vital th a n th e G erm an defensive w ar of 1914-8, w ith the difference th a t the o th er sides of th e b a rric a d es w ere n o t m an n ed by h o n o u rab le soldiers of ;i foreign n atio n , b u t by crim in al cliques of the low er o rd ers and m isled m em b ers of ou r ow n people in the service of a rootless, in te rn a tio n a l group of Jew ish and M arxist intellectuals. Some a u th e n tic cases tak en from the list of the dead S.A. and N .S.D.A.P. ad h eren ts, to g eth er w ith pictu res of the fallen N ational Socialist heroes, and som e of the red te rro rists, are given below. T he N ational-S ocialist T h eo d o r Sanders, bo rn 20th May 1909, was th ro w n from his cycle d u rin g an excursion on 2nd D ecem ber 1930, stru c k on the head with som e blunt object and then slashed with a knife, lit* died <>f his w ounds two days later.
1SS

Oil the 14[h wJanuary 1930 the student H orst Wessel, born in Bielefeld, on the 9*h October 1907, was shot dead through the half opened door of his dwelling in the Grosse Frankfurter Strasse by Communist ter rorists. B e lo w : The perpetrator Albrecht H ohler, called "Ali, who was sentenced to 6 years and 1 m onth s penal servitude.

156

On the 2 1 th January 1932 the school-boy H erbert Norkus, Member of the H itler Youth, was attacked by Young Communists and killed by being stabbed in six places. R ig h t: The perpetrator, the labourer W illy Simon, who fled to Soviet Russia.

On the 7 { J}m A pril 1932 the S. A man Fritz H ellmann\ born \20th A pril 1901, was shot dead by Communist terrorists a t the corner of the Christburger Strasse and Greifswalder Strasse. A b o v e : Two of the probable.perpetrators, the labourers W. K oppitz and A . Klein. R i g h t : D oor o f Ecksteins saloon, pierced by bullets.

On the 3 rd August 1932, Friedrich Schulz, member o f the N .S.D .A .P ., born on 26*h Jan. 1893, was killed by a shot in the head fired during a Commu nist attack at 1.50 a. m. in front o f the house 67, T rift Strasse. Three further persons were wounded by shots and stabs. L e f t : One of the perpetrators, Karl Blumreuter, [ wall-paperer, Berlin.

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O n the 2 4 th A pril 1932, at 4.30 p. m., the member of the N .S.D .A .P . Udo Curth, born on 3 0 th October 1909, was shot dead in fron t of the house No. 64 Mockern Strasse by Franz Mels, member of the A n ti-F ascist Fighting League. R i g h t : The perpetrator, Franz Mehls, labourer, Berlin. C e n t r e : The probable accomplice, fitter Karl Hoffmann. L e f t : The escaped accomplice A. Weinitz, Berlin.

On the 2 9 ^ A ugust 1932, H erbert Gatschke, member of the N .S.D .A .P ., born 1 4 th October 1906, was shot by Com munists in the Rntgen Strasse, Charlottenburg, and died two weeks later. L e f t : two of the probable perpetrators, W alter Calm, clerk, and Fritz Kollosche, labourer, Berlin. Be l o w : The scene of the crime.

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murdered and

I'll** lollowmg ueournlc* dulu dealing wi l l ) Nftliomil Socialists wounded by Communisls luive been supplied by Hie Provident Fund o f th e N .S .D .A .P .:
T ab le sh o v in g nu m b er o f N atio n a l S o c ia lists m urd ered and by C om m u n ists b e tw e en 1923 and 1933 (Jan u ary). injured

N u m ber of murdered Year 1923 1 924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 January 1933 Grand Totals: S.A. men 21 4 3 4 5 5 8 15 32 68 5 170 S.S. men Hitler b oys Members of the Party Total 21 4 3 4 5 5 9 17 42 84 6 20 0

_
1 6 10 17 3 2 I 6

_
. 1 1 1 4

Year

Number of1injured ! Hitler S.A. men S.S. men b oys

Members of the Party

Total 360 881 2 ,5 0 6 6 ,3 0 7 9 ,7 1 5 550

_ 192 8 1929 1930 1931 1 9 3 2 20) , 6,466 357 January 193 3

_
1,060 75

_
267 31

_
1,922 87

G rand T o ta l: 2 0 ,3 1 9

T he progressive rise in th e curve of m u rd e rs is c e rtain ly the m ost staggering pro o f of th e C om m unist p re p a ra tio n s for revolu tio n : 1928 5 killed, 1929 9 killed, 1930 17 killed, 1931 42 k illed, 1932 84 killed. D u rin g th e sam e p erio d the n u m b ers of N ational Socialists in ju re d in creased fro m 2,506 in 1930 to 9,715 in 1932. W h at m ight have been th e n u m b ers to be counted on the days follow ing the in ten d ed arm ed rising?
20) T h e n u m b e r s o f S . A., S . S. a n d H .J . c a s e s d u r in g th e t im e th e b id d e n in A p r il 1 9 3 2 h a v e b e e n in c lu d e d in th e o t h e r m o n t h s in p r o p o r tio n . y e a r s 1 9 2 8 1(>31 o n ly th e to ta ls a r c g iv e n .

S.A.

w a s fo r F o r th e

159

The* total (* .nmu ik1 1i< ^ s suffered b y III' Prussian Police in lh< struggle against Communism wore almost tin* same The following figures are taken from an official compilation.
T ab le sh o w in g the n u m ber o f P ru ssian p olice o ffic ia ls (p rotective

p o lic e , gen d arm erie, crim in a l p o lic e and co m m u n a l b a iliffs) k illed or w o u n d ed in the fig h t ag a in st the K .P .D . from 1918 to 1933.

a) K i l l e d
Year 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 T o ta l Protective police 1 6 93 38 2 9 6 1

Gen darmerie 1 4 2 3 1 1 _

Criminal Police
_ _

Communal i bailiffs

Total 1 21 105 42 3 17 9 3 1
_

_
11 8 2 1 4 1 I

1 1 1

1 --7 2 2 168

13

_ _

1 1 7 2 3 216

1 29

b) W o u n d e d Year: 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 T otal Protective Genpolice i darraerie 1 11 229 59 20 94 42 40 52 39 53 105 153 197 189 24 1,308 1 2 6 4 7 5 15 4 7 7 7 5 19 38 56 37 5 224
1

Criminal P olice 1 4 2 3 2 30 2 1

1 Communal 1 | bailiffs 3 20 9 5 5 49 5 12 4 6 8 18 77 71 76 10 378


0 .2 5 2 .3 3

Total 7 41 244 74 32 188 53 60 63 53 66 145 274 332 304 40

1 3 6 8 2 1 66

1 1,976

a) P e r c e n ta g e o f k ille d to th e e n t ir e p o lic e f o r c e =

b) P e r c e n t a g e o f w o u n d e d t o t h e e n tir e p o lic e fo r c e =

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These statistics of th e P ru ssia n police o fficials of 11 ranks killed or w ounded w hile fa ith fu lly doing th e ir d uty clearly prove the steady g row th of red te rro rism , w hich cost the lives of 67 offi cials in 1928 b u t of 306 in 1932.

C. The Final Encounter.


At th e end of F e b ru a ry 1933 all p re p a ra tio n s had been m ade to strik e as soon as the sig n al w as given. T he Red F ro n t attack ed on the w hole fro n t, n a tu ra lly u n d e r th e responsible lead ersh ip of the K.P.D.
T h e B o lsh ev ist p r in c ip le s o f o r g a n iza tio n d em an d th e co m p lete su b o r d in a tio n o f the m ilita r y (and fighting) organs, ju st as e v er y other o r g a n iza tio n o f th e p arty (for in sta n ce th e P a rlia m en t and T rade U n io n etc.), to th e G eneral P a rty L e a d e rsh ip . 81)

T he a c tu a l date fo r th e a tta c k w as n a tu ra lly n ot definitely fixed u p o n in advance, in keeping w ith th e doctrine:


T h e th eo ry o f fixin g th e calen d ar d ay for the rev o lu tio n in a d v a n ce resu lts from an in c lin a tio n to ov e re stim a te the im p o rta n ce o f b u rea u cra tic and m e c h a n ic a l m e th o d s o f con d u ctin g th e revolu tion . A rev o lu tio n a r y m o v em en t o f the m a sses d oes n ot d evelop in accord an ce w ith th e c a le n d a r.22)

T he prin cip le of su rp rise an d tactics w as to be applied:


T a k e the sc a tter e d .28) o p p o n en ts by su rp rise as lon g as th eir tro o p s are

E a rly in F e b ru a ry 1933 th e secret lead ers of the arm ed rising m et. As re p re se n ta tiv es of th e K.P.D., th e leaders of the C om m unist F ig h tin g A ssociations, O lbrich, Schneller an d H ans K ippenberger a tte n te d th e m eeting. T h ey received th e ir o rd ers from the Com m u n ist In te rn a tio n a le th ro u g h th e lead er of the W estern Sec tion, th e Jew M anuilski. T h e g reater p a rt of th e p lan h as becom e know n. T h e risin g w as to s ta rt in th e dem obilized R hineland. The signal fo r th e s ta rt was to be th e m u rd e r of th e C hancellor on the occasion of his in te n d e d v isit to the R hineland. It w as a rra n g e d th a t, sim u ltan eo u sly w ith the m u rd e r of the C hancellor or of th e Reich P resid en t, all the p rin cip al bro ad castin g statio n s w ere to be occupied, fro m w hich th e call to the m asses of the p ro le ta ria t to rise in a rm s w as to be broad cast. At the sam e tim e all im p o rta n t public u tility w o rk s w ere to be im m ediately blow n up or sh u t dow n; p u b lic buildings, railw ays, bridges, m ilitary
21) A lf r e d N e u b e r g : D o r B e w a f f n e t e A u fs ta n d , p. 1 9 1 . 22) A lfr e d L a n g e r : D c r W e g z u m S i e g , p. 17. 23) K a r l M arx c ite d b y A llr e d L a n g e r : D e r W e g z u m S ie g " , p. 29.

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b a rra c k s and police q u a rte rs w ere lo be seized I'ln* secret h e a d q u a rte rs ol the Bolshevist revolution was to be in Greleld an d D iiren, b u t th e C om m ittee of Action was not all to meet at one place, so as to avoid the possib ility of a police raid. T he m ilitary lead ersh ip w as a p p a re n tly lo be in the hands of the Kussian Jew

Barricade erected in the Rostocker Strasse > Moabit, Berlin, in June 1932.

W ollenberg w ho was to be assisted by an o th er Jew of the nam e of L an d esm an n . The nam e B loch w as also m entioned in th is connection. T he n ex t stage of the rising w as to take place in the in d u strial d istric t of U pper Silesia, w h ilst B erlin was to follow shortly afterw ard s. N o tw ith stan d in g the detailed description of the far reaching p re p a ra tio n s for an arm ed rising given in the preceding pages, the

162

new s of this B olshevist co nspiracy will p erh ap s he d ifficu lt for some to believe, because one can only conceive such an extrem e degree of c rim in a l m ad n ess w ith very g re a t d ifficulty. T he above facts are not only a u th e n tic an d can be vouched for, b u t absolutely reliable m a te ria l proves th a t those o rd ers an d decisions w ere not only issued on p ap er, b u t w ere im m ed iately p u l into operation. On the 13th of F e b ru a ry 1933 the general o rd er h a d reached the provinces. On th a t date a special m eeting or conference of carefu lly chosen C om m unist lead ers w as observed in Aue, in Saxony, a t w hich th e big th in g s w hich w ere ab o u t to h a p p e n in a sh o rt tim e w ere o penly discussed. An arm ed a tta c k in g p arty w as fo rm ed o u t of th e m o st reliab le m em bers of th e R.M.S.S. Special em phasis w as laid on th e fact th a t all orders h a d to be strictly obeyed, as the decisive struggle w as at hand. T he arm ed revolt w as to com m ence w ith in a few days. S hortly a fte rw a rd s th e police in F len sb u rg received in fo rm atio n th a t a rm e d active g ro u p s p rovided w ith explosives h a d been form ed, chiefly fro m am ong the w o rst c h a ra c ters to be found in the H am b u rg d istrict, fo r th e p u rp o se of su p p o rtin g the revolt of the p ro le ta ria t in the larg e cities, by setting fire to buildings, blow ing up bridges and com m ittin g o th e r acts of vandalism and terro rism , and fo r sp littin g up th e police forces... In m an y plac.es inscrip tio n s ap p eared on th e w alls, such as W orkers, provide yourselves w ith w eap o n s! etc., w ritte n w ith som e indelible paint. A few days la te r th e a u th o ritie s in the R uhr d istrict received in fo rm a tio n to th e effect th a t the te rro ris t group of the K.JM). in ten d ed atta c k in g the police forces d u rin g the night. T w o te rro r ists w ere to shoot w ith o u t w arn in g a t passing policem en from the doorw ays, w h ilst tw o o th e rs w ere to stan d in readiness to pounce u p o n the w ounded officers an d deprive them of th eir w eapons. T he signs of an im p en d in g C om m unist revolt becam e m ore fre q u e n t an d th re a te n in g fro m day to day. On m aking a dom icili ary search for w eapons in Cam m in (Pom erania) the police cam e across a cy p h ered p lan fo r th e local arm ed rising. T he terrorist groups of th a t d istrict w ere placed u n d er the charge of th e Stettin H ead q u arters. Led by th e b rick lay er D um ann, a group of 2 ft men received in stru c tio n s to cap tu re the leading public officials, the leaders of th e n a tio n a l asso ciatio n s an d the m edical m en and lo hold th em as hostages. P ublic build in g s and im p o rta n t public u tility w o rk s w ere to be occupied, w hilst the railw ay bridges were to be blow n up. A sim ilar te rro rist g ro u p was discovered in B urschcid, w here nearly a hundredw eight of dyn am ite was confiscated.

163

In Schlesw ig-H olstein a l ab o u t I h e s a t n o l i m e w ritte n in stru c tio n s for all revolt lead ers w ere confiscated wliich con tain ed th follow ing sentences:
A rm ed m ass a c tio n in d efen ce a g a in st the F a scist T error! D isarm th e F a sc ist terrorist troops! Arm the w o rk ers and llu> poor peasants! A n ti-F a sc ist p o lice o ffic ia ls, jo in you r b rothers, th e w o r k e rs!

A c irc u la r issued by th e local K.P.D. group of Halle, about the end of F e b ru a ry , w as couched in sim ilar w ords an d sta te d th a t the chief aim m u st be to b re a k up th e te rro r! An o rd e r of th e day ad dressed ab o u t the sam e tim e to the m ilita ry leaders of th e local g ro u p s contained the follow ing in stru c tio n s:
D o yo u r very b est to in stru ct you r com rad es in the u se o f w eap on s o f all k in d s from a p istol to a m a c h in e -g u n .

In co nnection w ith the discovery of a te rro rist secret o rg a n i satio n in H erdecke, S chw erte and H agen, 43 C om m unists w ere convicted of having been connected w ith d irect p re p a ra tio n s fo r o v erth ro w in g th e g overnm ent p a rty . T hey w ere well equipped w ith fire-arm s, explosives an d bom bs, possessing 7 m ilita ry rifles, 42 pistols, 8 live bom bs, am m u n itio n a n d explosives. F ro m all p a rts of th e c o u n try sim ilar new s w as received. A bout the m iddle of F e b ru a ry a secret discussion took place in the q u a rte rs of a C om m unist fu n c tio n a ry in Seidenberg, a t w hich it w as decided to cu t off th e to w n fro m all connection w ith the o u te r w orld by destro y in g th e ra ilw a y lines, telephone and tele g ra p h lines, to blow up the post-office a n d to forcibly open up the fro n tie r to Czecho slo v ak ia. A sim ilar plot was form ed in Schnberg, L iebau (Silesia) and L a n d sh u t (Silesia). T he police in R eck lin g h au sen (W estphalia) m ade sim ilar discoveries. In B ochum an A m -organization w as discovered w h ich w as diligently occupied w ith th e m a n u fa c tu re of explosives a n d the carry in g out of explo sions. E xplosives w ere discovered in no few er th a n 7 hiding places. Also in H essen th e K.P.D. developed in Ja n u a ry and F e b ru a ry 1933 fev erish activ ity in p ro h ib ited d em o n stratio n s and h andbill d istri b u tio n , in fo rm in g fighting te rro rist organizations and special fig h tin g groups w hich also indulged in p ractical activity in daily assau lts upon N ational Socialists. O n th e 2nd of F e b ru a ry th e C om m unists in W u rtem berg a tta c k e d th e fa c to ry in M ssigen. No few er th a n 5 large th efts of explosives took place in W u rtem b erg b etw een Septem ber 1932 and th e 1st of M arch 1933. Even in such stric tly ru ra l d istricts as the fro n tie r province of P osen W est P ru ssia, the p re p ara tio n s for rev o lu tio n w ere keenly carried on. In Schneidem iihl a storm section of 50 m en was form ed and th e m en told to provide

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them selves w ith w eapons. In exactly the sam e m an n er as in Silesia ole., th e Schneidem tihl te rro ris ts received o rd ers fro m h e a d q u a rte rs to seize hostages, occupy th e public u tility w orks, and to cause as m u ch d e stru c tio n as possible. S im ilar in fo rm a tio n w as received fro m E a st P ru ssia w h ere everyone w as in h o u rly expec ta tio n of th e signal to start. A ltona w as again one of th e m o st d an g ero u s centres of revolt, and n ot only the Red F ro n t F ig h te rs L eague b u t also the Red M a rine, and th e A nti-Fascist F ig h tin g League, w ere well organized and arm ed. T he lead ersh ip lay p a rtly in th e h a n d s of fu n c tio n aries w ho h ad received m ilita ry tra in in g in R ussia. In ad d ition to fire arm s, sw ords an d daggers, these te rro ris t groups h ad p rovided them selves w ith glass bo ttles co n tain in g acids. All these groups w ere in a state of c o n sta n t alarm . Som e tim e a fte r th e Bloody S u n d a y previously described, an o rg an ized a tta c k on a large scale w as d irected by a stro n g p a rty of sn ip ers ag ain st th e S.A. prem ises at th e co rn e r of S ch au m b u rg er a n d W eiden Strasse. No few er th an 200 te rro rists m arch ed u p to cover th e tra c k s of th e assassins. On this occasion a school-boy n a m e d H ans G raack w as killed. On th e 20th D ecem ber 1932 a sim ilar shooting a tta c k w as m ade on th e S. A. prem ises in 155 k B reite Strasse. A bout 50 shots w ere fired, th e S.S. m an L udw ig S ch arf being seriously w ounded. D uring F e b ru a ry , Sw italla, th e lead er of the K.P.D. in A ltona, together w ith H eins and R eschke, the lead ers of th e R.F.B., system atically p re p ared th e o v erth ro w of th e n a tio n a l governm ent. All the te rro ris t fo rm atio n s and groups w ere a rm e d an d read y for im m ediate action. Special groups w ere charg ed w ith th e blow ing up of bridges etc., o th e rs w ith a tta c k in g police statio n s. F ro m Ju n e 1932 till J a n u a ry 1933 no few er th a n 36 cases of ro b b e ry w ith violence and of b u r glary occu rred . In H anover, too, th e p re p a ra tio n s fo r th e revolution w ere com plete. At th e m eeting of th e leading fu n c tio n a rie s on 23rd N ovem ber 1932, th e tim e fo r th e rising w as fixed fo r the day on w hich A dolf H itler w as to assum e office. T ow ards the end of F e b ru a ry 3,500 d eto n ato rs and a larg e q u a n tiy of explosives and fuse w ere sto len fro m th e chief fo re ste rs house at Bad G rund. S h o rtly a fte rw a rd s a n u m b e r of p e tro l ta n k s w ere forcibly opened, w h ereb y a b o u t 200,000 litre s of p e tro l w ere lost. A few days la te r an a tte m p t w as m ade to p u t th e overlan d high-ten sion lines out of action. T he re v o lu tio n a ry tro o p s of th e K.P.D. w ere ta u g h t all the very latest im pro v em en ets in th e a rt of street-fighting.
In the c a se o f str ee t-lig h tin g w e sh a ll have to depart in m a n y c a se s from our m e th o d s as h ith e r to em p lo y ed ; firearm s and e x p lo siv es

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no longer sulViee, wo must in the main e m p loy chem icals. The police generally ju m p d o w n from Iheir lorries with .such a lack of preca u tion that they can easily and q u ick ly be ove rp o w er e d before they are able to d o anythin g. By p ou rin g strong salanim on iac, sulphuric acid or similar gase ou s liquids out o f w ide-n e c k e d bottles or metplat flasks over the police m en , th e y w ill im m ed ia te ly be put out of ac tion. The m o r e absorbent the p o l i c e m a n s coat is, the better will be the effect. Counter m easure: w a t e r p r o o f garment, so that the liquid will run off. In the case o f p o lice sq u ad s havin g thus b een overcom e, the a u th o r ities w ill p rob ab ly sen d o u t arm ou red p o lice cars fitted w ith m ach in eguns. T h ese cars can be atta ck ed in th e fo llo w in g m ann er: com rad es m o v in g in the crow d are p rovid ed w ith sim ila r b o ttles fille d w ith petrol, b e n z o le or other in fla m m a b le liq u id s and, w h en th ey are u n o b served , th ro w th ese b ottles at the cars. T he b o ttles sh ou ld be sm ash ed b y the im p act. T h e b o ttle s m a y also be th row n in to the car from the h ou ses. B e fo re h a n d or im m e d ia te ly a fterw a rd s oth er com rad es sh o u ld th row b u rn ing rags or h a n d k er ch iefs w h ic h h a v e b een so a k ed in p etrol in to the v eh icles. T h e car w ill th en im m ed ia te ly be e n v e lo p ed in flam es, and th e q u ick er it m o v e s th e m ore th e fire w ill sp read; the fire can b e c o n tin u a lly fed b y th r o w in g fresh fu e l on th e car. T h e th ro w ers m u st th e r efo r e be ju d ic io u sly p la c ed in th e streets b eforeh an d . In the sam e w a y p o lic e station s, m u n ic ip a l b u ild in gs and barrack s c a n be ra p id ly cleared. E m p ty m ilk tin s w ith a h o le in th em can b e w e ll u sed fo r th is p u rp ose. If th e attack ers are sy stem a tica lly p la c ed and act a ccord in g to plan , great c o n fu sio n w ill take p la ce am on g the crow d and th is is o f great a ssista n c e in su ch a figh t.

T he above in stru c tio n s in th e technicalities of street-fighting are ta k e n fro m the fre q u e n tly q uoted books of N eum ann and K ippenberger, w hich, in th e ir tu rn , are based u pon th e teachings of L enin an d M arx and on th e reg u lations of the Red Arm y of Soviet Russia.
H an d -gren ad es and b om b s w ith great e x p lo siv e force are very im portan t m ed iu m s o f attack a g a in st b u ild in gs. T h ey can b e u sed w ith great effect, both again st the liv in g fo rces o f the d efen d ers and again st m a c h in e -g u n s (provided on e can app roach the gun u n observed ) and also su ch m in or o b stru ction s as doors, gates etc. E very su b-group m u st be provid ed w ith su ffic ie n t h an d -gren ad es and b om b s o f great e x p lo siv e force. F u rth erm ore, each group m u st h ave a large su pp ly o f axes, je m m ie s, sp ades, rope-lad ders, etc. w h ich are n e c essa ry fo r fighting at c lo s e quarters, in and ab ou t h o u se s (the b reak in g op en o f doors, the b reak in g dow n o f p artitio n w alls, garden w a lls, sta ir-ca ses etc., and th u s m ak in g it p o ssib le to p ass from o n e sto rey or room to an oth er). A ttacks u p o n streets c o n sist o f the capture, step b y step, o f the resp ectiv e b lo c k s o f h o u se s an d open p laces, as w e ll as o f ttie cap tu re o f and fight at the b arricades. T he attack m ay be carried forw ard in

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tin* .street m arked fo r attack s, or, w h en the street is em p ty, hy a d vancing through the h o u se s, yard s and gardens. T h e form er m ethod is qu ick er, tlie latter sa fe r and ca u se s few er lo sses. T h e c h o ic e o f the m eth od rem ain s w ith the lead ers and d ep en d s u p on the gen era l si Ill ation and the su p p ly o f the n e c essa ry m a ter ia l.24)

Original Soviet decorations exhibitied at the First National Socialist Revolution Museum. The large decoration in the centre o f the upper row bears the inscription For good marksmanship"(1)

On the 28th F e b ru a ry 1933 th e secret re v o lu tio n ary K.1M). head q u a rte rs issued th e follow ing general lig h ting o rd ers to the te rro ris t and fighting o rg an izatio n s:
D ear F rien ds, W e h ave d iscu ssed th e p resen t situ a tio n w ith oth er frien d s and h a v e com e to a n u m b er o f d e c isio n s. H erew ith w e m ake you acquain ted w ith th ose o f in terest to y o u : 1. 2. In the figh t again st th e F a scist terror m ake use o f arm s in self d efen ce. D isarm the F a sc ist terrorist troops.

3. Arm the w o rk ers an d poor p easan try.


4. 5. C hase th e b row n sh ir ts out o f the labou r e x ch a n g e s and th e w orking m e n s liv in g d istricts. A n ti-F ascist p o licem en ! Join your brother w orkers.

6. M eet F a sc ist terro rism and assau lts w ith protest strik es. B reak dow n th e F a sc ist p r o h ib itio n o f d em o n stra tio n s. F igh t for the right to h o ld m eetin gs, fr ee d o m o f th e p ress and the right to dem on strate. In accord an ce w ith th ese in stru ction s attem p ts m ust b e m ad e in nil d istricts to give e x a m p le s o f the w h o le sa le d isa r m in g o f S.A. m en , S.A p rem ises, etc., and to m ak e su ch action pop idar am ong th e m asses. S tep s m ust be im m ed ia te ly taken to p op u larize the idea o f S elf-p ro24) Provisional Field Orders of the Red Army of the Soviet Union, p. 414. from Neuberg: l)er bcwallncte Aufstund", pp. 277 et seq.

lixtruct

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tectio n , to form a regu lar p a tro l se r v ic e togeth er w ith the R eich sb an n er, S.P .D . or C h ristian W ork ers, for the p ro tectio n o f the w o rk ers r esid en tia l qu arters, the party and trade u n ion p rem ises etc. V arious m e th o d s o f q u ick ly m o b iliz in g the m a sses m ust be em p lo y ed in case o f F a sc ist attack s; th is can be ach ieved by m ean s o f siren s, horns, w h istle s etc. In c o n n e c tio n w ith the o th er fo r m s o f m ass-figh tin g, the fighting, d em o n stra tio n s, m o b iliz a tio n s and p r o c essio n s m u st be su itab ly p r a c tised .

On th e very sam e day th e o rd e r w as issued fo r the highest state of alarm . It w as only a m a tte r of days or even h o u rs before the signal fo r revolution w as to be expected.
1. T he fig h te rs leagu e is to be im m ed ia te ly d iv id e d into tw o fo r m ation s. T h e com rad es w ith w e a p o n s are to form on e fo rm a tio n un d er the com m an d o f on e o f th em w h o w as fo r m e r ly a soldier. T h e com rad es w ith o u t w e a p o n s are to serve as cou riers, p ick ets etc. 2. N ot later than on Saturday the R eich cou rier m ust be in form ed o f the nu m b er o f w ea p o n s a v a ila b le in yo u r d istricts. W h eth er c a r b in es, rifles, p istols, h an d -gren ad es, and m a c h in e gu n s are availab le and the q u an tity o f a m m u n itio n for each . In a d d ition sep arate rep ort on th e su p p ly o f e x p lo siv es, w h ic h are to be rep orted to the d e fe n c e organ ization .

3. T h e figh ters leagu e, V erein (assu m ed nam e for R .F .B .), party and R.M.S. m u st be im m ed ia te ly p la c e d in the h ig h est state o f alarm . 4. Our com rad es are to be told at on ce that th e a u x ilia r y p o lice are to h e w ip ed out w ith every m e a n s at their d isp osal, w h en and w h ere th ey are m et. It m ust be m ade im p ossib le for an y F a sc ist to w a lk a lon g th e streets. 5. 6. T he p o sitio n o f the N azi b arrack s and all N azi strategical p oin ts m u st b e ascertain ed . U n iform ad van ce o f the en tire o r g a n iza tio n again st th e F a sc ists and all th eir a u x ilia r y organ ization s.

7. N o p ard on is to be exten d ed to th e N azis. T h e lo c a l grou p s are to h a v e a free han d in all action s, e x ce p t in c a ses co n cern in g th e p o lice force, their barrack s and all te ch n ica l w orks. In su ch cases p e r m issio n m u st be ob tain ed from th e B.L. o f the M. section . H ig h est state o f alarm , 5. 3., 12 m idnigh t. A rrival o f th e alarm rep ort. P o sitiv e in stru ctio n s regard in g o p eration s in the R eich. A rrival o f th e R eich courier. W e ex p ect that our in stru ctio n s w ill b e im m ed ia te ly carried ou t fo r th e d o w n fa ll o f th e H itler g o v e rn m en t.

T he first signal for th e a rm ed rising had been given the p revious n ig h t by setting fire to th e Reichstag. T his im m ense co n flag ratio n , w hich destroyed the dom e an d the p le n ary hall of th e

R eichstag in th e n ig h t of th e 27th to 28th F e b ru a ry 1933, glaringly illu m in ated th e political situ a tio n in G erm any like an en orm ous torch.

Van der Lubbe, the man who set fire to the Reichs tag, and a view of the gutted plenary hall of the Reichstag.

P a ra lle l to th e sim u ltan eo u s b reak in g out of civil w ar in m any places, w ith th e in te n tio n of sp littin g up an d confusing the pow ers of th e state an d the S.A. an d S.S. fo rm atio n s, a very accu rately an d m in u te ly w o rk ed out p la n of action, fo r th e tim e sub seq u en t to the 5 th of M arch 1933, w as d raw n up by the general sta ff of the rev o lu tio n , p a rtic u la rly fo r the B erlin district. As will be seen fro m th a t plan, the la tte r is som ew hat sim ilar to the so-called d iv ersio n s , about w hich A. N euberg says lh(> follow ing:
In street-lightin g, ini port a n I purl. scouting operation s (diversions) piny n very

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170

A v s e r e /fe fe r

A K T /O N S PLA N
f r i e Z e / f o a c < /em S. 3. J S

l l

171

T h e fu n ctio n s o f sco u tin g d u rin g slrecl ligh tin g re is follow s: a) T h e org a n iza tio n o f b lo c k a d es around co m m issn rin ls, th e b lo ck in g o f b rid ges and sto p p a g e o f river-sh ip p in g, Ihe d estru ctio n o f r a il w a y em b an k m en ts, the p la n n in g o f c o llisio n s betw een m ilitary trains, etc. w ith in th e lin es o f the en em y. D estr u c tio n o f the lin es o f co m m u n ica tio n . O rgan izing o f assau lts on sm a ll groups o f sold iers, d isarm in g of sam e, and o rgan izin g acts o f terrorism again st th e lead ers and a gain st all p o w ers fighting again st the revolu tion . O rgan izin g o f revolts am on g th e m ilita ry fo rces w ith in the lin es of the en em y. D e ce iv in g the e n em y by sp re a d in g fa lse in fo r m a tio n (new s fa v o u ra b le to us). O rgan izing the tap p in g o f e n em y te le p h o n e lin es by co n n e c tin g a te le p h o n e app aratu s to their lin e s .25)

b) c)

d) e) f)

T he exactness w ith w hich th e plan of action provides for th e c a rry in g o u t of acts of w ilful d e stru c tio n an d violence in the capital is alm o st ad m irable. F ro m th e 5 th to th e 9th of M arch 1933, the blow ing up of ra ilw a y bridges, th e dem olition of overhead high-tension lines, the sh u ttin g dow n an d d estru ctio n of electricitiy w orks and o th er pow er p lan ts w ere to tak e place in ra p id succession. T he police b a rra c k s in th e C haussee Strasse, a t th e K reuzberg, and in the W ran g el S trasse w ere a p p a re n tly to be held in check during this tim e b y R.F.B. tro o p s an d g roups of te rro rists. C ouriers w ere a lre a d y ap p o in ted and special telep h o n e lines laid for securing u n ite d action. A ssaults an d ro b b eries w ere a p p a ra n tly to be carried o u t by large bodies of w orkless in th e co u n try d istrict n e a r Ivrumme L anke. A lthough it has n o t been possible to com pletely decypher th e p la n of action, th e la tte r p resen ts in controvertible proof of th e im p en d in g te rro rism and w ilful d estruction w hich wras to be c a rrie d out m eth o d ically an d system atically according to a p re conceived plan. T he police b a rra c k s in th e W ran g el Strasse, m ark ed in the plan of action, h ad p reviously been u n d e r close observation. T he C om m u n ist spies h a d drawT n up th e follow ing sketch: F in ally , the follow ing in stru c tio n s of the K.P.D. leaders in M iddle R hine d istrict are rep ro d u ced :
T o all suib-district lead ers! To all in stru ctors at 'Greater C ologne! A larm in the w h o le o f the M iddle R hine district! A larm in the w h o le o f G erm any! A larm at every w ork -b en ch , in every lab ou r-exch an ge, in ev ery office! A larm in all m in es, p its and factories! Alarm in all
25) A . N e u b e r g : D e r b e w a ffn e te A u f s t a n d , p. 2 5 3 . 25a) c f. t h e C o n f e r e n c e o f th e R e d P o l ic e U n it s , p. 9 1 .

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Plan of the police barracks, Wrangel Strasse, Berlin, exhibited in the National Socialist Revolution Museum in Berlin. liv in g quarters! T h e terro rist F a sc ists are about to d eliver an a w fu l blow . Our b r o th e r s and j'oung com rad es are d aily fa llin g v ictim s to the m u rd erou s axe o f c o w a rd ly , cu n n in g F a sc ist terrorists. T h e sw astik a b a n d its are abou t to g ive u s an e x a m p le o f th e m o st b lo o d th irsty sort o f F a sc is t trib u n al. T h e g ig a n tic pow er o f red B erlin is to be s m ash ed an d b e a te n d o w n b y th eir terror. A n ti-F a scists o f th e M iddle^Rhine! No d illy -d a lly in g now ! A n ti-F a scists o f the M id dle R h in e! N ow sh ow your pow er! A nti-iF ascists o f the M iddle R hine! N ow form up into an arm ed u n ite d front! N o w is the tim e for action! C lass co m ra d es o f th e S.P .D ., th e A.D.G.B., the R eich sb an n er and ill y o u , C h ristian w ork ers! T h e fo r m a tio n s o f the F a sc ists are m arch in g a g a in st , us. W e dare n ot m o v e sin g ly or sp lit up; w e m u st m arch sh o u ld er to sh ou ld er again st the F a sc ists, and fight our w ay to B erlin. W e C om m u n ists p ro p o se im m ed ia te ly to call a n ti-F a scist m eetin g s in th e fa c to r ies, la b o u r-e x ch a n g e s and o f local h o u se b lo c k s a ss o c ia tio n s. W e C om m u nists p rop ose jo in t a n ti-F a sc ist com m ittees o f action in all w ork s and b lo c k s o f d w ellin g -h o u ses. In vie w o f G oerings recent sh oo tin g orders directed against the proletariat, in v iew o f the h e c atom b s o f w orkers w h o ha v e fallen un der the steel o f the F ascists, w e now proclaim tin*
r i g h t o f t h e m a s s e s to airm i i i k I d e f e n d l l i n i i s c l v c s

again st the F ascist terror.

173

Arm s in the h an d s o f the w ork ers and poor p easan ts m enu p r o

tection l<> llu* workers families and quarters.


A n ti-F ascist p olicem en ! Join you r brothers, fight again st the F a scist m u rd erou s bandits! the w orkers, in their

W h en th e y ad van ce, stop th em w ith every m ean s in you r pow er! Stop th e lorries! P reven t the N azis from u sin g m otor transport! B reak up the p avem ent! B lock their m arch rou tes w ith trees! B u ild b a rri cades in th ey w a y o f th e ad van cin g N azi colu m n s! F o rm a jo in t o rg a n i zation fo r th e arm ed attack a g a in st the N azi tran sp orts to B erlin! S trictly c o n tro l all h ig h w a y s and r a ilw a y s in the w h o le district! T h e d ictate o f th e h ou r is action im m ed ia te action ! O rder o f the day: T he u n ited a n ti-F a sc ist m a sses m u st w ard o ff the fron tal attack o f the F a sc ists a g a in st B erlin w ith all m ea n s at their d isp o sa l and break it dow n! T h e m a sses to the fron t in self-p ro tectio n ! M obilize the w ork s! Up and at the en em y! W e C om m u nists sou n d the a ssem b ly .

If we, a t th is point, once m o re survey all the extensive p re p a ra tio n s of th e intelligence service an d the O.S.N.A., the Amo rg an izatio n an d th e p a rty in th e state of self-im posed illegality, th e C heka an d th e R.F.B., the ala rm in g of the F ig h te rs League ag ain st th e F ascists, and th e m erg in g of the Red Mass Self-Protectio n o rg an izatio n s w ith th e R.F.B., the im m easurable increase of the supplies of w eapons an d explosives, the countless arm ed assau lts and th e in creasin g n u m b e r of m u rd ers of policem en, S.A. an d S.S. m em bers, it will be realized th a t these plans of action form logical lin k s in th e chain of th e C om m unist p re p a ra tio n s fo r revolution. In the long ru n th e K.P.D. really h a d no o th e r choice th a n to stak e everything on the one card, an d to a tte m p t im m ediate rev o lt w ith all th e m eans k n o w n to violence an d crim e. T h eir only choice w as to sink o r sw im , i. e. d efeat or victory. T hey decided to ru n the risk of a rev o lu tio n and took to arm s. W ith in a few days th e attem p ted rev o lt w as crushed and the K.P.D. destroyed. T h ey h a d u n d e re stim a te d the stren g th of the N ational Socialist m ovem ent, an d conseq u en tly suffered the fate described by th eir fo rem o st th e o rist L enin in his Good Advice from A far :
It is no good p layin g w ith r ev o lu tio n ; w h en it is o n c e started o n e m ust be qu ite clear that on e m u st go on w ith it to th e bitter end. 26)

T he d e te rm in a tio n to hold o u t to the last w as certain ly n o t lack in g ; w h at w as lacking, how ever, w as the possibility to do so! F o r, in th e first one or tw o h o u rs m en tioned in the T h eory of arm ed R evolt2 7 ), the decision h a d fallen, an d the scales h ad tu rn e d in favour of N ational Socialist G erm any.
se) Quoted from Neuberg-Neumann; op. cit. p. 231. *7) Op. cit. p. 220.

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T he K.P.I). had foreseen an d know n tlie consequences oi defeat th ey h a d m ost p ro b ab ly reckoned with m uch m ore d ra stic m easu res on the p a rt of th e ir o p p o n en ts:
In case o f arm ed rev o lt the retreat is a lw a y s a cco m p a n ied by h e a v y lo sse s. T h e retreat fr o m a rev o lu tio n o n c e started lea d s u n a v o id a b ly to a r elen tle ss a n n ih ila tio n , th e d estru ction o f the b est p o w er s o f the rev o lu tio n a ry class b y w h ite terror, qu ite im m aterial w h eth er th e retreat tak es p la c e after a v e ry bitter stru ggle, or w h en the arm ed w o rk ers ca p itu la tes w ith o u t fighting. T h e cou n ter-rev o lu tio n k n o w s n o m e rc y . 28) 28) Alfred Langer: Der Weg zum Sieg p. 11.

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m m m

The first flag of the K. P. D. of the year 1919. which was first found in July 1933 and is now exhibited in the Museum o f the National-So cialist Revolution.

j i l t tiic W

t e

e v c iu n o r .

VI. The Task.


T he decisive days of th e y ear 1933 saw a p eculiar historical d ra m a in G erm any th e clashing of tw o revolutions, a renaissance an d an in su rrectio n , th e violent collision of w hich crushed and destro y ed the h ith e rto existing fo rm of governm ent. T h e nation rem a in e d triu m p h a n t on th e field. It had not fought only for i Iself, for its freedom and fu tu re ; it felt it was b earin g a rm s for all w estern C h ristia n n a tio n s in a wT a r against Bolshevism . T he decisive battle b etw een fa ith an d godlessness, betw een n atio n al consciousness and in te rn a tio n a lism , b etw een sp irit, h o n o r an d c h a ra c te r on the one side an d bestiality , d ish o n o u r and crim e on the oilier, was fought <> n G erm an soil. T h e C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le suffered a crushing d efeat in G erm any; th e w o rld -rev o lu tio n h ad collapsed. T he offen sive of th e In te rn a tio n a le w as to have begun in G erm any, hul il fo u n d its u n tim ely end h ere. H erein lies the w orld wide historical significan ce of the events in G erm any in F e b ru a ry 1933. A successful rev o lu tio n req u ires no ju stificatio n . It could m< > i have been successful if it had not been Ihe m ovem ent of th e hislori cat h o u r, w hich gave b irth to it and perfected il. Now for :i narrow m inded person the im p o rtan ce of N ational Socialism m ay exhaust itself in the f a d it has saved G erm any Irotn C om m unism . The sign of the sw astik a was not c a rrie d lo victory in defence. hul in attack; not negative "reasons", bill positive aim s inspired Ilia S.A, and S.S.

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in th eir light lo r G erm any. T he destru ction of (loin 1111111 ism was a re su lt of the victory ol' the N.S.D.A.l., th is victory, how ever, was not only the resu lt of the defeat of C om m unism . In its search for the real G erm any, N ational S ocialism found a c o rru p t system , w hich w as a b o u t to be o v erru n by B olshevism . It could n o t and dare not be a w itness to th e w ay in w hich th e people, th a n k s to the in co m p e ten cy of th e W eim ar liq u id ato rs, becam e a p rey to in te rn atio n a l e x ploiters. T h a t system h ad to be rem oved in ord er to corner the enem y. T hus, th e d estru ctio n of C om m unism is n ot a ju stific a tio n , b u t a h isto rical fact and a b y -p ro d u ct of the N ational-S ocia list revolution, w hich, after all, is sufficient in itself to m ake the le a d e r of th is n a tio n a l m ovem ent u n fo rg ettable. If things are so, th e n also th e final ex term in atio n of B olshevism in G erm any is not only a q u estio n of rigorous defence and police action, b u t p rin cip ally a ta sk fo r th e positive building-up of the N ational-S ocialist State. If th e e x te rm in a tio n of Bolshevism began w ith the N ational-Socialist rev o lu tio n , it will end w ith its com pletion. N either th e cap ita listic a lly c o rru p t Social-D em ocratic p a rty n o r its co nfederates, th e C entre P a rty , w ere in a position to oppose th e closed system of B olshevism w ith a sim ilarly convincing system , to say n o th in g of th e lib e ra l m iddle-class, w hose to le ra n c e was a re su lt of th e ir m o d est w ish to be to lerated th e m selves. T he to tal c o n tra st to Jew ish -M arxist Bolshevism is exclu sively rep resen ted by G erm an N atio n al Socialism . It is the m ighty a n tith e sis and o p p o n en t of th e C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le in every fib re of its being, opposed to it in th e sh arp e st co n trast, in the p o n d erab ilities and im p o n d erab ilities of its purpose. It opposes th e p rin cip les of class w a rfa re w ith a n atio n al com m unity, it ab o lishes th e p rin cip le of self-in terest by dem anding public utility, it opposes th e sh am p h ilosophy of econom ic m aterialism and godless ness w th a p u re idealism an d b elief in God, clarified by a full u n d e rsta n d in g of realities. All th is is focussed and caught up into one idea th e n atio n . T hus, fro m its desire to build up it has becom e th e b itte re st enem y of C om m unism . T he C om m unist In te rn a tio n a le in Moscow fo u n d a m ig h ty m aster in G erm an N ational Socialism . T he g reat an d decisive p ro b lem s of G erm any at present, the dividing of th e people in to classes, its p ro letarian shallow ness and tra n sfo rm a tio n into a shapeless m ass of h u m an ity , the exploitation a n d sup p ressio n of a n atio n th ro u g h th e im perilistic system of V er sailles and, a t th e sam e tim e, th e advancing B olshevism and decay, a re u n se p a ra b ly bound together. N obody could dare seriously to atta c k B olshevism who did not k now the way o ut of the social

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m isery, d isin leg ralio n an d slavi'ry. T h a t is why all o th e rs aim s a n d m ovem en ts w ere hound to fail, an d th a t is why N ational Socialism was hound to conquer. In p rin cip le it is a G erm an m ovem ent, w hich has grow n o u t of the p re se n t for th e fu tu re; nevertheless, it is not only G erm anys ow n a ffa ir, because no o th er n a tio n can he d isinterested in w h eth er the h e a rt of E u ro p e sinks into Bolshevism or sets ab o u t an in te rn a l an d extern al h ealing process in a n honest and in sp ired m an n er. G erm any has taken the lead in th e fight ag ain st the universal enem y an d has thus u n d ertak en a m ission wrhich it will not ab an d o n u n til it has been accom plished. May o th er n atio n s an d states have su fficien t in sig h t and good will to recognise this and follow th e G erm an exam ple. T he destruction of the C om m uninst In te rn a tio n a le is a task for the n atio n s of the w^hole of th e C hristian an d civilised w orld.

D emonstration o f the .S',,1 on the 2 2 n d January 7933, in fio n t o f the Karl l.iehkneJit Jlou se on the fiiilowplat:: in lieilin.

17)